@THISJUST IN Anal Sac Cancer Crazy Yes, Virginia, there is high-quality catnip Surgery is first treatment , atnip, technically ca taria, is he first sign of anal sac cancer in a member of the mint with a ( is usually ulceration and discharge reputation for attracting cats. It is a Tfrom the perineal area (tiss ue fast-growing, tall with heart-shaped around the anus), according to a study leaves and blossoms that are white, in JAVMA that looked at apocrine gland lavender, or pink. Most cats love it! Cats anal sac adenocarcinomas (anal sac in the wild, even big cats, often seek out cancer). Surgery is usually the treatment, patches of catnip and return repeatedly. although work has been done with chemotherapy andlor radiation. Get Quality catnip This is a tricky area for surgery. Not all catnip is the same, however. When With any cancer, surgeons want choosing catnip, look for mostly leaves There's nothing better than fresh! Our kitty has "clean margins;' meaning the tissue and flowe rs-the most potent parts­ catnip in her paw. surrounding the cancer is free of with few stems. And quality catnip isn't cancer cells after surgery. There is not cheap, selling for $3 to $4 an ounce. . TIle result is a sense of euphoria a lot of extra tissue in the recta! area to Dried catnip products should only or mild that lasts 10 to 15 begin with and surgeons want to avoid contain catnip-check the ingredients minutes. During this time, the may damaging nerves and muscles involved label for any fillers or other ingredients. , roll, rub, drool, run around, andlor with bowel control. It may take some experimentation to sniff, lick, or eat the catnip. Cats seem to Still, removal of part of the rectal wall determine how your cat reacts to di fferent enjoy these sensations, and it's fun for us led to dear margins in at least three of brands. Ifyou find one product he really to watch too! the cats, The entire anal sac was removed likes, write down the manufactu rer name. Catnip is not addictive, and a study in all of the cats. For cats whose tumors Hint: Prefilled catnip toys can be difficult that evaluated long-term use by cats were not completely resected l local to evaluate, but sometimes use low­ showed no ill effects. In rare cases, cats recurrence was common. Of the 30 cats, quality catnip. may show aggressive behaviors after 11 had local recurrence and some others The quality of the plant is affected by being exposed to catnip, but that usually had metastatic disease. the soil and climate where it is grown. stops once the cat is no longer under the It appears that aggressive surgery Pesticides can linger and pose a risk to influence. After a eat's response to catnip is the first line of treatment your cat. For this reason, you should has worn ott: it will usua.lly take an hour fot this cancer. FolJow up nev:er give catnip that YOll find outside to or two before he will reacLto it alliaiD..-­ with chemotherapy andlor your cat unless you are certain th at the radiation needs to be more area was not sprayed. fully explored before it is You can grow your own catnip using Insider Info used in the clinics .• commercial kits. Give th e leaves and ~ Genetics. Catnip love may be /AVMA 311512019 Vo1 254 #6 blossoms to your cat fresh, or dry them inherited, with 50 to 80 percent of by hanging the plant upside down until it cats possessing the gene. II/SIDE THIS ISSUE crumbles when touched. Catnip left out in the air loses its ~ Age matters. under 6 potency over time (anecdotal reports say Yes, They Know Their Names ...... •...... 2 months of age rarely respond and in about six months). Catnip in a sealed may be repelied; old guys often Canned , Anyone7...... 2 container, however, can still make your don't care. Catnip best ~ts adult cats eat's day years later. You can also freeze it Ureteral Obstruction Tedmique Study ...... 2 in the prime of life. Diarrhea:Worry or Walt? ...... 3 to prolong its shelf life. ~ Crush it. Rub or crush dried Your Role as Flghter•...... •...•.•...... 4 Natural High catnip in your hands to release the Catnip contains the volatile oil Are Titers the Answer? ...... 5 for maximum effect. nepetalactone. When a cat inhales Heads Up on Chronic Coughs ...... 7 this chemical, it is processed by the ~ A little dab. A half teaspoon of The Battle ..•...... •...... •...... 8 vomeronasal organ in his nasal passages, dried loose catnip is plenty. Use it as resulting in the stimulation of sensory Happening Now ...... 