.798 CONGRESSIONAL R.ECORD-SENATE DEOE::\IBER 19 Francis l\1. Fletcher, McComb. SENATE Harry E. Coil, Mendon. Pearl C. Brown, Middlefield. MoNDAY, Dece-mlJer 19, 1921 George L. Sayles, Milan. The Chaplain, Rev. Z~Barney T. Phillips, D. D., offered t:Ue French C. Stillings, Milford Center. following p1·ayer; Dewey H. Beck, Monroeville. William G. Corne, Newark. Ou.t of the deep have I called tl-nto Thee, 0 Lonl; Lord, hear Calvin L. Hartline, Newcomerstown. my voice. Harry ~f. Day, New Richmond. Almighty God, who speakest in a thousand voices to the AlbertS. Nye, New Wa hington. hearts and minds of men, grant to us that we may be taught Cloyde M. Kieffer, Orrville. of Thee, that with understanding hearts we may faithfully Marshall 0. Brooke, Peebles. perform the duties of this day. Frank B. McCullough, Plain City. In all our work make us ever mindful of the welfare and the George A.. Fisher, Port Clinton. wants of others, knowing that we are in Thy stead. Clarence R. Seymou1·, Ravenna. Save, we beseech Thee, the valiant sons of this Nation im­ Olive Toland, Rayland. periled in the great deep, for Thy paths are in the great waters, Harry W. Hayes, Reynoldsburg. and even there shall Thy hand lead them. Enfold in Thine Fred 0. Fo ter, Seville. arms of love and mercy their loved ones, and by the sacrament Alva H. Anderson, Shelby. of our sorrowing sympathy bring us all to a deeper knowledge Harry Oldham, Sidney. and understanding of the mystery of Thine infinite lo1e. Charles l\1. Sauder, Smithville. Tbrough Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. Elmer E. Weaver, Sugarcreek: Oral H. Hilborn, Tiro. The Chief Clerk proceeded to read the Journal of the pro­ Raymond l\1. Swank, Trotwood. ceeding~ of Saturday last, when, on request of Mr. CURTIS and Ralph L. Stamm, Ver ailles. by unanimous con~nt, the further 1·eading was di ~ pensed with George ,V. Hassenier, Wapakoneta. and the Journal was approved. Dora A. Kramer, West Alexandria. CALL OF' THE ROLL William E. Reed, West Lafayette. Mr. CURTIS. Mr. Presid,ent, I suggest the absence of a Elva L. Gauch, West ~Ianchester. quorum. OKLAHOMA The VICE PRESIDENT. The clerk will call the roll. Royal F. Hall, Boi e City. The legislative clerk called the roll, and the following Sen­ Roy l\1. ::uuse, Elmore City. ators an wered to their names : Ashurst Edwards Keyes Robin on, Ind. Marshall G. Norvell, Marietta. Barkley Ferris King Sackett Frank W. Fuller, Ringwood. Bayard Fess La :b'ollette Sheppard Otto G. Bound, Ryan. Bingham Fletcher McKellar Ship tead Black Frazier McLean Shortridge Marion N. Brumley, Selman. Blaine George ::\Ic:Uaster Smoot William A. Vassar, Tryon. · Blease Gerry .Mc~ary Steck Severee L. ::Uas ie, Tyrone. Borah Gillett Mayfield Steiwer Bratton Glass Metcalf Stephens OREGON Brookhart Goff Moses Swanson Alice K. Gallier, Bandon.. . Broussard Gould Neely Thomas Bruce Greene ~orbeek Trammell Elizabeth J. Morgan, Corbett. Capper Hale ~ye Tydings Fred C. 1\la tches, Dayton. Caraway Harri on Oddie Tyson Copeland Hawes Overman Wagner Edward C. Michelsen, Kerry. Couzens Hayden Phipps Walsh, liass. George ,V. .Johnson, Lakeview. Curtis Heflin l'ine Walsh, Mont. Thomas R. ::Uacl\1illan, Lebanon. Dale Howell Pittman Warren Deneen .Johnson Ran dell Watson Annie 0. Johnson, Odell. Dill .Jones, Wash. Reed, Mo. Wheeler Harold R. Mcisaac, Parkdale. Edge Kendrick Robinson, Ark. Willis Ann B. Heydon, Valsetz. 1\Ir. PHIPPS. :lly colleague the junior Senator from Colo­ Walter E. Zumwalt, 'Vamic. rado [:.Ur. WATERMAN] is detained on account of illness. . I RHODE ISLAND will allow this announcement to stand for the day. .James H. Riley, Harrisville. 1\Ir. BRATTON. I de ire to announce the nece sary ab ence Lillian G. Hoxie, Shannock. of my colleague the senior Senator from New Mexico [1\Ir. Jo~""ES] from the Chamber. He is detained by illness. This SOUTH C.AROL~A announcement may stand for the aay. George B. Patrick, Bowman.r. Mr. GEORGE. My colleague the senior Senator from Geor­ Roy L. Hurst, Chesterfield. gia [lli. BARrus] is confined to his home on accotmt of illness. Walter L. Gettys, Clover. I ask that this announcement may stand for the day. Loka W. Rigby, Moncks Corner. ~lr. HOWELL. The senior Senator from [1\Ir. Elijah Lee, Pacolet. NoRRIS] is detained from the Senate by illness. I ask that lliis Robert E. RagNdale, Pelze'r. announcement may stand for the day. TEN~ESSEE The VICE PRESIDENT. Eighty-four Senators having an­ swered to their names, a quorum is present. James G. Jones, Ardmore. .John V. Lady, Blountville. INTERNATIONAL COKGRESS OF ENTOMOLOOY (S. DOC. NO. 29) Pleas P. Campbell, Calderwood. The VICE PRESIDENT laid before the Senate the following Bessie J. Clark, Christiana. mes age from the President of the . which was J o eph R. Lane, Church Hill. read, and, with the accompanying papers, referred to the Com­ Weyman I. Dooly, Conasauga. mittee on Foreign Relations and ordered to be pl'inted : David H. Hughes, Eagleville. To the Oongre.s~ of the United Rtates: Lavella Bratschi, Erin. I transmit herewith a report from the Secretary of State in­ Jean Brient, Friendsville. closing a recommendation from the Seeretary of Agriculture William E. Richardson, jr., Halls. that the Congress be reque. ted to adopt a resolution authoriz­ Nona C. Arm trong, Martel. ing and requesting the Pre. ident to invite foreign governments Elmer T. Sparks, McKenzie. to be represented by delegates at the International Congress of Edna Conway, Mosheim. Entomology, to be held in the United States in 1928. E. Dan Smith, :Ycuntpleasant. It will be noticed that because of the close relationship be­ l\fathew ::U. Iluling, Winchester. tween eutomology and agriculture, the Department of agricul­ ture is e pedally interested in the international aspects of tllis WITHDR.AW A.L ::;cience, which it considers of very great importance to this country. As it would . eem, therefore, that the participaoon Bxecufi'l:c nomination ·zclthdrazvn tr01n the Senate Decembm· 1"1, of foreign governments in the congress mentioned would be in 19'21 the public interest, I recommend to Congress the passage of POSTMASTER the joint resolution. No appropriation is requested. CALVIN COOLIDGE. George T. Taylor to be postmaster at Memphis, Tenn. ~HE .WHITE HousE, Dec(3?_nber 19, 1927. 1927 CONGRESSIO~_A_L RECORD-SE:S~.\_TE 799

CLAIM OF TWO NETHERLX~"DS Sl."BJECTS (S. DOC. XO. 30} A bill ( S. 1951) for the relief of Loui:o::e St: Gez, executrix of The VICE PRESIDENT laid before the Senate the following Auguste Ferre, dec-eased, surdving partner of Lupene & Ferre; mes ·age from the President of the United States, which was A bill (S. 1952) for the relief of E. L. F. Auffurth and others; read, and, with the accompanying papers, referred to the and Committee on Foreign Relations and ordered to be printed: A bill (S. 1953) for the relief of the heirs of Susan A. Nich­ ola ~· ; to the Committee on Claims. To the Congress of the United States: By Mr. WALSH of Massachusetts: I transmit herewith a report regarding two claims presented A bill ( S. 1954) allowing and regulating amateur boxing and by the Government of the Netherland." against the Government sparring matches in the District of Columbia; to the Committee of the United States for compensation for personal injuries on the Distl'ict of Columbia. I sustained by two Netherlands-- subjects, Arend KRmp and By Mr. OVERMAN : Francis Gort, while the U. S. S. Oanibas was-loading on May A bill (S. 1955) for the relief of Lieut. Charles Thomas 1, 1919, at Rotterdam. Wooten, ;· to the Committee on X a val I recommend that, in order to effect a settlement of these Affairs. claims in accordance with the reco1)1llleudation of the Secretary A bill (S. 1956} for the relief of Levi R. Whitted; of State, the Congress, as an act of grace and without refer- , A bill ( S. 1957) for the relief of Thomas H. Deal; and ence to the question of the legal liaoility of the United States A bill ( S. 1958) for the relief of \\'illiam J. Cocl.:e; to the in the premise . authorize an appropriation in the sum of Committee on Claims. $1,000, $500 of which is to be paid to Mr. Arend Kamp and $500 By Mr. ~-yE: to be paid to Mr. Francis Gort. A bill (S. 1959) to transfer to the Secretary of the Na-vy CALVIN COOLIDGE. jurisdiction over oil and ga · leases issued by the Secretary of THE WHITE HousE, December 19, 19Z7. the Interior on lands in na-val petroleum reserve ; to the Com­ CLAIM OF KNUD G. FL.A1G'\E mittee on Public Lands and-Surveys. The VICE PRESIDENT laid before the Senate a letter from By :\Jr. SHORTRIDGE: the Secretru·y of the Interior, relative to the claim of Knud G. A bill (S. 1960) for the relief of John D. McCaffrey; to the Flakne for the sum of $800, being the value placed by claimant Committee on Claims. on certain improvements made by him on public lands in the ' A bill ( S. 1961) granting a pension to Frank Hall ; to the reclaimed Mu.d Lake bottom, embraced in his homestead entry Committee on Pensions. 014157, Cass Lake series, Minn., which, with the accompanying :By Mr. WILLIS: report, was referred to the Committee on Public L-ands and A bill (S. 1962) granting a pension to David E. :\Ioocly (with Surveys. accompanying papers); and PETITIONS .AND MEMORLALS A bill ( S. 1963) granting an increase of pension to Iscah • Mr. . LA FOLLETTE presented memorials signed by 293 citi­ Brady Raw ·on (with accompanying paper ) ; to the Committee zens of the State of Wisconsin, remonstrating against the on Pensions. passage of legislation providing for compulsory Sunday ob­ By Mr. WHEELER: servance in the District of Columbia, which were referred to A bill ( S. 1964) to establish a fish cultural station in the the Committee on the District of Columbia. State of l\Iontana as an auxiliary to the Bozeman, Mont., fisll­ Mr: ODDIE. l\Ir. President, 'On Thursdny last I · presented eries station ; to the Committee on Commerce. a petition from officials of the State of Nevada, and asked that By Mr. STEPHEXS: _ · it be referred to the Committee on Claims, which action was A bill (S. 1965) to autlwrhr.e the appoinbnent of a dist~·ict taken. I now request that the Committee on Claims may be judge for the northern di ;trict of Mississippi; to t11e Committee discharged from the further consideration of the petition and on the Judiciary. · that it may be referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. By Mr. BROOKHART: . The VICE PRESIDI!)NT. ·without ·objection, the Committee A bill" (S. l966) for the establishment of _migratory-bird refuges to furnish in perpetuity: homes for migratory bird.s, the on ~ Claims will be discharged from the further consideration of the petition, and it will be referred to the Committee on the e tablishment of public shooting grounds to preserve the Ameri­ can system of free shooting, the provision of 'funds for estab­ Judiciary. · lishing such areas, and the furnishing of adequate ·pl"otection BrLLS AND- JOINT RES-OLUi'IO- INTRODUCED for migratory birds, and for other purposes; to the Committee Bills and a joint resolution were introduced, read the first on Agriculture and Forestry. time, and, by lmanimous consent, the ·econd time, nod referred A bill ( S. 1967) granting an increa e of pension to Rebecca as follows : - Latta (with a.ccompanyin~ papers) ; to the Committee on Pen­ By Mr. GLASS : ~ sions. A bill ( S. 1943} for the relief of the legal repre8entatives of By l\lr. SMOOT: the estate of Henry H. Sibley, deceased (with an accompanying A bill (S. 1968) to authorize the Secretary of Agriculture to paper} ; to tbe Committee on Claims. pay for the use and occupancy by the Department of A.gricui· By Mr. TRAMMELL: ture of the Bieber Building, 1358 B Street SW., Washington, A bill ( S. 1944} to amend subsection ( 3) of section 1 of the D. _ C., and .for other purposeN; to the Committee on Public interstate commerce act, as amended; to the Committee on In­ Buildings and Grounds. . terstate Commerce. A bill (S. 1969) to promote the development, pro-tection, nnd By Mr. McKELLAR: utilization of national forest resources, to stabilize the live­ A bill (S. 1945) to amend the act entitled "An act to provide stock industry, and for other purposes; to the Committee on that the United States shall aid the States in the constl·uction Public Lands and Suryeys. of rural post roads, and for other purposes," approved July 11, By Mr. SHEPPARD: 1916, as amended, and for other purpo es ; to the Committee on A bill (S. 1970) for the relief of Karim Joseph :\Iery (with Post Offices and Post Roads. accompanying papers); to the Committee on Claims. By Mr. EDGE: By :Mr. HALE: A bill ( S. 1946) relative to the vay of certain retired warrant A bill (S. 1971) to pro•ide for the purchase of a site for and officers and enlisted men and warrant officers and enlisted men the construction of a public building at York. ::\Ie.; to the of the reser-ve forces of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and the Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds. Coast Guard, fixed under the terms of the Panama Canal act, as A bill (S. 1912) granting an increase of pension to Emma E. amended; to the Committee on Interoceanic Canals. Shorey (with accompan~ · ing papers) ; to the Committee on By Mr. PHIPPS : Pensions. A bill ( S. 1947) granting an increase of pension to Virginia By Mr. ROBINSON of Indiana : J. Betteys (with accompanying papers) ; to the Committee on A bill (S. 1973) authorizing an appropriation for construc­ Pensions. tion and installation of permanent buildings, utilities, and By Mr. DILL: appurtenances at Fort Benjamin Harrison, Ind.; to the Com­ A bill (S. 1948) to provide for the immediate payment to mittee on Military Affairs. veterans of the amount of their adjusted-service credit; to the By 1\Ir. THOMAS : Committee on Finance. A bill (S. 191-:1: ) . grantin~ an increase of pen,..:ion to G ertrui::le By ~Ir. FLETCHER: G. Abernathe; to the Committee on Pensions. A bill ( S. 1949) to amend the interstate commerce act, as By Mr. WAGNER: amended ; to the Committee on Interstate Commerce. A bill (S. 1975) granting a pension to Marion :\Iiller Knob­ By Mr. RANSDELL: lock ; to the Committre on Pensions. A bill (S. 1950) for the relief of the legal representati-ves of A bill ( S. 1976) for the appointment of an additional cir­ the estate of Alphonse Desmare, deceased, and others; cuit judge for the second judicial circuit; and 800 CONGR.ESSION ~t\_L RECORD-SEX.A .TE DECE}IBER 19 A bill ( S. 1977) to provide for the appointment of th1·ee to employ a stenographer, at a cost not to exceed 25 cents per 100 additional judges of the District Court of the United States words, to report such bearings as may be had in connection with any for the Southern Dish·ict of Xew York; to the Committee on subject which may be before said committee, the expenses thereof to the Judiciary. be paid out of the contingent fund of the Senate; and that the commit­ A. blll (S. 1978) for the relief of Agfa Raw Film Coi-pora- tee, or any subcommittee thereof, may sit during the sessions or re­ tion; cesses of the Senate. A. bill (S. 1979) for the relief of the Union SWpping & HEARL,GS BEFORE 'IHE COMMI'ITEE ON I:ll:MIOR.ATIO"N Trading Co. (Ltd.) ; :\lr.• TOIL~SON submitted the following resolution (S. Res. A. bill ( S. 1980) to reimburse the :Mexican Gulf Oil Co. for 87), which wa referred to the Committee to Audit and Control eost of repairing certain damages a~ a ref:ult of negligent navi­ the Contingent Expenses of the Senate: gation of the U. S. S. Hal-'ley; and .A. bill (S. 1981) for the relief of the owner of Dry Dock No. Resolved, That the Committee on Immigration, or any subcommittee 6; to the Committee on Claims. thereof, be, and bersby is, authorized during the Seventieth Congt·ess By Yr. SHIPSTEAD: to .·end for persons, books, and papers, to administer oaths, and to em­ .A joint resolution ( S. J. Res. 55) for the relief of Henry A. ploy a stenographer, at a cost not to exceed 25 cents per 100 words, to Bellows; to the Committee on Interstate Commerce. report such hearing~> as may be had in connection wltb any subject which may be before said committee, the e1:penses thereof to be paid LIMITATION 'IO TWO PRESIDEN'ITAL 'IERMS out of the contingent fund ot the Senate, and that the committee, or I Mr. DILL. I introduce a joint resolution and a:::;k that it ue any subcommittee therrof, may sit during the sessions or recess of the read. Senate. The joint re. olution (S. J. Res. 54) limiting the term of HEARIXGS BEFORE THE COMYITIEE 0~ BANKil'iG AND C"C'"RREKCY President to eight ye..'ll' · was read the fi~t time by its title, and the second time at length, and referrecr to the Committee Mr. NORBECK submitted the following resolution ( S. Res. on the Judiciary, as follows: 88), which was referred to the Committee to Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate: llesolt:ed, etc., That the following amendment be pr·opo_ed to the legislatures of the several States as an amendment to the Constitu­ Re-~olr;ea, That the Committee on BankiDg and Currency, or any sub­ tion of the United States, which, when ratified by three-fourth· of committee thnt condition of scientific k-nowledge electricity can not l\Ir. NYE. ~Ir. President, I ask unanimous consent that there be economically carried over a wire more than 300 miles. It was impos­ may be printed in the RECORD an article appearing in the New sible, therefore, to generate electricity at this great steam plant and South, in the issue of .July, 1927, written by the senior Senator carry it into North Carolina, 800 miles away. But fires were kindled in from Nebraska [Mr. NoRRIS] and entitled "Politics and :Muscle the great furnaces at Muscle Shoals and power was fed into the west Shoals." side of the Alabama Power Co.'s system. The Alabama Power Co. was There being no objection, the article was ordered to be able, from the eastern side of its sy ·tem, to give to the western Georgia printeilities of usefulness and pleasure as electricity. All that is needed to bilities of human benefit. gj'\e humanity the full enjoyment of this modern giant is to cheapen It was shown before the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry of its production. If stock manipulation can be eliminated and if finan­ the Senate in connection with one of the hearings on Muscle Shoals cial legerdemain illld unconscionable profits can be removed, it is the that the power generated there, if connected with the power generated cheapest source of power and light known to man. by the .Alabama Power Co. on the CO*sa River, would increase the com­ But it posses. es the peculiar quality that it must be used the instant bined output of primary power of the two streams by more than 100,000 it is available. The source of supply must be constant so that it can ho1·sepower in excess of what could be producecl by the two systems if be utilized at any instant. Another peculiarity is that those who use not connected. it do so spasmodically. MOXOPOLY ESSEXTIAL It follows that a very large amount of the electricity that is gen­ erated goes to waste. Our rivers are not constant iu their flow and, Every city supplied with electricity from a hydroelectl'ic plant uses therefore, for practical purposes, the only electricity that can be the current in variant quantities at dilf'erent hours in the same day. counted on is that amount which can be used at any hour of the day Each city has what is known as the peak load. But this peak load in and any day in the year. one city will not corre pond in time with the peak load in another city, The power that can be thus utilized is called primary power. The and if the supplying plants are connected. by the simple pushing of a power which the flowing river will produce for only a portion of tile button, thousands of horsepower can be transferred from one locality time is called secondary power. Secondary power is of but little to another. At the time when AtlantJ1, Ga., would be short of power value. When a water-power development is contemplated the engineers Chattanooga, Tenn., might have a.n oversupply going to waste. Simi­ count only on the primary power. larly, by the turning of a switch, 100,000 horsepower could be changed And ,ret, in mo t of our streams, there is much more secondary from the East, where it was not wanted, to the Middle West, where it than primary power. For instance, the great dam at Muscle Shoals was needed. constructed by the Government is capable of producing in round num­ It follows, therefore, that to get the maximum amount of electricity bers about 100,000 primary horsepower. Yet there are seasons when at the minimum cost it is necessary that all the generating systems for a portion of the year enough water goes o>ei' that great dam to should be hooked up together. In other words, to get the full benefits make a million hor epower. of electricity, it must be controlled and supplied by a monopoly. If some way can be devised by which this secondary power can Thus far I have said nothing that is in dispute. All that I have be converted into primary power, we have, for all practical purposes, said is admitted by all students of the subject. The question then succeeded in making something out of nothing. If we can afford to arises: Wh.:> shall own and control this monopoly'! construct a dam for the purpose of generating 100,000 horsepower, A monopoly, privately owned and privately operated. Is always ob­ what must be the revolution in cheapening_ the current if it were pos­ noxious to a free people. The history of the world shows that human sible to convert all the secondary power into primary power? nature is such that men intrusted with the corib·ol of a monopoly We woulu more than treble the output without materially increas­ for private gain naturally bear down with all their power and operate ing the cost of production, and electricity that had before cost 2 the monopoly for all the b·affi.c will stand. I am not mentioning this fn mills per kilowatt-hour to produce would be produced at a small frac­ any fault-finding spirit. I am not complaJning of the corporations tion of that cost. that go into the business for the profit there is in it and who try to LINKING THill SYSTEMS get out of it every drop of juice that the lemon contains. But what about the public? What about those who must pay the No means has been invented by which all of the secondary power bill and those who would like to enjoy the comforts of electricity in can be converted into primary power. Ilowever, 3.ll approach to that their homes? Unless it is cheap the ordinary person can not avail (>nd is not only pos ible, but is already being put to practical applica· hi.mself of it, and electricity is as necessary in the modern home as tion. One way of changing secondary to primary power is to build storage running water. I do not believe that a free people will permanently dams to hold back the flood waters and release them when the normal submit to a monopoly that controls a necessity of life. It is not because they have any ill will against those who own the monopoly, flow of the stream is low. This method, while very valuable, is ex· but it is because the spirit of indt>pendence and freedom that is in pensive. It often costs as much to build storage dams as it doe the e'\ery human breast rebels again t such control, especially of the generating dam. A more practical way by which this desirable result natural resources of the country. If we are to permanently remain is brought about is to hook up different generating plants into one under the thraldom of. a monopoly that controls our necessitit>s, then great uperpower system. to a great extent we are slaves. Investigation shows that the high water on one stream does not cor­ respond at times with the high water on n.nothe.r. There may be an WHO SH..\.LL COXTROL? oversupply of water on one watershed while the reverse is true on the What is the raw material of this monopoly? It is the rivers and other side. But if we can combine the secondary power at one dam the brooks that fiow from the mountains to the sea. Is it not h·ue with the secone a portion of the streets in dark­ Muscle Shoals? · Whose money paid for the giant steam power plant ness, and many homes without Hght. located there? Who built the three towns located in that vicinity? Directly adjoining this system was a · hydroelectric power system ln Who rnaca~amized the streets? Who owns all of it, and who toiled in eastern Georgia. This system had enough electricity· for its own use, order that that great improvement might be made possible? Certainly but none to spare. In western Georgia was a similar system, with no not those who would lease th.is property for a song or who would buy .sux·plus electricity. Still west o! it came the Alabama Power Co., it under untruthful representations as to its value. The river has covering a large poL'tion of the State of Alabama and certain localities been harnessed. More than $12G,OOO,OOO of taxpayers' money has In alljoinlng States, with a system of connected generating plants, both been expended in the operation. The electricity is being generated, LXL""'\::--51 802 COK.GRESSIONAL RECORD-SEX.A.TE and yet it -seems the people who own it can not get the benefit ·Senators -favorable to the proposition threw up their band'3· in tlisgu ·t of the improvement and the investment simply be<:ause somebody ls and said, "If the South doesn't want this blessinoo. why force it on afraid that the Government might go into business. Nobody objected her?" when the Government spent its money to harness the property that DAM ~0. 3 alt·eady belongs to the people, but now, when the proposition ij made Thinking men of the South are beginning to wonder now why private that thls labor-saving improvement should reach the factory and the parties do not bid for Dam Xo. 3. This was included in the cont{'m­ home without profit to private parties, there goes up a great cry plated Government improvement. Everybody knows that Dnru Xo. 3, from men who are anxious that the people should not enjoy the sta11ding alone and by itself, would not be a good financial iuvt>stmen r, comforts and the blessings of their own property unless they pay but combined with the scientific development of the Tennes.-ee System it tribute to the millionaires in Wall Street and elsewhere. For the is not only extremely valuable but essential, and for thE' navigation of past several years that this question has been before Congress there the Tennessee River it is absolutely necessary. 'l'he»e powet· grabbers has been a continuous fight between those who wanted to save the do not want it, and the South will wait long before private p:u·tie', property of the people for the people and those who wanted to use the whom many of their representatives love so well, will make a bid upon property of the people for private gain. Dam No. 3, and without Dam No. 3 the proper navigation of the Tt>n· CO::>ITROL OF RATES nessee River i · an impossibility. In order to save to the people of the South the use of their own But all this, regrettable as it is, is past. Dam No. 2 and other property, it was proposed in Congress that the Government should governmental improvements at Muscle Shoals still remain. We can yet make a complete survey of the Tennessee River and all its tributalies, save that valuable improvement already owned by the Governmt>nt with and that there should be built from time to time, during the next all the machinery already installed. It will not enable the Governnwnt .10 or 15 years, a network of dams for toe improvement of naviga­ to control electric rates over the South as a complete system of develop­ tion, the control of flood waters, and the development of electricity. ment on the Tennessee River 1\'ould have done, but it is still capable It is only by dealing with a system of this kind as a whole that we of wielding a wonderful influence. It is still capable of bt·inging bless­ can get the maximum amount of benefit from the minimum cost. ings into many southern home antl cheapening the manufacturing The Tennessee River flows thr<7Ugh the very heart of the South. establishments. The opportunity that the South had to become the In its unimproved state it is not navigable. Properly improved, it greatest manufacturing portion of our country will never be realized us would help in the control of the flood waters of the Mississippi River, completely and as fully as it would have been had this great system It would give to the South a system of cheap navigation. It would in the heart of the South been developed and controlled for ervice develop a system of electrical distribution the benefits of which would rather than for profit. But notwithstanding this, if we still rt>tain ultimately reach every factory in the South, every home and every Muscle Shoals we can very materially influence tile prosperity of all municipality between the Potomac and the Gulf, the Mississippi and the that country. Atlantic. It would have been the key to the entire situation. THE TAXATION SHAM While there would have been in the neighborhood of 2,000,000 of In the main, tllere were two objections made against the g-overnmental horsepower developed it would still have been insufficient to supply the improvements above outlined. One was that the Government would pay rt>gion mentioned, but because of its key situation it would have con­ no taxes, and if private capital made the improvement taxes would l>e trolled the rates in every city and on every fat·m in the South. levied. The other objection was that if the Government made the The control of these generating dams on the Tennessee River by the improvement and retained the property, it would get into politics. Let people would have enabled the Government to prevent any other system me take these objections up in theJr order. in the entire South from charging exorbitant rates to the consumer. 