# Force in Physics Textbooks

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• Glossary Physics (I-Introduction)
1 Glossary Physics (I-introduction) - Efficiency: The percent of the work put into a machine that is converted into useful work output; = work done / energy used [-]. = eta In machines: The work output of any machine cannot exceed the work input (<=100%); in an ideal machine, where no energy is transformed into heat: work(input) = work(output), =100%. Energy: The property of a system that enables it to do work. Conservation o. E.: Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it may be transformed from one form into another, but the total amount of energy never changes. Equilibrium: The state of an object when not acted upon by a net force or net torque; an object in equilibrium may be at rest or moving at uniform velocity - not accelerating. Mechanical E.: The state of an object or system of objects for which any impressed forces cancels to zero and no acceleration occurs. Dynamic E.: Object is moving without experiencing acceleration. Static E.: Object is at rest.F Force: The influence that can cause an object to be accelerated or retarded; is always in the direction of the net force, hence a vector quantity; the four elementary forces are: Electromagnetic F.: Is an attraction or repulsion G, gravit. const.6.672E-11[Nm2/kg2] between electric charges: d, distance [m] 2 2 2 2 F = 1/(40) (q1q2/d ) [(CC/m )(Nm /C )] = [N] m,M, mass [kg] Gravitational F.: Is a mutual attraction between all masses: q, charge [As] [C] 2 2 2 2 F = GmM/d [Nm /kg kg 1/m ] = [N] 0, dielectric constant Strong F.: (nuclear force) Acts within the nuclei of atoms: 8.854E-12 [C2/Nm2] [F/m] 2 2 2 2 2 F = 1/(40) (e /d ) [(CC/m )(Nm /C )] = [N] , 3.14 [-] Weak F.: Manifests itself in special reactions among elementary e, 1.60210 E-19 [As] [C] particles, such as the reaction that occur in radioactive decay.
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• A Brief History and Philosophy of Mechanics
A Brief History and Philosophy of Mechanics S. A. Gadsden McMaster University, [email protected] 1. Introduction During this period, several clever inventions were created. Some of these were Archimedes screw, Hero of Mechanics is a branch of physics that deals with the Alexandria’s aeolipile (steam engine), the catapult and interaction of forces on a physical body and its trebuchet, the crossbow, pulley systems, odometer, environment. Many scholars consider the field to be a clockwork, and a rolling-element bearing (used in precursor to modern physics. The laws of mechanics Roman ships). [5] Although mechanical inventions apply to many different microscopic and macroscopic were being made at an accelerated rate, it wasn’t until objects—ranging from the motion of electrons to the after the Middle Ages when classical mechanics orbital patterns of galaxies. [1] developed. Attempting to understand the underlying principles of 3. Classical Period (1500 – 1900 AD) the universe is certainly a daunting task. It is therefore no surprise that the development of ‘idea and thought’ Classical mechanics had many contributors, although took many centuries, and bordered many different the most notable ones were Galileo, Huygens, Kepler, fields—atomism, metaphysics, religion, mathematics, Descartes and Newton. “They showed that objects and mechanics. The history of mechanics can be move according to certain rules, and these rules were divided into three main periods: antiquity, classical, and stated in the forms of laws of motion.” [1] quantum. The most famous of these laws were Newton’s Laws of 2. Period of Antiquity (800 BC – 500 AD) Motion, which accurately describe the relationships between force, velocity, and acceleration on a body.
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• Classical Mechanics
Classical Mechanics Hyoungsoon Choi Spring, 2014 Contents 1 Introduction4 1.1 Kinematics and Kinetics . .5 1.2 Kinematics: Watching Wallace and Gromit ............6 1.3 Inertia and Inertial Frame . .8 2 Newton's Laws of Motion 10 2.1 The First Law: The Law of Inertia . 10 2.2 The Second Law: The Equation of Motion . 11 2.3 The Third Law: The Law of Action and Reaction . 12 3 Laws of Conservation 14 3.1 Conservation of Momentum . 14 3.2 Conservation of Angular Momentum . 15 3.3 Conservation of Energy . 17 3.3.1 Kinetic energy . 17 3.3.2 Potential energy . 18 3.3.3 Mechanical energy conservation . 19 4 Solving Equation of Motions 20 4.1 Force-Free Motion . 21 4.2 Constant Force Motion . 22 4.2.1 Constant force motion in one dimension . 22 4.2.2 Constant force motion in two dimensions . 23 4.3 Varying Force Motion . 25 4.3.1 Drag force . 25 4.3.2 Harmonic oscillator . 29 5 Lagrangian Mechanics 30 5.1 Conﬁguration Space . 30 5.2 Lagrangian Equations of Motion . 32 5.3 Generalized Coordinates . 34 5.4 Lagrangian Mechanics . 36 5.5 D'Alembert's Principle . 37 5.6 Conjugate Variables . 39 1 CONTENTS 2 6 Hamiltonian Mechanics 40 6.1 Legendre Transformation: From Lagrangian to Hamiltonian . 40 6.2 Hamilton's Equations . 41 6.3 Conﬁguration Space and Phase Space . 43 6.4 Hamiltonian and Energy . 45 7 Central Force Motion 47 7.1 Conservation Laws in Central Force Field . 47 7.2 The Path Equation .