8 a treat, so that it remains special. neurons that send Signals to the eat's ...... ~------~~------Yes, They Know Their Names CatWatch They're just not going to let you know , EDITOR IN CHIEF Bruce G. Kornreich, DVM. stud published in April in 9 and done at the ,­ Y Scientific Reports Ph.D.. Dipl ACVIM University ofTokyo (Saito, A et all reports what we've all suspected: ACats recognize their names, but they don't bother to respond. The EXECUTIVE EDITOR researchers determined that the cats indicated re cognition of their name by moving Cynthia Foley their ears or turning their heads. Only rarely did they move their feet. The cats could discriminate their own names from general nouns, even when an unfamiliar person TECHNICAL EDITOR Debra M. Eldredge, DVM was speaking . • ADVISORY BOARD James A. Flanders, DVM, Dlpl ACVS, Canned Mouse, Anyone? Associate Professor, Cl inical SCIences Cultured mouse meat may be on its way to our cats Margaret C. McEntee, DVM, Dipl ACVIM, DACVR. Profc<;sor of Oncology any veterinary nutritionists say the idea! feline diet would be "mouse in a can:' While mouse farming has not caught on, it looks like cats may get their ideal William H. Miller, Jr.• VMD. Dipl ACVO, Mdiet via a laboratory. The Industry reports that the company Because Profe'lSOI, Clinical Sciences is working on this development. "Currently, cultured meat is expensive, including cultured mouse:' Because Pamela J. Perry, DVM, Ph.D. Animals CEO Sharon Falconer says. "But one of our biggest assets is that we're Lectu rer, ClinICal SCieOl;es. ACV8 BehaVior ReSident working with tissue from a where a lot is already known in terms of biochemistry." CatWatch is an independent newsletter produced in collaboration The project involves growing a thin layer of mouse ~ meat tissue that is then incorporated into feline treats. with the Cornel! College ofVelerin ary Medicine Feline Health Center The first step toward production is to achieve USDA I FDA approval of cultured mouse meat as GRAS Cornell University (generally regarded as safe). ., Co1lege of Veterinary Medicine There are advantages to culture ~ grown meat. "Cell~ f Feline Hea lth Center cultured meat will be the highest quality meat On the I For information on your eat's health, visit \ market-fully traceable. antibiotic· and hormone·free. the Cornell Uni...ersity College of Veterinary and absolutely clear of pathogenic bacteria such as Medicine, Cornell Feline Health Center website at www.... et.comell.edu/fhe/. Listeria and Salmonella;' Falconer says. • i _ AJk £lIuboth quOltI.... and louenlo the edItor: CatWateh' Ureteral Obstrudion Technique Study 535 Conne

retrospective study published in JAVMA by a veterinary specialty hospital in SubscrIptIon.: 539 per year (u.s.) , 549 coHaboration with University of Pennsylvania selected 71 cats (mostly domestic per year (). For subscription and customer service information, visit shorthairs) to help determine whether using ultrasonography could show there A www.eatwatchnewsietter.com/cs was a ureteral obstruction and help determine the cause and location of the problem. or write to; CatWatch, P.O. Box 8535, The results showed that ultrasonography was quite good for identifying Big Sandy, TX 75755-8535. 800-829-8893 ureteroliths (stones in the ureter causing blockage). It was less helpful for cats with ureteral strictures. such as a blood clot partiaUy blocking a ureter. CatWatch' (tSSN: 1095 -9092) is Currently, x·rays and contrast dyes are used. Radiologists try to evaluate cats _ published monthly for $39 per year by Belvoir Media Group, l lC, wi.thout any sedation, but that can mean studies are sensitive to movement of the cat :]... 53S Connecticut Ave~ Norwal k. while being evaluated. in the abdomen along with intestinal loops can all interfere CT 06854-1713. Robert Englander, Bel vo ir Chairman and CEO; Timothy H. Cole, with a clear look at the ureters, plus feline ureters are quite small to Executi... e Vice President, Editorial begin with. In many cases, though, the ultrasound results were able Director; Philip l. Penny, Chief Operating Officer; to help veterinary surgeons develop their treatment plan. Greg King, Executive Vice President, Marketing Dire

cases available to them via the referral nature of the hospitals. In Postm as ter: Send address corrections 10 I routine practice, a may not get much experience doing CalWatch, p.o. Sox B535, Big Sandy, TX 75755-S535. these studies. Still, more research into this area could lead to faster, Express written permiSSion is required to i safer ways to diagnose ureteroliths in cats and to differentiate them reproduce. in any manner, the contents of this from strictures of various types . • issue, either in full or in part. For more information: Permissions. CatWatch, 535 Connecticut Ave.. J /AVMA 3115/ 2019 Vol 254 #6 Norwalk. Connecticut 06854-1713 ,

2 (a tW atch July2019 week or two to allow their GI tract to Diarrhea: Worry or Wait? adjust. Iflimiting your cat to a diet that she normally tolerates well and it doesn't Prolonged diarrhea is a cause for concern work in a day or two, seek help.