1. The taxation claim is a myth. In the first place, private partks They could have interlocked with all the other systems privately owned, never will develop some of the power ~ites on the Tennessee River·. · I and could have said in every case, "Unless your rates are fair we believe Dam No. 3 is au instance. They will pick out only the cream will refuse to give you the benefit of this necessary connection." and, as far as they are able to control the Federal rower Commission, they will run each plant independent of any othe.r. If the Government NEEDS SOUTH'S SUPPORT had ow11ed it all and de'\"eloped it all, it would have been done in a But what happened to this proposition? It lacked only a few votes scientific, systematic way, and in the location of any dam reference on one occasion of passing the Senate and, If it had had the united would have been had to the entire system rather thn n to the power support of the South it would be on the statute books to-day and the that might be developed at any particular point. Every scientific time would come when electricity through this great region at 2 cents engineer knows that this is the on I~· way to get the maximum amount · per kilowatt hour . would be a reality. of power for the minimum amount of expense, and it follows that it There is no other great community on the continent better adapted left to "private initiative," that much-beloved phrase of the Power to the application of a great superpower system than the country Trust, there nevet• will be the maximum development that ought to south of the Potomac and east of the Mississippi. It would mean, in take place--hence the amount of the tax that will actually be paid by the end, that the coal mines would be added to the system. It would private parties is very much overestimated. mean that practically_every particle of secondary power would be con­ But in a broader sense, the owners of private utilities a1·e not tax· verted into primary power. It would mean a distribution and sale of payers. They are only tax colle.ctors. They push the burdE'n onto the electrical current equaled nowhere else on the face of the globe, and consumer every time, and the man in the home, the man in the factory,· the South would come into its own. pays every cent of the tax. Not only a.re they simply tax collectors Not only was there opposition in Congress from many southern repre­ but they charge an enormous rate for this service. Th<'Y tax the cou­ sentatives, but the business men, the manufacturers, the men of wealth, sumer more for collection purposes than the tax itst>lf amounts to. the governot·s, the editors and publishers of great southern newspapers, This statement is borne out by the facts in every public utility propo· crowded the corridors of committee rooms, raising a hue and cry against sltion from the Atlantic to the Pacific. any such improvement. All the power of society, of wealth, and of A. STRIKI!\'G CO~TRAST politics and the influence of one of the greatest trusts and monopolies During the year 1924 the city of Los Angeles was supplied with. on earth, were used to pre'\"ent the people of the South from enjoying ele.ctricity and with water by the municipality. The city of San Fran­ this blessing. cisco, during the same year, was supplied with electricity and witll The man who wa.s the author of the bill that· would have brought water by private corporation . The e cities were practically the same about this improvement was denounced all through the South as an in population. One was downtrodtleu with the awful "Government in enemy to humanity-one who stood in the way of human progress. It business " proposition. The other was ~ itting supreme and happy unuel' was proclaimed on the floor of the Senate that he. was a dreamel', an the management of private initiative. A comparison between the t>nemy to advancement, a socialist, a bolshevist, and everything else prices which the consumers iu the.se cities paid i · wonderfully illumi­ within the category of denunciation. The South itself refused the cup nating. It was shown before the Committee on Agr·icultme of tile of happiness and contentment that was extended by a friendly band. Senate that during that year the people of San Francisco paid for When it was proposed that the Federal Power Commission should not water and electricity a sum that exceeded the amount paid fot• watt'r make any additional leases ou the Tennessee RiTer aud its tributaries and electricity by the people of Los Angeles by more than the entire until Muscle Shoals was di:.'Posed of there came from all over the South tax for municipal purposes in Los Angeles. The people of Los Angeles, an army of her influential citizens, denormcing the bill and asking that in that year alone, sa'\"ed more than $12,000.000 through the instru­ this property of the people be turned over to pri'vate exploitation. Had mentality of their municipality-owned water and electt·ic plant. While the proposition been accepted, the Tennessee Ri>er and all its tributurk>s this showing is remarkai>le, it must be borne in mind that Los Angele would, in the first place, ha'\"e been made completely nayigable. That had a very expensive system of water supply. The city brought it · itt>m alone, future generations will realize, would have been of inestim­ water across the mountains for more than 250 miles, while in San able value. Francisco the private compani{•s had no such expense. 'They supplied On behalf of the Power Trust controlled from Wall Strt>et came the the people there with watet' that was pumped in the immediate vicinit~· representuUves o! the Southern Manufacturers' AssocJation, the gover­ of the city. It must be remembert>d, also, that Los A.ngeles was not nors of some of the States, some of the Members of the House of Rep· hooked up with a superpower system. The generation of her electricity resentatives, and some of the Senators, all from the South, all com· is more than double the price that electricity would be throughout the plu.lning in the same voice and in the sanie tone with the Power Trust, South if a proper superpowet· rstem, operated without manipulation and through their combined influence the resolution W:lS killed. !\!any and without profit, were installed. 1927 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-SENATE 803

XEEPr~"G Ot;T OF. POLITICS Mrs. Cullom had in her home nearly e.ery electrical appliance known 2. Would Go-rernment operation of such a -system as I have above to science. Sh~ swept the floors by el~rtcity. She cooked all of outlined get the entire matter into politics? Let me say first that the h-er meals the year round upon an electric stove. She washed by elec­ entire matter is already in politics. It has always been in politics. tricity, she iron~d by electricity, she had twice as man-y electric lights Bvery privately owned public utility in the wol'ld is actively engaged in in t~at eight-room cottage as is usually found in simlla.r cottages -in politics. The Power Trust mixes into politics in the election of a the United States. She heated th~ water for the kitchen and bath board o.f aldermen in tlie smallest village in the country. It is in by electricity. In fact, she had in her home what ought to be in the politics in the election of every governor. It is in politics in the elec­ home of e>ery citizen throughout the Sooth. She paid a priee th~* tion of every Member of the House of Representatives and every is no more tb n ought to be paid by every home owner in the South, Senator. It contributes liberally in every presidential campaign. And and no mQre than would be paid if the natural resources were properly it never expends a cent but what it expects to get back, and actually developed and properly managed. Her bill for electricity for that month does get back with enormous profit on the investment. was $3.55. ln th~ recent ftght over the Boulder Dam bill in the Senate, it is This was not only a great convenience but it was a saving of money. es.timated that the Power Trust spent more than $200,000. Telegrams If Mrs. Cullom bad lived at that time in the city of Washington, the came to many Senators by the hundreds and from States that are Capital of our Nation, her bill for th-e same amount of electricity 2,000 mil~s away fron1 the site of Boulder Dam. They came from repre­ would have been $28.18. If Mrs. Cullom had lived in Birmingham, sentatives of the Power Trust in little hamlets in Iowa, in Nebraska, Ala., she woul-d have had to pay more than $32. If she had lived in in Kansas, and when these men talk about getting the matter into Nashville, Tenn., she would have pald in excess of $40 for this same politics they are only afraid that it will get out of politics. From my amount of electricity, and if she had lived in some of the towns of study of the question, I believe the only way to take the public utility Florida she would have paid in the neighborhood of $60-but if she matteJ; out of l)()litics is to take it over by the Government, either of bad lived in the States named she would have bad the blessed satis­ the Nation, the State, or the municipality. faction of kn-owing that some private corporation connected with the "THE PEOPLE'S liONEY. Electric Trust in Wall Street would have b~n the recipient of a large share of her contribution. This blessing was denied Mrs. Cullom. It is -The bill tbat was pending in -om Senate and which lacked only a not denied to the great majority of women who live in the sunnJ few votes of pa sing bad a provision in it whicll, it was agreed by South and who have the benefit of "private initiative." practically all those who have studi~ it, would have coml}letely and And it must be remembered that in all the Canadian rates I have eJfectively taken the entire matter out of the domain of the political given there is an amortization fee. Tbat is, there is included in the arena. prices a fee which in ·30 years Will pay olf the entire invested capitaL What we need, therefore, is to take these matters out of politics. & that the rates are not only paying interest on the money invested It is a busine s mattel' entirely. To take them out of politics we must in the development, not onl-y paying fur the expense of operation and take them away from those who al'e themselves in politics clear up to depreciation, tmt they are likewise ·paying a fee that in 30 years will their necks. The Power Trust never sleep . It has its highly paid leave them with nothing to pay except the expense of maintenance and attorneys and experts, like an army, covering the entire country. operation. Every municipal body of aldermen, eve1·y State legislature, and every In our country, who ever beard of a private utility company amor­ Congress, are all importuned by these high-salaried men to pull tbeir tizing its capital? Instead of reducing the capital on which consumers chestnuts out of the fire. If they paid their own bills-if they met are expected to pay interest, the clamor and the practl.ce always is their own expenses, I woulu not so bitterly complain. But every to increase it to the limit and to take advantage of every excuse and cent t-hey spend, every time th-ey deceive or bribe a public official, is every opportunity, either fairly or unfairly, to increase capitalization all collected from the very men whose property they are wrongfully and thus indirectly increase profits. taking away and whom they are attempting to deceive. In addition to this army, the Power Trust b-as employed numberless CHEAP POWER FOR li'A1UIERS publicity experu. They are men of gTeat ability and who command .And the Province of Ontario bas not forgotten the farmer. To begin the highest of salaries. They ''"-rite newspaper articles and editorials. with, it must be admitted that it costs more to get electricity to the They write magazine articles, and they write books based upon false farmer than it does to the home in the city. This comes about because t~ories and deceptive propaganda. Sometimes directly, but more often of the extra cost of distribution. There may be even less than a dozen indirectly, they control the owners and publishers of magazines and farmers to a mile of transmission line, but in the city there are several newspapers. They spread their literature, based upon half truths, dozen in every block. - over 'the co.untl-y, through the various new ~ agencies, in order to create The farmers of Ontario, when they saw what wonderful things were a public sentiment in favor of their ownership and operation of the happening in the munieipalities in the way of cheap electricity, de­ people's property. But . again they Charge up the enormous expeiLSe manded that they be supplied with this modern element of efficiency, of their deceptive practices and collect it out of the very people whom and the Provincial legislature · passed a law supplying the system to they have deceived. the farmers. They are getting tbeir electricity at cost-the same a.s the people of the vi1lage and the city. The rural lines are built upon A CAYADIA~ EXAMPLE the same theory and ·the same principle applies to all alike. The greatest lliu tratlon .in the world of a publicly owned and oper· 'I1:le only difl'erenee is that the Legislature of Ontario, realizing the ated superpower system is in existence in the Province of Ontario, additional expense involved in supplying the farmer with electricity Canada. A publicly owned corporation generates and distributes elec· and also being anxious, as every legislature in our country ts anxious, tricity to the municipalities and to many of the farmers of that to relieve the burdens of agrieulture, provided by law that for rural PrS>vince at actual cost. They have been in operation nearly 20 years, lines, owned by farmers, there should be paid out of the treasury and they have shown results that tartle the imagination. They have one-half of the construction cost of the trani!mlssion lines carrying to fight against the ~arne in.fluences tha.t have brought about the electricity to the farmer organizations. I mention this because some defeat of _ public owner hip and distribution of electricity from the of the propagandists have seized upon this proposition to circulate Tennessee River. through the- United States the report that the production and distri­ During the last year more than 80 per cent of the domestic con· bution of electricity in Canada is ubsidized from public funds. At a. s.Ufllers of Ontario paid le s than 2 ceuts per kilowatt-hour for their hearing before the Senate Committee on Agriculture one of the pro­ electricity. More than 80 per cent of the commercial consumers ol' fessors of the State University of Tennessee made this assei'tion. He electricity paid less than 3 cents a kilowatt-hour, and more than 70 made it undoubtedly with perfectly honest intentions, and yet he was per per cent of the power users paid less than $25 per horsepower entirely mistaken in his assertion. year. During the last year the domestic consumers of electricity in There -is no municipal consumer in Ontario that has e-ver been the United States paid an average of 7% cents per kilowatt-hour, relieved by a single penn-y from pnbllc funds. The interest on the and during that same time the domestic consumers of electricity in bonds and the entire co t of the operation have been paid by those Ontario, Canada, paid 1.85 cents per kilowatt-hour. If the people in who consume electricity. Not one cent has the taxpayer ever paid our country had paid the same price during the last year for electricity ou.ts1de of the exception that I have mentioned, which goes entirely to that was charged by the publicly owned system in Ontario, they would the benefit of agriculture. and which, in my judgment, is justified in have saved on their electric-light bills more than $600,000,000. order to relieve agriculture of its extra burdens. The only thing the I bold in my hand as I write the bill of Mrs. J. Cullom, who lives Province does is to lend its credit in the sale of the bonds that are at 250 Victoria Avenue, Toronto, canada, for electricity for one month floated for the installation of the various hydroelectric generating in the year 192.2. Mrs. Cullom is the wife of a laboring man. Her plants and the building of transmh,---sion lines. And that brings to mind home is a modest one of eight rooms, and yet for the month mentioned another advantage that a publicly owned system bas over the privately there was consumed in that home 3.34 kilowatt-hours of electricity. owned system-it can borrow its money for nearly half what the pri· The amount so coiLSumed is sta1.7tling to every American citizen. The vo.te corporation mUBt pay in the way of Interest, and thus the actual or~ina_ry hopse of -eight rooms in our country will consume, on an expense is very materially lessened. av~rage, about 50, and .-ery seldom· more t.J;lan 60, kilowatt-hours in 1!- month. The amount c;:onsurueu will, of course, depend upon the elec­ WHAT . FARM.S BHO"GLD BE trj.cal appliances in tfu~ home, and this in turn, for all ordinary people I haye before me a photograph of the farm home of Mr. B. L. at least, depends in the main upon the price of the electricity. But Siple, a Canadian citizen who lives in Ontario. He bas 79 acres in his 804 CONGRESSIOXAL REOORD-SEN_A_TE DECEnillER 19 farm, and at the time I visited him he was milking 17 cows by elec­ coal is used, beeause it is more J)rofitable to utilize the by-product of tricity. He filled his silo by electricity. He ground his feed by elec­ coal than it is to use water power for the comparatively small amonnt of tricity. He pumped the water by electricity. Every cow in her stall power that is neces~ary. Private parties in our own country using had a bucket of water' within her reach. When she drank the water nitrogen for commercial purpoNes have, ince the war, constructed a in ·the bucket it was automatically filled again. ~r. Siple's barn could number of comparatively large plants for the extraction of nitrogen from be lighted up througlnmt by the pushing of a button. His house was the atmosphere, and in no case are tlley using water power. a beautiful modern cottage, the equal of any in our cities in America. Why, therefore, is it that the country has heen faced with this won­ There was running water in the kitchen and in the bathroom. Mrs. derful propaganda to deceive the farmers of America by asking tllem to Siple cooked the year around on an electric stove. She had an electric insist that the Congress shall use Dam No. 2 to get nitrogen from the fan in the kitchen. She washed her dishes in water that she heated air! We can use Dam No. 2 and nitrate plant No. 2 and get 40,000 by electricity, The bathroom was supplied with water heated by elec­ tons of nitrates from the atmosphere every year, but it will be at a tricity, She did her washing. ironing, sweeping, all by electricit y. In cost that, if put into fertilizer, will make it impossible to sell the tact, she had practically all of the modern electrical conveniences fertilizer as cheaply as it can be bought to-day upon the market. known to science to-day. There hnve been two classes that have been instrumental in bringing The installation on this farm of thi;; sy tern of electricity had prac­ about this propaganua. One is the political demagogue who wanls tically saved Mr. Siple the expense of one hired man and it saved his the farmer's vote and cries aloud that this should be done in the name wife the expense of a hired girl. He paid for tlw entire facilities for of American agriculture. The other is a class of people who are either the year in which I visited him $115.49. L.ike the city man, he paid directly or indirectly representatives of the Power Trust. If they can an amortization fee and also included in this bill an item which, in not have the power themselves, they would like to have the Government 30 years, will pay otl' the entire cal)itnl stock, including the construc­ use it for some unprofitable, unscientific business so as to keep the power tion of the transmission lines. out of competition and let them continue their stranglehold which Who is there under our flag that would not like to see this condition they now have upon the people of the country. applied to the American farmer'] If the South were to avail itself of WHAT IS 1-'Hl!l ANSWER! the opportunities that are within its reach the time would soon be here when every toiler in the fields throughout the South would have Under these circumstances, what is the sensible thing to do? All the same advantage possessed by this farmer brother in the North. honest citizens who have studied the subject want to cheapen the price of' fertilizer. It is important to ev~ry consumer of food, and the impor­ D.IPR.I.CTICAL FOR NITIUTE tance of it is increasing every day in the year. What we want is to In connection with Muscle Shoals there remains for discussion the develop a system that will cheapen the production of fertilizer, and when question of fertilizt>r. Whem the original act providing for the develop­ that system is developed throw it open to anybody who wants to go ment of Muscle Shoals was passed, there were two provisions contained into the business. Therefore the cheapening process can very properly in it that were mandatory. It was provided that all the improvement be done by the Government itself. It is a proper governmental func­ made at Government expense at Muscle Shoals should forever be oper­ tion, not for the benefit of the farmer alone but for the benefit of all ated by tbe Government, and that the propel"ty should not be sold or the consumers of our country. The Government has done wonderfully leased for operation to private parties. It was likewise provided that well in this field np to the pre:ent time. Since the war improvements m time of peace the power developed on the Tenne see River at the made by our own Government officials in the fixed-nitrogen research Governm<'nt dam should be used in the extraction or nitrogen from the laboratory have cut the cost of the production of nitrogen practically atmosphere for the ptupose of manufacturing fertilizer for agriculture. in half. Those who are continually harping against Government opf'ration It is quite immaterial whether we take the profit from the sale of ue ~lways calling attention to that part of the original act Which says water power and use it to improve the manufachue of fertilizer or that in time of peace we shall use the power for the manufacture of whether we appropriate the money directly from the Treasury for fertilizer. They never say anything about that provision of the law that purpose. In either case it is the use of governmental funds and which says that the property shall never be sold or leased for operation is entirely justified. It is not at all inappropriate, since we have con­ by private parties. ceded this great improvement at Muscle Shoals to be dedicated to At the time this law was passed, it was believed by practically every· agriculture in time of pence, that we should use the money we receive body that by the use of cheap power we would be able to extract nitrogen for the building of experimental plants for the manufacture of fer­ from the air at a price that would materially reduce the cost of tilizer; and when the Government builds these plants it ought to do fertilizer to the farmer. just the same as a private party would do; that is, build a plant that Originally nitrogen was extracted from the atmosphere by what was is the most modern and most efficient known. It would be fooliRh to known as the arc process. It required a great deal of cheap power. go back and use a system that is already outlawed and known to be Later on, the cyanamid method was discovered, requiring much less out of date and inefficient. power. That was about the condition of the knowledge possessed in EXPENSIVE TO SHIP America at the time of the breaking out of . the World War. It was One of the difficulties with fertilizer is that more than 80 per cent of known that the Germans had invented an improvement over the the contents is simply dirt, used as a mixer, and therefore the cyanamid process, known as the Haber process, but the details were freight is one of the big items in the cost. This means that you not understood by the American scientists at the time of the con­ could not ship fertilizer produced at Muscle Shoals, even if you elimi­ struction of the plant at Muscle Shoals. The cyanamid procN!S Wl}S well nated the ..:ost entirely, into Missouri or Xebraska and sell it at a understood. Its possibilities were definitely known, and so the Gov­ reasonable pl'ice. The freight alone would make it prohibitive. If by ernment provided for a large plant at Muscle Shoals, known as nitrate improving the manufacture of fertilizer we can do away with the mix­ plant No. 2, capable of extracting 40,000 tons of nitrogen from . the ture of worthless material and u e the fertilizer in a concentrated form, atmosphere in a year. Our experts thought that there was a fair much of this objection would disappear. There are many other lines pos ·ibility of their being able to construct a plant that would extract besides the relluction of the cost of the nitrate content of fertiUzer nitrogen from the air by the Haber process, but they were not certain in which tlle Government could well experiment with a view of cheap­ of it, !llld so it was decided to construct a nitrate plant somewhat ening the process. experimental in its nature, known as nitrate plant ~o. 1, whicll was None of those who voted against turning Dum No. 2 over to the designed to extract nitrogen from the atmosphere by means of the Power Trust bas ever objected to the widest and most liberal program Haber process. But our scientific atlvisers were mistaken as to many devised to improve and cheapen the cost of fertilizer. In fact, those of the elements included in the Haber process, and so that plant, as of us who ha,-e thus contended have been the friends of the farmet· far as the machinery was concerned, was a total loss. The building and have tried, so far in vain, to divide this question into its ele­ can be used for other purposes. It is modern, well constructed, and mental parts and clear it of the deception and the misnnderslanuing supplied with a steam plant of about 5,000 horsepower which is modern that many honest people have with reference to it. The delay in ex­ in every way. perimentation and the cheapening of fertilizer production can be W'hen the war ended, scientists soon learned what the Germans knew charged directly to those who have foolishly and stubbornly stood in and which they bad greatly improved during the war. and it was the way of a proper settlement of this Muscle Shoals question. The then possible to construct a plant along more modern lines. From that special interests have been engaged from the very beginning in an un­ day to this, scientific men have improved the Habet• process. In every truthful and unfair propaganda to deceive and to fool tbe American improvement made less and less power was used until at the present farmer, when, as a matter of fact, they themselves constitute the prin­ time it is definitely known that in the construction of up-to-date plants cipal barrier between agriculture and cheap fertilizer. to extract nitrogen from tlle air, water power will not be used. Instead I believe that the time is not far distant when the A-merican farmer of locating a nitrate plant in the vicinity of water power, anyone de­ will l'ealize where his interest lies, and when the American consumer signing such a plant to-day would locate it with a new of getting will likewise realize that his interest and the interest of the farmer are cheap coal instead of cheap power. With this knowledge no efficient identical. Let us hope, therefore, that the time Will soon eome when government or private corporation would think of using water power we can truthfully say to this deceived and misled but hon,est citizen­ for the · purpose of extracting nitrogen from the air. · Ill" ever1 case ship, "Ye shall k..t10·w thi:! truth, lind the truth will set you free." 1927 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-SENATE 805

