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Chem 103, Section F0F Lecture 15 - Covalent Bonding Unit VI - Compounds Part II: Covalent Compounds Reading in Silberberg Lecture 15 • Chapter 2, Section 7 (pp. 62-64) - The Formation of Covalent Compounds • Chapter 2, Section 8 (pp. 70-72) The formation of covalent bonds • - Compounds, Formulas and Names • Naming binary covalent and organic compounds • Chapter 9, Section 3 • The covalent bonding model - The Covalent Bonding Model

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Lecture 15 - Introduction Lecture 15 - Introduction

So far we have focused primarily on ionic compounds Today we will start looking in more detail at compounds that • Which combine with non are held together by covalent bonds. metals • We have encountered some examples already • Are held together by the electrostatic attractions of cations with anions - - - Polyatomic ions

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Lecture 15 - The Formation of the Lecture 15 - The Formation of the Covalent Bond

Covalent compounds form when elements share , Example: H2 • This usually occurs between . • The covalent bond that forms between two to the formation a diatomic of H2.

5 6 Lecture 15 - The Formation of the Lecture 15 - The Formation of the Covalent Bond Covalent Bond There are several other elements that also form Covalent compounds can also form between atoms of diatomic : different elements: • F2, Cl2, Br2, I2, O2 and N2 And others that form polyatomic molecules • P4, S8 and Se8

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Lecture 15 - The Formation of the Lecture 15 - The Formation of the Covalent Bond Covalent Bond Unlike ionic compounds, covalent compounds are made up of Polyatomic ions are both covalent individual molecules. and ionic: • For example: Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3)

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Lecture 15 - The Formation of the Lecture 15 - Naming Binary Covalent and Covalent Bond Organic Compounds The elements of • The name of the element with the lower group number • About 25% of the elements are found in living organisms, goes first and the one with the higher group number goes • However 99% of the compounds found in living organisms second. are made of C, H, O & N: - CO ( monoxide) • If the two elements are in the same family, the one with the higher period number goes first - BrCl3 (bromine trichloride) • The sufix -ide is appended to the second element • A Greek prefix is used to indicate the number of atoms of each

11 12 Lecture 15 - Naming Binary Covalent Lecture 15 - Naming Binary Covalent Compounds Compounds We will focus first on the that have only carbon- carbon single bonds. • This group of molecules is called . • Alkanes can be straight-chained or branched-chained • The names for alkanes all end with the ending -ane.

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Lecture 15 - Naming Binary Covalent Lecture 15 - Naming Binary Covalent Compounds Compounds For straight chain alkanes, a The branched-chained hydrocarbons, longest chain of prefix is used to indicate the forms the root name. number of carbons in the • The branches have names that end in -yl instead of -ane. chain:

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Lecture 15 - Naming Binary Covalent Lecture 15 - Question 1 Compounds Going beyond alkanes, other Give the formula, name and molecular mass of the following organic molecules have groups molecules: of atoms containing elements other than carbon and hydrogen. • These are called functional groups. • Examples - Alcohols -OH - Amines -NH2 - Carboxylic acids -COOH

17 18 Lecture 15 - Question 1 Lecture 15 - The Covalent Bond Model

Which of the following models represent compounds having Covalent bonds form when the nuclei of one is attracted the same empirical formula? to the electrons of another. • And the attraction is mutual.

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Lecture 15 - The Covalent Bond Model Lecture 15 - The Covalent Bond Model

Covalent bonding leads to a greater density between Like , covalent bonds form as a way of giving the atoms each atom 8 electrons (except hydrogen, which only • In a covalent bond, electrons from two atoms are shared. wants 2 valence electrons). • There are rules to how covalent bonds form. • Instead of accomplishing this by one atom giving its electrons to the other, as occurs in ionic bonding • The two atoms involved in a covalent bond “share” electrons pairs, - Each atom counts those electrons as part of its valence shell.

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Lecture 15 - The Covalent Bond Model Lecture 15 - The Covalent Bond Model

Lewis dot structures are useful for showing this: If sharing just one pair of electrons is insufficient to meet the needs of each atom participating in a covalent bond, then additional pairs of electrons can be shared. • The leads to the formation of double and triple bonds.

H H C C O O N N H H

• The number of electron pairs shared in a covalent bond give the of the bond H H F F H F - has bond order of 1 H H F F H F - has a bond order of 2 - has a bond order of 3

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The (or enthalpy) The is the • It is he energy needed to overcome the force of attraction distance between the nuclei of between two atoms participating in a covalent bond. the the two atoms participating - It is also the energy released when a covalent bond is formed. in a covalent bond. • For example, the bond energy of a H-H bond is 432 kJ/mol

H (g) + H (g) H2 (g) !H = – 432!kJ/mol

H2 (g) H (g) + H (g) !H = + 432!kJ/mol

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Lecture 15 - The Covalent Bond Model Lecture 15 - The Covalent Bond Model

As the bond order increases, the bond length decreases The physical properties of covalent substances • Generally have low melting points and boiling points compared to ionic compounds.

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Lecture 15 - The Covalent Bond Model Unit VI - Up Next

The few compound, however, Lecture 16 - Covalent Bonding con’d form covalent networks of • Bond energies and covalent bonds and have extremely high melting points. • and bond polarity • Quartz

Si O C Si O Si O Si C C C O C Si

C SiO2

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