iarrhea is no fun for anyone, Causes especially if the cat doesn't make it Finding the cause of the diarrhea can be D to the litterbox or gets SOme of it on challenging, depending on the duration her . The good news is that occasional and severity of th e diarrhea and any diarrhea is rarely an emergency and often concurrent symptoms. A stool sample resolves on its own. will be helpful so you r veterinarian can check for parasites. WhentoWorry Transient causes of diarrhea include: "Many cases of diarrhea in and cats lilt- Dietary indiscretion are mild and self-limiting;' says Meredith ~ witching to a new food too quickly Miller, DVM, DACV1M, Section ... A stressful event such as seeing the vet Co-chief of Small Medicine at An ultrasound may be performed ifyour .. internal parasites the New York State College of Veterinary veterinarian suspects a blockage as the cause. More seriotls causes of diarrhea Medicine at Cornell. "If a pet stops include: e.Hng, is lethargic, the diarrhea is black respiratory tract. However, if the melena .... in the GI tract or tarry in quality, there is associated accompanies diarrhea, the root of the ~ Innarnmation in the GI tract vomiting. or the diarrhea doesn't resolve issue is more likely to be in the GI tract. .. Cancer in 48 to 72 hours, then veterinary care ~ Toxicity should be sought." Bland Diet ~ Kidney disease Prolonged diarrhea ca uses !fyour cat just started having diarrhea lilt- Liver disease dehydration because the stool passes and is otherwise behaving normal1y, you ~ Hyperthyroidism through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can help resolve the issue by giving her lilt- Immune disorders so quickly that water is not absorbed GI tract a break. ... , including feline distemper from it normally. If a cat is also vomiting, "Mild cases ofdiarrhea in both the level of dehydration will worsen. cats and dogs can be treated at home Treatment Dehydration leads to electrolyte by feeding a bl and diet such as boiled Treatment will vary, depending on the imbalances in the body an d decreases or low-fat hamburger and white suspected or known cause. A cat that has the ability of the kidneys to filter waste rice;' says Dr. MUler. "Owners should only had diarrhea for a couple days and products from the blood. Over time, avoid excessive treats or rich food until otherwise appears healthy may just be dehydration can contribute to organ the diarrhea resolves:' sent home with medications to normalize failure and even death. While boiled chicken and hamburger the Gl tract. For cats that show other Black stool (or "melena") is caused by with rice are easily digestible and less signs of illness or who have been having partially digested blood and may indicate likely to irritate your cat's stomach and chronic diarrhea, the veterinarian wiH bleeding in the upper part of the Gl tract. intestines, they are not appropriate for probably do blood work, plus or minus Causes include inflammation, ulcers, long-term feeding becanse they lack x-rays andlor an abdominal ultrasound , tumors, trauma, a foreign necessary nutrients. to check for blockages. body, and bleeding in the mouth or Diarrhea that starts while switching Metronidazole (or Flagyl) is the to a new food may indicate-you made closest thing there is to a miracle the switch too fast for your cat. Go back drug for diarrhea. It is , What You Should Know to feeding more of the original diet, and antiprotozoal, and anti -inflammatory. once her stool has firmed up, res ume the Cats usually tolerate it well, but it does Diarrhea is a cause for concern if it's transition more gradually. have the ability to cross the blood-brain associated with: While most cats can switch to a new barrier, which can lead to a potential food over the course of four to five days for the development of neurologic signs ~ Melena (feeding 75 percent old food with 25 (thankfully this side effect is usually percent new food, then 50/50, then 25 limited to high doses and is reversible " Lack of appetite percent and 75 percent), sensitive cats once