ARTICLE ON "PAPER WEIGHTS .AND MEMORIES," BY FORMER G(}VElt~OR ing rods, and the.~ whe.els transmitted the power to the rear wheels HEYW .ARD, OF SOUTH CAROLINA, A1""D A~ ARilc;LE FROM . THE by connecting rod very . imila1· to those in use on our present-day . WASHINGTON STAR locomotives. The " Be t Friend " was of such construction and steam­ ing capacity that it wa neces ary to get a full bead of steam on the · 1\lr. BLEASE. Mr. Pn~sident, I ask lea\e to have printed in the RECORD an article by former Gov. Duncan Clinch Heyward, boiler and run the engine until this wa.s exhausted and then get up of South Carolina., and an article from yesterday·s Washington another head of team and start out again. The steam capacity of the boiler had therefore to be carefully considered in making up the sched­ Star, and at the same time t;o. present to you a paper weight in the form of a railroad train which was ent tt> me at my ule-s of the arly trains. The "Best Friend ' carried no cowcatcher. Perhaps one was not I'eque~t by President Harrison, of the Southern Railway, to be pre.:ented to you. necessary, for the cattle in the low country those days were small, The VICE PRESIDENT. Without objection, it is so ordered. crawny, and very agile, and no doubt could outrun the train. Neither did it carry a bell or whistle. The omission of the latter, I am quite The matter referred to is as follows: sure, was a mistake, and also a great misfortune to the people of ARTICLE BY 00\ERXOR HE1:'WARD Charle ·ton, for I well recall that when the first railroad was built to I nm rich in paper weights which now . lie on my desk as I write. Walterboro, my old hom , e-very morning a half hour before leaving time That is to say, I have two paper weights which are rich in historic the engineer blew a five-minute blast on his whistle., which not only value. One of these weights is very plain and simple, of bottle green aroused the citizens but woke them with the happy consciousness that glass. For years it was used by Gen. Robert E. Lee, and if it could. at la t they had a railroad. Those of us who daily took the train used but speak it would be able to tell many intere ting Rtories. General to consider this blast of the whistle a most considerate attention on Lee used it in his tent during the Confederate War to keep the Vir­ the pint of the railroad company, for it removed the necessity of our ginia breezes, blowing over its now famous battle fields, from carrying trying to tay awake for hom to keep the alarm clock from going off away his army order and other papers. After his death the weight and waking up the childre.n. was used by his eldest son, Gen. G. W. C. Lee, who, when be reth·ed To the fore-sight, the energy, and the business ability of the leading from the pre~idency of Washington and Lee University, gave it to men of Charl~ston is due the credit of undertaking the building of the me, and on a card wrote its history. Charleston & Hamburg Railroad. They were the pioneer railroad build­ The other paper weight, of gun metal, was kindly sent me ()nly a ers of the world. Even in those early times they bad a great vision. short time ago by another Virginian, Mr. Fairfax Harrison, pr~sident They knew that the Almighty had given them the finest harbor between of the Southern Railway. It is a facsimi1e in miniature of the first Xew York and New Orleans, and they realized that to bu-ild up their engine and train which operated on what at that time--nearly 100 city and State they mu t have e..'\:ports as well as imports; that a com­ years ago--wa the first long railroad line in th~ world. Though the merce which was one-sided could not expand. 'l'bey saw, too, that engine was very small and very crude and the cars likewise, it was Charleston was the natural port whieh the then increasing products of the genesis of the great railroad development of the United States. The the West should seek, and through which they sllould .be carried to the con truction of this railroad and the running of this train was an markets of the world. The building of. this railroad heading toward the event in the history of our country second only in importance perhaps sunset was the first step they took to make their d.l·eam of Charleston, to the establishment of the Republic. It should make South Caro­ the chief seaport on the South Atlantic, a reality. linians very proud to remember that every mile of that early railroad The little town of Hamburg was never their ultimate goal. Their con­ lay entirely within the confines of their State, and eTery dollar with ception was a great system of railroads which should connect the trade which it was built was subscribed in South Carolina, principally by of the Ohio River with the great valley of the Tennessee, and thence the city of Charleston. through the Southem States, and its outlet to Europe through the port The Charleston & Hamburg Railroad, as it was fir t called, began of Charleston. This vision of the men of Charleston was soon caught by operating a train on Christmas day, 1830, and within three years the the people of Qeorgia, and immediately upon the completion of the South entire line of 136 miles from Charleston to Hamburg, on the Savannah Carolina railroad, the Georgia Railroad, f1·om Augusta to Atlanta, was River, opposite Augusta, Ga., was completed. It is true that the Balti­ chartered and soon completed. Other connecting lines of railroad . till more & Ohio Railroad had commenced the construction of its road leading westward toward the Ohio were shortly under construction, and a ·hort time before the South Carolina railroad began to build, but the South was leading all other sections of the country in railroad had built only 6 miles. It made such slow progress that when our building, until in 1857 the Memphis & Charleston Railroad was com­ road was completed to Hamburg only 70 mJ.res of its line from Balti­ pleted, and the dream of Charle ton seemed to have come true. more was constructed and in operation. From all accounts there must have been great rejoicing in the ctty of. The little engine of my paper weight, named the "Best Friend," which Charleston when they learned that the last spike in this railroad had pulled the first train of cars from Line Street in Charleston, had t.he di - been driven. I believe that if eYer the staid, dignified citizens of that tinction of being the first practical locomotive built in this country. It city might have been disposed to follow the shocking suggestion made was designed by a Charleston man; E. L. :Miller, and built at the We ·t se,·eral year ago by a newly acquired go-getting secretary of their Point Fotmdry in . Not until 18 months later did the chamber of commerce that "promptly .on the stroke of 12 o'clock they Baltimore & Ohio Railroad have a regular locomoj:ive in operation. hould with one accord rush from their offices and homes, and with a I have seen an old picture of the "Best F1·iend" pulling thi first " Ilip! Hip ! Hlll'rab! " giYe three cheers for Charleston, it would have train on the Charleston & Hamburg Railroad and, with one exception, been on that eventful day. · my paper weight is identical with this picture, and that exception i But all the cheering and rejoicing was not confined to Cha.rieston; this: The tender of the " Best Friend " on the paper weight is heaped )Iemphis also cheered and rejoiced, and insisted that the council of up with cordwood and carries also three ba.rrels of water for the Charleston, and as many of it prominent citizens as could come, should boiler, whereas in the picture a small cannon and three soldiers with journey by rail to Memphis, and that there should be a great joint high top hats, one waving a 1:Inited States tlag, ride on the tender. celebration. They went-the entire council, headed by the mayor, Thi difference first puzzled me, but I have since learned that January together with 112 of Charleston's most prominent citizens. 15, 1831, an excursion trip was made from Charleston, carrying pas­ The Charlestonians took with them on this occasion 50 members of sengers. Of course this was a great occasion, and hence the soldiers, the old Phoenix fu•e company anu their famous engine, the "Old Betsy." the cannon, and the waving flag. They carried also two hogshead of water from the Atlantic, which with On the 1·eturn trip the train must have backed into Charleston, for " Old Betsy " figured prominently in the celebration. A most intei·est­ the railroad had only one engine, and if so, it probably made equally as ing article in the Sunday ~ews of Charleston, written by William G. fast time as when it went forward, for that day it bad the wind with it. :Uazyck, gives an account of the royal manner in which the people of The old picture shows black smoke pouring out of the smokestack, and Tenne. see treated the Charlestonians on their arrival. The whole city the direction the smoke takes and also that of the outstretched flag turned out to extend a welcome. Thou~ands came from several States. shows that a strong not·thwesterly wind was blowing. Jo doubt the There was cannon firing galore, and the enthusiasm was unboun(]ed. picture represents the little train just as it stood at Line Street on that There was also a. great parade in which the Phoenix fire company gala day. held the post of honor, and there was a splendid "dress ball." During It is very interesting to contrast this little engine of nearly a century the day a unique ceremony was held, in which " Old Betsy" played a ago with one of the great locomotives used on our railroa(ls to-Cay. con picuous part. In tbe presence of thousands a command was_ given, In the facsimile of the " Best Friend" tile engineer stands on the ihe Charleston firemen got into action, and "Old Betsy" got busy with front of the engine and controls the valve motion of his engine by bancl the hogsbeadN of water which they had brought. A.s an account written Both engineer and fireman are exposed to the weather, for the cab had at the time says: "Soon the pellucid water of the .Atlantic rose from our Jlot then come into use. The fireman is ·ho~-n standing in front of the plPP.' like a jet from a fountain. high into mid-air, and fell in sparkling upright boiler. Besides feeding fuel into the furnace under the boiler, drop;: a shower of diamonds, into the bosom of the turbid and majestic it was evidently his job to control the steam pressure by an old type ~issi<-sippi, amiu the (]pafening .·bouts of the assembled multitude." safety valve which bad a long lever, and by moving thi back and forth Th n it was that Mayor Douglas, of Memphis, placed a gold ring on the its weight caused variation in steam to any amount at the ·time required. fiugrr of :\Ia~·or ::l.Ifies, of Charleston, and solemnly pronounced, " What Tbe engine ·tran mltted its power to the front wheel by in ide connect- ·this great people hath joined together iet nothing put asunder." 806 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-SENATE DECEMBER 19

The festivities wound up with a most magnificent banquet, which, ALLEGED MEXICAN PROPAGANDA-PERSONAL EXPLANATIONS judging from the menu, " printed on dainty lace-edged paper," must Mr. HOWELL. 1\Ir. President, I ask unanimous consent that have taken the guests as long to dispose of as it had taken them to an open letter by my colleague, the senior Senator from Ne­ make the trip from Charleston. If such a dinner were given in New braska [Mr. Noruus], to William R. Hearst, which I send to the York these days, it would cost nearly as much as it cost the Memphis & desk, be read by the clerk. Charleston Railroad to build its line. And the " Best Friend " started The VICE PRESIDENT. Without objection, the clerk will it all. read as requested. At that time the hopes of Charleston and the South ran high. They The Chief Clerk read as follows : were leading in the industrial development of the Nation, but in four years came secession, and their hopes of industrial supremacy '\'"anished AN OPEN LETTER FROM SENATOR NORRIS TO WILLI.AM R. HEARST amid the smoke of contending armies. The war ending, the South was To William Randolph Hearst: prostrate. It was conquered territory and was long treated as such. A fair analysis of the recent articles published in the Hearst papers The years of war had brought, among other things, a startling change showing an alleged attempt by Mexican officials to bribe United States in the value of its property. When the war commenced the South Senators and editors of various publications, and an analysis of your owned nearly 40 per cent of the entire value of property in the United testimony before the Senate committee, leads to the inevitable conclu­ States, and five years after the war ended they owned scarcely 15 per sion that you are not only unfair and dishonest but that you are cent. It is hard for us to realize to-day that in 1860 the South in the entirely without honor. value of its property exceeded New England and the Middle States These articles show, on their face, a constant attempt to draw con­ combined. clusions not justified from the articles thems~ves, and to practice But the dream of the bold railroad builders of the old South, their deception upon the American people. far-seeing plans for the eJ..-pan ion of commerce through their ports, It is not necessary to consider any other evidence in order to reach was not destroyed but only retarded by the war and is now year by the fair conclusion that in them you are making an attempt not only year being realized. Great railroad systems to-day traverse the South's to besmirch the character of some of our own officials and journalists entire territory, and the products of its fields and mines, together with but that you are trying to excite an animosity and a hatred on the the greatly increasing output of manufactories, find ready transporta­ part of our people against the Mexican Government, which, if your tion to the markets. The railroad over which the " Best Friend " articles and alleged official documents were true, would inevitably lead pulled its little train nearly 100 years ago is now a part of the Southern to war between the two countries. Railway, one of the greatest railroad systems or these times, and one Your attempt to shield yourself from blame by not publishing the whose every effort from its organization has been to upbuild that section names of the four Senators and the editors alleged to be implicated, of our common country whose name it has adopted as its own. when properly analyzed, only shows the maliciousness of your attack and adds to the dishonor of your motive. You publish the alleged [F ·om the Sunday Star, Washington, D. C., December 18, 1927] official documents with the names omitted and, at the same time, state 1 that you stand ready and Willing to deliver the original documents to CAPITAL SIDE LIGHTS any Senate committee that may be appointed to make an investigation. With the "triangle purchase bill" coming up for consideration in the You know that the publication of these charges, with the names House to-morrow, which includes authority to acquire the site of the omitted, must inevitably lead to the appointment of an investigating Southern Railway Building, comes a reminder, through the gift of a committee, and that, therefore, the names which you have concealed paper weight to Vice President Dawes, that the pioneer line of the were bOund to be published and that, in fact, the very withholding of Southern Railway is approaching its centenary. This paper weight the names added to the curiosity and to the interest of an invootigation. was presented by Fairfax Harrison, president of the Southern Railway, WHY THE NAMES WEllE OMITTED with Senator COLE BLEASE making the speech. It is a gun-metal facsimile in miniature of the first engine and You knew, therefore, to begin with, that the action you had taken train that operated on what, at that time, nearly 100 years ago, was the would bring about the publication of the names and you can not, in first long railroad line in the world. Though the engine was very ordinary honesty, shield yourself or excuse yourself for the failure to small and very crude and the cars likewise, it was the genesis of the give publicity to the names in the beginning. great railroad development of the United States. The construction of 1\foreover, if these allegations are true, there is no reason why the this railroad and the running of this train was an event in the his­ identity of the individual Senators should be suppressed. tory of o-p.r country second only in importance, perhaps, to the estab­ Your testimony shows the reason why you suppressed them. You te ·tified, in part, as follows : lishment of the Republic. The Charleston & Hamburg Railroad, as it was first called, began Q.. Did you investigate whether mom•y had been actually paid to operating a train on Christmas Day, 1830, and within three years the United States Senators? A. No, sir; we didn·t. entire line of 136 miles, from Charleston to Hamburg, ou the Savannah River, opposite Augusta, Ga., was completed. It is true that the Bal­ Q.. Did you go to the Senators mentioned and ask them? timore & Ohio Railroad had commenced the construction of its road A. No; we could not without revealing the contents. a short time before the South Carolina railroad began to build but Q. Have you any evidence that any Senator received any such money as mentioned here? had built only 6 miles. When the Southern road was completed to Hamburg only 70 miles of its line from Baltimore was constructed and A. No. In fact, I do not believe they did receive any money. in operation. Q.. Have you ever heard of any evidence to sustain such a charge? The little engine of the paper weight, named the Best Friend, which A. No ; I do not believe the charge. • • pulled the first train of cars from Line Street in Charleston, had the Q. Did you consider the liabilities for the libel you might be sub- jected to? distinction of being the first practical locomotive built in this country. It was designed by a Charleston man, E. L. Miller, and built at the A. Yes; I guess so. West Point Foundry in New York City. Q. You bad that liabilitv in mind when you did not u ·e the names? A. Probably. In the facsimile of the Best Friend the engineer stands on the front of the engine and controls the valve motion of his engine by hand. THE HERALD'S HEADLIXE Both engineer and fireman are exposed to the weather, for the cab If you wanted to be perfectly honest with these Senators, why did had not then come into use. The fireman is shown standing in front yon not state when the articles were published that you had no evidence of the upright boiler. Besides feeding fuel into the furnace under the that any of these Senators were guilty, and that you did not believe boiler, it was evidently his job to control the steam pressure by an any of the charges against them? You gave no such intimation to the old-type safety valve which had a long lever, and by moving this back country until you were faced with the question on the witness stand. and fot·th its weight caused variation in steam to any amount In fact, on December 9, 1927, when the Hearst papers first published at the time required. The engine transmitted its power to the this alleged order giving the money to four United States Senators, front wheels by inside connecting rods, and these wheels trans­ there was spread clear across the front page of the Washington Herald mitted the power to the rear wheels by connecting rods very this re]Darkable statement : similar to those in use on our present-day locomotives. · The Best "$1_,215,000 ORDEBED PAID TO FOUB SENATORS BY MEXICO-" Friend was of such construction and steaming capacity that it was You have admitted before the committee that, in your judgment, the necessary. to get a full head of steam on the boiler and run the engine Senators were entirely innocent. Why, then, did you permit your until this was exhausted and then get up another head of steam and papers to publish such misleading and damaging headlines and why start out again. The steam capacity of the boiler had therefore to were you silent during all the time from December 9 until you appeared be carefully coiLSidered in making up the schedules of the early trains. on the witness stand on December 15? The Best Friend carried no cowcatcher. Perhaps one was not neces­ sary, for the cattle in the low country those days were small, scrawny, PROVES LACK OF CONFlDENCJll and very agile, and no doubt could outrun the train. Neither did it The real reason why you pursued this course was to save yourself carry a bell or whistle. from a libel suit, and the fact that you took this course shows that 1927 CONGRESSI ONAL R.ECORD- SEN.A.. TE 807

')' OO, som·self, did not have confidence in the genninene. s of tbe. docu­ YO,'ED ONLY BY MOXEY ment you were publishing, because, if they were ~nuine, you ran no You knew this statement was false when it was published, anu its ri k in · their publication. Your admi sion tbat in taking this course only object could have been to deceive the .American pe<>ple and to try you had in mind _the saving of yourself from

INVESTIGATION OF PUBLIC-UTILITY CORPORATIONS "billion dollars a year. There are· securities being issued by these corpqrations aggregating nearly three times that sum, or The VICE PRESIDENT laid before the Senate the following $1,500,000,000. The me.rgers which are taking place have given re::;olution (S. Res. 83), submitted by Mr. WALSH of Montana, rise to widespread concern. As an appendix to my remarks on the 17th instant, coming over from a previous day: made last s_pring there was included a. table, furnished by the Resolv ed, That a committee of five Members of the Senate be ap­ Electrical World, showing the appalling number of· mergers pointed by the P resident thereof, and be hereby empowered and directed and purchases made by the great group of holders of public to inquire into and report upon: (1) The growth of the capital assets utilities secUI'ities in operating companies. The list for the two and capitnl liabilities of 'public-utility corporations supplying either elec­ years embraces printed pages to the number of something like trical energy in the form of power or light, or both, however produced, 30 or 35. Rapidly the operating companies throughout the or gas, natural or artificial, of corporations holding the stocks of such country a.re passing into the control of half a dozen great public-ut ility -corporations, and of non-public-utility corpor.ations owned groups through holding companies and other devices. The or controlled by or affiliated with such holding companies; (:!) the attention of the country was directed to some of the perils method of issuing, the price realized. or value received, the commissions involved . in. this great movement in a. series of articles by or bonuses paid or received, and ot her pertinent facts with respect to Professor Ripley, of Yale, appearing something like a year ago t he various security issues of all clas:;es of corporations herein named, and since published, with additions thereto in a book by him including the bonds and other evidences of indebtedness thereof, as well entitled "Main Street and Wall Street." ' as the stocks of the same ; (3 ) the extent to which holding companies or Everybody concedes,- Mr. President, that there are advan­ their stockholders control or are financially interested in financial, engi­ tages accruing by this consolidation. Everybody realizes that neering, construction, and/ or management corporations, and the rela­ the needs of the country for further development are growing tion, one to the other, of the classes of corporations last named, the a.nd constantly increasing, that in a ·certain way this is a mit­ holding companies and the public-utility corporations ; ( 4 ) the services ural growth; but that it is attended by many abuses .is conceded furnished to public-utility corporations by holding companies and/ or upon all hands; a.nd the question arises as to what ought to be their associated, affiliated, and/ or subsidiary companies, the fees, com­ done, if anything ought to be done, about the matter. I shall missions, bonuses, or other charges made therefor, and the earnings and content myself, l\Ir. President, at this time with simply callincr expenses of such holding companies and their associated, affiliated, and/ attention to the demand which has come up from the country or subsidiary companies; and (5) the value or detriment to the public for the proposed investigation. That it is dE>sirable, if not of holding companies owning the stock or otherwise controlling such entirely necessary, is conceded by the industry itself, for which, public-utility corporations immediately or remotely, with the extent of I think, the Electrical World may be regarded as speaking. It such ownership or control, and particularly what legislation, if any, does not object to an investigation; it merely wants an im·esti­ should be enacted by Congress to correct any abuses that may exist in gation that is not prompted by political motives, conducted by the organization or operation of such holding companies. some one. who has "a. lightning rod " out. Its views concerning The committee is further empowered and directed to inquire and the matter are expressed in an editorial, a. portion of which I report whether, and to what extent, such corporations or any of the should like to have read by the clerk. officers thereof or anyone in their behalf or in behall of any organization The VICE PRESIDENT. Without objection, the clerk will of which any such corporation may be a member, through the expendi­ read. a.s req nested. ture of money or through the control of the avenues of publicity have The Chief Clerk read a.s follow-s : made any, and what effort to influence or control public opinion on account of municipal or public ownership of the means by which power Although Congress will . not assemble for three months, the air _is is developed and electrical energy is generated and distributed, or to already rife with rumors of contemplated legislation of interest to the electrical. industry. Muscle Shoals and the Colorado River, it may be influence or control elections. That the said committee is hereby author~ed to sit and perform its taken for granted, wm come up for discussion, · but whether definite duties at such times and places as it deems necessary or proper, and action will follow only a rash prophet will predict. What is most to to require the attendance of witnesses by subpamas or otherwise; to be feared from Washington this session, however, is the threatened require the production of books, papers, and documents ; and to employ investigation of electric light and power companies, and particularly counsel, expertB, and other assistants and stenographers, at_ a cost not holding companies, by a senatorial committee headed by Senator WALSH exceeding '$1.25 per printed page. The chairman of the committee, or of Montana. Not necessarily because of any shortcomings of the elec­ ·any member thereof, may administer oaths to witnesses and sign sub­ tric light and power industry as a whole, for it has an admirable rec­ pamas for witnesses ; and every person duly summoned before said ord, but because of the detrimental effect · ot the publicity on the committee, or any subcommittee thereof, who refuses or· fails to obey security market. tlle process of said committee, or appears and refuses to answer ques­ Next year is presidential year, and there are many aspirants with tions pertinent to said investigation, shall be punished as prescl'ibed by lightning rods down their backs seeking to be struck. To such men law. The expenses of said investigation shall be paid from the con­ publicity is like a spring of water to the parched earth. It is unfor­ tingent fund of the Senate on vouchers of the committee or subcom­ tunate that investigations of this kind may be started on whims and mittee signed by the chairman and approved by the Commjttee to Audit that the motives back of them are not always above suspicion ; but if and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate. an investigation is to come, it might as well come now, when the elec­ The committee, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit dur­ tric light and power industry can best stand it. The findings may be ing the sessions or the recesses of the Senate, nnd until otherwise an agreeable surprise or a heavy shoc;k; yet the industry may make up ordered by the Senate. its mind that the inquiry will not seek to advertise the accomplishments of electric public utilities, but, on the contrary, to distort and magnify .Mr. MOSES. Mr. President, I move that the resolution be blameworthy actions of a few to the detriment of many. Any exposuxes referred to the Committee on Interstate Commerce. of wrongdoing will be welcome, for the industry can not purge itself Mr. WALSH of Montana. Mr. Ptesident, as I indicated on too quickly of those who have not its interests, as well as those of its Saturday, I shall object to that procedure. In the first place, patrons uppermost. How to do this without hurting others, however, it is entirely unusual. I dare say there is some precedent for is the great problem. Unfortunately this is not likely to glve any sending a. resolution of t~is character to two committees, but I congressional committee much concern. can not now recall any. Perhaps some other Member of the Senate ca.n. · Mr. FESS. Mr. President, will the Senator from Montana In the second place, as I fulther indicated on Saturday, I yield to me a moment? see no occasion whateve:r for proceeding in that manner. The VICE PRESIDENT. Does the Senator from :\Iontana I took occasion, in submitting a resolution in substantially yield to the Senator from Ohio? the same form at the last session, to indicate to the Senate at Mr. WALSH of Montana. Yes: some length my views concerning the necessity for the ~nquiry. l\Ir. FESS. A resolution on this subject was lntroduced at There may be other reasons not adverted to by me. But the the last session and came to the Committee to Audit and Con­ Senate has ha.d some six or seven months to acquaint itself trol the Contingent Expenses of the Senate, of which I was a with my own belief as the1·ein expressed. If there is a.ny oppo­ member. Because that committee did not have any latitude sition to the investigation which is suggested by th~ resolution, to go into the matter at all, we thought it would be muell Senators may express themselves concerning it. I think the better if the resolution could be referred to a committee which investigation ought to be ordered and I think the resolution does have some right to go into the merits of the proposition. should be sent without further delay to the Committee to Audit I am rather inclined to look upon the re olution of the Senntor a.nd Control the Contingent EXIJ('nses of the Senate. from Montana with some favor, recognizing, however, that 1\ir. President, it might perhaps be appropriate a.t this time there is a good deal of contingency involved in it. Such a to remind the Senate of some of the more important a.nd salient resolution might do some good, but there might be some danger ,facts to which I invited the attention of the Senate ·in my coming out. of that sort of an investigation.