Next few lectures are on plant form and function Today: Plant Structure Exam II is on F March 31 Outline – Plant structure
I.I. PlantPlant CellsCells –– structurestructure && differentdifferent typestypes II.II. TypesTypes ofof meristemsmeristems ApicalApical meristemsmeristems:: primaryprimary growthgrowth LateralLateral meristemsmeristems:: secondarysecondary growthgrowth
III.III. TissuesTissues inin crosscross sectionssections IV.IV. Leaves:Leaves: regulationregulation ofof gasgas exchangeexchange andand waterwater lossloss Plant Cells: Distinguishing features (Ch. 4 – refresher) • Chloroplasts - photosynthesis • Vacuoles - sacs of liquid • Cellulose cell wall Animal Cell Plant Cell Walls Chain of glucose molecules • Neighboring cells are glued together: middle lamella
• Primary cell wall - cellulose as the cell grows
Some cells produce a thick secondary wall. Contains: • Lignin - is hard and woody.
• Or suberin, which is corky and waterproof. Plant Cell Walls
•• PlasmodesmataPlasmodesmata:: thin spots where strands of cytoplasm pass through the cell walls • Allows direct communication between neighboring cytoplasms. Fig 35.7 plasmodesmataplasmodesmata Plant Cell Walls
• Pits - interruptions of the secondary wall for plasmodesmata
Fig 35.8 Common Plant Cell Types There’sThere’s severalseveral typestypes ofof plantplant cellscells –– eacheach withwith differentdifferent structuresstructures andand functionsfunctions
1.1. ParenchymaParenchyma 2.2. CollenchymaCollenchyma 3.3. SclerenchymaSclerenchyma
4.4. XylemXylem (tissues)(tissues) 5.5. PhloemPhloem Common Plant Cell Types
(1) Parenchyma cells have thin cellulose walls with no secondary wall. • Green cells - photosynthesis in leaves. • Function when alive Common Plant Cell Types
Parenchyma • Photosynthetic • Storage (starch or lipids.) • Some bulk/structure Common Plant Cell Types
(2) Chollenchyma cells: have primary walls with thick corners (no secondary wall). • Usually long and narrow. • Function when alive Common Plant Cell Types Chollenchyma • “Flexible support”, e.g., leaf stalks, non-woody stems • Support for young growing organs E.g., Celery “strings” Common Plant Cell Types
(3) Sclerenchyma cells: have thick, often lignified secondary walls. • Greek sklerosskleros = “hard” • Usually dead at maturity when functioning • Rigid support Common Plant Cell Types Sclerenchyma • Strengthen tissues that have ceased growing. • Two kinds:
SclereidsSclereids-- shorter, may be branched, e.g., shells of nuts, peach pit, grit in pears Plant Cells VascularVascular plantsplants havehave specializedspecialized conductingconducting tissues:tissues: (4)(4) XylemXylem forfor waterwater transporttransport
(5)(5) PhloemPhloem forfor sugarsugar andand nutrientnutrient transporttransport Plant Cells (4)(4) XylemXylem forfor waterwater transporttransport •• MoveMove waterwater rootsroots ÆÆ abovegroundaboveground •• FunctionFunction whenwhen deaddead
22 kinds:kinds: •• TracheidsTracheids andand vesselvessel elementselements Plant Cells TracheidsTracheids andand vesselvessel elementselements -- lignifiedlignified secondarysecondary walls.walls. •• TracheidsTracheids connectedconnected withwith pitspits
foundfound inin allall vascularvascular plantsplants
•• VesselVessel elementselements havehave bigbig holes.holes.
restrictedrestricted toto angiosperms.angiosperms. Plant Cells Vessel elements: • stack to form long open tubes • A bubble will ruin the whole tube Tracheids: • pits block even the smallest bubble • damage is localized to only one cell. Plant Cells (5)(5) PhloemPhloem forfor movingmoving sugarssugars around.around. •• TransportTransport carbohydratescarbohydrates andand nutrientsnutrients •• FunctionFunction whenwhen livingliving::
SieveSieve tubetube elementselements Plant Cells (5)(5) PhloemPhloem •• SieveSieve tubestubes stackstack endend toto endend formingforming aa longlong tube.tube. •• CompanionCompanion cellscells regulateregulate it:it: LinkedLinked byby plasmodermataplasmodermata RetainRetain organellesorganelles Review of Plant Cells
Which of the following is most correct? a. Only the primary cell walls are made of cellulose b. Only the secondary cell walls are made of cellulose c. Only the primary cell walls contain lignin or suberin d. Only the secondary cell walls contain lignin or suberin Review of Plant Cells
• Which cells function when dead? • Which cells provide flexible support?