you stop giving the medication). may need to span the transition over a Probiotics also can help to normalize ~ Lethargy yo ur cat's Gl tract and firm up her stools. Many will prescribe ~ Overt blood in the stool No Remedies metronidazole and a probiotic together "Generally, human medications such for with diarrhea. " Lasting more than two to three days as Pepto Bismol or Imodium should The most important thing to only be given under the direction remember is that diarrhea can progress " Tar-like conSistency of a veterinarian, because they may to a much bigger problem if you just let be harmful ... or interact with other it go. Loose stools that la st more than a " Vomiting medications;' says Dr. Miller. couple of days require tre atment. . www.catwatchnewsletter.com July 2019 IIIIIIII~------

successful reproduction. It is extremely Your Role as Flea Fighter important to use these products exactly as directed by the package label. Make The tiny catflea can put up a big battle sure your cat fits the age and size requirements for a certain product. Only teMocePhalides felis is a big name for use the feline versions (some canine a tiny that is a huge pest: the versions are toxic to your cat). Ccat flea . While other may infest There are also sprays that can be your cat, this is the most common species applied directly to your cat, and some to affect cats. of these may be effective for as long as Fleas are amazing athletes and can 30 days. Extreme care must be exercised jump qUite high. Flea are laid on in applying these products to avoid their host (in this case your cat), then inadvertent application to the eyes and drop offand develop in the environment. mouth. The first larval stage is susceptible to The Pet Poison Helpline suggests that sunlight, but can· happily develop in you always check with your veterinarian cool, damp areas like leaf litter or in your before applying any of these products carpet or under furniture. The pupae , to your cat, and you should never use a normally hatch in eight to J3 days but I canine flea product 011 a cat. Common can stay in their cocoon stage for months -I side effects include vomiting, diarrhea, without the stimulation of increasing skin irritation, , and even temperatures and carbon dioxide. Once Your cat may think you've lost your mind, but seizures. Ifyour cat shows a reaction, hatched, neas immediately seek out blood if fleas have already invaded, the best place to bathe her and contact a pet·poison meals and begin reproducing. start is with a flea· bath. control center and/or your veterinarian. Medications for killing neas may Another good reason for having this be adulticides that will kill adult neas chew on the collar Or neck of your cat or discussion with your veterinarian is your andlor they may also contain insect if your cat sleeps curled up with you or a geographical area. Some products are growth regulators, which will prevent the . The collars are generally considered not as effective in one area as another. development of the immature flea stages. to be safe if chewed but losing these and your veterinarian is the best resource Daily oral medications are generally collars frequently can be expensive. Some for advice in this regard. not high on the list of most cat owners, cats may have localized skin reactions to Read labels to see if the product repels but once-a-rnonth oral flea preventatives flea collars. andlor kills and what pests it is effective are more palatable (no pun intended) for Monthly both cats and . Still, there are cats topicals are popular. who inspire dread at the mere thought of Depending on the Finding the Right Brand giving them an oral medication. exact ingredients, The Companion Animal Parasite Council lists the brands in Flea collars are a good option for neas may be this chart as safe, effective flea medications for cats. Always many families, although these may not repelled, killed, andl check with your veterinarian before using any of these be ideal if you have other pets who might or prevented from products on your cat.