- I did hesitate; address on this subject made last spring. There is now capital however, to report out the resolution to :which I have referred going into this industry to the amount of nearly one-half without having an opportunity to give any consideration to it 1927 COKGR.ESSIONAL RECORD-SENATE 811 at all. That was the reason I had hoped that the Senator power, light, and gas companies, with especial reference to the financing, from :Montana might ask to have the resolution referred to merging, re.fl.nancing, and remerglng of these public-utility concerns. some other committee than the Committee to Audit and Con­ .A few days ago Mr. WALSH announced he would press for this inTesti• trol the Contingent Expenses of the Senate. gation early in the coming session. lir. W .ALSII of Montana. Mr. President, I am endeavoring Senator WALSH has not indicated a line of investigation beyond the in a feeble way to supplement what I said last spring by di ~tribution of electricity and gas and the manner of financing the now giving the Committee to Audit and Conh·ol the Con­ producing and distributing companies. We know something of the tingent Expenses of the Senate some reasons why that course extent to which mergers have gone in these fields, how smaller com­ ought to be taken. panies have been absorbed and larger ones made, how the larger com­ MI-. President, the fear expressed by the Electrical World in panies ha-ve been merged into supercompantes, and bow holding com­ the article which I have mentioned is - commented unon panies haTe cornered the supercompanies untn the tlotations of securities in an editorial appearing in the Times, of Hartford, Conn., bas become a maze too great for the average mind to comprehend. which seems to think that the investigation is very desirable. Senator WALSH describes these holding company stocks as "staggering I ask that the editorial may be read. in amount." . The VICE PRESIDENT. Without objection, the clerk will To read some of these merger stories one gets the impression that read, as reque;ted. the h·ansactions are quite apal't from the business of the service com­ The Chief Clerk read as follows : panies, being me1·ely the operations of stock brokers, bankers, and pro­ [From th~ Times, Hartford, Conn., Noyember 17, 1927] moters for their own aggrandizement. If this is true, and unquestion­ ably it is true to some extent, then the extraneous profits made from THE POWER INQUIRY these manipulations come from one of two sources-from tbe consum­ The interview which Senator THOMAS F. WALSH of Montana gave ers, in excessive rates, or from the public for shares that may be of Con'CSlJondent David Lawrence regarc:f'rng the proposed electric power doubtful value unless the pyramiding process goes on, and it can not investigation is illuminating for the light it sheds on the unce?tuinty go on indefinitely. whfch exists as to just what is going on in the powt>r industry. That When the Goverlllllent authorizes the consolidation of railroads it uncertainty is shared by pretty nearly all who endeavor to arrive at a does not authorize merger on merger, holding t!ompany on holding sound conclusion in their own minds about the desirability OY undesir­ company; it centralizes the operation of the absorbed system and under· ability of the great num\)er of merger , consolidations, and holding take to make the operation of the lines more serviceable and less companies. costly. The sole purposes are to gain efficiency and economy and in the ::Ur. W .ALSH does not charge that millions have been made illegitimately end cheaper service. Why should power and light and gas companies in t he flotation of securities. He would like to know. So would a good have without challenge the license to make the public service primarily many observers. He is not certain whether overcapitalization will a stock-jobbing instrument? keep rates· up or dividends down, but he believes inquiry is pertinent. IIe does not play a lone band in that particular either. ::Ur. WALSH of Montana. I as~ now, that there may be read The Senator discussed the proposal that the electric industi·y does not a communication which I received from the Tilinois Municipal object to investigation, but does not want to be subject to a "political League, together with a resolution adopted by that organiza­ inquisition." It has been said before that the industry would like. to be tion. investigated by experts. Such experts would doubtless have to be found The YICE PRESIDE~~. Without objection, the Secretary within the industry itself. They would be tar more likely to sympathize will read. with the ambitions and undertakings of the industry than to find fault The Chief Clerk rf'ad as follows : with its ambitious programs. Experts of any other point of view would IU.INO£S llt:i~I C IPAL LEAG E, not be regarded by the industry as sufficiently qualliied. The country liEA.DQUARTERS OFFICE, might as well have an investigation by Senator WALSH, e>en if the Urbana, lll., .November &?, 19?1. power people were inclined to brand it political, as to go through a Ron. THOMAS J. WALSH, . farce destined from the outset to be a whitewash. Stm.ate Office BuilcHng, TftUihiugton, D. C. Those who think about the pQwer matter at all are t~ng in the MY DEAR SE~ATOR : The nuuois Municipal League has just ti.ll.i 'hed very terms used by, St'nator WALSH. Connecticut has been exJlerienc­ its fourteenth annual conYention, and among the resolutions passed ing exactly the sort of manipulation which is under discussion. The was resolution No. 7, declaring in favor of your resolution proposing a public utilities commission at this moment is withholding pm·mission for Federal investigation of public-utility financing (see copy of resolution a merger which if granted will enormou ly increase the capital structure inclosed). by which the operations of two local companies are financed. It Inclosed is a copy of our convention program. From it you will note is expected that dividends will be paid on this additional capital, and that the league has u total membership of 370 municipalities, with a there iB no place to secure the funds for that purpose except out of the combined population of over 5,000,000 people, or approximately 70 pockets of those who are obliged to buy gas and electricity from the com­ per cent of the population of the State of . panies In question. This is but a single instance. It has been multi· I would appreciate receiving at least a. few extra copies of .rour plied maey times in Connecticut. The concern which bas become the resolution and speech on the investigation of public-utility companie~ power octopus of this State operates in a score or more of Common­ I note from the newspapers you are planning -on introducing such a wealths. No one who is not on the inside can tell what are the rami­ resolution on December 6. Perhaps it will be better to wait until fications of its interlocking and relationship with similar corporations this resolution and speech are printed, rather than to send us the equally large or even larget'. No ~ne, comparatively speaking, knows speech and resolution of last February. There was, however, a lot whether this is good or bad, or the extent to which it is bad, if bad at of useful information in your speech of last February, aDd we should :;til. Sooner or later the public interest will require that it be deter­ at least have a few extra copies of these if they are available. mined and that the electric power . which is being so manipulated shall With best wishes for your success in this investigation, I remain, be used to let a little light in upon the compl,icated manipulations which Cordially yours, are going on. . ·A. D. McLARTY, Secretary. The kind of au investigation to which the electrical industry-the Insults, the Mellons, the U. G. I.'s, and the rest-would submit willingly Resolution of the Illinois Municipal League favoring a Federal would not be worth the powder to give it motive force. There is an investigation · of the financial structure of public-utility companies extreme prol.Jability that such an inquiry as Senator WALSH would con­ duct, if empowered to conduct one, would do far more good in making Be it resol-ved by the ffiinois .lftlllic-ipal League ill annuaJ conrention understandable that which Il{)W seems so needlessJy and even deliber­ asse mbled at P eo f·ia; Ill., on Xot'ember 18, 1!J'n, That the illinois Munici­ ately bewildering than it possibly could do harm. A Senate inquiry pal League favors the resolution of Senator THOMAS J. WALSH of is far less to be frightened at than are the manipulations taking place Montana proposing a Federal inTestigation of the financial structure in the power industry. of public-utility companies, with a view to ascertaining the effect · of such structure upon the rates of such utilities. We fa>or ~~h ii1Ye~ti­ Mr. \V .ALSH of Montana. Mr. President, I send to the desk gation because we believe many Illinois cities are being faced with an editorial printed in a newspaper publis.hed in another section ever-increasing rates in spite of the efforts of the lllinois Cpmmerce of the country, the Kansas City Star, and ask that it may be Commission. We believe that due to Federal constitutional protection, read. our local and State authoritie~:J are helpless to protect our inhabitants The VICE PRESIDENT. Without objection, ·the clerk will against unjust and ·extortionate rates for these great public necessities, read. and the League of Cities of Illinois welcomes an invE:>stigation of this The Chi€f Clerk read as follows: subject by the Federal Government. [From the Kansas City_Stm·, Tuesday, July 26, 1927] Mr. . WALSH of Montana. Mr: President, I also ask that TO DIG I!'<'l'O PUBLIC-UTILITY . FINANCING there be incorporated in the RECORD a letter addressed to me by . Near the end of the 1ast session of Congress Senator WALSH of l\Ir. E. B. Stahlman, the editor of tile Nashville Banner; and Montana introduced a resolution providing for the investigation of I ask that there be read from it only the initial paragraph. 812 CONC+RESSION.._t\._L RECORD-SENATE DECEl\IBER 19 The VICE PRESIDEXT. Without objection, it will be so The Tennessean has been significantly silent on this issue up to this ordered. hour. The Chief Olerk read as follows : There are, of cOUl'se, other · collateral and subordinate questio"s NASHVILLE B..l.~XER, whicll should, and the Banner belie-ves will, be handled · b y the Ten­ Ka8lldlle, Tenn., Nov ember 'i, 19?7. nessee commission efficiently and decided in a manner that will best lion. THO liAS J. W A.LSH, serve the needs of the people ot Tennessee. 1Vasltvngton, D. C. The VICE PRESIDE!\~. Without obje<:tion. tlle entire edi­ 111': DEAR SENATOR: I am sending under separate cover several mat­ torial will be printed in the RECORD. ters bearing upon the power situation in this State a;nd section which The entire editorial is as follows : I thought might be of interest and use to you. I am -very heartily [From the Nashville Banner of November 20, 1927] in fa-vor of the investigation into the electrical industry proposed in your resolution, and my paper will earnestly support you in that timely THE THREE ISSUES and patriotic service which you will render to the country. There arc three distinct issues involved in the de,·elopment and use The VICE PRESIDEKT. "\Vithont objection, .the remainder of the water-power resources of Tennes.«eE>. of the letter will be printed in the RECORD. The first question- is this: Is the Federal Go1·ernmcnt clothed with The remainder of the letter is as follows: constitutional authority to make disposition and to control and regulnte tbe utilization of the water-power resources within the boundaries of You have rendered the Nation your debtor in the naval re-serves oil Tennessee, or is that authority vested in the State government, :ml>jcct inquiry; but, important ns was that service, it is scarcely comparable only to the limited jurisdiction of the Federal Government over naviga­ to that which your in-vestigation into the power industry opens up. tion under the interstate commerce clause of the Federal Constitution? This question is already rapidly coming to the front, and the fight This issue became acute when a power confere11ce was held at which you will make in behalf of the whole business fabric of the Kation Chattanooga in December, 1925, at which time . the powet· combinf· and its political well-being which are directly concerned with the filed application with the Federal Water Power Comm1s>sts are working in this section. They brought employees and business tained the position that the Federal Government was without consti­ and political allies from e>ery direction. Owing to the thorough expo­ tional authority to dispose of resource belonging to the States. sure by the Banner of the inner purposes of the so-called conference The Tenn~sean, with equal directness and diligence, has coustimtly the resolutions which were ado11ted just before adjournment did not insisted that the Federal Go-ventment should exercise the authority of carry out the initial purpose. disposition of these natural resources belonging to the State. I am sending copy of an address by a member of the Banner editorial On October 10 and on No-vember 1 the Tennessee Railroad and rublic staff, who was the only speaker before the Chattanooga conference Utilities Commission, through orders which were thoroughly appro-ved attacking the program of the power magnates and the validity of the by the attorney general of the State, asserted that the right to control Federal water power act of 1920. and super-vise the development and utilization of the power resources As you will see from other inclosures the Tennesse-e State Board of within the boundary of Tennessee belongs to the State and not to the Public Utilities has taken action in regard to the conservation of the Federal Government. power resources of the State. I am sending you the orders which the Since the issuance of those orders, which b:we attracted nation-wide commission has issued in that connection, not because they have an attention, the Tennessean has been silent on the direct issue involved, immediate and present bearing upon your inquiry but in order that although it has published editorials still ad-vocating the cause of the you may be advised aa to the movements in this State touching upon power combine. the power question. I shall endeavor to keep you ad"\'ised as to developments in this The Banner continues to maintain the position which it has con­ section of possible interest to you. stantly defended, and is supporting the railroad and public utilities With assurances of high regard, I am, commission in its assertion of the rights of the- State and its declara­ Yourt~ very truly, tion of an intention to defend, protect, and enforce those rights. The next issue is: Shall these valuable power resources be awarded E. B. STAHLMA~. to private interests of any kind-power companies, manufacturing com­ :Mr. WALSH of :Montana. I ask that there be likewise panies, or companit>s of any kind-without monetary consideration, or inC011.JOrated in the RECoRD an editorial from this paper, the shall the State of Tennessee be paid for the' use of these· natm·al Nashville Banner; and I ask that there be read only the con­ resources belonging to all the people? cluding paragraph indicated. This issue has existed and has been pointed for the past few year.s. The VICE PRESIDENT. Without objection, it is so oruered. The Banner has never equivocated. It has always maintained and still The Chief Clerk read as follows: maintains that p1ivate investors should not be permitted to take over The third issue, which is of far-reaching importance, is : Shnll the these resources belonging to the State and use them without compen­ practice of holding companies, constituting the power companies, in sating the State therefor. The Tennessean, supporting the position of pyramiding unjustified exactions from operating companies, be investi­ tbe power combine, has with equal diligence urged that these resources gated thoroughly under the resolution which Senator WALSH of be awarded the power combine without auy money consideration Montana will inb·oduce in the coming Congress ; and shall necessary whatever. legislation be enacted to prevent these evil practices or shall the The Tenness£-e commission, in it. orders of October 10 and November power combine continue to exact from operatfng companies unjustified 1, and the attorney general of the State, have taken the position that contributions which at last become a part of the cost of electric energy the State should be rewarded for these resources by those who are per­ sold to consumers? mitted to develop and use tbem. The Banner favors the Walsh resolution, to the end that all evil The Banner has not changed its position and will not change it. This practices may be brought to light and all impositions on the public paper insists that whoever is permitted to develop and use the water­ exposed, and that necessary legislation be enacted to put an end to power resources witllin the bon ndaries of , Tennessee must pay to . the such evils. State annually the reasonable value thereof. 1927 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-SENATE 813 The Tennessean has at all times insisted that these water-power re­ -to 100 per cent, mechanical power provided by several enormous power soru·ces should be turned over to the power combine without any mone- compan.ies will evidently in the next generation become a g1·eater tary consideration. ~ interest than transportation. Horts from an expert -investigation paid for by I will be out in the West during the week of the 15th of .August, himself that 41 corporations now control 80 per cent of all electric:il and wonder if it is c·onvenient for me to see you at your home or at energy produced in the United States and have a capitalization of some other convenient place during tfie early part of that week. $10,200,000,000, or about half the valuation of all the railroads ill I was very much interested in the public attitude which you showed the "nited States. Of these 41 great power mergers he finds that 29 in the last Congress concerning the public utility holding company are cont rolled by fi>e men and their associates. Such concentration situa-tion, and should very much, indeed, appreciate an interview with makes for efficiency in service; but what it does to capitalization ana you. ' rates is another story. With cordial regards, I am Mr. WALSH of Montana. This editorial refers to a letter Sincerely yours. addressed to me by ex-Governor Pinchot, of the State of Penn­ MILTON W. HA.BRISON, President. sylvania, which I ask may be read. Mr. WALSH of Montana. I now offer for the REcoRD an The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, the letter eilitqrial appearing in the Topeka· Daily Capital, a paper pub­ 'till be read. lished by one of our associates, the junior Senator from Kansas The Chief Clerk read as follows : [1\Ir. CAPPER], entitled " The unregulated power mergers." 1615 RHODE ISLAND .AvENUE, The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. WILLis in the chair). Washitlgto~t, D. a., December 2, :tm. Does the Senator ask that it be read? Hon. THOMAS J. WALSH, Mr. WALSH of Montana. I do not ask that it be read. United States 8et1ate Office Building, Wa-8kington, D. a. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, the edi­ DEA.B SEXATOR WALSH: You have announced your intention to rein­ torial will be incorporated in the RECORD. troduce your resolution for an investigation of concentration in the The editorial is as follows : control of electric power. In the event of its passage, and if you so THE UNREGULATED POWER MEBGEBS desire, I am prepared . to submit facts which, I "believe, furnish definite Ex-Governor Pinchot of Pennsylvania is issuing circulars to the proof of the existence, ownership, and extent of this concentration, public pointing out the probabilities of control of superpower by a together with material on methods of financing "stock inflation, and the few giant corporations through mergers of plants purchased at prices exploitation of the electric monopoly. in excess of their cost or value, in the furious competition to obtain For more than 20 years far-sighted men have called the attention vantage points. But Governor Pincbot sounds like a "voice crying in of the American people to the danger to self-government and economic the wilderness." A generation has risen up that "knows not Joseph," fr eedom which lies in the growing concentration of electric power in a and not much concern is aroused by the man from whom Theodore few bands without adequate public regulation. Roosevelt obtained his policy, once highly thought of, of conservation In the me -sage in which as governor I laid the giant power plan for of natural resources. the development and regulation of electric power before the Pennsyl­ Yet it is true that these utilities extending across State lines are vania Legislature three years ago I said on this subject: not utilities under regulation. The States lose control as they expand, " There is already advancing with immense rapidity a consolidation and Congress has enacted no law for their regulation. Governor of companies engaged in supplying this universal source of power, Pinchot wants a law. which bas already far transcended State lines and has, in many respects, Senator WALSH of Montana is cooperating with Pinchot, b~t not reached national proportions. The situation which this consolidation yet for any bill for regulation of power companies. At this time he clearly foretells is like one in which every source of steam power in proposes merely a resolution for a sm·vey by Congress to determine the America should be under the control of a single monster corporation. factS. This- is being opposed by what Is described as one of the most In tbe face o:f such a concentration of capital and power the States powerful lobbies in recent years at Washington. - and the ~ation can maintain their indust rial freedom and ability to As manufacturing industries in the United States are n ow elec· govern themselves only through the medium of effective public regu­ trifled in excess o:f any others in the world and in S{)me instances up lation. '814 CONGRESSIONAL R.ECORD-SENATE · DECEJ.\tiBER. 19 .. Nothing like this gigantic monopoly bas ever appeared in the his- Mr. MOSES. Mr. President, I have no desire to delay the . tory of the world. Nothing bas ever been imagined before that even vote on this question. I wish only to comment on the wide­ remotely approaches it in the thoroughgoing, intimate, unceasing con­ sl>read interest in this subject, as evidenced by the small at­ trol it may exercise over the daily life of every human being within tendance in the Chamber during the discussion. the web of its wires. It is immeasurably the greatest industrial fact I wish further to state that, inasmuch as I have spe-nt a good of our time. If uncontrolled it will be a plague without previous deal of my life in writing editorials, I am not affected by either example. If effectively controlled in the public interest it can be made their dogmatic or their didactic character; and as for resolu­ incomparably the greatest material blessing in human history." tions passed by various voluntary associations, my wastebasket At once the electric interests disputed these statements and have is daily filled with them, and they leave me cold. continued to dispute them ever since. I wish to have this resolution considered by some committee During the past year a study of this question has been carried on which, in the quiet of the committee room, undisturbed by the under my direction by an el..'l>ert in whose ability and integrity I have dynamic character of the Senator from Montana, may study full confidence. His report definitely establishes the truth of what I the merits of the question. The only regret that I have in said. It shows that the coming nation-wide electric monopoly is very connection with the present discussion is the implied renuncia­ much further advanced than the propaganda of the electric interests tion by the Senator from Montana of any presidential aspira­ has permitted the public to surmise. The study is not fully completed, tions on his part, because I am certain his party could go much but it has gone far enough to establish these facts: farther and fare much worse. Forty-one corporations control four-fifths of all the electric energy Mr. LA FOLLETTE. Mr. President, I hope that the motion produced in the United States. Out of the 68,732,000,000 kilowatt made by the Senator from New Hampshire [Mr. MosEs] will hours of elech·icity produced in 1926, these 41 corporations produced not prevail. If there is any subject which commands the . 54,713,000,000. attention of Congress and the country, it is the alarming accel­ These 41 corporations have a total capitalization of $10,200,000,000. eration which bas taken place in the development of a structure They monopolize all the sources of electric power for four-fifths of our for the purchase and ·control of the public utility and power people. Eighty-five million seven hundred thousand Americans must get enterprises of this country. electricity from these 41 corporations or go without. Mr. President, the Senator from Montana well stated in a Of these 41 corporations 29, or about three-quarters, are already very able address delivered during the last session of Con­ known to be dominated, <>wned, or controlled by five men or COJ;pora­ gress the urgent reason for the prosecution of a thorough­ tions and their associates. These five dominant electrical interests are going investigation. Since that time developments have taken the General Electric Co. of New York, Doherty of New York, Morgan place in the power industry which add weight to the arguments of New York, Ryan of New York, and Insull of Chicago. It is alto­ made by him at that time. gether probable that most, if not all, of the remaining 12 also will be There should not be a serious question as to the investigation found to be dominated, owned, or controlled in the same way. But it contemplated by the resolution. If there is to be a question the five major interests do in fact control only the 29 corporations, raised, the place for the discussion and the argument is the still their assets are capitalized at six thousand million dollars ($5,990,- open floor of the United States Senate and not the quiet of 000,000) and they produced in 1926 more than halt of all the electri.city the committee room, so subtly recommended by the Senator used in the United States. from New Hampshire. The five controlling interests are allied, but not, so far as we know, Mr. President, we are all aware of the fact that these enor­ actually under any single head. But they are tied together, first, by mously powerfl.ll organizations represented in the public-utility their common interest in maintaining their present power to collect and power business of this country have established here at extortionate rates from their customers. The combined electric lobby Washington a lobby through which they propose to prevent the now in Washington, which represents them all, is proof enough of that. passage of this resolution and other legislation which may Secondly, they are tied together by common ownership in certain come up during this session of Congress affecting the power companies, by common investment interests, by common directors, and industry. I for one want to see this discussion and this argu­ doubtless in many other ways not yet disclosed. ment conducted on the floor of the United States Senate and These facts are evidence of the prodigiously rapid growth of a nation­ not behind the closed doors of a committee. It is well enough wide electric monopoly, and they justify abundantly such warnings as for Senators to suggest that we may move to discharge the are quoted above. Their significance to our people, not only economi­ committee should its deliberations in the quiet of the com­ cally and industrially but politically also, is almost beyond exagger· mittee room take overlong, but that does not bring the direct ation. They have a direct and most important bearing on the over­ issue before the Senate. Upon this important issue I believe shadowing issue in America, which is the control of government by it is· the duty of every Senator to register his vote on the monopolists for the purposes of monopoly. In this attack on self­ direct question of authorizing this investigation and thus dis­ government and economic freedom the electric interests form the bead charge our obligation to the people of this country with regard of the spear. It is of the most urgent importance that this fact should to this vital problem. be understood. Mr. WHEELER. 