Introduction ™ The Grand Canyon - Major John Wesley Powell, in 1869, led a group of explorers down the Colorado River Chapter 17

™ Powell returned to map the region. ™ Powell was impressed with the geologic strata and thus began an investigation that Geologic & continues today into the immense amount of Geohistory: geologic time presented in the canyon. ™ It is this vastness of geologic time that sets Concepts and apart from the Principles other .

Introduction How Is Geologic Time Measured?

™ Geologic time provides an immense contribution to ™Time is defined by the methods other sciences used to measure it.

™ The logic used in applying the principles of relative ™ is accomplished dating “involves basic reasoning skills” that are useful by placing events in a logical, in almost any profession or discipline. sequential order. ™ provides ™ The is fundamental to specific dates for geologic understanding the physical and biological of units or events using our planet . ™ An accurate and precise geologic is critical in determining the onset, duration, and possible causes of such past events as global climate change and their potential effects on humans.

Fig. 17.1, p. 437

Early Concepts of Geologic ™ A world-wide relative Time and the Age of time scale of Earth's rock record was established by the ™ James Ussher, in the early 1600’s asserted that God work of many created Earth on Sunday, October 23, 4004 B.C. applying the principles of and ™ Many early Christians analyzed historical records and correlation to strata of genealogies found in the scripture to try and determine the age all ages throughout of the Earth. the world. ™ During the 18th and 19th centuries, attempts were made to determine Earth’s age based on scientific evidence rather than The Geologic Time revelation. Scale ™ Although some attempts were ingenious, they yielded a variety of ages that now are known to be much too young.

Fig. 17.1, p. 437

1 and the James Hutton and the Recognition of Geologic Time Recognition of Geologic Time

™ Scientific attempts to estimate Earth's age were first ™ argued convincingly for Hutton's made by naturalists during the 18th and 19th centuries. conclusions.

™ He established the principle of as ™ They formulated some of the basic principles used for the guiding principle of geology. deciphering the age of the earth. ™ James Hutton, the father of modern geology, first suggested that day processes operating over ™This principle holds that the laws of nature have long periods of time could explain all geologic features. been constant through time and ™His observations were instrumental in establishing ™That the same processes operating today have the principle of uniformitarianism and the fact that operated in the past, although not necessarily at the Earth was much older than earlier scientists same rates. thought.

Relative Dating Methods Relative Dating Methods

™ Before the development of radiometric dating, there ™Fundamental Principles of Relative Dating was no reliable method for absolute dating, Besides uniformitarianism, several principles were therefore relative dating methods were used. developed for relative dating:

™Relative dating places events in sequential order ™1. Superposition but does not tell us how long ago an event took ™2. Original horizontality place. ™3. Cross-cutting relationships ™4. Lateral continuity ™The principles of relative dating provided ™5. Inclusions geologists with a means to interpret geologic ™6. succession. history and develop a relative geologic time scale. ™These principles are used to determine the relative geologic ages and for interpreting Earth history.

1. Superposition 2. Original Horizontality ™ Superposition states that , in an undisturbed ™ Original horizontality states that is succession of sedimentary layers, the oldest layer is originally deposited in horizontal layers. on the bottom

™ and the youngest ™ Steno noted that layer is on the top. sedimentary particles settle from water under the influence of gravity.

Fig. 17.2 a, p. 439 Fig. 17.12 a , p. 448

2 3. Lateral Continuity 4. Cross-cutting relationships ™ Sediment extends laterally in all directions until it thins and pinches out or terminates against the ™ Based on detailed studies by James Hutton, Hutton edge of a depositional basin. recognized that

™ Ash beds make excellent correlation markers! ™ an must be younger than the rock it intrudes. ™ Also, faults must be younger than the rocks they displace.

Fig. 17.3, p. 439 Fig. 17.13, p. 449

4. Cross-cutting relationships 5. Principle of Inclusions

™ Differentiating between a buried flow and a ™ Inclusions in a rock are older than the rock layer itself.

Fig. 17.4, p. 440 Fig. 17.5, p. 442

6. Principle of Fossil Succession Relative Dating Methods ™ William Smith, an engineer working in the coal are surfaces of discontinuity canals of England, independently recognized in the rock sequence which superposition. encompass significant periods of time.

™ He observed that the on the bottom of a sequence must be older than those at the top of the ™ Unconformities may result sequence. from nondeposition and/or . ™ These surfaces encompass long periods of geologic time for which there is no geologic record at that location.

Fig. 17.6, p. 443 Fig. 17.7, p. 443

3 MYA 0 0 Relative Dating Methods 1 1

2 2 ™Unconformities ™Three types of unconformities are recognized. 3 3 6 4 7 Amount Hiatus of rock ™ A disconformity separates younger from older 5 removed 8 by erosion sedimentary strata that are parallel to each other. 6 9 ™An angular unconformity is an erosional surface

7 10 on tilted or folded rocks, over which younger sedimentary rocks were deposited. 8 11 ™A nonconformity is an erosional surface cut into 9 12 igneous or metamorphic rocks and overlain by

10 younger sedimentary rocks.