A Word from Cornell's Community Activyl indoxacarb monthly spot-on Practice Service Advantage Imidacloprid, monthly spot-on " Leni Kaplan DVM MS of the Cornell Small Animal Community II pyriproxyfen Practice Service offers insights into the sometimes difficult " Bravecto fluralaner every three months choice of a flea product: topical " .. There is no one flea product we ftnd most effective or Capstar nitenpyram as·needed oral popular. All the products we recommend are effective. " Comfortis spinosad monthly oral " .. Not all patients respond favorably to a given product. So, a Effipro npronil monthly spot-on product that works great on one pet may not work as well " Frontline npronil monthly spot·on or " on another. spray " " .. Pet owners have different product preferences. Some love Revolution selamectin monthly spot·on topical products, while others prefer orals. " Seresto synthetic eight·month collar , " ... Certain products will work more effectively or be better numethrin, tolerated by patients depending on the patient's lifestyle imldac!oprid and medical conditions/ health status. Vectra dinotefuran monthly spot·on

4 (atWatch July 1019 ------~LIIIIIIII . against, so you can ensure you have the defense you need. We do advise you to Are Titers the Answer? consider products that are also effective against ) as one product for both can worries drive cat owners toward alternatives be a safer and easier alternative for your cat than using two. he specter of feline vaccine­ Finally, a word about natural Ilea· associated sarcomas-malignant control products: Many of us are attracted TgroW1hs that can appear at the to "natural" products. Remember that injection site of some -lurks in just because it's marked natural that the back of the mind of every cat owner. doesn't mean it's safe, especially for Although veterinarians have guidelines cats who are sensitive to any drugs or for tracking vaccine-related sarcomas, herbs. Debates continlle regarding the you still may wonder ifit's wiser to skip effectiveness of natural flea products, so vaccine boosters and rely instead on if you are determined to use one, discuss titers, which are blood tests that can tell the option with a veterinarian . • you how much immunity to a specific Once your cat has had his initial , disease remains in your cat. titers are a possibility, but "buyer beware." Once the initial series to What You Should Do stimulate immunity has been given to the stronger the immune response (Le. your cat, titers can minimize how many greater concentration of anti'hodles):-For Getting rid fleas is hardllf of shots your cat needs to get every year. example, a sample with a titer of I :300 your car already has fleas: Measurement of titers can be useful for suggests that the sample has a lower ~ Bathe the cat with a cat Ilea some cats, but titer use in predicting concentration of than a sample shampoo (you might notice a protection from infection may be with a titer of 1:1600. reddish tinge to the bath water­ limited-and titers are not a money­ To get a quantitative titer (such that's dried blood passed in the flea saving option. By and large, titers will as 1:1600), titers need to be sent to feceslflea dirt) cost you more than a vaccination. laboratories that can do the serial dilutions. Some in·office kits offer "semi ~ Sprinkle food-grade diatomaceous What Are TIters 1 quantitative" titer results or simply earth on all carpets and leave it Titers are not vaccines, and they aren't a indicate likely protection or lack thereof. In place for 24 hours; it will begin panacea for keeping your cat safe from The usefulness of these in·office tests has killing adult fleas within four hours deadly diseases. been the subject of debate. (severe infest ions may take longer) A titer is one measure of immunity. A positive antibody titer means that It is a snapshot ofhow well a particular yo ur cat's immune system is producing ~ Thoroughly vacuum upholstery, part ofa cars immune system is working to a pathogen, and ifenough mattresses, and carpets; throwaway to protect that cat from infection at antibody is produced, this may provide the vacuum bag the moment the blood is drawn for the protection from infection. This could test. It's important to realize, though, be due to either natural exposure to the ~ Wash all bedding and other that there are other mechanisms that pathogen or to vaCCination. washables In hot water and dry on a cat's immune system uses to provide A negative result generally means one high heat protection against pathogens (referred to of two things: as cell·mediated immunity). 1) Your cat has never produced Treat al!1he pets In the ­ A titer measures the concentration antibodies to that pathogen, either despite their name, cat fleas infest of antibodies your cat has produced because he was never exposed to the different animals against a disease pathogen. Antibodies, pathogen via natural exposure or vaccine, which can neutralize invading pathogens, or because he was exposed to it as a ~ Remember, if your cat spends time are produced by lymphocy1es in your young and maternal antibodies outdoors, treat your surrounding eat's blood. Each titer is specific for one passed to him in his queen's milk yard for fleas, too disease/pathogen. interfered with the production of his own To determine your cat's titer against antibodies, or because of a deficiency .. Choose a preventative from our an illness, a blood sample is drawn and (abnormality) of his immune system . chart and begin using it regularly sent to a laboratory. Once the blood 2) Your cat produced antibodies to arrives at the lab, it will be divided into that pathogen in the past but, over time, samples that are then used to test for their concentration has diminished. different diseases. Each separate sample Titers for an individual cat may will be sequentially diluted and mixed support recommended booster schedules with a different antigen to see if there is of once every three years or they may 171e cat a reaction (this reaction indicates that show that protective immunity runs out flea is most antjbodies are binding to the antigen, after just two years. common flea which is generally a that is part of The American Veterinary Medical in the . the disease pathogen). The more a dilute Association (AVMA) cautions pet owners sample continues to show a reaction, against counting on titers as proof that www.eatwatehnewsletter.eom July 2019 5 -.-..------­ their pels are protected, unless there is the most efficient method in prevention and mimic a natural infection with that research showing a direct correlation of human ... laws currently do pathogen. These usually stimulate strong between an antibody titer level and not include the use of titers in place of immunity. They should not, however, be immunity against disease exposure. vaccination. The other complicating used in cats with any health or immune According to the AVMA principles; factor is that there is no agreed standard problems Or in pregnant queens, as there "For most common vaccine antigens, titer value that is considered protective: is potential to induce the disease itself the correlation between serological So even if your cat has a rabies titer done, in these cases. These vaccines must be (blood) response to vaccination, long­ if she bites someone and is not current on properly handled and stored carefully to term serostatus, and protection in the her vaccinations, she will be quarantined. assure safety and efficacy. host animal has not been adequately The American Association of Feline Killed: Killed vaccines are established. The lack of these data often Practitioners (AAFP) Advisory Panel is noninfectious and cannot cause disease. precludes practitioner's ability to make not comfortable with accepting titers as They are generally considered safer and well-informed vaccination decisions proof of immunity: "Because antibody mOre stable than attenuated vaccines. but based on serostatus aIone~' titers may not reliably correlate with, the immunity duration induced by these The Kansas State Veterinary or predict. the degree of protection or vaccines may be less than that of a live Diagnostic Laboratory explains when susceptibility for an individual cat, the vaccine. Rabies is a killed vaccine. titers should or should be used quite Advisory Panel recommends employing Recombinant: Similar to lctlled clearly: "In order to be llseful, two criteria defined revaccination intervals rather vaccines in that they are noninfectious, need to be met; 1) One needs to be able than measuring antibody titers to assure recombinant vaccines are produced using to detect a measurable immunity to a protection:' DNA technology to induce bacteria to disease in a blood sample, and 2) 'There That said, titers can be useful in produce that are subsequently needs to have been challenge studies some situations. If your kitten has administered to induce an immune performed to associate protection with received her initial series of vaccinations, response. Some feline leukemia vaccines that specific titer level. A challenge a titer done tvvo or more weeks later are recombinant. study shows that animals which have a can indicate if her immune system Vaccine efficacy can vary with the specified antibody titer did not get sick responded appropriately to the vaccine. pathogen, any immune adjuvants (these when exposed to the disease for which A titer also can be used to determine are compounds that enhance the immune the titer was checked:' whether a stray cat has produced response induced) that have been added, antibodies to a particular pathogen, and the method of administration. Are nte.. Better? but in reality, drawing blood is more The individual cat also plays a Some cats probably should not get expensive and logistically more difficult part in the immunity that develops booster vaccines, including cats who have than preemptively vaccinating all cats after vaccination. Pour nutrition had bad reactions, cats with cancer Or encountered in shelter and trap-neuter­ can interfere with a healthy immune undergoing treatment for cancer, and cats release programs. response, and maternal antibodies with immune-mediated illnesses. passed to lctttens through either the In addition, it's wise to look at Vaccine Duration placenta during gestation or in milk your eat's lifestyle and determine what Several factors affect a vaccine's during nursing can interfere with vaccines make sense for her. All cats effectiveness and induced duration of the development of immunity after should be current on rabies. Ihe Kansas antibody production. The first to consider vaccination. Some elderly cats may not State lab, which is renowned for rabies is the type of vaccine. There are three show a strong immune response, and testing. points out: "Rabies is zoonotic basic types of vaccines: cats that are immunosuppressed due (can be transmitted to