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• Capacitance and Dielectrics
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• Engineering Physics I Syllabus COURSE IDENTIFICATION Course
Engineering Physics I Syllabus COURSE IDENTIFICATION Course Prefix/Number PHYS 104 Course Title Engineering Physics I Division Applied Science Division Program Physics Credit Hours 4 credit hours Revision Date Fall 2010 Assessment Goal per Outcome(s) 70% INSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATION Academic COURSE DESCRIPTION This course is the first semester of a calculus-based physics course primarily intended for engineering and science majors. Course work includes studying forces and motion, and the properties of matter and heat. Topics will include motion in one, two, and three dimensions, mechanical equilibrium, momentum, energy, rotational motion and dynamics, periodic motion, and conservation laws. The laboratory (taken concurrently) presents exercises that are designed to reinforce the concepts presented and discussed during the lectures. PREREQUISITES AND/OR CO-RECQUISITES MATH 150 Analytic Geometry and Calculus I The engineering student should also be proficient in algebra and trigonometry. Concurrent with Phys. 140 Engineering Physics I Laboratory COURSE TEXT *The official list of textbooks and materials for this course are found on Inside NC. • COLLEGE PHYSICS, 2nd Ed. By Giambattista, Richardson, and Richardson, McGraw-Hill, 2007. • Additionally, the student must have a scientific calculator with trigonometric functions. COURSE OUTCOMES • To understand and be able to apply the principles of classical Newtonian mechanics. • To effectively communicate classical mechanics concepts and solutions to problems, both in written English and through mathematics. • To be able to apply critical thinking and problem solving skills in the application of classical mechanics. To demonstrate successfully accomplishing the course outcomes, the student should be able to: 1) Demonstrate knowledge of physical concepts by their application in problem solving.
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• Exercises in Classical Mechanics 1 Moments of Inertia 2 Half-Cylinder
Exercises in Classical Mechanics CUNY GC, Prof. D. Garanin No.1 Solution ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| 1 Moments of inertia (5 points) Calculate tensors of inertia with respect to the principal axes of the following bodies: a) Hollow sphere of mass M and radius R: b) Cone of the height h and radius of the base R; both with respect to the apex and to the center of mass. c) Body of a box shape with sides a; b; and c: Solution: a) By symmetry for the sphere I®¯ = I±®¯: (1) One can ¯nd I easily noticing that for the hollow sphere is 1 1 X ³ ´ I = (I + I + I ) = m y2 + z2 + z2 + x2 + x2 + y2 3 xx yy zz 3 i i i i i i i i 2 X 2 X 2 = m r2 = R2 m = MR2: (2) 3 i i 3 i 3 i i b) and c): Standard solutions 2 Half-cylinder ϕ (10 points) Consider a half-cylinder of mass M and radius R on a horizontal plane. a) Find the position of its center of mass (CM) and the moment of inertia with respect to CM. b) Write down the Lagrange function in terms of the angle ' (see Fig.) c) Find the frequency of cylinder's oscillations in the linear regime, ' ¿ 1. Solution: (a) First we ¯nd the distance a between the CM and the geometrical center of the cylinder. With σ being the density for the cross-sectional surface, so that ¼R2 M = σ ; (3) 2 1 one obtains Z Z 2 2σ R p σ R q a = dx x R2 ¡ x2 = dy R2 ¡ y M 0 M 0 ¯ 2 ³ ´3=2¯R σ 2 2 ¯ σ 2 3 4 = ¡ R ¡ y ¯ = R = R: (4) M 3 0 M 3 3¼ The moment of inertia of the half-cylinder with respect to the geometrical center is the same as that of the cylinder, 1 I0 = MR2: (5) 2 The moment of inertia with respect to the CM I can be found from the relation I0 = I + Ma2 (6) that yields " µ ¶ # " # 1 4 2 1 32 I = I0 ¡ Ma2 = MR2 ¡ = MR2 1 ¡ ' 0:3199MR2: (7) 2 3¼ 2 (3¼)2 (b) The Lagrange function L is given by L('; '_ ) = T ('; '_ ) ¡ U('): (8) The potential energy U of the half-cylinder is due to the elevation of its CM resulting from the deviation of ' from zero.
