Next few lectures are on form and function Today: Plant Structure Exam II is on F March 31 Outline – Plant structure

I.I. PlantPlant CellsCells –– structurestructure && differentdifferent typestypes II.II. TypesTypes ofof meristemsmeristems ApicalApical meristemsmeristems:: primaryprimary growthgrowth LateralLateral meristemsmeristems:: secondarysecondary growthgrowth

III.III. TissuesTissues inin crosscross sectionssections IV.IV. :Leaves: regulationregulation ofof gasgas exchangeexchange andand waterwater lossloss Plant Cells: Distinguishing features (Ch. 4 – refresher) • - - sacs of liquid • wall Animal Cell Walls Chain of glucose molecules • Neighboring cells are glued together: middle lamella

• Primary - cellulose as the cell grows

– Fig 35.6 cellulose impregnated with or : SecondarySecondary CellCell WallsWalls

Some cells produce a thick secondary wall. Contains: • Lignin - is hard and woody.

• Or suberin, which is corky and waterproof. Plant Cell Walls

•• PlasmodesmataPlasmodesmata:: thin spots where strands of cytoplasm pass through the cell walls • Allows direct communication between neighboring cytoplasms. Fig 35.7 plasmodesmataplasmodesmata Plant Cell Walls

• Pits - interruptions of the secondary wall for plasmodesmata

Fig 35.8 Common Plant Cell Types There’sThere’s severalseveral typestypes ofof plantplant cellscells –– eacheach withwith differentdifferent structuresstructures andand functionsfunctions

1.1. ParenchymaParenchyma 2.2. CollenchymaCollenchyma 3.3. SclerenchymaSclerenchyma

4.4. XylemXylem (tissues)(tissues) 5.5. PhloemPhloem Common Plant Cell Types

(1) cells have thin cellulose walls with no secondary wall. • Green cells - photosynthesis in leaves. • Function when alive Common Plant Cell Types

Parenchyma • Photosynthetic • Storage ( or lipids.) • Some bulk/structure Common Plant Cell Types

(2) Chollenchyma cells: have primary walls with thick corners (no secondary wall). • Usually long and narrow. • Function when alive Common Plant Cell Types Chollenchyma • “Flexible support”, e.g., stalks, non-woody stems • Support for young growing organs E.g., “strings” Common Plant Cell Types

(3) Sclerenchyma cells: have thick, often lignified secondary walls. • Greek sklerosskleros = “hard” • Usually dead at maturity when functioning • Rigid support Common Plant Cell Types Sclerenchyma • Strengthen tissues that have ceased growing. • Two kinds:

‹ FibersFibers-- long thin, e.g., or fiber,

‹ SclereidsSclereids-- shorter, may be branched, e.g., shells of nuts, peach , grit in Plant Cells VascularVascular plantsplants havehave specializedspecialized conductingconducting tissues:tissues: (4)(4) XylemXylem forfor waterwater transporttransport

(5)(5) PhloemPhloem forfor sugarsugar andand nutrientnutrient transporttransport Plant Cells (4)(4) XylemXylem forfor waterwater transporttransport •• MoveMove waterwater rootsroots ÆÆ abovegroundaboveground •• FunctionFunction whenwhen deaddead

22 kinds:kinds: •• TracheidsTracheids andand vesselvessel elementselements Plant Cells TracheidsTracheids andand vesselvessel elementselements -- lignifiedlignified secondarysecondary walls.walls. •• TracheidsTracheids connectedconnected withwith pitspits

‹ foundfound inin allall vascularvascular plantsplants

•• VesselVessel elementselements havehave bigbig holes.holes.

‹ restrictedrestricted toto angiosperms.angiosperms. Plant Cells Vessel elements: • stack to form long open tubes • A bubble will ruin the whole tube : • pits block even the smallest bubble • damage is localized to only one cell. Plant Cells (5)(5) PhloemPhloem forfor movingmoving sugarssugars around.around. •• TransportTransport carbohydratescarbohydrates andand nutrientsnutrients •• FunctionFunction whenwhen livingliving::

SieveSieve tubetube elementselements Plant Cells (5)(5) PhloemPhloem •• SieveSieve tubestubes stackstack endend toto endend formingforming aa longlong tube.tube. •• CompanionCompanion cellscells regulateregulate it:it: LinkedLinked byby plasmodermataplasmodermata RetainRetain organellesorganelles Review of Plant Cells

Which of the following is most correct? a. Only the primary cell walls are made of cellulose b. Only the secondary cell walls are made of cellulose c. Only the primary cell walls contain lignin or suberin d. Only the secondary cell walls contain lignin or suberin Review of Plant Cells

• Which cells function when dead? • Which cells provide flexible support?