1\fr. President, I sincerely hope that the Sincerely yours, motion made by the Senator from New Hampshire [Mr. MosES] GIFFORD PINCHOT. will not prevail. I am a niember of the Committee on Inter­ Mr. WALSH of Montana. Mr. President, it will be recalled state Commerce, but I wish to say that I feel quite sure that that some phases of this subject were investigated by the Fed­ if this re olution shall be sent to that committee we would eral Trade Commission. Their report has been submitted. It never have an investigation of this problem during this session is a monumental work, and it will furnish an important basis of Congress. I want it distinctly understood that every man for the work of this committee. But the investigation contem­ who is voting on this resolution, and who votes to send it to plated by the resolution is not intended at all to cover the the Committee on Interstate Commerce, is voting against any ground traversed by the Federal Trade Commission in its in­ investigation, as it will undoubtedly be too late to proceed with vestigation. As will be noted from a reading of the resolution, such an investigation by the time the Interstate Commerce the inquiry relates particularly to the financing of these trans­ Committee is able to report the resolution. That the subject actions, a subject upon which the report of the Federal Trade does need an investigation, and that there is a demand for it, Commission does not touch. notwithstanding what the Senator from New Hampshire has I merely desire to say in conclusion, Mr. Preside'nt, that if this said, seems to me to be quite evident. investigation shall be ordered by the Senate, and I shall be in Some years ago in my home State I was called upon to look any way concerned with it, I shall endeavor to make it con­ into a situation which prevailed there, and I found this condi­ structive rather than critical; I shall endeavor to find out what tion of affairs: One concern had gone out and purchased all of the facts are, so that the public may know ; I shall endeavor to the small power companies in that State, and they had paid call to the aid of the committee men eminent in economics, who something like $33,000,000. for them. They immediately in­ have studied this particular question, as well as the business corporated into a company, and sold bonds to the extent of men who are connected with the industry, and who can speak $33,000,000. Then they sold common stock to the extent of for it, who can tell of the advantages accruing to the public $47,000,000 and preferred stock to the extent of $10,000,000. In through this extraordinary movement, and who will be ques­ othe1· words, they injected into that company something like tioned concerning whatever disadvantages there may be at­ $57,000,000 of what you might call watered stock. When they tendant upon it; so that if the evils that attend it-and unques­ came to tax the property, it was found that it was taxed for tionably there are some-<>an be averted by legislation, the $33,000,000, but when we went across the aisle to find upon appropriate legislation may be enacted if it is within the power what basis they were charging the people for power, we found of the Congress to do so. the valuation then to be something around $90,000,000. I trust this resolution will be referred to the Committee to This is a subject which affects every hou ~ewife in this coun­ Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate and try and every manufacturer in this country who uses elec­ that the pending motion will be defeated. trical power, and I think it is high time that it should be in- 1927 ·ooNGR.ESSIONAL RECORD-SENATE 815 vestigated. I think thls resolution should not be sent to the Court of · the United States has decided that in that event Committee on Interstate Commerce, but should be sent to the neither the State of its origin nor the State of its consumption Committee to Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of bas any power whatever of regulation. the Senate. As I said at the beginning, to send it to the Com­ Mr. WATSON. That is quite true. I am familiar with that mittee on Inter."tate Commerce will mean delay, and probably decision. May I ask the Senator a question 1 uch delay as will make it impossible for the investigation to Mr. WALSH of Montana. Certainly. be carried on. Mr. WATSON. Suppose that in the town in which I live, Why should the matter be taken up and discussed before the Rushville, Ind., there be an electric-light company unconnected Committee on Interstate Commerce, to decide whether or not with any other comp·any which transmits energy over State there should be an investigation? Every man here on this floor lines; would the Senator claim that we ha\e the authority to either knows that it should be investigated, or· he knows that investigate the entire financing of that particular company? it should not be investigated, and he knows that if it is sent l\Ir. 'VALSH of Montana. I do not concede it at all; in fact, to the Interstate · Commerce Committee we will not get a I assert the contrary. I do not concede at all that the power ·particle more information than each and everyone of us bas of the Senate to investigate a subject is controlled by the ques­ right here in this body at this time. tion of its power to legislate upon that particular subject. The I sincerely ti·ust that the motion of the Senator from New Senate may very properly institute an inquiry not only to deter- . Ramp hire will not prevail. inine whether it is wise to legislate upon a particular subject Mr. WATSON. 1\lr. President, I did not expect to take any but also as to whether it has the power to legislate upon that part whatever in this debate. As the chairman of the Com­ particular subject. Before it can determine that matter it mittee on Interstate Commerce, I certainly have no personal becomes necessary to know just exactly what the facts are. desire that this proposition should be sent to that committee The fact about the matter, Mr. President, is that these opera~ for iny-estigation, but I am somewhat surprised that my good ing companies, single, independent operating companies, are friend from Montana [Mr. WHEELER], who himself is a member controlled from centers often far beyond the borders of the of the committee, should reflec-t either upon the honor of the States in which those operating companies are located, so that committee or its ability to do its work. I feel quite sure that really it becomes an interstate problem; and whether it falls if the resolution shall be sent to that committee it will be given within the domain of interstate commerce or not is a question as prompt attention as the other b~ess of the committee will upon which I do not care at the present time to express any warrant. opinion. Indeed, I ha-ve none farmed. I desire to institute an I mean by that that the one thing which is uppermost in the inquiry to find out whether it is possible for the Congress of the minds of the members of that committee at this time is railroad United States to legislate so that these abuses may be cor­ consolidation. We have had that up fot: several years; it bas rected or whether we are helpless in the matter. been the subject of debate ~d di.scussion not only before that Mr. MOSES. Mr. President-- committee but throughout the country, and the President is The PRESIDING OFFICER. Docs the Senator from Mon­ asking that legislation shall be passed. Hearings have been tana yield to the Senator from New Hampshire? had befo1·e our committee time and again, as we all know, and it is a question upon which we can very speedily act and doubt­ Mr. WALSH of Montana. I yield. less will do so. Therefore there is nothing in the way of speedy Mr. MOSES. A fair corollary to what the Senator from llon­ consideration of this resolution. ., tana has said with reference to his view of the power of the I think the resolution should go to some committee in order Senate in matters of investigation is that the Senate could that the limits of authority of the Senate itself to inTestigate a proceed with an investigation for the purpose of satisfying the question of this character should be defined. I am. told that curiosity of any Senator who could persuade a majority of the Senate to his point of view. there are over 5,000 public-utility corporation~ in the United States, and that some 4,500 to 4,600 of them do business wholly With reference to the Senator's last statement, as to the core intrastate, within a town o~ within ~ city, with no communica­ of the purpose for which he is pressing here, he can bring that tion whatever over State lines. immediately and concretely before the Seno.te any time that he I am wondering whether or not my friend the senior Senator introduces a bill to carry out and eft'ect the purpose which he !rom Montana [Mr. WALSH], who is a very able lawyer, believes states he has in mind. that we can investigate into everything concerning any one or Mr. WHEELER. Mr. President, I want to correct an impres­ all of those public utilities operating wholly within a State, and sion which the chairman of the Interstate Commerce Com­ if not, should not t~e language of this resolution be limited to mittee seems to have, namely, that I wanted to reflect upon those doing an interstate bu~iness? I do not think we have the Interstate Commerce Committee. He is entirely in error. any authority to investigate at all except und~r the commerce My thought about the matte1· was simply that the Interstate clause of the Constitution. Commerce Committee has before it, or will have befo1·e it, radio Mr. FESS. Mr. President-- legislation and possibly investigations into the radio situation. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Does the Senator from Indi­ It also has legislation pertaining to the railroads of the coun­ ana yield to the Senator from Ohio? try, and I am quite sure that that legislation is going to take a Mr. WATSON. I yield. great deal of the time, if not all of the time, of the Committee Mr. FESS. That is the import.ant feature which is disturb­ on Interstate Commerce. It seemed to me just a ridiculous ing me. If it comes to the Committee to Audit and Control the waste of time on the part of the Senate to send this matter Cc:>ntingent Expenses of the Senate, of which I am a member, to the Interstate Commerce Committee and ask them to decide we have not any authority to make any sort of suggestion in as to whether OJ:' not some other committee should investigate the way of amending the resolution. it. I would not reflect upon the Interstate Commerce Com­ Mr. WATSON. I have nQ desh·e to have the resolution go to mittee, nor would I reflect upon the chairman of that com­ the calendar, which com·se it would take at 2 o'clock, and I mittee. I think he would do the best he could to get the suggest that we vote upon the pending motion. hearings just as quickly as pos ible. But under the circum­ The PRESIDING OFFICER. The Chail· is of opinion, since stances it would be, it seems to me, almost an impossibility. the Senator n·om Indiana has mentioned the point, that the Mr. KING. Mr. President, in partial reply to one of the resolution would not go to the calendar, because there is no obser-vations made by the Senator from Indiana [Mr. WATSON], unfinished business. may I invite his attention to tlle fact that in many of tne Mr. WATSON of Indiana. That is a very happy state of so-called intrastate utility companies or organizations or cor­ affairs. porations the stocks or bonds are held by corporations engaged MJ.·. WALSH of Montana. Mr. President, I understood that in interstate commerce, and more and more the corporations the Senator n·om Indiana had in a way addressed a question which heretofore operated solely within a State are being to me. absorbed by corporations engaged in interstate commerce or Mr. WATSON. Yes; I did. their stocks and bonds a1·e being acquired, if not in toto, at Mr. WALSH of Montana. I beg to say that this question has least partially, so that the conduct of their affairs is determined a double interstate aspect. In the first place, it is not at all not by local persons, unless they are named as directors by true that these companies operate entirely within a single State, corporations engaged in interstate commerce, but by the larger even the operating companies. The amount of electrical energy unit or o1•ganization which has its habitat perhaps in one of now transmitted f1·om one State to another in the aggregate is the great cities of the Union. very great. It constitutes, however, only ·about 5 per cent of It does seem to me that we ought to pass the resolution the total amount generated. As a rule the energy is consumed because of the well-known situation in regard to public util­ within the State in which it is generated. But in the case not ities, and particulady power corporations, in the United States. only of electrical energy, but of gas, the commodity is very If it does go to a committee, it seems to me that it should go often tn.nsferred :fl·om one State to anot11er, and the Supreme to the Committee on the Judiciary. 816 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-SENATE DECEl\fBER 19 If legislation is required, I believe it will be legislation sup­ a member of a committee of this body do when he sits upon plemental to the Clayton Act or the Sherman antitrust law, a question of this kind, voting blindly, without any authority and obviously any legislation dealing with the important .ques­ to investigate? Would he be justified in voting to report it tion of trusts or combinations in restraint of trade would out? On the other hand, it is easy for the committee to vote emanate from the Committee on the Judiciary. If there is such a resolution down, but that would not be quite fair. any disposition-though I hope there will not be-to refer. the Then the Senate would move to discharge the committee from resolution to a committee, I shall ask for a vote upon its the further consideration of the resolution and bring it at once reference to the Committee on the Judiciary rather than to to the floor of the Senate. The regular way would be to refer the Committee on Interstate Commerce. this resolution to some committee that has the power to go Mr. FESS. Mr. President, the suggestion of the Senator from into its merits. Then if an expenditure is required, it should Utah is along the line of the interest that I have in the resolu­ be sent to the Committee to Audit and Control the Contingent tion. A similar resolution was presented at the last session and Expenses of the Senate. By following such a course there the Senator from Montana [Mr. W ALBH] made a very elaborate could be no jeopardy anywhere, so far as I can see. address, graphically illustrated by charts on the wall of the Mr. KING. Mr. President, will the Senator from Ohio per- . Chamber. It was of interest to all of us, and I think he made mit a question ? · a strong case. The resolution came to the Committee to Audit The PRESIDING OFFICER. Does the Senator from Ohio and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate, which is yield to the Senator from Utah? purely a formal committee and has no right whatever in the Mr. FESS. I yield. way of going into the merits of a proposal, but simply to put Mr. KING. As I understand the position of the Senator, it into operation the machinery after the policy has been estab­ is if the resolution shall be referred to one of the standing com­ lished either by the Senate or by another committee. mittees, and that committee reports favorably upon it, and the I would hesitate to vote upon a measure where we could not resolution is then referred to the Committee to Audit and Con­ go into the merits of it, but which involved so much. I am trol the Contingent Expenses of the Senate, the latter committee not particular whether it goes to the Judiciary Committee or have no alternative but must report the resolution back favor­ to the Interstate Commerce Committee or any other committee ably? which has power to go into the merits of it. It does not matter Mr. FESS. No; it may report back favorably or unfavorably. at all. I would vote for it to go to either committee. I hap­ Mr. KING. The Senator thinks, then, that the Committee to pen to be a member of the Interstate Commerce Committee, but Audit and Conh·ol would have the opportunity to reverse the I am also a member of the Committee to Audit and Control the action of the other committee which reported to the Senate Contingent Expenses of the Senate. I hope that it will not go favorably? to the latter committee for the reason that it involves so much, 1\ir. FESS. It is quite evident if a committee which has the and we have absolutely no authority in that committee to in­ power to go into the merits, as would the Judiciary Committee, quire into anything except to vote " yes " or " no." In order should report back favorably that the Committee to Audit and to cure that weakness in that committee-- Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate would not hesi­ Mr. WALSH of Montana. Mr. President-- tate at all in giving authority for the expenditure of the money. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Does the Senator from Ohio Mr. KING. Let me ask the Senator this question: Suppose yield to the Senator from Montana? the Committee on the Judiciary-! mention that committee be­ Mr. FElSS. I yield. cause the Senator from Ohio named it-upon full investigation Mr. WALSH of Montana. The requirement that the resolu­ should report out this resolution favorably and it should then be tion shall go to the Committee to Audit and Control is statu­ referred to the Committee to Audit and Control the Contingent tory. Congress has enacted a law to the effect that it must go Expenses of the Senate; does the Senator believe that his com­ to that committee. Will the Senator from Ohio give us his mittee would have the right to negative the action of the Com­ view as to what that statute means? mittee on the Judiciary which had investigated the resolution Mr. FESS. Where there is any money to be drawn out of fully and had reported it favorably? the contingent fund of the Senate the resolution comes to our Mr. FESS. I presume the committee has the right to do committee, but the proper procedure would be that the policy whatever it sees fit to do, and then the Senate may correct any of the subject should not be considered in our committee. The error it may make ; but it seems to me I would be perfectly last two paragraphs of the Senator's resolution would be ap­ justified in saying that if another committee had made such a propriate to go to the Committee to Audit and Control the report the Committee to Audit and Control the Contingent Ex­ Contingent Expenses of the Senate. That is the usual pro­ penses of the Senate would indorse it by voting out the resolu­ cedure. But there is the major portion of the resolution which tion at once. is the establishment of a policy involving millions upon mil­ Mr. KING. 1\:Iy opinion, if it is worth anything to the Sen­ lions of dollars, upon which we can not express even an opinion. ator-and it may not be-is that the Committee to Audit and It has been suggested by the Senator from Washington [Mr. Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate would have a JoNES] that when any resolution involving a policy of this sort mere perfunctory duty to perform, and it would be its duty is offered, it ought to go to the committee which has jurisdiction immediately to report the resolution back to the Senate. of the policy. Mr. FESS. If the Senator will permit me, that is the difficulty Mr. WALSH of Montana. But the Senator has not an­ with our committee all the time ; it has a mere perfunctory duty swered my question. I want to know what his view is con­ to perform. cerning what duty devolves upon the Committee to Audit and Mr. KING. I think there is a good deal of truth in what the Control when such a resolution goes to it. · Senator states ; and I should like to ask him another question. Mr. FESS. The duty is to vote "yes" or "no." If this resolution or any other resolution should be refer-red Mr. WALSH of Montana. Exactly; but upon what consid­ to one of the standing committees and upon investigation such eration? committee should report it back favorably and the resolution Mr. FESS. No consideration at all. We can not go into should then go to the Committee to Audit and Control the that. Contingent Expenses of the Senate, and the duty of the latter Mr. WALSH of Montana. That is to say, the law says that committee would then be merely to report back favorably-it it must go to that committee, and that committee does not that premise be correct-then if the Senate decides to refer inquire into the thing at all, but simply votes ".YeS" or "no." the resolution to the Committee to Audit and Control the Con­ Mr. FESS. That is upon a matter where expenditures are tingent Expenses of the Senate against the motion to 1·efer required and which can not be voted in any other way except it to a standing committee, is not the result just the same as by this committee. The question of expenditure does not enter if it had gone to the standing committee, for the reason that into my idea at all here. I am ready to vote on that at any the Senate has expressed itself in favor of the re olution and time. The question here is the policy in reference to concen­ in favor of the Committee on Contingent Expenses of the Senate tration and control, and it seems to me that ought not to go reporting it back favorably? to a committee which has absolutely no authority to go into 1\Ir. FESS. That is what I am trying to expres.s, and I hope any question of merit. If it would come from the Committee that the practice of the Senate will be that whenever a matter on the Judiciary or the Interstate Commerce Committee recom­ comes up involving a controYersial question it will not be sub­ mending such a policy, then the expenditure feature of the mitted to our committee, which has no latitude at all, but will resolution would come to our Committee to Audit anii Control, go to a standing committee; then let that committee determine and we are ready to vote on that at any time. what shall be done, and the Committee to Audit and Control the I recognize that there is a desire to expedite the matter, and Contingent Expenses of the Senate will then perform its per­ knowing that our committee could not spend any time on it, but functory duty. ' it would have to vote either "yes" or "no," there would be Mr. KING. I have had occasion heretofore to refer to what less time wasted if it came to our committee; but what can I deem to be a rather paradoxical or incongruous situn- ~------

1927 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-SENATE 817 Dill Howell McMaster Shipstead tion with respect to the Committee to Audit and Control the Ferris Johnson Neely Swanson Contingent Expenses of the Senate. I think that the Senate Frazier Kendrick Norbeck Wagner either ought to approve of a resolution before it goes to the Gerry King Nye Walsh, Mass. Hayden La Follette Pittman Walsh, Mont. Committee to Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Heflin McKellar Sheppard Wheelet• Senate or that a standing committee of the Senate ought to NOT VOTING-18 approve it. Caraway Gooding Reed, Mo. Stephens Mr. FESS. That is my idea. Curtis Harris Reed, Pa. Trammell Mr. KING. So that the work of the Committee to Audit and du Pont Harrison Robinson, Ark. Waterman Fletcher .Tones, N.Mex. Schall Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate would be one of George Norris Smith bookkeeping rather than of investigation. :Mr. FESS. That is my idea very well stated. So the resolution was referred to the Committee on Interstate The PRESIDING OFFICER. The question is on the motion Commerce. - of the Senator from New Hampshire [Mr. MosEs]. FIRST DEFICIENCY APPROPRIATIONS Mr. l\IOSES. Mr. President, I suggest the absence of a A message from the House of Representatives, by l\Ir. Halti­ quorum. gan, one of its reading clerks, announced that the House had The PRESIDING OFFICER. The clerk will call the roll. passed a concurrent resolution (H. Con. Res. 11) authorizing a The legislative clerk called the roll, and the following Sena­ correction in the enrollment of House bill 5800, the first defi­ tors answered to their names ; ciency appropriation bill, in which the concurrence of the Senate Ashurst Edwards Keyes Sackett was requested. Barkley Ferris King Sheppard Bayard Fess La Follette Shipstead Mr. JONES of Washington. The concurrent resolutio;n which Bingham Fletcher .McKellar Shortridge has just come from the House is the same as one which the Black Frazier McLean Simmons Senate passed a short time ago. I also understand that it is Blaine Gerry McMaster Smoot Blease Gillett McNary Steck v quite important that it should be passed to-day, so that the Borah Glass Mayfield Steiwer clerks may begin the enrollment of the bill. As the Senator Bratton Gofl' Metcalf Swanson from Wyoming [Mr. WARREN] is not here at this moment, and Brookhart Gould Moses Thomas Broussard Greene Neely Tydings I am sure would like to have it passed at once, I ask ·for its Bruce Hale Norbeck Tyson immediate consideration. Capper Harrison Nye Wagner The PRESIDING OFFICER (Mr. WILLIS in the chair). Copeland Hawes Oddie Walsh, Mass. 'l'he Chair lays before the Senate a concurrent resolution from Couzens HHae ym~en Overman Walsh, Mont. Curtis fl Phipps Warren the House of Representatives, which will be read. Dale Howell Pine Watson The concurrent 1·esolution was read, considered by unanimous Deneen Johnson Pittman Wheeler Dill Jones, Wash. Ransdell Willis consent, and agreed to. as follows ; Edge Kendrick Robinson, Ind. Resolved by the House of Representatives (the Senate co1wurring), The YICE PRESIDENT. Seventy-nine Senators having an­ Tha.t the Clerk of the House be, and he hereby is, authorized and swered to their names, a quorum is present. The question is directed in the enrollment of H. R. 5800 (70th Cong., 1st sess.), known on the motion of the Senator from New Hampshire [Mr. MosEs] as the first deficiency bill, to insert, on page 38, in line 9 of the to refer the resolution submitted by the Senator.from Montana engrossed biU, after the word "attorneys," the following words: "(their [Mr. WALSH] to the Committee on Interstate Commerce. heirs or their assignees now of record, as their interest may appear)." 1\lr. MOSES and 1\lr. LA FOLLETTE asked for the yeas and nays. G. TOM TAYLOR The yeas and nays were ordered, and the legislative clerk 1\!r. MoKELLAR. 1\lr. President, I ·ask unanimous consent proceeded to call the roll. for the immediate consideration of Senate Resolution 80. 1\lr. FLETCHER (when his name was called). I have a gen­ Mr. MOSES. . Let it be read. eral pair with the Senator from Delaware [1\lr. DU PONT], who The VICE PHESIDENT. The Senator from Tennessee asks is absent on account of illness. Being unable to obtain a trans­ unanim.ous consent for the present consideration of a resolution, fer of that pair, I withhold my vote. which will be read for the information of the Senate. Mr. HARRISON (when his name was called). For to-day The legislative clerk read Senate Resolution 80, submitted by and to-morrow I have a pair with the junior Senator from 1\Ir. McKELLAR on the 17th instant, as follows: Colorado [1\Ir. WATERMAN]. As he is not present, I am not Wher eas in 1921 an examination was held by the Civil Service at liberty to vote. If permitted to vote, I should vote "nay." Commission at Memphis, Tenn., for postmaster at that place; and Mr. ROBINSON of Arkansas (when his name was called). I Whereas G. Tom Taylor, then claiming to be a resident of Memphis, am paired with the Senator from Kansas [Mr. CURTIS], and made application and took the examination, but the Civil Service Com­ therefore withhold my vote. mission declined to certify him as · one of the eligibles ; and 1\lr. WATSON (when his name was called). I have a pair Whereas in 1925 another civil-service examination was held in Mem­ with the senior Senator from South Carolina [Mr. SMITH]. I phis for postmaster in that place, and the said G. Tom Taylor again have a telegram from him, in which he says that he desires to became an applicant and again was refused a place on the list of three be paired in favor of referring the· Walsh resolution to the eligibles ; and Interstate Commerce Committee. As that is the way I intend Whereas no appointment was made for about a year after said 1925 to vote, I feel free to vote, and vote " yea." examination, because apparently it was not desired by the political The roll call was concluded.. powers that any one of the three eligibles should be appointed postmas­ Mr. HOWELL. The senior Senator from Nebraska [1\lr. ter; and NoRRis] is detained at home by illness. Whereas the political powers finally induced Mr. Bugg, the third man 1\Ir. BAYARD. I have a general pair with the Senator from on .the list of eligibles, to withdraw his name; and Pennsylvania [Mr. REED]. He is not present, but I am informed Whereas the Civil Service Commission again refused to certify the that if present he would vote as I intend to vote. Therefore I said G. Tom Taylor, but did have a reexamination ronde into his appli­ feel at liberty to vote on this question, and vote "yea." cation and qualifications; and l\Ir. GERRY. I wish to announce the following pairs: · Whereas the report of the examiners in 1921, in 1925, and in 1926 The Senator from Georgia [Mr. HARRis] with the Senator all showed that the character and reputation of said G. Tom Taylor from Minnesota [Mr. ScHALL] ; and unfitted him for postmaster at Memphis, and held he was not qualified The Senator from New Mexico [Mr. JoNES] with the Senator for postmaster by reason of not possessing the proper character and from Idaho [Mr. GOODING]. fitness ; and - The result was announced-yeas 40, nays 36, as follows: Whereas, notwithstanding these facts and findings of its own exam­ YEAS-40 iners, the Civil Service Commission on or about the 1st of June, 1927, Bayard Goff Metcalf Simmons placed the said G. Tom Taylor on the list of eligibles by a majority Bingham Gould Moses Smoot vote; and Broussard Greene Oddie Steck Dale Hale Overman Steiwer Whereas the said G. Tom Taylor was at once appointed acting post­ Deneen .Hawes Phipps Thomas master and took charge of the office ; and Edge Jones, Wash. Pine Tydings Whereas his name was sent in to the Senate for confirmation early Edwards Keyes Ransdell Tyson Fess 1\IcLean Robinson, Ind. Warren in December, 1927 ; and GU1ett Sackett Watson Whereas opposition appearing to the confirmation of G. Tom Taylor Glass ~~~fi~td Shortridge Willis his nomination has been withdrawn; and NAYS-36 · Whereas the said G. Tom Taylor has been continued an acting post­ Ashurst Blaine Bratton Capper Barkley Blease Brookhart Copeland master at Memphis, notwithstanding his lack of qualifications alll.~ Black Borah Bruce Couzens fitness· as required by the civil service laws: Now therefore be it LXIX-52 818 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-SENATE DECEliBER 19 Resolred, That the Committee on Civil Service be, and it is hereby, CONFIRMATIONS ' authorized, o1·dered, and directed to send for persons and papers and , report at the earliest possible day its findings on the following ques· E:cea1ttive 1Wtninations con.firrnea by the Bmwte Decem'ber 19, 1921 tions: DIPLOMATic AND CoNSULAR SERVICE First. ·what were the facts as ascertained by the Civil SerYice Com­ IDNISTE& RESID~T Al\"'D CONSUL GENERAL TO ETHIOPIA mission as to the character and qualifications and fitness of the said Addison E. Southard, of Kentucky. G. Tom Taylor to be postmaster in Memphis? Second. What reasons actuated the Civil Service Commission in dis· FOREIGN SEBVIOE OFFICERS, CLASS I r egarding the findings of its own examiners and in certifying the said William Dawson. G. Tom Taylor as eligible for po tmaster at Memphis, notwithstanding Glaude I. Dawson. his lack of qualifications and fitness as found by the examiners? MEMBERS FEDERAL BOARD FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION Third. That the said committee is authorized to report any other Claude M. Henry. pertinent facts concerning the eligibility of the said G. Tom Taylor for Edward T. Franks. postmaster or as to the action of the CiYil Se1·vice Commission, or any member thereof, in certifying the said G. Tom Taylor as eligible for MEMBER UXITED STATES EMPLOYEES' 0o:MPENSATION COMMISSION postmaster at :Memphis. l\Irs. Bessie Parker Brueggeman. The \~OE PRESIDEJS'T. Is there objection to the present DEPART~T OF COMMERCE con~idPration of the resolution? COMMISSIO~ER OF NAVIGATION :Mr. :MOSES. :Mr. President, there are some recitals in the Arthur J. Tyrer. whereuses about wllich I am not at all certain and upon which STEAMBOAT INSPECTION SERVICE 1 would not want the Senate to go on record immediately. Therefore I will ask the Senator to let the resolution go over John L. Crone and Harry Layfield to be supervising inspectors. until I have l1ad time to make some inquiries and confer with U~ITED STATES PATE.-T OFFICE him. Eugene Landers to be examiner in chief. l\Ir. McKELLAR. I shall be very glad to have that done. UNITED STATES DISTRICT JUDGES I will say to the Senator that we can take it up to-morrow. J\fr. M:OSES. I will make every effort to get tbe information 'Villiam G. Coleman to oo United States district judge, district between now and to-morrow. of Maryland. Mr. McKELLAR. Very well; we will let it go over, then. Edward J. ~Ioinet to be United States- district judge, eastern Will there be any other session of the Senate before the district of Michigan. bolidays? Frederick H. Bryant to be United States district judge, north- Mr. MOSES. Oh, yes. ern district of New York. · Mr. McKELLAR. Then we will take it up on Wednesday. Frank J. Coleman to be United States distlict judge, southern Mr. :MOSES. Yery well. district of New York. REPORTS OF PUBLIC UTlLITIES FIRST JUDGE, GmcUIT 0oURT, FIRST CmcUIT OF Mr. CAPPER. Mr. President, I call up the order offered Alva Edgar Steadman to be first judge, circuit court, first cir­ on a previous day for the printing of the annual reporls of the cuit of Hawaii. public utilities of the District of Columbia in accordance with CoAST GuARD th practice heretofore followed. Frederick C. Billard to be commandant. 1\Ir. KING. Mr. President, I objected to that order the other Quincy B. Newman to be commander (engineering). da:y. I have no obJection to it now. Robert B. ~<\dams to be engineer in chief (for four years). The YIGE PRESIDENT. The clerk will read the order. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY The order was read and agreed to, as follows : .AIDF.B Ordered, That tile annual reports of the following-named public George William Lovesee. John Malcolm Baker, jr. utility companies in tile District of Columbia, for the year ending De­ Lawrence Pinkerton Sowles. Edwin Caleb Baum. cember 31, 1926, heretofore transmitted to the Senate, be printed as a Senate docUinent: JUNIOR HYDROGRAPHIC Al\'D GIOODETIC ENGINEERS Capital Traction Co., Chesapeake & Potomac 'l'elephone Co., George­ Francis Bartholomew Quinn. George Riley Shelton. town Barge, Dock, Elevator & Railway Co., Potomac Electric Power Co., Bennett Green Jones. Ira Taylor Sanders. Washington Gas Light Co., Georgetown Gas Light Co., Washington Ector Brooks Latham, jr. Charles Roland Bush, jr. Railway & -Electric Co., City and Suburban Railway of Washington, John Bowie, jr. Edward Robert McCarthy. Georgetown & Tennallytown Railway· Co., and Washington Interurban HYDROGRAPHIC AND GEODETIC ENGINEERS Railroad Co. Augustus Peter Ratti lLES AGE FROM THE HOUSE-ENROLLED JOINT RESOLUTION SIGJI