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• Euler and the Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Sebastià Xambó Descamps
Euler and the dynamics of rigid bodies Sebastià Xambó Descamps Abstract. After presenting in contemporary terms an outline of the kinematics and dynamics of systems of particles, with emphasis in the kinematics and dynamics of rigid bodies, we will consider briefly the main points of the historical unfolding that produced this understanding and, in particular, the decisive role played by Euler. In our presentation the main role is not played by inertial (or Galilean) observers, but rather by observers that are allowed to move in an arbitrary (smooth, non-relativistic) way. 0. Notations and conventions The material in sections 0-6 of this paper is an adaptation of parts of the Mechanics chapter of XAMBÓ-2007. The mathematical language used is rather standard. The read- er will need a basic knowledge of linear algebra, of Euclidean geometry (see, for exam- ple, XAMBÓ-2001) and of basic calculus. 0.1. If we select an origin in Euclidean 3-space , each point can be specified by a vector , where is the Euclidean vector space associated with . This sets up a one-to-one correspondence between points and vectors . The inverse map is usually denoted . Usually we will speak of “the point ”, instead of “the point ”, implying that some point has been chosen as an origin. Only when conditions on this origin become re- levant will we be more specific. From now on, as it is fitting to a mechanics context, any origin considered will be called an observer. When points are assumed to be moving with time, their movement will be assumed to be smooth.
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• Rigid Body Dynamics: Student Misconceptions and Their Diagnosis1
Rigid Body Dynamics: Student Misconceptions and Their Diagnosis1 D. L. Evans2, Gary L. Gray3, Francesco Costanzo4, Phillip Cornwell5, Brian Self6 Introduction: As pointed out by a rich body of research literature, including the three video case studies, Lessons from Thin Air, Private Universe, and, particularly, Can We Believe Our Eyes?, students subjected to traditional instruction in math, science and engineering often do not adequately resolve the misconceptions that they either bring to a subject or develop while studying a subject. These misconceptions, sometimes referred to as alternative views or student views of basic concepts because they make sense to the student, block the establishment of connections between basic concepts, connections which are necessary for understanding the macroconceptions that build on the basics. That is, the misconceptions of basic phenomena hinder the learning of further material that relies on understanding these concepts. The literature on misconceptions includes the field of particle mechanics, but does not include rigid body mechanics. For example, it has been established7 "that … commonsense beliefs about motion and force are incompatible with Newtonian concepts in most respects…" It is also known that replacing these "commonsense beliefs" with concepts aligned with modern thinking on science is extremely difficult to accomplish8. But a proper approach to accomplishing this replacement must begin with understanding what the misconceptions are, progress to being able to diagnose them, and eventually, reach the point whereby instructional approaches are developed for addressing them. In high school, college and university physics, research has led to the development of an assessment instrument called the Force Concept Inventory9 (FCI) that is now available for measuring the success of instruction in breaking these student misconceptions.
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• Students' Depictions of Quantum Mechanics
Students’ depictions of quantum mechanics: a contemporary review and some implications for research and teaching Johan Falk January 2007 Dissertation for the degree of Licentiate of Philosophy in Physics within the specialization Physics Education Research Uppsala University, 2007 Abstract This thesis presents a comprehensive review of research into students’ depic- tions of quantum mechanics. A taxonomy to describe and compare quantum mechanics education research is presented, and this taxonomy is used to highlight the foci of prior research. A brief history of quantum mechanics education research is also presented. Research implications of the review are discussed, and several areas for future research are proposed. In particular, this thesis highlights the need for investigations into what interpretations of quantum mechanics are employed in teaching, and that classical physics – in particular the classical particle model – appears to be a common theme in students’ inappropriate depictions of quantum mechanics. Two future research projects are presented in detail: one concerning inter- pretations of quantum mechanics, the other concerning students’ depictions of the quantum mechanical wave function. This thesis also discusses teaching implications of the review. This is done both through a discussion on how Paper 1 can be used as a resource for lecturers and through a number of teaching suggestions based on a merging of the contents of the review and personal teaching experience. List of papers and conference presentations Falk, J & Linder, C. (2005). Towards a concept inventory in quantum mechanics. Presentation at the Physics Education Research Conference, Salt Lake City, Utah, August 2005. Falk, J., Linder, C., & Lippmann Kung, R. (in review, 2007).