people) and Attenuated or modified live: to either disease or to being treated contro1 in rabies vectors (animals that Modified live vaccines are composed of with immunosuppressive drugs such can carry the and infect others) is modified versions of the actual pathogens as corticosteroids or chemotherapeutic drugs may not develop a strong immune response to a vaccination. Cats living in A Little About Immunity Systems stressful conditions may not show strong immune responses. Immune protection against pathogens is provided by two general systems in your cat. The first, humoral immunity, is the production of antibodies that bind to and The pathogens themselves also may influence immunity. A pathogen neutralize pathogens. T~e measurement of titers evaluates this system. (Le. virus) may develop an increased (severity) and may undergo The second component to the immune system is called cell­ mutations that circumvent the immune mediated immunity. This part of your eat's immune defenses response induced by a vaccine. involves the activation of various cells that either engulf invading Many factors influence when and pathogens or that release chemicals that ultimately lead to with which vaccines a cat should be the recruitment of other cells in neutralization of pathogens. immunized. Titers may be part of that Cell -mediated immunity is more effective against certain health plan in rare cases. Talk with your pathogens than the production of antibodies, It is possible, but veterinarian about your options. Overall, not certain, that for some diseases, even if your cat has a low a defined vaccine schedule is preferred antibody titer, she is still protected from illness by her cell­ mediated immune system. over titers to determine vaccine - ...... scheduling at this point. •

6 (atWatch Juty 2019 ------~...... oxygen , broad-spectrum Heads Up on Chronic Coughs antibiotics, supportive maintenance of

hydration and nutritionl and nebulization A cough can indicate a serious illness to open the airways. In severe cases that do not respond OUghing in cats is easy to dismiss as Parasites to initial therapy, a bronchoalveolar due to a hairb.lI. While cats do get The parasite Aleurostrongylus abstrusus lavage (IlAL) may be recommended. ( hairballs, that "gagging" can often be is the most common cat lungworm. This is a diagnostic test conducted under due to coughing. When cats cough, they Cats are infected when they ingest '.ll1esthesia to retrieve samples from the usually crouch down, extend their elbows intermediate hosts-slugs and . The lungs for microscopic examination. away from the body, and make a dry, larvae replicate within the lungs. causing hacking sound. The cough is frequently a marked inflammatory response. A non-productive (nothing is expelled). diagnosiS of lungworms is based on Likely the most common calise offcline This cough should never be ignored, clinical signs. physical examination, and cough, asthma is most frequently seen in as it can indicate significant illness. a special fecal test called a 8aermann. young cats. Asthma can be triggered by Since the cough is usually intermittent, Treatment for lungworms is with many things, and in most cases, the cause taking a 30-second video will help your anti-parasitiddes. A newer topical is never identified. ':Aeroallergens" (mold, veterinarian see what you're seeing. treatment for cats combines emodepside pollens, smoke) arc the usual suspects. and praziquantel and is generally As in humans, asthma attacks can Ofagnoslng the Cough effective for (reatment of lungworms. come OIl qUickly, characterized by Prepare a detailed history for your Other , such as steroids and coughing and labored breathing. Loud veterinarian: bronchodilators. will ai m at decreasing wheeZing may be heard. Cats having .. When and how often the cough occurs lung inflammation while tbe worms die difficulty breathing constitute an .. Any possible triggers and the lungs recover. emergency, and veterinary care should be ... Presence of mucus or discharge from Cats can be infected with sought out immediately. the eyes, nose, or mouth heartworms, just like their canine The veterinarian may hear wheezing .. How long the coughing lasts counterparts, and can develop a and the "squeak" of air moving through III-­ Any treatments or management syndrome known as heartworm narrowed airways. When an asthmatic changes you've tried acquired respiratory disease (HARD). cat breat hes, he struggles to expel air. Your veterinarian will evaluate your HARD develops as the worms migrate X-rays often show hyperinnated lungs, a cat and listen to her heart and lungs. through the eat's body (this occurs more nattened diaphragm, and signs suggesting Heart murmurs, arrhythmias, wheezing, commonly in cats than in dogs), causing inflammation of the airways. and crackling all may indicate a disorder the most damage in the lungs. Symptoms Initial treatment usually involves that may require more testing. are usually subtle and· include coughing. steroids, oxygen therapy, sedation to While people and dogs with heart Unfortunately, sudden death can occur. ease , and bronchodilators. A disease often cough, it is rare for a cat Specific treatment of heartworms in cat with asthma will likely always need with only heart disease to cough. The cats usually is not attempted, as the drugs monitoring and medicCltions. Your most likely causes of chronic cougbing used to kill adult heartworms can be veterinarian may recommend you keep in C