Louis A. Round, jr., to be ensign (temporary). INSPECTOR GEJ.\'ERAL'S DEPARTMENT William H. Shea to be commander. William Cannon Rivers to be Inspector General. Arthur G. Morrill to be lieutenant (junior grade). Nathaniel S. Fulford, jr., to be ensign. QUARTERMASTER CORPS Richard L. Horne to be ensign . . William Edward Horton to be assistant to the Quartermaster Clinton P. Kendall to be lieutenant commander (engineering). General. Rutherford B. Lank, jr., to be constructor. ORDNA.!.~CE DEPARTMENT Dale R. Simonson to be constructor. Samuel Hof to be assistant to the Chief of Ordnance. Harold S. Berdine to be lieutenant (junior grade). AIR CORPS Eugene Blake, jr., to be captain. Chester H. Jones to be commander. James Edmond Fechet to be Chief of the Air Corps. Harry C. Howe to be lieutenant (junior grade) (temporary). CORPS OF ENGINEERS Donald D. Hesler to be ensign (temporary). To be second lieutenants Charles H. Bartlett to be ensign (temporary). Hans William Holmer. George Townsend Derby. Robert S. Jackson to be ensign (temporary). Harold Albert Kurstedt. Max Sherred Johnson. Philip H. Scott to be captain. Edward Grow Daly. Lee Bird Washbourne. William F. Towle to be commander. Donald Chamberlin Hawkins. John Robert Crume, jr. Fredel"ick G. Eastman to be ensign (temporary). Theodore Addison Weyher. Charles Albert Harrington. Charles L. Duke to be lieutenant (junior grade) (temporary). Robert Hammiell Naylor. Charles H. McNutt. Kenneth S. Davis to be ensign (temporary). Paul Dunn Charles Berrigan. Herman Walter Schull, jr. APPOINTMENTS IN THE ARMY Henry Gordon Douglas. Gan·ison Holt Davidson. OFFICERS' RESERVE CORPS Joseph Winston Cox, jr. William Henderson Minter. SIG~.A.L CORPS To be genera~ officers To be second lieutenants Edward Lawrence Logan to be major general, reserve, Massa. cbusetts National Guard. Elmer Blair Garland. Charles Brundy Brown. Morris Benham Payne to be major general, reserve, Connecti· Al¥in Louis Pachynski. James Wilson. cut National Guard. Fred 'Vallace Kunesh. George Lucien Richon. Elmore Farrington Austin to be brigadier general, reserve, James Wilson Green, jr. Julius Theodore Flock. New York National Guard. William Perry Pence. Erland Frederick Fish to be brigadier general, reserve, Mas· CAVALRY sachusetts National Guard. To be second lieutenants Irving Andrews Fish to be brigadier general, reserve, Wis­ John Leonard Hines, jr. Charles Pennoyer Bixel. consin National Guard. Loren Davis Pegg. Howard Auguste Kelly Per- Dudley Jackson Hard to be brigadier general, reserve, Ohio Woodbury Megrew Burgess. rilliat. National Guard. Manuel J os~ Asen ~io. Thomas Frank Trapolino. Erie Davis Luce to be brigadier general, reserve, Minnesota Alexander Macomb .Miller, jr. Henri Anthony Luebbermann. National Guard. William Hamilton Hunter. Ft·ancis Scoon Gardner. · William Swan McLean, jr., to be btigadier general, reserve, Thomas John Hall TrapnelL Leander LaChance Doan. Pennsylvania National Guard. • Raymond Wiley Curtis. Theodore Kalakuka. George Francis O'Connell to be brigadier general, reserve, Edward Pont Mechling. Henry Magruder Zeller, jr. Wisconsin National Guard. · Robert Graham Lowe. Allison Owen to be brigadier general, reserve, Louisiana Na. tiona! Guard. FIELD ARTILLERY John James Phelan to be brigadier general, reserve, New To be second lieutenants York National Guard. George Woodburne Me- Daniel Phipps Miller. Albert Lyman Cox to be a brigadier general, reserve. Gregor, jr. Samuel James Simonton. George Edmund de Schweinitz to be brigadier general, Auxil­ Cecil Winfield Land. Alex Norwood Williams, jr. iary Reserve . Frederic Joseph Brown. Jeremiah Paul Holland. .William Barclay Parsons to be brigadier general, Auxiliary Maurice Francis Daly. John Mills Sterling. Reserve. Gerald Francis Lillard. Mark Kincaid Lewis, jr. Henry I~wis Stimson to be brigadier general, Auxiliary Francis Cecil Foster. James Francis Collins. Reserve. Laurence Sherman Kuter. Herbert Bryant Kirkpatrick. Clinton Goodloe Edgar to be brigadier general, Signal Corps Fox Brandreth Conner. Harold James Coyle. Reserve. Thomas Morgan Watling- Forester Hampton Sinclair. REGULAR .ARMY ton, jr. Harold Stanley Isaacson. To be genera~ officers Reynolds Condon. Willis Webb Whelchel. Edward Gilbert Fat-rand. Arthur Edwin Solem. Thomas Quinton Donaldson to be major general. Mason Fred Stober. Charlie Wesner. Henry Davis Todd, jr., to be major general. Benjamin Whitehouse. Meredith Donald Masters. Abraham Grant Lott to be brigadier general, Cavalry. Thomas Kessler McManus. Lewis Hinchman Ham. Charles Roscoe Howland to be brigadier general, Infantry. CharlP..s Richard Hutchison. Milton Merrill Towner. Fred Thaddeus Austin to be Chief of Field Artillery. Stanley Burton Bonner. Robert Curtis White. Geot·ge Sabin Gibbs to be Chief Signal Officer. John Milton Burdge, jr. Joseph Ganahl, jr. Edmund Pepperell Easterbrook to be Chief of Chaplains. Bertram Arthur Holtzworta John Marion Moore. PRoMOTIONS IN THE ARMY Frederick Andrew Granho~. Stuart Wood GENERAL OFFICERS COAST ARTILLERY CORPS To be major generals To be 8econd lieutenantg Richmond Pearson Davis. Julian Montgomery West. Harry Forrest Townsend. Edwin Branch Winans. Frederick Everett Day. Virgil Miles Kimm. Joseph Dugalu Leitch. Edwin William Chamberlain. Aloysius Joseph Lepping. Harry Oliver Paxson. Lawrence Edward Shaw. To be b1·igadier generals Henry Joseph Hoeffer. Matthew Kemp Deichelmann. George Columbus Barnhardt. . James Haynes Reeves. George Fenton Peirce. Nathan Alton McLamb. Meriwether Lewis Walker. Walter Cowen Short. Parmer Wiley Edwards. Frank Thomas Ostenberg. George Hairston Jamerson. Frank Sherwood Cocheu. William Lewis McNamee. John Kochevar. Henry James Hatch. Otho Bane Rosenbaum. John Raymond Lovell. Joy Thomas Wrean. Ralph Henry Van Deman. Everett Charles Dunham. John Joseph Holst. James Douglas Curtis.. Guy Ernest Tbrams. ADJUTANT GENERAL'S DEPAR~MB:"iT Joseph Coleman Timberlake. Artbur Roth. Lutz Wahl to be The Adjutant General. Olaf Helgesen Kyster. John Thomas Hopper. Charles Higbee Bridges to be Assistant The Adjutant General. Orrin Leigh Grover. '820 CONGRESSION .A.L RECORD-SEN ATE DECE~ffiER 19 t:Nll'-.LVTR.Y Rex Ivar Hcinlein, jr., to be econd lieutenant, Corps of To be weonr.l lieuteruznt.~t Engineers. _ Robert Kirby Perrine. George Van Horn Moseley, j1·. Frank Alfred Lightfoot .to be second lieutenant, Field Artil- Francis Elliot Hmvard. Roy William Axup. lery. . Kenneth Earl Thiebaud. John Walker Kirby. A.r'!~W~Y~ic-bmond Pitman, jr., to be .,econd lieutenant, Field Willard Bm·tou Carlock. Forrest Anthony Hornisber. George McCoy, jr. .Raymond Earle Bell. George . elman to be . econd lieutenant, Infantry. George Edward Martin. Dudley George Stdckler. Earl Clar ence Bergquist to he second lieutenant, Infantry. Robert Griffith Turner. Dana Powers McGown. Ric-hard Chase to be second lieutenant, Infantry. Euward James Francis Glavin. CharleN Boa! Ewing. Albert Neil Hickey to be .·eeond lieutenant, Infantry. J osep:ti Howard Gilbr:etb. Felix Alex Todd, jr. Ronald Irving Pride to be econd lieutenant, Field Artillery. Horace Alvord Quinn. Barney Av.ant Daughtry. Royce Alison Drnke to be second lieutenant~ Cavalry. Lee Roy William!'l. John Ogden Kilgore. Paul Alfred Disney to be second lieutenant, Ca'\"'alry. Edward Davis McLaughlin. Philip DeWitt Ginde1·. Leo Wi11iam Desrosiers to be second lieutenant, Air Corps. James Virgil Thompson. Ralph Edwin Doty. Go1·don Philip Sa'\"'ille to be second lieutenant, Air Corps. Charles Bernard 0-vet·acker, jr., to be second lieutenant, Air Paul Edwin Schewe. Howell Hopson Jordan. Corps. Walter Morris Jobnson. Robert Frederick Sink. Albert Harvey Dicker. on. Elmer Matthew Webb, jr. George Henry Macnair to be second lieutenant, Air Corps. Orville Melvin Hewitt. John Prame Kaylor. William Barwig Blaufu s to be econd lieutenant, Ah· Corps. Loui. IIoward Foote to be econd lieutenant, Corps of Engi- Arthur Layton Cobb. Christian Gotthard Nel~on. neer. William Jordan Verbeck. Martin Joseph Mo.rin. Fay Roscoe Upthegrove. Gilbert McKee Allen, jr. MEDICAL OORPS William Jefferson Glasgow, jr. Calvin Louis Whittle. To lJe first Uetttenant.'J Charles Bertody Stone, 3d. George Emericus Bender. DonaJd Carl Snyder. Kenneth Gilbert Smith. George E nip, 2d. Jack Henry Griffith. Rawley Ernest Chambers. Ralph Matthews Sloan. Ruby Elde1·idge Hunter. Robert Campbell Aloe. Stanton Knowlton Livingst01 Leonard Dudley Heaton. Ernest GodfTey Schmidt. Montgomery McKee. Thomas Fort Bridges. William Hubert Seale. Ernest Benjamin Gray. David Stuart Loughborougb. Fletcher Emory Ammons. Marion Whitmell Ransone. Douglas Campbell. Nelson Irving Fook. ·. Le ter Maris Dyke. William Riney Craig. William Joseph Phelan. Malcolm Frederick Bauer. William Berry Wilson. Thomas William Ellsworth Carl Sherman Graybeal. Lawton Butler. Henry Bennett La'\"'ery. Christmas. David Morgan Hackman. Marion Huggins. Hru.·old LeRoy Stewart. Edward Herman Theis. Ralph Wise Zwicker. Frederick Funston, jr. Arthur John Redland. Harold Willard Glattly, Woodson Finch Hocker. Martin Mo es. William Foster Burdick. James Pope Gill, jr. James Albemarle Harron. Robert John West, jr. James Bathurst Smith, jr. Francis Elbert Council. William Edgar Thomas. Edgar Daniel Stark. William Lenoir Wilson. John Presly Bachman. Cyril Edward Williams. David Drew Hedekin. Carlton Duncan GoodieL John Buist Chester. Arthur Milner Burghduff, jr. James William Smyly, jr. Frank Wilburn Messer. George Barnard Moore, jr. Joseph Woitkievicz Vincent. Raymund G1·egory Stanton. ·william Mabton James. John Winchester Rich. Robert Martin Woblforth. Neil Bosworth Harding. August Wesley SpittiEU·. Thomas Brown Murphy. Vachel Davis Whatley, jr. Jesse Floyd Dr€s ler. Robert Francis Bradish. Huston J. Bantom. George Edward Lel"ings. Willis Small Matthews. Jacob CharleN Harshbarger. HerTey Burson Porter. Bacry Ellery McKinney. Robert Lewis Easton. Horace Page Marvin. Carl Elliott Lundquist. Henry Malone Bailey. DENTAL OOBPS An tuli o Segarra. Fred Leroy Thorpe. To be first lieutenants Bernard Cecil Rose. William Rapier Francis Guy Stanley Meloy, jr. Bleakney. Kenneth Pearce Fulton. Harold George Ott. .AIR CORPS Leland Stanford Mabry. To be second lieutenru1ts VETERl~.A.RY CORPS Earl Clinton Robbins. Hoyt Leroy Prindle. To be second lieutena-nts Andrew Joseph Kerwin James Franklin Walsh. Malone. George Richard Geer. Charles 'tunkard Greer. Russell Keillor. Forrest Lynne Neville. John Lloyd Owens. Charles Clifford Coppin, jr. Donald Wright Benner. PHILIPPIXE SCOUTS Mark Darrow Stephen John Quincy Adam ~ . Bien\enido l\lobo Alba to be econd lieutenant. Steensen. Harry John Flatequal. APPOINTMENTS BY TRA.NSFERI ..L'D PROMOTIONS IN THE MM.Y Ernest Harold Lawson. . Herman Franklin Woolard. John Edward Bodle. Lawrence Henry Douthit. .APPOL~ENTS BY TRANSFER William Harold Doolittle. George Robert Ache~on. :Adjutant Ge'lleJ-a.l's Depart'ment Russell Scott. · Harry Prime Bi . ell. William White Dick to be captain, Infantry. Burton Murdock Hovey, jr. Keith Ro. coe. William Elbridge Chickering to be captain, Infantry, Richard Eastman Cobb. Frank Hamlet Robinson. Perry Cllle Ragan to be captain, Infantry. Alexander Everett Cabana. Waldine Winston Messmore. Judg6 .Aduocate General's De-pat'tment Dale Davis Fisher. Herbert Melvin ~ewstrom. Henry Weisbrod Dorr. Allen Ralph Springer. Lee Stephen Tillotson to be major, Infantry. Irvin Alberta Woodring. Franklin Calhoun Wolfe. Joel Franklin Watson to be c-aptain, Quartermaster Corps. Cru.·lisle Iverson Ferris. Ford Larimore Fair. Qum·tennaster Corps Elwood Richard Quesada. Ivan Maurice Palmer. Thomas Waples Barnru.·d to be captain, Infantry. Willard Roland Wolfinbarger Harold Frederick Brown. Irwin Samuel Dierking to be captain, Infantry. James Arthur Ellison. Joseph Gerard Hopkins. James Courtney Browne to be first lieutenant, Cavalry. Harold Henry Hunt to be second lieutenant, Field Artillery. Robert Brice J ohnston to be first lieutenant, InfaJ?.try. Joseph Lawrence Dark to be second lieutenant, Infantry. Fina-1t0e De1Jartment Henry Rosser Angell to be ... econd lieutenant, Air Corps. Frank Keith Park to be seeond lieutenant, Air Corps. Horatio Grant Coykendall to be captain, Infantry. Paul Leamon Woodruff to be second lieutenant, Air Corps.. Arthur James Perry to be captain, Infantry. Walter William Gross to be second lieutenant, Air Corps. Lemuel Edwin Ed'\\::trds to be first lieutenant, Quartermaster Joseph George Felber to be second lieutenant, Infantry. Corp. Otto Clyde George to be sec-ond lieutenant, Air Corps. John Fidel is Connell to be first lieutenant, Quartermaster Harold Arthur Wbeaton to be second lieutenant, Air Corps. Corps. J obn H. Jones to be second lieutenant, Air Corps. · Corps of Engineers Gilbert Lorenzo Tefft to be second lieutenant, Air Corps. Warren Nourse Underwood to be second lieutenant, Coast Vera H. Wiseman to be second lieutenant, Infantry. AJ.·tillery Corps. Morris Miller Bauer to be second lieutenant, Corps of Engi­ Herbert William Ehrgott to be second lieutenant, Field Ar­ neers. tillery. 1921 CONGRESSIOX.A.L RECORD-SENATE ·821 Ordnamce Departrnent William Saunders Faulkner to be colonel, Infantry. Frank Fenton Reed to be captain, Coast Artillery Corps. Ernest H. Agnew to be colonel, Quartermaster Corps. Garla:Bd Thomas Rowland to be first lieutenant, Infantry. 'Robert Oakes Ragsdale to be colonel, Infantry. Harold Mark Reedall to be first lieutenant, Infantry. Austin Allen Parker to be colonel, Infantry. Fred Van Schaick Chamberlin to be colonel, Infantry. S·ignal Corps Aubrey Lippincott to be colonel, Cavalry. Hamner Huston to be major, Infantry. Robert Christian Humber to be colonel, Infantry. Gordon Cogswell Irwin to be captain, Infantry. George Luther Hicks to be colonel, Adjutant General's Depart· Mark Rhoads to be first lieutenant, Cavalry. ment. Percival Adams Wakeman to be first lieutenant, Infantry. Parker Hitt to be colonel, Infantry. William Holmes Wenstrom to be first lieutenant, Cavalry. Denni · Patrick Quinlan to be colonel, Judge Advocate Gen­ Ca-valry eral's Department. Thomas Grnfton Hanson, jr., to be captain, Quartermaster Kyle Rucker to be colonel, Judge Advocate General's Depar t- Corps. ment. John O'Day Murtaugh to be second lieutenant, Infantry. Lynn Sawyer Edwards to be colonel, Coast Artillery Corps. Prentice Edward Yeomans to be second lieutenant, Air Corps. Hugh Kirkpatrick Taylor to be colonel, Coast Artillery Corps. 'Villiam Henry Noble to be colonel, Quartermaster Corps. Fie~a At·Ullery Douglas McCaskey to be colonel, Cavalry. . Edward White Wildl'ick to be major, Coast Artillery Corps. Freeborn Page Holcomb to be colonel, Finance Department. Albert Charles Stanford to be captain, Signal Corps. Clenanl McLaughlin to be colonel, Infantry. Ernest Thomas Hayes to be first lieutenant, Infantry. Edward Beall Mitchell to be colonel, Infantry. Roswell Boyle Hart to be first lieutenant, Infantry. James Henry Como to be colonel, QUJirtermaster Corps. Sherman Vitus Hasbrouck to be first lieutenant, Infantry. Harol Dever Coburn to be colonel, Infantry. Esher Claflin Burkart to be first lieutenant, Cavalry. Allen James Greer to be colonel, Field Artillery. Wilbur Ray Pierce to be second lieutenant, Infantry. Robf'rt Whitfield to be colonel, Adjutant General's Depart- William Augustus Davis Thomas to be second lieutenant, ment. . Coast Artillery Co1·ps. James Andrew Mars to be lieutenant colonel, Air C01·ps. James Robert Lindsay, jr., to be second lieutenant, Infantry. Robert l\IOrJ!an L:ron to be lieutenant colonel, Infantry. Thomas Clagett Wood to be second lieutenant, Infantry. William Mechling Colvin to be lieutenant colonel, Coast Artil- Arthur Bliss to be se<'ond lieutenant, Infantry. lery Corps. . John Llewellyn Lewis to be second lieutenant, Infantry. Benjamin Edwards Gray to be lieutenant colonel, Infantry. Donald Dunford to be second lieutenant, Infantry. Elvid Hunt to be lieutenant colonel, Infantry. Julian Henry Baumann to be second lieutenant, Infantry. Dorsey Read Rodney to be lieutenant colonel, Cavalry. William Murlin Creasy, jr., to be second lieutenant, Air Corps. Alexander Mortimer Milton to be lieutenant colonel, Cavalry. Jehu -Prichard Woodblidge to be second lieutenant, Air Cor·ps. Campbell Blackshear Hodges to be lieutenant colonel, In- Gregg Miller Lind ~ ay to be second lieutenant, Air Corps. fantry. Coast At·tillery Corps Jacob Winfield Scott Wuest to be lieutenant colonel, Air Willard Karle Richards to be major, Ordnance Department. Corps. Albert Dewitt Chipman to be captain, Cavalry. Max Bruc-e Garber to be lieutenant colonel, Infantry. Rus ·en Thomas George to be captain, Cavalry. Corbit Strickland Hoffman to be lieutenant colonel, Infantry. J eEI ·e Knox Freeman to be captain, Infantry. Stephen Wilson Winfree to be lieutenant colonel, Cavalry. Au rt:on Monroe Wilson, jr., to be first lieutenant, Field Arthur Emmett Ahrends to be lieutenant colonel, Infantry. Artillery. Charles Franklin Severson to be lieutenant colonel, Infantry. John Mitchell England to be second lieutenant, Field Artillery. Harry Surgisson Grier to be lieutenant colonel, Infantry. FTederick Cruger Pyne to be second lieutenant, Field Artillery. Charles Beatty Moore to be lieutenant colonel, Infantry. John Frederic Powell to be second lieutenant, Field Artillery. Clark Lynn to be lieutenant colonel, Adjutant General's De- William Frederick Niethamer to be second lieutenant, In- partment. fantry. Cornelius Stockmar Bendel to be lieutenant colonel, Infantry. Bolger Nelson Toftoy to be second lieutenant, Air Corps. Ben Frazer Ristine to be lieutenant colonel, Infantry. Albet't Gilmor to be lieutenant colonel, Coast Artillery Corps. Charles Winchell 1\f~Geehan to be second lieutenant, Air Corps. Henry Lee Hughes to be second lieutenant, Air Corps. Stuart Aill8lee Howard to be lieutenant colouel, Adjutant. Gen- Palil August Jaccard to be second lieutenant, Air Corp . . eral's Department. John Francis Franklin to be lieutenant colonel, Infantry. Paul Burnham Nelson to be second lieutenant, Air Corp~. Roland Wallace Boughton to be lieutenant colonel, Infantry. Infantry In'ing Monroe Madison to be lieutenant colonel, Infantry. David Lamme Stone to be colonel, Quartermaster Corps. Ellery Farmer to be lieutenant colonel, Infantry. John Southworth Upham to be lieutenant colonel, Adjutant Everett Newton Bowman to be lieutenant colonel, Infantry. General's Department. Homer Neill P1·e ton to be lieutenant colonel, Infantry. Joseph James O'Hare to be major, Coast Artillery Corps. Edward Aloysiu::; Brown to be lieutenant colonel, Adjutant J o~iah Ross to be second lieutenant, Air Corps. General's Department. A.i-1· Corps William Franklin Harrell to be lieutenant colonel, Infantry. Randolph Piersol Williams to be first lieutenant, Signal Corps. George Edgar Nelson to be lieutenant colonel, Field Artillery. Ralph Francis Stearley to be first lieutenant, Cavalry. JE>s, e Duncan Elliott to be lieutenant colonel, Infantry. Charles Dawson McAllister to be first lieutenant, Field Edward Himmelwright Tarbutton to be lieutenant coloneL Artillery. Quartermaster Corps. James Milliken Bevans to be first lieutenant, 'Field Artillery. Carroll Borden Hodges to be lieutenant colonel, Infantry. Donald Fowler Fritch to be first lieutenant, Field Artillery. Daniel Murray Cheston, jr., to be lieutenant colonel, Infantry. Herbert William Anderson to be second lieutenant, Coast James Madison Churchill to be lieutenant colonel, Infantry. Artillery. Luther Rice James to be lieutenant colonel, Infantry. George Hinkle Steel to be second lieutenant, Field Artillery. Andrew ·Davis Chaffin to be lieutenant colonel, Infantry. WilUam Ewing Baker to be second lieutenant, Infantry. Frederick Wegener Boschen to be lieutenant colonel, Finance Department. BY PROMOTIO~ Louis Fan-ell to be lieutenant colonel, Infantry. Harris Pendleton, jr., to be colonel, Infantry. Charles Otto Schudt to be lieutenant colonel, Coa t Artillet·y Howard Gilman Davids to be colonel, Infantry. Corps. Ernest Van Dyke Murphy to be colonel, Infantry. Emmett Addis to be lieutenant colonel, Cavalry. Hilden Olin to be colonel, Finance Department. Harry Lazelle King to be lieutenant colonel, Cantlry. Albert Watson Foreman to be colonel, Infantry. William Franklin Robinson, jr., to be lieutenant colonel, In- Pel'l·in Lindsey Smith to be colonel, Finance Department. fantry. Harry Lawrence Cooper to be colonel, Infantry. John James Burleigh to be lieutenant colonel, Infantry. William Stanley Sinclair to be colonel, Infantry. Arthur Gerald Hixson to be lieutenant colonel, Cavalry. Charles Louis Willard to be colonel, Quartermaster Corps. Augustine Aloysius Hofmann to be lieutenant colonel. In- Arthur Pitt Watts to be colonel, Infantry. fantrr. William Arthur Carleton to be colonel, Infantr.y. James Blyth to be lieutenant colonel, Infanh:y. Lochlin Washington Caffey to be colonel, Infantry. · Edwin Gunner to be lieutenant colonel, Quartermaster Corps. 822 CONGRESSIONAL llEC .ORD-S.R_~ATE DECEJ\IBER 19 Resolve Potter Palmer to be lieutenant colonel, Adjutant Gen- William Wallace Jenna robe captain, Infantry. eral'. Department. William Richard Flem::ilng to .be cap~ Infantry. Edward Eugene M(;C.ammon to be lleutenrunt ~olonel, .Infa.nt1·y. Francis Porter Simpso-n bo ·be captain, Infantry. . Paul Calkins Potter to be lieutenant cobmel, Infantry. Arthur Paul Thayer to be major. Ca~Rh·y. Albert Thurston iRich to be lieutenant colonel, Quartenna~ter Emile George De Coen to be major, Field Artillery. Corps. John Boone :Martin to be major, Coast Artillery Corps. David Perry Wood to be lieutenant colonel, Infantry. Paul Joseph 1\lcDomi.eTI ro 1be major, Infantry. . Oharles. Bean A.mo1-y;, jr.. t@ be lieutenant colonel, Cav.alry. Eustis Leland Peland to be major, Infantry. William Eal'l Chambers to be major, Infantry. Paul Hathaway te be maj~·, infantry. Joseph Merit Tully to be maj.or, Oa:v.alry. Ha:rdin Cleveland 'Sweeney to be major, Infantry. James deBru.1:h Walbach to be major, Coast Artillery Corps. Eugene Manuel La-ndrum to be major, Adjutant General's Warner William Carr to be major, Infantry. Department. Hu-gll Mitehell, to be major, Signal Co:rps. Frank Glenister Ringland to be major, ·Oavaky. Robert LeGrow Walsh to be major, Air Corps. John Barber Harper to be major, Finance Department. Richm-d Mar [Jevy to be majox, Ooast Ar:tillery i Miller to be maj.or, Infantry. Emil Km:use to ·be captain, Infunb.·y. Junius Henry Houghton to be major, Air Corps. Robert Lynn Baeon to be captain, Infantry. Abram t"orhees Rinearson, :jr., to be malior, 'Coast Artillery Jac6b House .Eldwin to ·be -captain, Air Corp·. Oorps. · Oharl~ Purvis .ATthur to be -captain. Infantl'y. Benjamin Anthony Yancey to .be majorJ Infantry. James Jaekson Hea to be captain, "Infantry. William George Patterson to 'be majOI', Coast AI'tillery Dorps. Carlisle Blitannia Wilson to be captain, Infanh·y. Douglas Jenkins P.age to be ;major, Field Artillery. . Harold Lewis Milan to be ca-ptain, Infantry. James Nephew Caperton to be major, Cavalry. Horaee Harding to be CD,ptain, Field Arh11ery. Chatle~ Compton 'Smith to be major, Cavalry. Fred Ernest Davis to be captain, Quartermaster Corp . Harrison Herman to be major, Cavalry. George Da::nyll Gamble ·to be captain, QuaJrtlermaster ()orps. Frank Olark Scofield to be ·major, Ooast Artillery Corps. Edmund Graham West to be mptain, Quartermaster Corps. George Joseph Ne:wgarden, jr., to he major, Infantry. Joseph Idus La,mbert flo -be eaptain, Cavalry. John David 'Miley to be major, Infantry. Clarence Nelson ilry to be eaptain, Corps of Enginee.I'S. John Forest Goodman to be ·major, Infantry. Joseph Worth Timmons, jr., to be CB.lltain, Quartermaster Ferdinand Francis Gallagher to be major, Coast Artillery Corps. Corps. Hug"h Whitt to be captain, .Finance Department. Barrington Lockhart FJanigen to •be major, Coast ATtillery Charles Frederick Wilson !00 be eaptain, Quartermaster Cm·ps. {Jorp~ - Ray Aloysious Dunn to be captain, Air Corps. Robert Kenneth Whitson to be major, Infantry. l:rwin Wilson Gu.th to be ~Captain, Quartermaster Corps. Otto Frederick Lange rto be major, Infanb:y. Crawford Mc.l\Iann Kellogg to be captain, Chemical Warfare Harlan Leslie l\Iumma to .be major, Infantry. Service. ~Uexa:nder l\.1athias Weyand to be major, Infanti·y. William FL'ftllk Johnsen to be .captain, Infa.nb.