•Parenchyma •Chollenchyma •Sclerenchyma Plant Tissues and Tissue Systems
33 tissuetissue systemssystems inin plants:plants: •• vascularvascular tissuetissue •• dermaldermal tissuetissue •• groundground tissuetissue Plant Tissues and Tissue Systems • Vascular tissue: conducts water, minerals, Fig 35.12 and the products of photosynthesis.
• Dermal tissue: protects the body surface.
• Ground tissue: produces and stores food Forming the Plant Body
Plants grow from localized regions: meristems where cells divide.
• apical meristems Growth of the primary plant body • lateral meristems
Growth of the secondary plant body Forming the Plant Body
•• PlantsPlants growgrow onlyonly verticallyvertically fromfrom thesethese growinggrowing tips:tips:
HammerHammer aa nailnail 55 feetfeet fromfrom thethe groundground intointo aa 1010 ft.ft. sequoiasequoia sapling.sapling.
InIn aa thousandthousand yearsyears whenwhen thethe treetree isis 300300 ft.,ft., howhow highhigh willwill thethe nailnail be?be? Apical meristems
GiveGive riserise to:to: •• RootsRoots •• ShootsShoots •• PlantPlant organsorgans Roots
• Root cap • Root hairs • Epidermis
• Mycorrhizae are associated with epidermis and root hairs Roots •• TheThe cortexcortex –– foodfood storagestorage •• EndodermisEndodermis –– waterproofwaterproof layerlayer keepskeeps waterwater fromfrom movingmoving insideinside withoutwithout passingpassing throughthrough thethe cytoplasm.cytoplasm. Fig 35.17 •• XylemXylem andand phloemphloem Roots – Water uptake CasparianCasparian stripstrip –– SuberinSuberin •• MakesMakes waterproofwaterproof ringring •• WaterWater cannotcannot gogo betweenbetween cellscells •• OsmoticOsmotic RegulationRegulation
Fig 36.5 Shoots
VascularVascular tissue:tissue: RootsRoots -- thethe centercenter
YoungYoung stemsstems –– bundlesbundles inin aa ringring oror scatteredscattered.. Shoots Eudicot Monocot
Vascular tissue is in bundles in a ring or scattered. (Fig 35.18) Shoots Eudicot Monocot
Rest is parenchyma with some strengthening collenchyma around the outside. storage • Epidermis secretes a waxy cuticle Shoots Phloem
• Vascular bundle of a young eudicot stem • Primary growth: growth from apical meristems Lateral Meristems Æ secondary growth of stems
• Thicken to wood and bark
• This is secondary growth resulting from the two lateral meristems: vascular and cork cambium. Secondary growth of stems
• Secondary xylem: mostly vessel elements, fibers and parenchyma WOOD
• Secondary phloem: mostly sieve tubes members, companion cells, fibers and parenchyma part of BARK Secondary growth of stems
Annual rings: Plants growing in seasonal environments often produce • wide, thin-walled vessels or tracheids in the spring • and narrower, thick- walled cells in the summer. Secondary growth of stems
BarkBark •• TissuesTissues outsideoutside thethe phloemphloem •• TheThe corkcork cambiumcambium producesproduces newnew protectiveprotective tissue:tissue: CorkCork –– suberizedsuberized Leaves
•• WhereWhere photosynthesisphotosynthesis occursoccurs
•• BringBring togethertogether thethe precursors:precursors: HH2O,O, COCO2..
•• ExportExport thethe products:products: sugar,sugar, OO2.. Leaves ConflictingConflicting needs:needs: 1.1. AvoidAvoid desiccation.desiccation. 2.2. ObtainObtain CO2.CO2.
Fig 35.23 •• EpidermisEpidermis –– FlatFlat cellscells coveredcovered byby aa waxywaxy cuticle.cuticle. GoodGood atat 1.1. butbut notnot 2.2.
•• StomataStomata –– RegulatedRegulated porespores thatthat letlet COCO2 inin Leaves
GreenGreen parenchymaparenchyma wherewhere photosynthesisphotosynthesis occurs.occurs.
OpenOpen -- easyeasy accessaccess forfor COCO2..
Fig 35.23 Review of Structure
WhichWhich meristemmeristem causescauses elongation?elongation? WhichWhich meristemmeristem causescauses thickening?thickening?
HowHow toto leavesleaves balancebalance thethe conflictingconflicting needneed forfor CO2CO2 andand thethe negativenegative effectseffects ofof desiccation?desiccation?