www.ntwatchnewsletter.com July 2019 7 IIIIIIII'~------

These goals are achieved by adjusting The Diabetes Battle the dose and frequency of administration of insulin in close collaboration with It takes adjustments, but high quality oflife is possible a veterinarian, by modifying the diet, both with respect to its composition (I.e. My 17-year-old neutered cat restriction is heneficial) was recently diagnosed with and frequency/timing of feeding, and by Q diabetes, and I am concerned making sure that plenty of fresh water is about whether I can provide available at all times. the care that he needs to stay Recognizing when a cat's blood healthy. Can you provide any tips for a may be too low (because of too novice to help keep him healthy? high an insulin dose and/or a need for food intake) is an important aspect of Thanks for getting in touch, caring for a diabetic cat. and I understand your concern Your veterinarians will teach you to A regarding your cat, but the Meet rigger, from Nebraska, whose owner is be aware of the signs (such as lethargy, most important thing I can tell concerned about his new diabetes diagnosis. restlessness. weakness. staggering, you is that you can do it! twitching) and what to do if yo u see them While treating a cat with diabetes 1he foundation of diabetes mellitus in your eat (feed him, rub honey on his requi res adjustments, usually, with treatment in cats is the administration gums, gCl him to the veterinarian, and appropriate support, owners can give of insulin by injection. This sounds adjust dosages). affected cats years of high-quality life intimidating to many owners who first Generally, the initiation of insulin with minimal stress. Perhaps a discussion encounter this prospect, but giving therapy requires the most intensive of the main points to consider in treating insulin injections to most cats is not effort. Once the appropriate insulin this common disease would be helpful: something to fear. dose and management plan have been Diabetes mellitus affects between 0.2 With the tiny volumes of insulin that established by your veterinarian, though, and 1 percent of the feline population. are administered and the small needles these efforts usually become much less Most cats have a type of diabetes that that are used to inject it, most cats do time-consuming and stressful, and mimics that seen in people with type 2 not even notice that an injection is being regular intermittent checkups with a diabetes. This condition is characterized given once they adjust to the situation. veterinarian are sufficient to maintain by decreased insulin production by the Veterinarians and their technical staff good glycemic control and health. pancreas and/or resistance to insulin that are well trained to educate owners about Of course, a veterinarian should be is produced. how to give insulin injections to their cats contacted promptly if an owner ever has Insulin is an important hormone, safely and conveniently. any questions or concerns about their as it allows glucose to enter the body's The primary goals of treatment cat's health status. cells, where it can be used as fuel. If are to maintain blood glucose levels The take-home message is: YOU CAN enough insulin is not produced or the within a safe range (not too high, and, DO THIS and, with th e support of your cells' response to it is blunted, cells can in particular, not too low, which can veterinary professionals. you and your be starved of energy. High le vels of be dangerous) and to minimize the baby can look forward to many happy glucose then remain in the bloodstream, symptoms of diabetes, which include times together in the future. where it can cause problems, including increased appetite, increased thirst and All my best, inappropriate loss of fluid by the kidneys, , dehydration, and weight loss. Elizabeth neurologic problems. potentially life-threatening electrolyte and pH @I HAPPENING NOW .. abnormalities in the blood, and cataracts, alDong others. Lucky Stowuway · The Prince George survived by drinking condensation that Elizobeth works with Citizen in Prince George, B.C., reports had formed on the walls." ~ Corne// Feline that the SPCA North Cariboo District Hmlth eenlfr to Branch is caring for a severely emaciated Cnl CnJ~ - According to WCAX TV in pfCll/ide onswelS on stowaway cat who arrived in April from Burlington, VI., Forget-Me-Not Flowers Ihis poge (vet_cornelL . "The six-year-old cat was trapped & Gifts in Barre, Vt. , is working to open edu/fhc/). Write 10 her inside a 40-foot shipping container for a Kitty Korner cat cafe where patrons 01 cotworchedilofO can mingle with adoptable cats comelLedu. over three weeks without access to food or water, travelling from Shenzhen, while they enjoy their coffee. The China, to the Port of Vancouver, logistics may be tricky, though, says Coming Up ... and then up to Prince George. Staff the report: "In addition to follOWing ~ Perftct Carr fo, Hoirless Cats at a Prince George auto-gla ss the regular restaurant rules, there are ~ Why Compoundld Drugs Arr NtaSJory distribution company found the rules strictly separating felines from eat among the pallets, shredded food, including different entrances:' But ~ TIr.llfosans Cars Chirp and Chait" cardboard, and styrofoam inside owner Alexis Dexter is determined to ~ Po//iolive Co,. fo, S.nio, Cats the container. It's believed that she make this happen.•

8 (atWatch July 1019