·y. Walter David Mangan to :be major, Field Axtillery. ~rank Dennison Wheeler to be ·captain, Quarterma ter Corps. Henry Pal'ker Blanks to be major, Infantry. Herbert .Allen G1udner to be rcapta~ Quarterma.ster Oorp.. Cat! Archibald Bishop to 'be maj{)r, Infantry. Albel't Lobitz tQ be cap~ Quarmrmaster Corps. .A.n el Griggs Wineman to be maj.or, Field AI·tillery. Simon Jacobson to be captain, Quartermaster Corps. James Ellig Slack to be majer, •Cavalry. Edward William Lachmiller to be captain, Quarterma&ter Marvin Randelph Baer t{) be maj:or, lnfantry. Corps. Marvin Conrad. Heyser to be major, Field Artillery. Talm:age Philtlp$ to be captain, Quartermaster Co-:tps. Harold P.reston Kayser to be mnjor, Infantry. John Paul Tillman to be captain, Quartermaster Corps. Basil Dennis Spalding to ibe major, Infantry. George Wilbur McEntire to be captain, Air Corps. Sidney Guthrie Brady to be major, Field Artillery. John Newport Greene to be captain, Cavalry. Robert Sherman Barr :to be major, Ordnance Department. Charles Harrison Brammen t'O be captain, Field Artillery. Jo eph Herzer to be major, Coast Artillery Corps. Frank Arthur Mertz to be captain, Quart-ermaster Corps. George Lea Febiger to ·be major, Infantry. Asa Jeremiah Etheridge to be captain, Air Corps. -George .A. P.ollin to be major, Jf'iield Artillery. IDal'l Spiker Schofield to be .captain, Air Corps. Claud Edward Stadtman to be major, Infantry. Henry James Conner to be captain, Quartermaster Corp._. Erwin Cobia West Davis to be major, F.i.eld .Artillery. Artibm· iEmel Simonin w be captain, .Air '(Jorps. Clarence Ralph Huebner to be major, Infantry. Frank ·O'Driscoll Hunter to be captain, .Air Oerps. • Frederick McOabe ' to be majo-r, "Infanh·y. Harold Huston Goo;rge to be cap.tai.n. .Air Corps• . Irving Boward Engleman to be major, Infantry. Alden Harry Waitt to be captain, Chemical Warfare Sen·ice. William M. Cravens :to be major, Coast Artille-ry •Corps. Stecl.ing Clift6n Robertson to he captain, Infantry. Frederick Jose.ph -de Rohan to i)e major, Infantry. Charles W~ton Cameron to be captain, Quarterm.aste: Corps. Frederick Schoenfeld to be major, Quartermaster Corps. Arthur Edwin Danielson to be captain, Quartermaster Corps. William 1\IcOask:ey "Chapman to be captain, Infantry. Paul Lindsay Beard to be captain, Qua1·termaster Corps. . Norman· McNeill to be cnpta:in, lnf3.Iltry. Joseph Lawrence .Aman to be cnptain, Ordnance Department. Glen Henry Anderson to be captain, Infantry. Walter Jay Reed to be captain, Air Corps. Bryant Edward 1\foore to be capta'in, lln:fanh-y. St. Clair Streett to be captain, Air Corps. Leo Vincent Warner to be captain, Fi~kl. .Artillery. Ranald Trevor Adams to be captain, Field Artillery. ..Yston Deas to iJJe captain, InfanhJT. Andrew Jack&on Nichols to be captain, Infantry. . Henry William Bobrink to be captain, Quartermaster Oorps. , .A:rcbie Donald -cameron to be ca._ptain, 'Infant:I:y. Onslow Sherburne Rolfe t-o be captain, Infantry. John Conrad Christophel to be captain, Quartermaster Corps. Henry Perkins Gantt ·to be captain, 'Field Artillery. Roger Shaw MeCullough to be captain, Air 'Corps. Jesse Brooke Uatlack to be .captain, Field ..Artillery. Frank Morren to be captain, Quartermaster Corps. Parry Weaver Lewis to be captain, Coast .Artillery Corps. , Peter Shemonsky to be captain, ·Quartei·master Corps. Edward Wrenne Timberlake to be captain, Coast Artillery ! William Hunt Roach to be captain, Quartermaster Corps. Corps. Carl BieTwirth Semingto be captain, Infanu·y. 1927 CO:NGRESSIONAL RECORD-SEXATE 823 Rohert Lake l\liller to be captain, Quartermaster Corps. David-James Crawford 1:o be first lieutenant, Field Artillery. Ra lplt Eli Fleischer to be captain, Quartermaster Corps. William Field Sadtler to be first lieutenant, Coast Artillery Hobert Oliver 'Thite to be captain, Quartermaster Co-rps. Corp. "William Foelsing to be captain, Quartermaster Corps. Earl Foster Thomp ·on to be fiTst lieutenant, Cavalry. Charles William Dietz to be captain, Quartermaster Corps. Charles Newsom Branham to be first lieutenant, Coast Artil­ ''alter Lane Shearman to be captain, Quartermaster Corp . lery Corps. Roy l\Iarsh l\IcCutch~n to be captain, Corps of Engineers. Francis Borgia Kane to be first lieutenant, Coast Artillery Aubrey Hoodenpyl Bond to be captain, Corps of Engineers. Corps. Hubert Walter C<>llins to be captain, Corps of Engineers. William Stevens Lawton to be first lieutenant, Coa.'t Artillery Frank Bowman Hastie to be captain, Corps of Engineers. Corp'. Bennett Hart Bowley, jr., to be captain, Corps of Engineers. Albert Svihra to be first lieutenant, Field Artillery. Robert Dorrance Ingalls to be captain, Corps of Engineers. Slator Marcellus :Miller to be first lieutenant, Coast A1'tillery ·walter Lyman l\Iedding to be captain, Corps of Engineers. Corp.. Albert Carl Lieber, jr., to be captain, Corps of Engineers. Granger Anderson to be first lieutenant, Coast Artillery George Jacob Nold to be captain, Corps of Engineers. Corps. Samuel Howes Baker to be captain, Quartermaster Corps. Alfred Eugene Kastner to be first lieutenant, Jl'ield Artillery. Elisha Kenneth Henson to be captain, Quartermaster Corps. Edwin Paul Crandell to be first lieutenant, Cavalry. John Isham l\loore to be captain, Air Corps. Mark McClure to be first lieutenant, Field Artillery. Lloycl 1\Iilto:a Garner to be captain, Quarterma ter Corps. Benjamin Wiley Chidlaw to be first lieutenant, Air Corps. Vance Lawton Richmond to be captain, Infantry. 1\fy:ron Leedy to be first lieutenant, Ordnanre Department. Earle Trask Louck to be captain, Infantry. Alba Carlton Spalding to be first lieutenant, Coast Artillery Harris Markham Findlay to be captain, Field Artillery. Co~ . Russell Crayden Winchester to be captain, Cavalry. Robert Landon Taylor to be first lieutenant, Field Artillery George Hunter Passmore to be captain, Infantry. Corps. James Stevenson Rodwell to be captain, Cavalry. Stephen Cecil Lombard to be first lieutenant, Field Artillery George Orenthus Allen Daughtry to be captain, Cavalry. Corps. Kirk Broaddus to be captain, Cavalry. Howard Gillespie Davidson to be fir~t lieutenant, Air Corps. Newton Gale Bu h to be captain, Infantry. Fred James Woods to be first lieutenant, Coast Artillery Paolo Hoffoss Sperati to be captain, Infantry. Corps. LeRoy Welling Nichols to be captain, Infantry. Kenneth Francis Pughe to lle first lieutenant, Infantry. Cltarles Martin Chamberlain, jr., to be captain, Infantry. Robert Smith McClenaghan to be fu·st lieutenant Field Ar- LeRoy Allen Whittaker to be captain, Coast Artillery Corps. tillery. ' HarQ' Bames Sepulveda to be captain, Infantry. Franris Xavier Mulvihill to be first lieutenant, Infantry. Samuel Charles Skemp to be captain, Air Corps. Charles Hancock Reed to be firt lieutenant, Cavalry. John Robert Hubbard to be captain, Quartermaster Corps. Walter Russell Hensey, jr., to be fir ·t lieutenant. Field Robert Gale Breene to be captain, Air Corps. Artillery. · George Abe Woody to be captain, Ordnance Department. Orval Ray Cook to be first lieutenant, Air Corps. Thomas Kenneth Vincent to be captain, Ordnance Department. PeiTy l\lcCoy Smith to be first lieutenant, Coast Artillery CorllS. Samuel Littler Metcalf to be captain, Infantry. James Wr~athall Spry to be first lieutenant, Air Corps. Geoffre:r Maurice O'Connell to be captain, Coast Artillery Gordon Sherman Armes to be first lieutenant, Cavalry. Corps. Frederick William Rein to be first lieutenant, Infantry. Frank Wilbur Halsey to be captain, Infantry. Raymond Balliet Bosserman to be first lieutenant, Ca,·alry. Kirby Green to be captain, Infantry. Charles Rufus Smith to be first lieutenant, Infantry. l\fyron Joseph Conway to be captain, InfantJ.·y. Harold Alfred l\Ieyer to be first lieutenant, InfantJ.·y. Rolli Benjamin Hoyt to be captain, Infantry. Robert Earle Blair to be first lieutenant, Infantry. A~thur Foster Gilmore to be captain, Coast Artillery Corps. Harold Thomas Molloy to be first lieutenant, Field Artillery. John August Otto to be captain, Infantry. James Dunne O'Connell to be first lieutenant, Infantrv. Joseph Burton Sweet to be captain, Infantry. Gilman Clifford :Mudgett to be first ·Hen tenant, Cavalry. ­ William Quinntillus Jeffords, jr., to be captain, Coast Artillery Leonard ·Edwin Stephens to be first lieutenant, Infantry: Corps. · Numa Augustin Watson to be first lieutenant, Infantry. Garland Cuzorte Black to be captain, Signal Corps. 'Vesley Woodworth Yale to be first lieutenant, Cavalr~·. George Anthony Patrick to be captain, Coast Artillery Corps. Robert Wilkins Douglass, jr., to be :first lieutenant, Air C(lrps. Joseph Andral Nichols to be captain, Infantry. Oscar Louis Beal to be first lieutenant, Infantry. Leon Lightner Kotzebue to be captain, Infantry. Oliver Wendell Hughes to be first lieutenant, Infanh-y. Walter Christian Thee to be captain, Quartermaster Corps. Robert Vincent Murphy to be first lieutenant, Infantry. George Work Marvin to be first lieutenant, Corps of Engi- Aloysius Eugene O'Flaherty, jr., to be fu· t lieutenant, In- neers. fantry. Charles Joseph Barrett, jr., to be first lieutenant, Field Melville Fuller Grant to be first lieutenant, Infantry. .A..rtillery. James Edward Rees to be first lieutenant, Infantr3· . Otto Spaulding Tinkel to be first lieutenant, Corps of Engi­ James Robinson Pierce to be first lieutenant, Infantry. neers. Lemuel Mathewson to be fu-st lieutenant, li'ield Artillery. ~lnxwell Davenport Taylor to be first lieutenant, Field George Harold Carmouche to be first lieutenant, Infantry. Artillery. Thomas Varon Webb to be first lieutenant, Infantry. Henry James Woodbury to be first lieutenant,. Corps of George Edward 1\litchell, jr., to be first lieutenant Field Engineers. Artillery. · ' Louis Jacob Rumaggi to be first lieutenant, Corps of Engi­ William Henry Schildroth to be first lieutenant. Infantrv neers. George Arthur Taylor to be first lieutenant, Infantry. ~ · Edmund Clayton Lynch to be first lieutenant, Air Corps. Alfred Lawrence Price to be first lieutenant, Field Artillery. Francis Jennings Wilson to be first lieutenant, Corps of Frank Llewellyn Beadle to be first lieutenant, Corps of Engi- Engineers. neers. - Alfred August Kessler, jr., to be first lieutenant, Air Corps. Gilbert Hayden to be first lieutenant, Signal Corps. Paschal Neilson Strong, jr., to be first lieutenant, Corps of Francis Eugene Cothran to be first lieutenant~ Corps of Engi­ Engineers. neers. Cortlandt Van Rensselaer Schuylei· to be first lieutenant, Thomas Herbert Maddocks to be first lieutenant, Signal Coast Artillery Corps. Corps. Lawrence Coy Leonard to be first lieutenant, Ordnance Charles Perry Holweger to be first lieutenant, Field Artillery. Deparbnent. David Marion Fowler to be first lieutenant, Infantry. 1\Iervin Eugene Gross to be first lieutenant, Air Corps. Edward Arthur Kleinman to be first lieutenant, Coast Robert Wayne Raynsford to be first lieutenant, Signal Corps. Artillery Corps. LeRoy Judson Stewart to be first lieutenant, Field Artillery. Blackshear Morrison Bryan, jr., to be first lieutenant, Field Edward Shelley Gibson to be first lieutenant, Infantry. Artillery. - John F1·ancis Uncles to be first lieutenant, Field Artillery. John Lawson Ballantyne to be first lieutenant. CavalrY. Giles Richard Carpenter to be first lieutenant, Field Artillery. Hilbert Milton Wittkop to be first lieutenant, Air Corps. CONGR.ESSIONAL R.ECOR.D-- SENATE DECEl\IBER 19

Donald Quitman Harris to be first lieutenant, Field Artillery. Walter Howm·d DeLange to be fir t lieutenant, Field Artillery, John Percy Kennedy, jr., to be first lieutenant, Field .A.I·tillel·y. Robert Kelsey Haskell to be first lieutenant, Field Artillery, Townsenll Griffiss to be first lieutenant, Air Corps. Ralph A.del Snavely to be first lieutenant, Air Corps. William .Andrew Wedemeyer to be fir t lieutenant, Field Claude A.rmenius Thorp to be first lieutenant, Cavalry. Artillery. Rowland Reid Street to be first lieutenant, Infantry. Edwin Carlo Greiner to be first lieutenant, Cavah-y. John Marquiss Whistler to be first lieutenant, Field Artillery. Philip Howard Raymond to be first lieutenant, Coast Artillery James Howard Leusley to be fir t lieutenant, Field Artillery. Corps. William Henry Drummond to be first lieutenant, Field Ar- Oliver Perry N€wman t<> be first lieutenant, Infantry. tillery. Roscoe Gorea :llacDonald to be firt lieutenant, Infantry. "Viking Torsten Ohrbom to be :first lieutenant, Infantry. John Hughes Stodter to be first lieutenant; Cavalry. Glen Trice Lampton to be first lieutenant, Air Corps. Thoma Edwru·d Lewis to be first lieutenant, Field Artillm·y. Howard Miller Fey to be first lieutenant, Air Corps. Stewart Tiffany Yincent to be first lieutenant, Infantry. Robert Boyd Williams to be first lieutenant, Air Corps. Paul Henry ~fahoney to be first lieutenant, Infantry. Francis Rarick Johnson to be first lieutenant, Corps of Engi- James Clyde Fry to be first lieutenant, Infantry. neers. Austin Folger Gilmartin to be first lieutenant, Infantry. Glenn Hunter Palmer to be first lieutenant, Signal Corps. Elbert Kelly to be fir t lieutenant, Infantry. Royal Bertrand Lord to be first lieutenant, Corps of Engi­ Ore tes Cleveland to be first lieutenant, Infantry. neers. James Harrison Dickie to be first lieutenant, Field Artillery. Kenner Fisher Hertford to be first lieutenant, Corps of Engi­ Charles Llewellyn G<>rman to be first lieutenant, Quarter- neers. master Corps. Steven Livesay Conner to be first lieutenant, Corps of Engi­ Joseph Perry Catte to be first lieutenant, Infantry. neer'. Albert Carroll Morgan to be first lieutenant, Infantry. l\Iiles Reber to be :first lieutenant, Corps of Engineers. Perley Bernard Sancornb to be first lieutenant, Cavalry. Charles West Stewart, jr., to be first lieutenant, Corp of John LaValle Graves to be first lieutenant, Field Artillery. Engineers. Herbert William Kruger to be first lieutenant, Field Artillery. William Francis Merwin Longwell to be first lieutenant, Corps William Earl 'Vatters to . be first lieutenant, Field Artillery. of Engineers. Leo Henry Dawson to be first lieutenant, Air Corps. John Rutherford Noyes to be first lieutenant, Corps of Engi­ Milton John Smith to be first lieutenant, Air Corps. neers. Carl Budd 'Vahle t<> be first lieutenant, Coa t Artillery Corps. Leonard Loyd Hilliard to be first lieuten.ant, Infantry. Lyle Rosenberg to be first lieutenant, Corps of Engineers. Le. ter Vocke to be first lieutenant. Field Artillery. William Randolph Winslow to be first lieutenant, Corps of James Fish, 3d, to be first lieutenant, Infantry. Engineers. John Leon Dicks to be first lieutenant, Infantry. William Newton Leaf to be first lieutenant, Corps of Engi­ neers. Le~ter ~Iavity Rouch to be fu·st lieutenant, Field Artillery. John On-en Colonna to be first lieutenant, Corps of Engineers. David l\Iorris Dunne, jr., to be :first lieutenant, Corps of Engi­ Herman William Faii·brother to be first lieutenant, Infantry. neers. Grover Cleveland Kinney to be first lieutenant, Infantry. Frank l\IcAdams Albrecht to be first lieutenant, Co1·ps of Thomas Edward Meyer to be first lieutenant, Field Artillery. Engineers. Thoma ,Jefferson Randolph to be first lieutenant, Cavalry. Theodore Morrison Clarence Osborne to be first lieutenant, Harry Edwin Jla!!Duson to be first lieutenant, Coast Artillei'Y Corps of Engineers. COI'J)f'. Ralph Arnold . Tudor to be fu·st li~utenant, Corps of Engi­ LaRoy Sanders Graham to be 1irst lieutenant, Infantry. neers. Franci Lavelle Roody to be first lieutenant, Cavalry. Robert Farnsworth Hallock to be first lieutenant, Field David Hottenstein to be first lieutenant, Coast .Artillery Corps. Artillery. George John Kelley to be first lieutenant, Coast Artillery Stuart .Alfred Beckley to be first lieutenant, Field Artillery, Corps. Harold David Kehm to be first lieutenant, Field Artillery. Ray Brooks Floyd to be fu'St lieutenant, Infantry. Philippine Scouts Ray Eugene Marshall to be first lieutenant, Infantry. George Cabell Carrington to be first lieutenant, Infantry. Rafael Larrosa Garcia to be major, Philippine Scouts. Harland Fremont Burgess to be first lieutenant, Infantry. RmmAR AlrnY be Karl Clifford Frank to first lieutenant, Coast Artillery MEDICAL CORPS Corps. Clyde Anderson Burcham to be first lieutenant, Cavalry. To be colonels Walter Raymond Miller to be first lieutenant, Infantry. Jay Ralph Shook. Kent Nelson. Randall James Hogan to be :first lieutenant, Ordnance Depart- Henry Halcolm Rutherford. Peter Conover Field. ment. Ernest Lewis Ruffner. Herbert Goss Shaw. Robert Nicholas Young to be first lieutenant, Infantry. Patrick Henry .McAndrew. Louis Brechemin, jr. James Frederick Phillips to be first lieutenant, Corps of George )lacy Ekwul'Zel. Clement Colfax Whitcomb. Engineers. Carroll Defore~ t Buck. Cosam Julian Bartlett. Douglas Valentine Johnson to be first lieutenant, Field John Howard Allen. Reubep Boyd Miller. Al·tillery. Robert Urie Patterson. James Frank Hall. Frederick Williams Watrous to be first lieutenant, Field Roger Brooke. Raymond Franklin 1\Ietcalfe. Artillery. Wallace De Witt. Perry Lee Boyer. Charles Elford Smith to be first lieutenant, Infantry. ::\latthew Augustus DeLaney. James l\Iatthew Phalen. Raymond Edward Culbertson to be fir~t lieutenant, Air Corps. Paul Stacy Halloran. l\Iaynard Harper Carter to be fir t lieutenant, Infantry. To be lieuteuant colonels LeGrande Albert Diller to be fu·st lieutenant. Infantry. Robert Parker Hollis to be first lieutenant, Field Artillery. Guy ·victor Rukke. Ray Woodman Bryan. Isaac Davis White to be first lieutenant, Cavalry. Henry Church Pill ·om·y. \Villiam Hadley Richardson. Louis Edward Roemer to be first lieutenant, Infan1:J.'y. Edgar King. William Kay Bartlett. Max Hesner Gooier to be first lieutenant, Infantry. To be captain-s •Joseph Howard Harper to be fir t lieutenant, Infantry. Otis Blaine Schreuder. Prentice Lauri :Moore. Emerald Foster Sloan to be first lieutenant, Infantry. Edwm·d John Kallus. John Pau1 Russell. Newton Farragut :McCurdey to be first lieutenant, Cavalry. Arthm· Daviu Hawkins. .John l\Iorris IIargrea>e:::. .John .Julius Dubbelde, jr., to be first lieutenant, Infantry. Howland Allan Gibson. Don Longfellow. Joe Ford Simmons to be first lieutenant, Coast Artillery Corp . Pau1 Ashland Brickey. Ray Hamilton Skaggs. Clarence Turner Hu1ett to be first lieutenant, Infantry. Berna Thomas Bowers. William Frank DeWitt. Daniel Powell Poteet to be first lieutenant, Field Artillery. Leon Lloyd Gardner. 01·d to Gariche Chrisman be first lieutenant, Infantry. DE..~TAL CORPS Gerson Kirkland Heic:;s to be :first lieutenant, Ordnance De- partment. To oo captains Ransom George .Amloug to be first lieutenant, Quartermaster James :Uelvin Epperly. Marvin Edward Kennebeck. Corps. James Harrer Pence. Hugh Dand Phillips. Paul Lawrence Martin to be first lieutenant, Jneld Artillery. Everitte Fa>or Arnold. Walter Edwin Chase. 1927 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-SENATE 825

VETERIN.ARY OORPS George F. Martin. John D. Price. To be coloneZ Bernard F. Jenkins. James B. Ryan. Boyd R. Alexander. Jules Henry Uri. Sidney W. Kirtland. Edwin S. Earnhardt. Richard E. Webb. To be majors J obn E. Williams. Edwin F. Cochrane. Jacob Edward Behney. Jean Rossman Underwood. Jesse L. Kenworthy, jr. Thomas V. Cooper. William Henry Houston. Raymond Alexander Keiser. Webster M. Thompson. Roy K. Jones. Clell Bricker Perkins. Clifi'ord Caswell Whitney. Albert E. Schrader. l\fartin B. Stonestreet. Horace Samuel Eakins. Christian William Greenlee. Louis R. Vail. Heman J. Redfield. Isaac Owen Gladish. Harold Edward Egan. Paul S. Goen. Lowell Cooper. Jesse Daniel Derrick. Harry V. Baugh. Andrew C. McFall. To be captai1l Dennis L. Ryan. Herbert S. Jones. Frank Marion Lee. Andrew D. Mayer. Herbert J. Grassie. Charles G. Halpine. Isaiah Parker. To be first lieutenants Charles T. Joy. James K. Davis. Herbert Morris Cox. Walter W. Webb. George D. Price. Laurence Robert Bower. Nelson N. Gates. Cassin Young. MEDICAL ADMINISTRATIVE CORPS Henry L. Phelps. Carlyle Craig. To be captains Arnold H. Bateman. Knefier McGinnis. John E. Reinburg. James P. Compton. Thomas Grimsley Hester. John A. Terhune. John Dennis Foley. Fred W. Connor. Charles J. Wheeler. Dallas Wait. CHAPLAINS Theodore T. Patterson. John E. Ostrander, jr. William Richard Arnold. George P. Brewster. Linton Herndon. Alexander Daniel Suthedand. Samuel P. Ginder. Houston L. Maples. APPOINTMEL...,TS AND PROMOTIONS IN THE NAVY Henry B. Broadfoot. Randall E. Dees. Rear Admiral Charles F. Hughes, to be Chief of Naval Oper­ Adolph J. Merkt. Colin Campbell. ations in the Department of the Navy. Van H. Ragsdale. Paul W. F. Huschke. Capt. William D. Leahy, to be Chief of the BuTeau of Ord­ John Wilkes. Frank G. Fahrion. nance in the Department of the Navy. Robert J. 'Valker. Albert G. Noble. Robert B. Twining. Ingolf N. Kiland. TO BE REAR AD~S Homer L. Grosskopf. Frank H. Dean. Edward H. Campbell. Frank H. Brumby. William P. Bacon. Edward A. Mitchell. Walter S. Crosley. . Wilbur W. Feineman. Harold S. Klein. Frank B. Upham. Henry V. Butler. Bruce P. Flood. Alexander D. Douglas. Ridley McLean. James J. Raby. Oscar 'V. Erickson. Lawrence Wainwright. David F. Sellers. William H. Standley. Fred D. Kirtland. Donald B. Duncan. Joseph M. Reeves. James M. Steele. Earle E. Muschlitz. TO BE CAPTAINS Arthm· D. Burhans. Robert B. Dashiell. John S. Abbott. Ormond L. Cox. Thomas D. ·warner. John O'D. Richmond. Nathan W. Post. Royal E. Ingersoll. Paul W. Rutledge. Simon P. Fullinwider, jr. Ro coe F. Dillen. Herbert F. Leary. T. DeWitt Carr. William P. 0. Clarke. Herbert H. 1\lichael. Chester W. Nimitz. Charles P .. Cecil. George T. Howard. Allen B. Reed. Reuben B. Coffey. Calvin T. Durgin. Andrew G. Shepard. Christopher R. P. Rodgers. Joseph V. Ogan. Humbert W. Ziroli. Lisle F. Small. Lewis Coxe. Albert T. Church. James A. Scott. Nicholas Vytlacil. Cleon W. 1\Iauldin. John N. Ferguson. William E. l\filler. Robert G. Tobin. • Isaac C. Johnson, jr. Arthur C. Stott. George F. Chapline. Theodore l\f. Waldschniidt. David W. Bagley. William S. McClintic. William ·J. Forrestel. Carl F. Holden. Fred H. Poteet. Byron McCandless. John S. Roberts. Ge6rge l\f. Baum. Roscoe C. MacFall. TO BE LIEU TEN ~....-Ts Richard P. l\lcCullough. Edmund S. Root. Rowland D. Hill, jr. Thomas J. Kelly. Max l\f. Frucht. Arthur B. Cook. Amariah B. Cartwright. Bruce Settle. Charles S. Joyce. George C. Pegram. William J. 1\Iedusky. James C. Pollock. TO BE COMMANDERS Glenn F. DeGrave. John J. Curley. Edmund S. n. Brandt. Thomas E. Van Metre. Frederick H. Ottaway. Harold ,V. Eaton. James D. Maloney. John H. S. Dessez. William G. Buch. Harold E. McCarthy. Alan G. Kirk. Stuart S. Brown. Herbert V. Perron. l\Iorton C. Hutchinson, jr. Granville B. Hoey. Comfort B. Platt. John E. Pixton. Paul E. Roswall. Francis W. Scanland. Sherman S. Kennedy. Ralph B. Hunt. William W. Juvenal. Joel W. Bunkley. Chauncey A. Lucas. William B. Jackson, jr. Wilson D. Leggett, jr. Max B. DeMott. Charles H. 1\lorrison. Kinloch N. Gardner. Delamer L. Jones. Ernest J. Blankenship. Paul H. Rice. Harry A. Guthrie. William G. Lalor. Harold C. Train. Robert G. Coman. William S. G. Davis. William W. Cone. W.allace L. Lind. Holbrook Gibson. Sydney S. Bunting. Elmon B. Guernsey. Lee P. Johnson. Charles E. Reordan. Arnold E. True. John P. Womble, jr. Monroe Kelly. Howard II. J. Benson. Grover B. H. Hall. Bryan C. Harper. Marion C. Robertson. Hugo W. Koehler. Linfield L. Hunt. Ralph 0. l\Iyers. Leo L. Lindley. George N. Reeves, jr. Sterling T. Cloughley. Samuel W. Du Bois. Edward C. Raguet. Virgil J. Dixon. Wayne A. McDowell. Paul E. Howard. Charles C. Davis. James B. Glennon. William B. l\IcHugh. George S. Young. Robert R. Paunack. Franklin Van Valkenburgh. Rodger W. Simpson. Thomas F. Darden, jr. Frank D. l\fauock. Vance D. Chapline. Frederick D. Kime. Ralph R. Stogsdall, jr. Williams C. Wickham. Frank A. Braisted. Roy l\1. Signer. Alexander S. Edward. Freeland A. Daubin. Raleigh C. Williams. Harry A. Brandenburger. Paul J. Register. Hugh V. McCabe. Thalbert N. Alford. Rufus G. Thayer. Joseph C. Hubbard. Claude S. Gillette. Eugene M. Woodson. John G. Burrow. DeLong Mills. William C. Faus. Wilbur J. Carver. William F. Ramsey. Forrest H. Wells. Donald R. Tallman. William L. Drybread. TO BE LIEUTENANT COMMA "DERS Eugene P. Sherman. Dashiell L. Madeire. Carroll W. HamilL John H. Carson. Benjamin L. Hailey. Silas B. Moore. Lyman K. Swenson. Robert B. Carney. Gerald D. Linke. Nicholas B. Van Bergen. Thorvald A. Solberg. Arthur W. Radford. Malcolm E. Selby. Joe E. Rucker. Edward P. Sauer. William D. Thomas. William F. Fitzgerald, jr. George D. l\Iartin. 826 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-SEX~c\..TE DECEl\IBER 19. Boynton L. Brann. Walter S. Keller. John A. Hayes. Sherman E. Burroughs, jr. Everett E. Pettee. William C. Gray. Edmund A. Cunningham. Jere D. Hyde. 'Valter S. Dufion. Peter M. Money. Rufus E. Rose, jr. Joseph P. Thew. Cad II. Sanders. Frederick I. Entwistle. Orville F. Gregor. John P. Cromwell. Paul E. Howell. Walter F. Weidner. Lee R. Herring. Daniel J. McCallum. Fort H. Callahan. Burtnett K. Culver. Charles ,Y. "Wilkins. Herrmann G. Page. Herbert W. Taylor, jr. Lamar M. Wise. Eugen·e C. Rook. Forrest Close. Carl S. Drischler. John J. Lenhart. Robert L. Campbell, jr. Herbert n. Ballinger. Charles F. M. S. Quinby. Clinton A. Misson. Clauue B. Reese. Frank W. MacDonald. 'Valter R. Jones. John A. Upshur. William N. Mansfield. Hammond J. Dugan. Parke G. Young. Thomas L. Lewis. George C. Towner. Herman SaiL Elmer A. Tarbutton. Justin H. Dickins. William A. Hickey. Charles A. Legg. William G. Fewel. Thomas A. Parfitt. Ralph E. Wilson. Herbert K. Gates. John H. Willis. "\\~illiam D. Johnson, jr. Lotti. W. Nuesse. Solomon F. Oden. Byron H. Hanlon. Joseph R. Barbaro. Thomas H. Dyer. Thomas J. Kirkland, jr. Cad H. Bushnell. John W. Rice. ~lerle A. Sawyer. :\fyrou S. Teller. ·william E. )lakosky. Walter G. Schindler. J... eo A. Bachman. Tillman T. Dantzler. Laurence .A. Abercrombie. William A. Griswold. William Y. Cole. Robert 0. Minter. Harry L. Bixby. Howard N. Coulter. William F. Simmons. Crutchfield Adair. Irving D. Wiltsie. George G. Herring, jr. Olifford A. Fines. Bertrand D. Quinn. Elwood D. Poole. Edward P. Mo01·e. Edward W. Rawlins. Stephen R. Bedford. Frank R. Talbot~ Morris J. Westfnll. Jnmes ,Y. Smith. George W . Evans, jr. .Joseph C. Cronin. Donald L. Erwin. Elmer E. Yeomans. .John D. Hayes. Wyatt Craig. :Marion C. Thompson. Edward 1<\ Crowe. Max Scl1reiner. Keith R... Belch. Elmer P. Abernethy. Elmer E. Bertholu. Harold P. Smith. William G. Forbes. Edward C. Ewen. William G. llichelet. Artlmr W. Bas . Walfrid Myquist. Eugene B. Oliver. Fran~ J. Grandfield. Wayne N. Gamet. Rogers S. Ransehousen. John E. Rezner. Wallace ::ll. Beakley. EV"erett W. Abdill. George D. Lyon. Ernest H. Webb. Hallsted L. Hopping. Paul L. F. Weaver. Herbert .A. Tellman. Ward C. Gilbert. Maurice :M. Bradley. Willis E. Cleaves. Charles 0. Glisson. Edward I. McQuiston. Joseph H. Garvin. Theodore J. Shultz. Everard :M. Heim. Frederick S. Steinbauer. Lester K. Rice.. Edwin T. Layton. Edmund Kirby-Smith, jr. Robert E. Canty. Stephen G. Barcbet . Roger D. Phillips. J runes S. :E~reeman. Thomas M. Dell, jr. William P. Tammany. Thomas A. Turner, jr. George C. Mille1·. Casper H. Hicks. Shirley Y. Cutler. Robert C. Sutliff. Stephen B. Cooke. Julius A. ~~c...~amar. William C. France. Adolph H. Oswald. 'Villiam V. Hamilton. Joel ~ewsom. Rae E. Arison. Freuerick R. Furth. George H. Lyttle. Apollo Soucek. Bob 0. :Mathews. Robert L. Swart. Dewey G. Porter. Ralph E. Hanson. Ephraim R. :McLean, jr. Fmnk C. Layne. Wakeman B. Thorp. Thomas Lee McCann. \Yalter V". R. Vieweg. Eugene C. Burchett. Charles W. Gray, jr. 'Villard R. Gaine .~ . Richard F. Stout. George W. Stott. Charles W. Roland. Leslie K. Pollard. Willford )f. Hyman. Thomas A. Hu<'k-ins. George C. Crawford. Charles R. Lamdin. Bernard L. Austin. George A. Sinclair. Robert W. Berry. Charles S. Alexander. Joseph :M. P. Wright. Dale Harris. Lo1·euzo S. Sabin, jr. Horace L. De Ri>era. Albert Handly. Kenneth Earl. William S. Price. Philip G. Nichols. Norman W. Ellis. James B. Ricketts. Joseph A. CormDll;r. Alex l\1. Loker. John T. Shannon. John A. Marsh. August J. Detzel-. jr. Robert' E. JaspeT~on. Joseph E .. Wolowsky. LeUoi B. Blaylock. ·william R. Cooke, jr. Walter J. Lee. James R. Pahl. Samuel E. Latimer. Donald T. Giles. Daniel A. Frost. Paul K. Bryant. Harold B. Miller. Charles H. Judson. James V. Carney. William J. Longfellow. Austen V. Magly. Donald F. Smith. Joseph l\1. Began. George W. Patterson, jr. Robert G. Lockhart. Charle .~ F. l\laddin, jr. 'Viley N. Hand. Donald B. Bennett. Thomas C. Ragan. Campbell D. Emory. ·william D. Hoover. Joseph A. Callaghnn. Preston V. Mercer. Ralston B. Vanzant. Edwin l\1. Orouch. James D. Lovejoy. Robert Goldthwaite. Jasper T. Acuff.. John M. Campbell, jr. Howard L. Collins. Jose l\1. Cabanillas. Francis J. Firth. Oral R. Swigart. James. S. Laidlaw. Carl E. Cullen. Hugh Peters. Walter P. Ramsey,_jr. Adrian M. Hurst. Audley L. Warburton. Arthur H. McCollum. Buell F. Brandt. John W. C. Brand. Colby G. Rucker. Lawrence E. DivolL LE'ster R. Reiter. William V. Davis, jr. Jack B. Williams. Lawrence C. Grannis. Robert G. Willis. John N. Opie, 3d. James R. Dancy. John JI'. Madden. · Harold A. Houser. Ezra M. Ellis. Robert S. Carr. Bernard J. Skahill. Leo J. McGowan. Aurelius B. VosseUer. Warren W. Harvey. Louis G. McGlone. . Julius L. Thompson. William J. Mitchell. Harold R. Demarest. Melville E. Eaton. John P. Heath .. John R. Ruhsenberger. Francis M. Hook. Edmund C. Mahoney. F1·ancis J. Bridget. John F. Add oms. ·william W. Weeden, jr. Angus M. Cohan. Robert F. Hickey. Gordon M. Stoddard. Samuel M. Bailey. Geoffrey E. Sage. Theodore R. Wirth. Harold H. Tiemroth. Elton C. Parker. Harold A. Carlisle. James -A. Roberts, jr. Marcel E. A. GDnin. Roy D. Williams. Delwyn Hyatt. James H. McWilliams. Emory W. Stephens. Ethelbert Watts. Herman Barter. Charles R. Brown. Donald F. McLean. Lawrence J. McPeake. Clarence E. Aldrich. Lowden Jessup, jr. Howell C. Fish. William H. Duvall. Charles F. Greber. l\Iyron E. Thomas. Alfred J. Bolton. Howell AI·mor. George L. Ru sell. Jennings Courts. John M. Kennaday. John C. Harris. John S. Crenshaw. John M. Hoskins. Philip M. Boltz. Minor C. Heine. Lawrence F. Connolly. Joseph P. Rockwell. Thomas H. Templeton. Donald J. Ram8ey. \Valter B. Pendleton. Lionel L. Rowe. Edwin R. Wilkinson. Henry E. Richter. Leo B. Farrell. Floyd F. Ferris. Roger E. Perry. Frank E. Deam. Charles J. Marshall. Sumner K. MacLean. Richard J. Bom·ke, jr. 'Villiam D. Brown. Leon W. Johnson. TO BE LIEUTENANT (JTilUOR GRADE) Paul Graf. Charles H. Callaway. Cal'lisle H. Thompson. Irvin T. Duke. Warren D. Wilkin. Howard V. Hopkins. Farrington, L. Barr. Truman J. Hedding. Forrest R. Bunker. Herbert P. Sheldon. Frederic-k Moosbrugger. Chester C. Wood. Virginius R. Roane. ~eill Phillips. Samuel P. Comly, jr. Clarence E. Ekstrom. William B. Bailey. Harry Burris. Matthew L. Kelly. W'illiam G. Fisher. Hemy C. Daniel. Richard C. Webb, jr. 1927 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-SENATE 827 Walter M. Graesser. Joseph W. Fowler. 