12 Stepped Art Fig. 17-7, p. 443

Relative Dating Methods Formation of a ™ A disconformity separates younger from older Disconformity sedimentary strata that are parallel to each other.

Fig. 17.8b, p. 444 Fig. 17.8, p. 444

Up lift an Relative Dating Methods d ero sio n ™ An angular unconformity is an erosional surface on tilted or folded rocks, over which younger rocks were deposited. Deposition


Uplift and erosion

Jurassic rocks

Mississippian rocks

Stepped Art Deposition Fig. 17-8, p. 444 Fig. 17.9, p. 445

4 Up lift an d e ros

Deposition Angular unconformity

Formation of an Angular Unconformity Erosion


Uplift and tilting

Stepped Art Deposition Fig. 17.9, p. 445 Fig. 17-9a, p. 445

Relative Dating Methods

™ A nonconformity is an erosional surface cut into igneous or metamorphic rocks and overlain by younger sedimentary rocks. Formation of a Nonconformity

Fig. 17.10, p. 446 Fig. 17.10, p. 446

a. Formation of a nonconformity. Up lift an d e ros ion A nonconformity in the making! Ayers Rock, Australia Deposition Nonconformity

Uplift and erosion of overlying

Stepped Art Intrusion of Fig. 17-10a, p. 446 Geo-inSight 1-3, p. 456

5 Relative Dating Methods Relative Dating Methods

™Applying the Principles of Relative Dating

™ The principles of relative Applying the dating can be used to reconstruct the geologic principles of history of an area. ™ Although no specific relative dating dates can be applied, the relative sequence of events can be determined by using the principles of relative dating.

Fig. 17.11, p. 447 Fig. 17.12, p. 448

Correlating Rock Units

Uplift, tilting, and faulting Erosion ™Correlation is the demonstration of equivalency of Sedimentary deposition rock units from one area to another.

Sedimentary deposition ™Time equivalence is usually demonstrated by the occurrence of similar fossils in strata.

Sedimentary deposition


Lava flow

Uplift and erosion

Intrusion Sedimentary deposition Stepped Art Fig. 17.6, p. 443 Fig. 17-12, p. 448

Correlating Rock Units Correlating Rock Units ™ Guide fossils (or index fossils) are fossils that: ™Correlation of Rock Units ™ Are easily identified and geographically widespread on the ™ Lived for brief periods of geologic time.

™ Use of concurrent ranges of fossils is the most accurate method of using index fossils

Fig. 17.16, p. 451 Fig. 17.15, p. 451 Fig. 17.14, p. 450

6 Correlating Rock Units Absolute Dating Methods ™Subsurface Correlation - Identifying rock properties thru well cuttings, electrical resistivity logs ™Radioactivity was discovered during the late and radioactivity logs and seismic profiles 19th century by Marie and Philip Curie

™ These techniques are widely used to correlate ™Soon after the discovery of radioactivity, subsurface units. geologists used radioactive decay to develop a method for determining absolute ages of rocks.

Fig. 17.17, p. 451 Fig. 17.18a, p. 452

Absolute Dating Methods Absolute Dating Methods

™, Elements, and ™ ™All is made up of chemical elements and Half-Lives

™Atoms are the smallest units of matter that retain ™ Radioactive decay is the process the characteristics of an element. in which an unstable atomic ™An element is a substance composed of atoms nucleus is spontaneously that all have the same properties. transformed into an atomic ™Isotopes of an element behave the same nucleus of a different element. chemically but have different atomic mass ™ The decay rate of unstable numbers. Some isotopes are radioactive and are isotopes to determine absolute useful for radiometric dating. ages of rocks

Fig. 17.18, p. 452 Fig. 17.18b, p. 452 Fig. 17.19, p. 453

Parent Alpha Daughter Changes in Parent Daughter nucleus particle nucleus and atomic mass number nucleus Beta nucleus particle

Atomic number = –2 Atomic number = +1 Atomic mass number = –4 Atomic mass number = 0

Proton Neutron Electron

Fig. 17-18a, p. 452 Fig. 17-18b, p. 452

7 Absolute Dating Methods

™ A half-life is the time it takes for one-half of the original unstable radioactive parent element to decay to a new, Parent Daughter more stable daughter element. nucleus nucleus

™ The most common method of determining an absolute age is by measuring the proportion of the radioactive Atomic number = –1 parent isotope to stable daughter isotope Atomic mass number = 0 ™ This will provide the number of half-lives which have elapsed since the parent isotope's incorporation within a crystal.

Proton Neutron Electron

Fig. 17-18c, p. 452 Fig. 17.20, p. 453

Absolute Dating Methods Absolute Dating Methods

™Sources of Uncertainty ™Sources of Uncertainty

™ The most accurate radiometric dates are obtained from ™1. In radiometric dating, it is important that no long-lived radioactive isotope pairs in igneous rocks. parent or daughter atoms have been added or ™ During the cooling of magma, radioactive parent atoms removed from the sample being tested. are separated from previously formed daughter atoms ™2. Furthermore, the sample must be fresh and and incorporated into the crystal structure of a mineral. unweathered and it must not have been subjected to high or intense after crystallization. ™Not for sedimentary rocks, must have closed system, no leakage from high heat/, unweathered, concordant/discordant results of cross-check.