•Parenchyma •Chollenchyma •Sclerenchyma Plant Tissues and Systems

33 tissuetissue systemssystems inin :plants: •• vascularvascular tissuetissue •• dermaldermal tissuetissue •• groundground tissuetissue Plant Tissues and Tissue Systems • : conducts , minerals, Fig 35.12 and the products of photosynthesis.

• Dermal tissue: protects the body surface.

: produces and stores food Forming the Plant Body

Plants grow from localized regions: where cells divide.

• apical meristems Growth of the primary plant body • lateral meristems

Growth of the secondary plant body Forming the Plant Body

and apical meristems give rise to the entire plant body of herbaceous plants.

• Woody plants show . Secondary ‘body’ is and bark Apical meristems

•• PlantsPlants growgrow onlyonly verticallyvertically fromfrom thesethese growinggrowing tips:tips:

‹ HammerHammer aa nailnail 55 feetfeet fromfrom thethe groundground intointo aa 1010 ft.ft. sequoiasequoia sapling.sapling.

‹ InIn aa thousandthousand yearsyears whenwhen thethe treetree isis 300300 ft.,ft., howhow highhigh willwill thethe nailnail be?be? Apical meristems

GiveGive riserise to:to: •• RootsRoots •• ShootsShoots •• PlantPlant organsorgans

• Root cap • Root hairs •

• Mycorrhizae are associated with epidermis and root hairs Roots •• TheThe cortexcortex –– foodfood storagestorage •• EndodermisEndodermis –– waterproofwaterproof layerlayer keepskeeps waterwater fromfrom movingmoving insideinside withoutwithout passingpassing throughthrough thethe cytoplasm.cytoplasm. Fig 35.17 •• XylemXylem andand phloemphloem Roots – Water uptake CasparianCasparian stripstrip –– SuberinSuberin •• MakesMakes waterproofwaterproof ringring •• WaterWater cannotcannot gogo betweenbetween cellscells •• OsmoticOsmotic RegulationRegulation

Fig 36.5

The shoot apical gives rise to leaf primordia: • Leaves and • Shoots

VascularVascular tissue:tissue: RootsRoots -- thethe centercenter

YoungYoung stemsstems –– bundlesbundles inin aa ringring oror scatteredscattered.. Shoots Eudicot Monocot

Vascular tissue is in bundles in a ring or scattered. (Fig 35.18) Shoots Eudicot Monocot

Rest is parenchyma with some strengthening collenchyma around the outside. storage • Epidermis secretes a waxy cuticle Shoots



of a young eudicot stem • Primary growth: growth from apical meristems Lateral Meristems Æ secondary growth of stems

• Thicken to wood and bark

• This is secondary growth resulting from the two lateral meristems: vascular and cambium. Secondary growth of stems

in the vascular bundles becomes a continuous cylinder • secondary to the inside • secondary phloem to the outside Secondary growth of stems

• Secondary xylem: mostly vessel elements, fibers and parenchyma WOOD

• Secondary phloem: mostly sieve tubes members, companion cells, fibers and parenchyma part of BARK Secondary growth of stems

Annual rings: Plants growing in seasonal environments often produce • wide, thin-walled vessels or tracheids in the spring • and narrower, thick- walled cells in the summer. Secondary growth of stems


BarkBark •• TissuesTissues outsideoutside thethe phloemphloem •• TheThe corkcork cambiumcambium producesproduces newnew protectiveprotective tissue:tissue: CorkCork –– suberizedsuberized Leaves

•• WhereWhere photosynthesisphotosynthesis occursoccurs

•• BringBring togethertogether thethe precursors:precursors: HH2O,O, COCO2..

•• ExportExport thethe products:products: ,sugar, OO2.. Leaves ConflictingConflicting needs:needs: 1.1. AvoidAvoid desiccation.desiccation. 2.2. ObtainObtain CO2.CO2.

Fig 35.23 •• EpidermisEpidermis –– FlatFlat cellscells coveredcovered byby aa waxywaxy cuticle.cuticle. GoodGood atat 1.1. butbut notnot 2.2.

•• StomataStomata –– RegulatedRegulated porespores thatthat letlet COCO2 inin Leaves

MesophyllMesophyll ––

GreenGreen parenchymaparenchyma wherewhere photosynthesisphotosynthesis occurs.occurs.

OpenOpen -- easyeasy accessaccess forfor COCO2..

Fig 35.23 Review of Structure

WhichWhich meristemmeristem causescauses elongation?elongation? WhichWhich meristemmeristem causescauses thickening?thickening?

HowHow toto leavesleaves balancebalance thethe conflictingconflicting needneed forfor CO2CO2 andand thethe negativenegative effectseffects ofof desiccation?desiccation?