'Vesley H. Randig. Otis C. Gregg. Joseph S. Lillard. John K. Hyatt. John C. Bernet Christian H. Duborg. Arthur D. Barnes. John H. 1\Iorrill. John W. Slayden. James R. McCormick. John A. Holbrook. James H. Mcintosh. Welton D. Rowley. Lannie Conn. William B. Thompson. Elliott W. Shanklin. Shirley S. Miller. Paul ,Y. Card. Richard S. Moss. Albert N. Perkins. Francis C. Mam·ille. Clifford L. Wickman. William R. McCaleb. Hugh B. McLean. Allen M. Zollars. Jack F. Bowling. jr. Archibald G. W. McFadden. John E. Spahn. James V. Rigby. William R. Sands, jr. Joseph I. Taylor, jr. Chester E. Carroll. James E. Cohn. William E. Ferrall. Harrison B. South worth. Rufus C. Young, jr. Jacob C. Schwab. Martin J. Lawrence. George C. Montgomery. Louis H. Gwinn. Richard H. Phillip ·. Samuel G. Mitchell. Joseph F. Johnson. Edgar L. Witmer. Joseph N. Murphy. Jack Maginnis. Thomas E. Fraser. John B. Rooney. John C. Broach. Edward H. Eckelmeyer, jr. Thomas S. Cameron. Frederick J. ·Bell. Leroy V. Honsinger. Edward l\1. Condra, jr. Russell J. }Jellerby. Hampton M. Ericsson. Charles M. Heberton. Brooke Schumm. Charles W. Oexle. Harrell W. Hall. Archibald D. Hunter. Carroll F. Johnson. Edwin J. Taylor, jr. Brainerd N. Bock. David B. Overfield. John W. Malley. Dewey H. Collins. Lewis E. Ooley. Charles E. Clutts. Jack H. Lewis. Wallis F. Petersen. John C. Daniel. Hunt V. Martin. Richard ·w. Smith. Frank H. Ball. Joseph J. Woodward. Alan B. Sutherland, jr. George K. Fraser. William A. Evans, jr. Joseph W. Adams, jr. Harold S. Harnly. Carl L. Steiner. George M. Brydon, jr. Henry T. Read. Ralph Hickox. Hilfort C. Owen. Frank R. Davis. Robert S. Bertschy. Arthur E. Loeser. Kenton E. Price. Charles E. McDonald. Thomas J. Ball. William H. Leahy. Arthm· S. Born. William S. Hays. Hugh J. Martin. Robert H. Rice. Allen Smith. Max C. Storms. George C. King. James A. Lucier. Thomas B. Klakring. Richard F. Johnson, jr. Clarence L. Winecoff. Van Leo Wanselow. William Loveland. Charles B. Cross, jr. Charles J. Stuart. Bloomfield 1\I. Cornell. Alexander M. Kowalzyk, jr. Dennis L. Francis. Joseph A. Farrell, jr. Harlan M. Thorpe. John L. Ewing, jr, John S. Holtzclaw. Arthur B. Leverett. James F. Benson. Timothy F. Donohue. Henry W. Goodall. Stockton B. Colt, jr. John B. Smyth. James 1\f. Roberts. Louis B. Edwards. Bernard T. Zelenka. Charles C. Pyne. Alden D. Schwarz. Charles A. Ferriter. Bromfield B. Nichol. Carl F. Stillman. James G. Holloway, jr. Harry B. Temple. Walter C. Dey. Benjamin E. Mo01·e, jr. Jesse Blackwell. William L. Erdmann. Eugene T. Seaward. Leonard C. Chamberlin. Vernon Dortch. Clyde J. Nesser. John T. Warren. Delbert F. Williamson. Robert S. Quackenbusb, jr. Wilfred E. Lankenau. Joshua C. Shively. George B. Tuggle. Edmund T. Napier, jr. John M. Sweeney. Fitzhugh L. Rhea. Harold L. Tallman. Walter H. Price. · John C. Waldron'. Francis H. Gardner. James A. Haley, jr. Marin R. Stone. Frederick J. llsemann. John ·F. Cooke. Thomas J. Hamilton. Daniel J. Weintraub. Arthur 1\f. Townsend. James C. Landstreet. Henry B. Stanley. George B. Gilbertson. Raymond R. Waller. Edward F. Gallagher. Robert L. Densford. George Edmund Peterson. Frederick L. Litty, jr. Joseph M. Worthington. Halle C. Allan, jr. Leland R. Lampman. Richard S. Baron. Ralph V. Baldwin. Frederic A. Berry, jr. Jack P. Monroe. Cameron 'M. Winslow, jr. Elliott M. Moore. Herbert L. Hoerner. Elijah W. Irish. Arthur B. Dickie. Theodore C. Fauntz. Loren A. Morris. Edward K. Shanahan. Burton L. Doggett. Sidney King. Earl K. Swearingen. Noble W. Lowrie. Ralph T. McDaniel. Robley W. Clark. Charles P. Hill, jr. Charles C. McDonald. Carl J. Pfing.stag. Burnice L. Rutt. Harry J. Ward. Lee W. Parke. Robert E. Sayre. Charles L. Lee. Harry F. Bauer. Arnold R. Kline. David B. Young. Robert H. G. Johnson. Roger F. Scott. John F. Henkel. William V. Deutermann. George Edward Peterson. Harry E. Day. Leslie H. Hawkin·son. Noble W. Abrahams. Frederick Funke, jr. Herbert F. Eckberg. ~gyll E. Buckley, Lloyd H. Thomas. Robert W. Larson. G1ll M. Richardson. Edgar T. Neale. William A. Kanakanui. William C. Specht. Frederic F. Agens. Joseph T. Hazen. Ted C. Marshall. Arthur C. Wood. Leon J. Barbot. Ira H. Nunn. Theodoric C. Linthicum. Carl W. Flesher. James A. Jordan. Charles B. Beasley. Louis Roedel. James F. McDonough. John T. Corwin. Erskine A. Seay, Ralph E. Mills. John W. White. Miles H. Hubbard. Clayton R. Dudley. TO BE ENSIGNS George L. Heath. Edward N. Teall, jr. Ferol D. Overfelt. Selman S. Bowling. John C. Zahm. Joseph ,V, Kern. Philip W. Snyder. Earl B. Patterson. Harry R. Horney. Richard D. Zern. Walter H. Albach. Cornelius S. Seabring. Robert C. Winters. John L. De Tar. Robert A. Hinners. Edwin R. Van Sickle. Daniel T. Eddy. John A. Edwards. Allan L. Dunning. William C. Bryson. Charles D. Griffin. Leonard W. Bailey. Herbert J. Pfingstag. Wallace B. Mechling. Rawson Bennett, 2d. Robert B. Alderman. John W. Bays. Henry H. Caldwell. Sylvius Gazze. Myron T. Evans. Herbert M. Neuhaus. Ernest W. Lamons. Thomas L. Mayo. Thomas L. Greene. Herbert C. Zitzewitz. Cecil T. Caufield. Howard W. Taylor. Charles J. Zondora.k. Robert D . .Conrad. Joseph R. Hamley. Eldon C. Mayer. William L. Knickerbocter. Joseph F. Jelley, jr. Joseph S. Detwiler. James J. McKinstry. James A. Prichard. Thomas L. Davey. Charles M. Tooke. Harold 1\f. Briggs. Tyrrell D. Jacobs. Lawrence R. Daspit. Melvyn H. McCoy. Perry K. Jeanes. James L. Shank. Samuel H. Crittenden, jr. James H. Hogg. Seymour A. Johnson. Emmanuel T. Goyette. Kenneth A. Knowles. Paul H. Ramsey. Carl R. Midtlyng. George B. Coale. Richard Wagner. Henry T. Koonce. Wellington A. Hammond. John F. Hines, jr. Paul D. Miles. George W. Anderson, jr. Lester J. Geiger. Howard W. Gordon, jr. Leonard S. Mewhinney. Warren F. Graf. Hubert G. Wall. Paul R. Drouilhet. Warner R. Edsall. John E. Faigle. Martin P. Hottel. Peter K. Wells. Clifford S. Cooper. Albert B. Scoles. Fritz Gleim, jr. Eugene E. Davis. William P. Chilton. David W. Tolson. Andrew H. Bergeson. Creed C. Burlingame. William M. Nation. Jack S. Holtwick, jr. Raymond J. Moore. Robert H. Speck. William H. Organ. Harold F. Traua. Jere H. Stoffiet. Arthur K. Ehle. William T. McGarry. Eliot Olsen. B.obert C. Brixner. Henry R. Dozier.. "828. CONGB.ESSIO:N AL RECORD-SEXATE DECE:\IBER 19 James W. Blanchard. Selden G. Hooper. Philip B. Tankard. Glynn R. Donaho. William Y. C. Humes, jr. Walter C. Winn. Bosquet N. Wev. Oscar W. Pate, jr. Philip C. Olin. William C. Jennings. William R. Ignatius. Alston Ramsay. Arthur C. W. Baskin. Frank T. Corbin. Howard A. Yeager. Reamor E. De·La Barre. George L. Han en. Milton .A.. Nation. Jame W. Hager. Paul D. Gross. Richard B. Levin. John M. Madi Non. Arthur H. Taylor. O:scar H. Dodson. Frank Turner. John Eldridge, jr. Charles J. Skelly. Raymond L. Harrell. Ulysse S. G. Sharp, jr. Edmund E. Garcia. William E. Kaitne1·. George L. Jone , jr. Robert A. Johnson. Harry H. Mcilhenny. Bernard ll. Gates. John T. Brown, jr. JiJugene E. Lind ey. Albert R. Heckey. Howard E. Purdy. James P. Walker. Philip A. Tague, jr. Edwin B. Robinson. George A. LewL. Edward R. Johnson. Roy Scott. Jame W. Lucas, jr. Leonidas W. Pancoast. Theodore R. Stan bury. Leo W. Nilon. Lucius H. Chappell, jT. Doyle G. Donaho. John ·w. Chittenden. Robie E. Palmer. John E. Fitzgibbon. Alan R. Montgomery. Henry F. Gorki. 'Vayne T. Stukey. Levi J. Knight, jr. \Villiam A.. De-am. Charle J. StarkllS. George M. B. Smith. Jo ·eph J. Carey. Alvin Robinson. Charles E. Harri. on. 1\lonro :.\I. Riker. Wayne R. Loud. 'William E. Balfrey. Paul F. Johnston. James S. Willis. Louis T. ~!alone. Harry J. Hardwick. Robert A.. Allen. Louis P. Fairlamb. John R. Wate1·man. :Malen Durt-ki. Andrew B. Buttrey. Abram H. Afong, jr. Eugene F. McDaniel. Harry M. Denty. Arthur F. Anders. Robert Brodie, jr. Louis H. Hunte. Jo hua W. Cooper. Ethan W. Allen. Frederic S. Habecker. Courtney Shands. Franci ·· E. Cromwell. Donald C. Burt. Robert F. :MaTtin. Monroe B. Duffill. Michael P. Russillo. Francis C. B. :McCune. Wm. T. Romizer. George Knuepfer. John Bailey. Sam Pickering. Farar B. C. Martin. Stanley E. Judson. Granville A. )Joore. John S. Tracy. Randolph B. Boyer. Herbert D. Riley. Gus B. Lofberg, jr. George B. H. Stallings. John T. Dimon. Charles K. Hewin~. Clinton S. Rounds. William D. Irvin. PaulL. High. Jules F. Schumache1·. Robert B. Morgan, jr. Ro ·coe D. Hughes. Gregory A. Laud. Gordon S. Ashley. Joseph B. :Maher. Fred J. Leatherman. Hy ~ ell P. Cooper. Chesley M. Hardison. Robert N. Downe ~ . Gardner K. Grout, 2d. Philip S. Griffith. Morton S. Cressy, jr. Edward P. Southwick. Daniel W. Latilllore. Howell J. Dyson. Thomas H. Massie. Richard E. Fenton. Charle · \\T. Parker. John W. Schmidt. David J. Walsh. Gordon S. Everett. Alex MeL. Patter on. Robert :.\I. Barnes. Leona.rd B. Southerland. Veryl F. Frye. Clarence E. Boyd. Harold T. Deutermann. Theodore G. Schirmeyer. .. John C. Atkeson. David W. Shafer. Harold P. Richards. Frank Virden. Byron C. Gwinn. Patrick Henry, jr. Charles L. Melson. Willinm R. D. ~ickelson, jr. Elmer G. Coope1·. Claude L. Weigle. Edwin W. Herron. 1\lyron W. Graybill. James J. McRoberts. Gordon L. Ca well. Robert E. Braddy, jr. Thomas 0. Oberrender, jr. Emile R. Winterhaler. John E. Clark. Harold A. Henry. Francis S. Kirk. Marion l\l. B:yxd. William W. Onterbridge. "'endell G. Osborn. Robert J. Foley. Ray A. l\litchell. Charles J. Harde ty, jr. Arnold W. :McKechnie. Ernest Blake. Harry D. Hale. Elmer C. Powell. Howard C. Adams. William H. Cuzner. Harry R. Hummer, jr. William M. Gullett. Ross R. Kellerman. Harry L. Hicks. Jack 0. Wheat. John H. Cro . Richard P. Wilkinson, jr. Harold M. Zem.mer. David B. Coleman. Oddle W. Anderson. Paul S. Depew. Henry J. Arm trong, jr. William A. Sutherland, jr. Richard E. Myers. Robert I. F. Fravel. Thomas C. Green. ·wilton S. Heald. ~faurice E. Goudge. Jimmie R. Simpson. Hugh A. R. Keiran. Charles L. Freeman. John 0. R. Coil. Theodore 0. Dahl. John S. Thach. Robert S. Ford. Peery L. Stinson. John J. Bran on. Liles W. Creighton. M. Franci · R. Jone . Frank Hammitt. Walton B. Hinds. David C. White. William S. Harris. Hemy :.\I. :Uarshall. H

William W. Hall. Jesse W. Smith. TO BE P.!Y DIREC1'0RS Herbet L. Barbour. Francis P. Gardner. John D. Robnett. George P. Shamer. Rex H. White. · · James E. Andrews. Felix R. Holt. Frank Baldwin~ TO BE PASSED ASSISTANT BURGEONS Chester G. :Mayo. David G. McRitchie. James F. Kutz. 'Villiam H. ·wuterdink. Caldwell J. Stuart. William E. Pinner. Walter D. Sharp. John F. O'Mara. Herbert L. Pugh. Dwight J. Wha1·ton. William G. Neill. Manning H. Philbrick. Bruce M. Summers. Oliver R. Nees. Roland W. Schumann. Edward R. Wilson. Oliver A: Smith. Harvey E. Robins. Dallas B. Wainwright, jr. Everett G. l\Iorsell. Edward P. Kunkel. Carl D. Middlestadt. Peter C. Supan. Charles H. Bitner. TO BE PAY INSPECTORS Edward M. Harris, jr. Charles C. Yanquell. Thomas J. Bright. Harold C. G"-ytme. • Walter L. Bach. Joseph I. Porter. Robert K. Yan Mater. Chauncey R. Murray. Herman Seal. Henry M. Weber. Major C. Shirle~· . Winf1·ed P. Dana. John R. Smith. TO BE PASSED ASSISTA~T PAYMASTERS Robert :M. Gillett. Thomas F. Coop{'r. William E. 'J.•ripp. Nicholas J. Halpine. George F. Cooper. George C. Thomas. J o.hn M. Bachulus. Leonard L. Wilson. TO BE ASSIST.! -T PAY::MASTERS Harry D. Templeton. Thomas H. Hayes. Frederic W. Hesser. Donald B. Hilton. Charlie H. Allman. Everett H. Dickinson. Kenneth R. Miller. Roland W. Rickertts. . J. D. Parks. Calv'in B. White. TO BE ASSitfr.AN'l~ SURGEO~S l!,rederick L. Hetter. Louie L. Lindenmayer. Carl H. McMillan. Douglas T. Prehn. Charles G. DeKay. James H. Wall. Charles E. Fitzgerald. TO BE NAYAL CONSTRUCTORS William A. DeMonbreun. Charles J. Cooney. Roy W. Ryden. Leslie C. Stevens. George H. Fonde, jr. Frederick 0. Meyers. Waldo P. Druley. William R. Nichols. Clarence 0. Myers. Oscar ·w. Thoeny. Joseph · W. Paige. Richard McK. Rush. Irwin L. Norman. Robert C. Luckey. James E. J. Kiernan. Paul ·w. Hains. Charles S. Paddock. James T. Parker. James R. Allen. Thomas P. Wynkoop. B. Herbert C. ·walker. Irby Ballenger. TO BE ASSISTANT NAVAL CONSTRUCTORS Emmett D. Hightower. Joseph G. Schnebly. William H. Algie. Cly H. Hatcher. Armand M. Morgan. Robert S. Hatcher. II.arold G. Young. Jay F. Miller. Edward W. Clexton. Edward V. Dockweiler. Wendell H. Musselman. Gordon B. 'l'ayloe. Wendell E. Kraft.. John J. Scheibeler. Hubert H. CalToll. John B. Clark. TO BE CIVIL EXGI!'EEllS Ernest D. Davis, jr. Henry C. Wa~s. Frank T. Chambers. Hany H. Haight. Dirk M. te Groen. Clinton D. 'l'hurber. Courtney G. Clegg. Ran!';ome 0. Jackson. TO BE ~BSISTA:\"T CIVIL ENGINEERS 'Villiam J. Hogue. Clyde L. Bozarth. Leslie K. MacClatchie. Jesse G. Wright. ·william L. Richards. Wallace B. Short. David J. Cracovaner. Charles W. Shilling. Richard P. Carlson. Harold MacT. Sylvester. Joseph E. Evans. Farra L. Read. Walter T. Eckberg. Paul E. R.ePass. Clark '' . Virtue. TO BE CHIEF BOA.TSW A..INS Jesse W. Miller. Charles W. Stelle. Hubert George. David L. Ullman. John L. Enyart. Bernhardt I. Wulff. Russell L. Kaetzel. Robert H. Merryman. John H. Korb. Fred H. Hartshorn. Ivan E. Pitman. George W. 'Meyer. Leland J. Belding. Albert J. Kelley. TO BE CHIEF GU~NER.S Claude R. Ball. Thomas J. Carter. Robert S. Simpson. Henry T. Cox. Francis J. Kaiss. Norman A. Ross. Marion J. Eato·n. Arthur S. Fenton. Cecil C. Welch. William E. Walsh. Antonio G. Aquatero. Julian Love. DeCoy l\Iarchand. TO BE CHIEF ELECTRICIANS Roy R. Kracke. Otto W. Wickstrom. Merion E. Hair. Carl K. Youngh.'in. John P. Wood. Albert J. Petrasek Adolph P. von Hungen. Clifford W. Moore. TO BE CHIEF RADIO ELEC'l'RICL\NS William E. Carskadon. John F. Moore. Germain J. Cotta. Joseph S. Green. William H. Frost. Rupert H. Draeger. George W. Almour. TO BE CHIEF MACHINISTS , Ti) HE DENT.!L SlJ"RGEONS Anthony Iannucc-i. Raymond G. Shively. Ernest ,V. Lacy. Adolphus R. Gleitsman. Edward J. Sherry. Harry F. Meachen. Lucien C. Williams. Clarence E. Garcia. Meares B. Cartmell. Clarence. J. P. Buckey. Paul G. White. ·Francis G. Ulen. Virgil D. Duke. Irvin J. Heckman. John J. Haas. Daniel A. Dohe1ty. TO BE CHIEF PAY CLERKS Howard C. 1Vic]{ham. Allen H. Hetler. Cecil 0. Hamrick. Robert Nelson. Edward B. Howell. Francis J. Long. William D. Wilkinson. Leroy Alexander. TO BE PASSED ASSISTANT DENTAL SURGEONS Elmer Stephenson. Harold n. Darling. James H. Parish. Ted B. Daly. Joseph Connolly. George H. Rice. Charles E. Coleman. Raymond Ciesluk. J!,rancis R. Bittinger. Sidney P. Vail. Chal'les C. Hiles. William D. Burroughs. Robert R. Crees. Theodore DeW. Allan. Benn A. Fairchild. IrYin L. Lucllan. Jesse W._Miller, jr. Francis W. Lepeska. Garret Boer. Ralph B. Putnam. Otto V. Rogstad. Frank A. Richison. Otis A. Peterson. TO BE MEDiCAL DIRECTORS Alfred R. Harris. Leon M. Billings. Ralph W. Plummer. Virgil H. •.rraxler. John M. Thompson. Robert G. Heiner. Wadsworth C. C. Trojakowski. Spencer L. Higgins. TO BE MEDIC..U. INSPECTORS TO BE .ASSIBT.!NT DENTAL SURGEONS Edwin L. Jones. Harry R. Hermesch. Frank K. Sullivan. Louis D. Mitchell, jr. William H. Short. Alexander B. Hayward. Arthur Siegel. James L. Frisby. Gordon D. Hale. Reginald B. Henry. Hector J. A. Macinnis. Robert P. Irons. Lawrence l\f. Schmidt. Walter A. Bloedorn. Alfred Dinsmore. Edwin D. Foulk. Chandler W. Smith. George R. W. French. Edward H. Delaney. Edward 0. Andersen. Edward V. Valz. ~ . ~r~ DECEJ\roER 830 CONGR.ESSION AL RECOR. D-S:&.~ ATE --:-:-t . A.U..D 19

TO BE LIEVTENANT (JUNIOR GRADE) Robert M. Deason, El Dorado. Frederick A... L. Dartsch. Richard G. Ganahl. Gal'land S. Rn....~. Green Forest. Douglas T. Day, jr. Henry C. Doan. William J. Rumsey, Hardy. . TO BE SURGEONS Oliver A. Hill, Hartford. Warwick T. Brown. Charles L. J"ones, Junction City. Max iln:~rman. George H. C. Palmer, McGehee. Harry L. Shambarger, :llulberTy. TO BE PA SED ASSISTA~T SURGEONS Thoma A. Hunt, l\Iurfreesboro. Robert K. Y. Du .~ inherre. J"ohn R. Lynas. Paul Smith, Nettleton. Lloyd H. l. Tewhou er. Carl l\1. Dumbauld.- Ned P. Atkin, Parkdale. Frederic :licK. Ingersoll to be pa sed assistant dental surgeon. Frank Weldin, Piggott. J"ames H. ·ward, Quitman. Charles .A. ~icholsou, :.<1, to be naval constructor. Charles H. Cushman to be naYal constructor. Edwin S. Thomp._on, Springdale. Henry F. l\Iuiloy to be lieutenant (junior grade). , Nona E. Robertson, Thornton. Joseph H. Lawson to be lieutenant commander. - Stella I. Winn, Win . ~low . Thomas C. Ritchie to be lieutenant (junior graue). CONNECTICUT :BETffiED LIST J oLn W. Cook, Beacon Falls. Capt. Reginald R. Belknap to be a rear aumiral on the retired Henry G. Linsley, Branford. Carl W. Brage, Darien. list of the Navy. Leontille M. Root, East Berlin. IN THE MARINE CORPS Sarah L. Ruic, Farmington. TO BE COLONELS W. Burton .Allen, Litchfield. Pre ley M. Rixey, jr. Erne t F. Brown, Manchester. Theodore E. Backstrom. Courtland C. Potter, My. tic. 'Villiam H. Pritchett. Walter E. Brown, Naugatuck. ·william P. Leete, North Haven. TO BE LIElfrENANT COLOli."'"ELS Cyrus I. Byington, Norwalk. Frederick A. Barker. Emile P. ~loses. Ca::;per K. Bailey, J,. Torwich. William T. Hoadley. Harold l!'. Wirgman. Fred R. .Alford, Oakville. TO BE :MAJORS William C. Bushnell, Plantsville. J"ohn B. Sebree. Louis :u. Bourne, jr. William P. Stone, Salisbury. Loui E. Fagan. Matthew H. Kingman. Nelson E. Welch, Somer. . Allen H. Turnage. ·walter B. Palme1·, Sound Beach. J"ohn P. McGrath, Southington. TO BE CAPTAINS Harry l\Iuir, Thomaston. Edward .A. Fellowes. William L. Harding jr. William C. Saunders, Waterford. Andrew L. W. Goruon. J"olm B. Neill, jr. .John V. Abbott, Watertown. Leland S. Swindler. Ralph R. Robinson. Adele P. Brush, West Cornwall. Howard N. Stent. Walter E. Bilisoly. Donald Spicer. ;rohn K. Martenstein. GEORGIA Ford 0. Rogers. Hamilton M. H: Fle:millg. Richard G. Mansfield, Bluffton. Walter G. Farrell. Frederick E. Stack. Hoxie B. Goza, Chamblee. TO BE SECO?\JJ LIEUTENANTS Alma Bustle, Coolidge. Raymond P. Rutledge. Archie E. O'Neil. Rufus H. Johnson, Hogansville. Samuel S. Jack. Allen C. Koonce. ;James P. Pirkle, Ho chton. Henry R. Paige. Alan Shapley. Cicero F. Duffee, J one boro. Guy DeW. Chappell. Jefferson G. Dreyspring. Charles R. Jones. Rossville. Joseph W. Earnshaw. David F. O'Neill. Clarence G. Hardigree, Watkinsville. Walter L. J. Bayler. ;John C. Munn. Hoger E. Fulcher, Waynesboro. Marion L. Dawson, jr. ;Jaime Saf>ater. INDIANA H.arold G. Newhart. Rich-ard P. Ros , jr. Neil D. McCallum, Batesville. Frank l\1. June. Elmer G. 2\Iarks. Helen P. Roetzel, Boonville. George H. Potter. ::\lercade A. Cramer. 1Villiam P. Hays, Burns City. Earl S. Piper. Roger T. Carleson. Lola E . Lippard, Clermont. Robert A. Olson. John S. Letcher. William Teutemacher, Dyer. Francis :ll. McAlister. Frank H. Wirsig. Charles G. Covert, Evansville. J"ack P. Juhan. Frank G. Dailey. Luther K. Abel, Fairland. Harold D. Hansen. William R. Williams. George F. Freeman Franklin. Jesse S. Cook, jr. Robert B. Luckey. Clyde W. Ward, Gas City. Miles S. Newton. Olin ll. Bagby, Greenwood. TO BE CHIEF :MAR:UiE GUN.NER Ruth I. Trapp, Grovertown. James W. Lattin. Robert H. Bryson, Indianap"Olis. John G. Martin, Lynn. TO BE CHIEF QUARTERMASTER CLERKS J"obn A. Jones, Marion. John Strong. Lucille MaCurdy, Monon. Holmes J. Smith. 'Villiam II. Wright, Montezuma. Harry S. Young. Charles E. Ballance, Oaktown. TO BE CHIEF PAY CLERK Winbern H. Dillon, Pitt boro. ;rohn W. Lytle. Charles 0. Harper, Somerville. POSTMASTERS Charles L. Grishaw, Tipton. IOWA ARIZONA Euward J. Kooreman, Alton. Leonard D. Redfield. Benson. Lucian C. Tilden, Ames. Luther Cadwell, Holbrook. Arthur L. Remley. Anamosa. .ARKA~SAS Eddy L. Newton, Anita. Mary Brown, Alpena Pass. Howard C. Walter, Arnolds Park. Roy W. Stevens, .Ashdown. Allen A. Mickelsen, Battle Creek. Bing Moody, Bald Knob. Walter H. Herzog, Baxter. Thomas T. West, Beebe. George L. Beeler, Bellevue. Milton R. Stimson, Brinkley. Elda Bendigkeit, Bennett. Kay S. Rolley, Crawfordville. John C. Erton, Blairsburg. Redford G. Miles, Des Arc. Lloyd Lock, Castana. Edith M. Cook, De Valls Bluff. Sue G. Cro s, Chelsea. 1927 CONGRESSIONAL :RECORD-- SENATE· sar . Oma r H. Brooks, Cleghorn. Carl E. Meyer, Enterprise. William M. Crosier, Coggon. William L. Oliver, Erie. Orlean P. Riordan, Correctionville. Rebecca C. 1\

MISSOlJRI NEW JERSEY James E. Roark, Anderson. Abram R. Bates, Allentown. Thom,as J. Bryant, Anglum. Frank T. Buchanan, Bordentown. \Villiam L. Shipp, Centerview. Reuben Coyte, Coytesville. Frank ,V. Dunn, Chaffee. Emma Reus, Demarest. \Yalter B. Ashbaugh, Clarkton. George Oberle, Edgewater. Alice I. Dixon, Creighton. Harry W. Bellis, Flemington. John J. Kennon, Doniphan. Howard N. Parker, Gibbsboro. Merton ::u. Meador, Exeter. James C. :Korris, Hightstown. Florence E. Gilbert, Fillmore. Frank Pierson, Lawrenceville. Robert G. Teague, FrankfOTd. Renview L. Hull, Lebanon. Henry W. Schupp, Freemont. Elvord G. Chamberlin, 1\Iontda.ir. Charles N. Williamson, Gentry. William A. Sweeney, Red Bank. E stella D. Seaton, La,throp. George Schultz, Waldwick. Virginia Young, Osage City. William H. Albright, Wooclbmy. John E. Bauer, Osborn. John A. Smith, Wrightstown. · Edwin G. Karstedt, Rosebud. Dorothy M. Cliver, Yard\ille. Alfred 0. Lowman, Smithville. :KEW YORK Wyatt B. Little, Steele. Be~sie P. Slater, Attica. James R. Simmons, Stotts City. Henry W. Ware, Batavia. Wallace Frederick, Stoutsville. Ining Barrett, Bedford Hills. Annie N. Johnson, Winston. Charles J. Amsden, Bolivar. :MQNTA.!.~A Etta 1\Ierritt, Brewerton. Asa E. Armstrong, BrowniBg. Elizabeth H. Oschmann, Broad Channel. Alfred Briscoe, Cascade. James T. McLain, Center Moriches. Isaac L. Brooks, Culbertson. William S. Keene, Cold Spring Harbor. William S. Cadson, Ekalaka. Edna Frisbee, Conewango Valley~ Cass E. Parker, Fromberg. William J. Snyder, Conifer. Otto M. Christinson, Glasgow. Carrie J. Johnson, De Kalb Junction. John R. Lloyd, Great Falls. William W. Baldwin, Downsville. James R. Minugh, Harlem. Sadie l\I. Henderson, Garnerville. Frederick B. Gillette, Hinsdale. Richard B. Coriell, Glasco. Queenie B. Lyndes, Hysham. Harris Kass, Greenfield. Harry Kennedy, Rosebud. James E. Colgan, Hamden. William L. Marsh, Roy. Ro a H. ·warner. Hampton Bays. Jennie Bywaters, Sandcoulee. Frank E. Vail, Howells. Army B. Cowee, \Vibaux. Charles F. Fowler, Iona Island. John J. Cole, Jamesport. ~""E:BRA.SKA Lois B. Gridley, :Uacedon. William H. Bogard, Avoca. \VUliam T. Finn, Madison. Robert Pease, Beatrice. Emsley V. Pepper, Middle Granville. Hazel Babbitt, Belgrade. Walter J. Burke, :Uine\ille. \V. Ross Pedley, Bertrand. Henry W. Koster, Narrowsburg. Mary L. Simmons, Bloomfield. Maud E. Butterfiehl, New Berlin. Dolph L. Houser, Campbell. Ruby C. Williams, New Lebanon. Arthur C. Smith, Carleton. John J. Lynch, Oscawana. Gus Johnson, Ceresco. Phelps Smith, Paul Smiths. Ethel Talcott, Crofton. J. Edward Uline, Ransomville. Henry L. Balser, Dixon. George W. Harris, Richmondville. Harvey E. Poole, Dunning. Harlow G. VanNamee, Richrule. Fred C. Beach, Eagle. Clarence P. Varian, Scarsdale. Sanford E. Ralsten, Geneva. Otto F. Schuler, Snyder. Earl D. Willard, Genoa. Alfred A. Clairmonte, Soutll Fallsburg. .Albert L. Hepp, Greeley. Bert P. Wood, Springfield Center. Lynn F. Cunningham, Gurley. William L. Bouchard, Surmount. Herschel L. Anderson, Havelock. · William H. Topps, Syossett. Herman L. Boyes, Hebron. Harold G. Haines, Urlton. Elmer \V. Couch, Henry. . Vernon Yaughn, Water l\fill. Robert E. Templin, Hoskins. Grace A.. Harrington, West Point. Frank J. Prucha, Howell. NORTH DAKOTA ::\Ierle A. Brady, Kimball. Herman H. Schroer, Lawrence. Irwin E. Walton, BantJ·y. Otto C. Smith, Lyman. Evan S. Brown, Buffalo. Emory S. Clements, Lyons. James Taylor, Cando. Howard W. Botsford, Meadow Grove. Oscar J. Haner, Douglas. Helmuth A. J. Paul, Millard. Nellie Ribb, Donnybrook. Ingebert J. Thomsen, Minden. Earl M. Sauness. Enderlin. Edward L. Barker, Pender. Louis Hansen, Esmond. Edwin S. Garber, Red Cloud. Hugh H. Parsons, Fessenden. John C. Oaks, Seward. Otto Gackle, Fredonia. Roy Hauke, Shelton. Vern A. Tallackson, Grafton. Clyde H. Hodges, Superior. William D. Sinclair, Ha.nnnaford. Claude A.. ::\lacDonald, Sutton. Duncan McLean, Hannah. Catherine Honey, Uehling, Walter P. Osborne, Hunter. Augusta Robb, Union. Ole H. Larson, Killdeer. Zenas E. Decker, Wauneta. Elizabeth Graham, Knox. William Berridge, Wausa. Simon ll. Ronning, Kramer. Harry H. Jordan, Wilcox. Catherine Lynch, Lakota. Law1·ence A. Kibbee, Winnebago. Nelson :Y. Chamberlain, Page. John C. Black, Plaza. NEVADA Lottie A. Lund, Powers Lake. Philomena Borrego, Austin~ Albert F. Harris, Reeder. Isaac L. Stone, McGill. - Albert l\1. Marchand, Rolla. Fred L. IAittell, Yerington. llalph H. McKean, Sanborn. 1927 COXGRESSION AL RECORD-HOUSE S33 Jolm P. Breslin, Sanish. James C. Hill, Elsinore. Carl L. George, Sarles. Will C. Barton, Garfield. Seth E. Garland, Tioga. Alta A. Dayton, :\Iagna. Chase E. l\lulinex, Tolley. Henry C. Jacobs, Mount Pleasant. Charles S. J;aidlaw, ·wales. George G. Rosevear, Park Oity. Albert J. Drake, Westhope. Mru.·y Cooper, Pleasant Grove. Robert ll. Mares, Wheatland. WISCONSIN Frank Heglund, White Earth. J erry J. Jerabek, .Algoma. Axel G. C. ~h-om, Williston. :Mae Wittmann, Arpin. Arnold Lien, Wyndmere. Jules G. Pierre, Brussels. 1\orbert J. Joyce, Zap. Theresa J. Keyes, Cobb. SOUTH DAKOTA Effie Banna, Ogdensburg. Truman C. Knott, Bristol. Peter D. Harris, Oneida. John Schafer, Delmont. Mildred Werner, Pittsville. Myr ta :M. Lund, Erwin. .Alma Colt, Poy Sippi. Earl J. Meredith, Groton. Walter F. Dietlen, Sheldon. Clyde H. C<>tton, Hitchcock. LeRoy H. Ardern, Springbrook. George A. De Walt, Mc.I~aughlin. Merton J. Dickinson, Tipler. Gustavus M. Finotti, Missionhill. Henry Swindler, Mitchell. Catherine M. Kuehl, Mound City. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Eugene M. Coffield, Oelrichs. Richard Whalen, Pine Ridge. 1\foNDA.Y, Dece·mhe-r 19, 19B7 Robert H. ~IcCullagll, Sanator. The House met a.t l2 o'clock noon. TEXAS 'l'he Chaplain, Rev. James Shera Montgomery, D. D., offered Liml::;ey C. Payton, Abilene. the following prayer : Roberta G. Sterrett. Albany. Spirit of holine!:ls, 'l'hy love has brought to the gates of our Mack M. Pittman, Annona. lives the footsteps ot One who is the sovereign expression of Ernest E. Cornelius, . man's utmost need and man's utmost hope. Do Thou move in Joel .A. Reese, Ballinger. advanee, of us and direct the way. C<>me and give our work its Frederick W. Guffy, Belton. charm, our association it blessing, and to the whole day its Vina Johnson, Berh·am. joy. Brace our souls with certainties, and may they not be Harvey L. Pettit, Bloomburg. furrowed by doubts. Be Thou the invisible bridge that unites Harr;y N. Cook, Brady. us in our -dreams and aspirations with man wherever he is Claude F. Riley, Canton. found. In the name of the Son of Man. Amen. Josie D. Jackson, Center Point. Alfred A. r.rhomas. Chandler. The Journal of the proceedings of Friday, December 16, was John W. Triplitt, Cisco. read and approved. Etta Varley, Collinsville. SWEAlU:!'\G IN OF A MEMBER Wellington T. Cutler, Crockett. Che"s W. Barr, Cross Plains. ROYAL C. JOHNSON, of South Dakota, appeared at the bar Robert H. Fenton, Denton. of the House and took the oath of office. Wilson I. Lawler, Deport. THE DEFICIENCY BILL Cbarles H. CmaJdalka, Fayetteville. Mr. ~LillDEN. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent for Charles W. Silliman, Ganado. the present consideration of a House concurrent resolution, James P. Hewitt, Giddings. which I send to the desk. Yil•gil G~ Pritchet4 Gladewater. The SPE.AKER. Is there objection to the request of the Emma J. Clevelan~ Grand Prairie. gentleman from Illinois? ·william I. Rodgers, Gunte1·. There was no objection. Eva Cunie, Happy. The Clerk read as follows: James lU. Everett, Hedley. Mamie B. Mustaine, Honey Grove. House Concunent Resolution 11 ~laude L. Tucker, Idalou. Resol1:ed by the House of R~presenta . ti· ves (the Senate concuri"l11U), Charles F . .Adams, Jacksonville. That the Clerk of the House be, and is hereby, authorized and directed Helen M. Peel, Jourdanton. in the em·ollment of H. R. 5800 (70th Cong., 1st sess.), known as the David W. Thompson, Keltys. first deficiency bill, to insert on page 38 in line 9 of the engrossed bill, Charles E. Smith, Kerens. after the word "attorneys," the following words: "(their heirs or their Annie D. Barker, Kilgore. as ·ignees now of record, as their interest may appear).'' Nicholas C . .Nail, Krum. Mr. MADDEN. Mr. Speaker, I want to offer an explanation Helen C. Wallace, Kyle. of this resolution. James D. Dyer, Lamesa. The matter of $85,000 for attorneys' fees is carried in the James E. Cooke, Mart. deficiency bill in the usual language, as we supposed. August C. Koepsel, Mathis. Mr. Bl.Al.vrON. Will the gentleman yield? Harvey J. McKinzie, Midlotihan. Mr. :MADDEN. Yes. Wenzel K. Richter, Moulton. :Mr. BLANTON. Can the gentleman do this under a motion Henry A.. Williamson, Nacogdoches. such as he has submitted? Hattie :.\1. Culpepper, Palmer. l\1r. :n.A.DDEN. Oh, yes. Jasper "\V. Blount, Quinlan. Mr. BLAXTON. This is a bill which has been passed by the Arthur N. Brown, jT., R !chland. House and has been passed by the Senate. Elmer I . Wade, Rockdale. l\Ir. MADDEN. This will have to go to the Senate. Gayle T. Snedecor, Rosenberg. :Mr. BLANTON. And the conference report has been agreed Kelsey R. Dort, Saint J o. to by the House, and the gentleman is now proposing to insert Riley M. Foster, Saratoga. something additional by a resolution. · Nelson L. Yates, Stratford. Mr. ~IADDEN. This is clone frequently. James I. Dunn, Tioga. Mr. BLANTON. Is it still before the Senate or has it been Ralph D. Gilbert, Trinity. Vera Butler, Troup. enrolled! Ro. coe K. Garver, Van Alstyne. Mr. ::uADDEN. It has passed the Senate, but is not yet en­ William G. McClain, Waxahachie. rolled; and, Mr. Speaker, the Secretary of the Inte~i01:, whose .Alphonso S. Butler, ·winona. depax·tment this transaction affects, and the CommiSsloner of Indian .Affairs have both sent a letter to Senator WARREN, chair­ UT.A.H man of the Senate Committee on Appropriations, saying this is Peter .Allan, Blanding. all right. The Comptroller General says this ought to be done, Henry H. Lunt, Cedar City. and we are complying with the Comptroller General's request. LXIX--53