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• Lecture Notes for PHY 405 Classical Mechanics
Lecture Notes for PHY 405 Classical Mechanics From Thorton & Marion's Classical Mechanics Prepared by Dr. Joseph M. Hahn Saint Mary's University Department of Astronomy & Physics November 25, 2003 revised November 29 Chapter 11: Dynamics of Rigid Bodies rigid body = a collection of particles whose relative positions are ﬁxed. We will ignore the microscopic thermal vibrations occurring among a `rigid' body's atoms. The inertia tensor Consider a rigid body that is composed of N particles. Give each particle an index α = 1 : : : N. Particle α has a velocity vf,α measured in the ﬁxed reference frame and velocity vr,α = drα=dt in the reference frame that rotates about axis !~ . Then according to Eq. 10.17: vf,α = V + vr,α + !~ × rα where V = velocity of the moving origin relative to the ﬁxed origin. Note that the particles in a rigid body have zero relative velocity, ie, vr,α = 0. 1 Thus vα = V + !~ × rα after dropping the f subscript 1 1 and T = m v2 = m (V + !~ × r )2 is the particle's KE α 2 α α 2 α α N so T = Tα the system's total KE is α=1 X1 1 = MV2 + m V · (!~ × r ) + m (!~ × r )2 2 α α 2 α α α α X X 1 1 = MV2 + V · !~ × m r + m (!~ × r )2 2 α α 2 α α α ! α X X where M = α mα = the system's total mass. P Now choose the system's center of mass R as the origin of the moving frame.
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• The Development of the Action Principle a Didactic History from Euler-Lagrange to Schwinger Series: Springerbriefs in Physics
springer.com Walter Dittrich The Development of the Action Principle A Didactic History from Euler-Lagrange to Schwinger Series: SpringerBriefs in Physics Provides a philosophical interpretation of the development of physics Contains many worked examples Shows the path of the action principle - from Euler's first contributions to present topics This book describes the historical development of the principle of stationary action from the 17th to the 20th centuries. Reference is made to the most important contributors to this topic, in particular Bernoullis, Leibniz, Euler, Lagrange and Laplace. The leading theme is how the action principle is applied to problems in classical physics such as hydrodynamics, electrodynamics and gravity, extending also to the modern formulation of quantum mechanics 1st ed. 2021, XV, 135 p. 23 illus., 1 illus. and quantum field theory, especially quantum electrodynamics. A critical analysis of operator in color. versus c-number field theory is given. The book contains many worked examples. In particular, the term "vacuum" is scrutinized. The book is aimed primarily at actively working researchers, Printed book graduate students and historians interested in the philosophical interpretation and evolution of Softcover physics; in particular, in understanding the action principle and its application to a wide range 54,99 € | £49.99 | \$69.99 of natural phenomena. [1]58,84 € (D) | 60,49 € (A) | CHF 65,00 eBook 46,00 € | £39.99 | \$54.99 [2]46,00 € (D) | 46,00 € (A) | CHF 52,00 Available from your library or springer.com/shop MyCopy [3] Printed eBook for just € | \$ 24.99 springer.com/mycopy Order online at springer.com / or for the Americas call (toll free) 1-800-SPRINGER / or email us at: [email protected].
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• PHYSICS 360 Quantum Mechanics
PHYSICS 360 Quantum Mechanics Prof. Norbert Neumeister Department of Physics and Astronomy Purdue University Spring 2020 http://www.physics.purdue.edu/phys360 Course Format • Lectures: – Time: Monday, Wednesday 9:00 – 10:15 – Lecture Room: PHYS 331 – Instructor: Prof. N. Neumeister – Office hours: Tuesday 2:00 – 3:00 PM (or by appointment) – Office: PHYS 372 – Phone: 49-45198 – Email: [email protected] (please use subject: PHYS 360) • Grader: – Name: Guangjie Li – Office: PHYS 6A – Phone: 571-315-3392 – Email: [email protected] – Office hours: Monday: 1:30 pm – 3:30 pm, Friday: 1:00 pm – 3:00 pm Purdue University, Physics 360 1 Textbook The textbook is: Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, David J. Griffiths and Darrell F. Schroeter, 3rd edition We will follow the textbook quite closely, and you are strongly encouraged to get a copy. Additional references: • R.P. Feynman, R.b. Leighton and M. Sands: The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol. III • B.H. brandsen and C.J. Joachain: Introduction To Quantum Mechanics • S. Gasiorowicz: Quantum Physics • R. Shankar: Principles Of Quantum Mechanics, 2nd edition • C. Cohen-Tannoudji, B. Diu and F. Laloë: Quantum Mechanics, Vol. 1 and 2 • P.A.M. Dirac: The Principles Of Quantum Mechanics • E. Merzbacher: Quantum Mechanics • A. Messiah: Quantum Mechanics, Vol. 1 and 2 • J.J. Sakurai: Modern Quantum Mechanics Purdue University, Physics 360 2 AA fewA (randomfew recommended but but but recommended) recommended) recommended) books books booksBooks B. H. Bransden and C. J. Joachain, Quantum Mechanics, (2nd B. H. H.B. H. Bransden Bransden Bransden and andand C. C. C. J. J.
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