Fig. 17.21, p. 454

Absolute Dating Methods

™Sources of Uncertainty 700 MYA 400 MYA ™3. Although heat and pressure do not affect the rate of radioactive decay, they can cause the migration of parent and daughter atoms after crystallization, thus affecting the calculated age. 350 MYA Present ™The most reliable dates are those obtained by using at least two different radioactive decay series in the same . rock ™Metamorphism can ‘reset’ the radiometric . Stepped Art Fig. 17.22, p. 455 Fig. 17-22, p. 455

8 Absolute Dating Methods Absolute Dating Methods

™Long-Lived Radioactive Isotope Pairs ™Long-Lived Radioactive Isotope Pairs ™ Five of the Principal Long-Lived Isotope Pairs ™ The most commonly used Isotope pairs are:

™ -lead and -lead series ™used primarily to date ancient igneous intrusions, lunar samples, and some ™ -strontium pair ™typically used on very old rocks, including the oldest known rocks on Earth as well as some meteorites ™ Potassium- ™typically used to date fine-grained volcanic rocks form which individual crystals cannot be separated ™(Uranium-lead, uranium-thorium, rubidium-strontium, potassium-argon, add Table 17.1)

Table 17.1, p. 454

Absolute Dating Methods Absolute Dating Methods ™ Radiocarbon and Tree-Ring Dating Methods ™ ™-14 dating

™The emission of atomic ™ Carbon 14 has a half-life of 5730 particles that results in the , limiting its use to relatively spontaneous decay of young geologic materials. uranium damages the ™ Carbon-14 dating can be used only for crystal structure of the organic matter such as wood, bones, mineral. and shells and is effective back to ™The age of the sample is approximately 70,000 years ago. determined by the number ™ Unlike the long-lived isotopic pairs, the of fission tracks present carbon-14 dating technique determines and the amount of age by the ratio of radioactive carbon- uranium the sample 14 to stable carbon-12. contains.

Fig. 17.23, p. 455 Fig. 17.24, p. 458

Absolute Dating Methods Development of the Geologic Time Scale

™ Radiocarbon and Tree-Ring Dating Methods ™The geologic time scale was developed primarily during ™ Tree-Ring Dating the 19th century through the efforts of many people.

™ The age of a tree can be ™It was originally a relative geologic time scale. determined by counting its ™With the discovery of radioactivity and the development growth rings. of radiometric dating methods, absolute age dates were ™ Further the width of the rings correlates to long term added at the beginning of the 20th century. climate cycles and can be ™The time scale is still being refined as new radiometric used to date pieces of wood. dates and more accurate methodologies develop. ™ Tree-ring dating has been used to date materials as old as 14, 000 years.

Fig. 17.25, p. 459

9 Development of the Geologic Time Scale and Stratigraphic Terminology

™Absolute ages of most sedimentary rocks and their ™Stratigraphy is the study of the composition, contained fossils are established indirectly. origin, areal distribution, and age relationships of layered rocks.

™Geologists rely on radiometric dating of igneous dikes, ™Stratigraphic terminology includes two lava flows and ash beds, as well as metamorphic age fundamentally different kinds of units: those dates associated with the sedimentary strata to bracket based on content and those related to geologic the age of the rocks. time.

Fig. 17.26, p. 462 Fig. 17.27, p. 462

Stratigraphy and Stratigraphic Terminology Stratigraphy and Stratigraphic Terminology

™Units defined by content ™Units defined by time

™Lithostratigraphic units – defined by rock type or ™Time-stratigraphic units – consist of rocks deposited within a particular interval of geologic an assemblage of rock types. time ™Basic unit is the formation - a mappable body of rock ™Basic unit is the system – composed of rocks in an area with distinct upper and lower boundaries. where the unit was first described. ™Biostratigraphic units – a body of strata ™Time units – designations for certain parts of the recognized on the basis of its fossil content. geologic time scale ™Basic unit is the biozone – several types of biozones are ™Basic unit is the period, , eons and epochsare also recognized.. defined.

Table 17.2, p. 462

Stratigraphy and Stratigraphic Terminology Geologic Time and Climate Change ™Age Dating a Stalagmite - To reconstruct past climate changes and link them to possible causes, geologists ™Rocks and Fossils of the Bearpaw Formation must have an accurate .

Fig. 17.28, p. 463 Fig. 17.29a, p. 464

10 Stalagmites and Climate Change Stalagmites and Climate Change ™Thus, they must be able to date geologic ™ The layers can then be analyzed and a graph of events and the onset and duration of climate climate change in the cave constructed. changes as precisely as possible.

Fig. 17.29c, p. 465 Fig. 17.29b, p. 464

End of Chapter 17