Tibetan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tibetan_Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tibetan Buddhism[1] is the extant form of the Pāla tradition of Buddhism, practiced historically in the Indian university of Nālanda and others.[2] Once known merely as the main religion of the Tibetan nation, it is now understood as the modern form of that predecessor, whose literature, once in , is now in Tibetan language.

It is the body of Buddhist religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of , , , , and certain regions of the , including northern , and (particularly in , , Dharamsala, Lahaul and Spiti in , and ). It is the of Bhutan.[3] It is also practiced in Mongolia and parts of (Kalmykia, , and Tuva) and Northeast . Texts recognized as scripture and commentary are contained in the , such that Tibetan is a spiritual language of these areas.

A has spread Tibetan Buddhism to many Western countries, where the tradition has gained popularity.[4] Among its prominent exponents is the 14th Dalai of Tibet. The number of its adherents is estimated to be between ten and twenty million.[5]


1 2 General methods of practice 2.1 Transmission and realization 2.2 Analytic and fixation meditation 2.3 Devotion to a 2.4 Skepticism 2.5 Preliminary practices and approach to Vajrayāna 2.6 Esotericism 3 Native Tibetan developments 4 Study of tenet systems 5 Schools 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 7 Tibetan Buddhism in the contemporary world 8 Glossary of terms used 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links


Tibetan Buddhism comprises the teachings of the three vehicles of Buddhism: the Foundational Vehicle, Mahāyāna, and Vajrayāna. The Mahāyāna goal of spiritual development is to achieve the enlightenment of buddhahood in order to most efficiently help all other sentient beings attain this state.[6] The motivation in it is the of enlightenment — an altruistic intention to become enlightened for the sake of all sentient beings.[7] are revered beings who have conceived the will and vow to dedicate their lives with bodhicitta for the sake of all beings. Tibetan Buddhism teaches methods for achieving buddhahood more quickly by including the Vajrayāna path in Mahāyāna.[8]

Buddhahood is defined as a state free of the obstructions to liberation as well as those to omniscience.[9] When one is freed from all mental obscurations,[10] one is said to attain a state of continuous bliss mixed with a simultaneous cognition of emptiness,[11] the true of reality.[12] In this state, all limitations on one's ability to help other living beings are removed.[13]

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It is said that there are countless beings who have attained buddhahood.[14] Buddhas spontaneously, naturally and continuously perform activities to benefit all sentient beings.[15] However it is believed that one's could limit the ability of the Buddhas to help them. Thus, although Buddhas possess no limitation from their side on their ability to help others, sentient beings continue to suffering as a result of the limitations of their own former negative actions.[16] General methods of practice

Transmission and realization

There is a long of oral transmission of teachings in Tibetan Buddhism. Oral transmissions by holders traditionally can take place in small groups or mass gatherings of listeners and may last for (in the case of a , for example) or (as in the case of a section of the Tibetan Buddhist canon). A transmission can even occur without actually hearing, as in 's visions of . Bodhnath Stūpa in , Nepal; symbolize the mind of An emphasis on oral transmission as more important than the printed word a Buddha derives from the earliest period of Indian Buddhism, when it allowed teachings to be kept from those who should not hear them.[17] Hearing a teaching (transmission) readies the hearer for realization based on it. The person from whom one hears the teaching should have heard it as one link in a succession of listeners going back to the original speaker: the Buddha in the case of a or the author in the case of a book. Then the hearing constitutes an authentic lineage of transmission. Authenticity of the oral lineage is a prerequisite for realization, hence the importance of lineages.

Analytic meditation and fixation meditation

Spontaneous realization on the basis of transmission is possible but rare. Normally an intermediate step is needed in the form of analytic meditation, i.e., thinking about Buddhist what one has heard. As part of this process, entertaining doubts and engaging in Konchog Wangdu reads internal debate over them is encouraged in some traditions.[18] from an old woodblock copy of the Analytic meditation is just one of two general methods of meditation. When it Tibetan achieves the quality of realization, one is encouraged to switch to "focused" or "fixation" meditation. In this the mind is stabilized on that realization for periods long enough to gradually habituate it to it.

A person's capacity for analytic meditation can be trained with logic. The capacity for successful focused meditation can be trained through calm abiding. A meditation routine may involve alternating sessions of analytic meditation to achieve deeper levels of realization, and focused meditation to consolidate them.[12] The deepest level of realization is Buddhahood itself.

Devotion to a guru

See also: Guru in Buddhism

As in other Buddhist traditions, an attitude of reverence for the teacher, or guru, is also highly prized.[19] At the beginning of a public teaching, a lama will do prostrations to the throne on which he will teach due to its symbolism, or to an image of the Buddha behind that throne, then students will do prostrations to the lama after he is seated. accrues when one's interactions with the teacher are imbued with such reverence in the form of guru devotion, a code of practices governing them that derives from Indian sources.[20] By such things as avoiding disturbance to the peace of mind of one's teacher, and wholeheartedly following his prescriptions, much merit accrues and this can significantly help improve one's practice.

There is a general sense in which any Tibetan Buddhist teacher is called a lama. A student may have taken teachings from many authorities and revere them all as in this general sense. However, he will typically

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have one held in special esteem as his own root guru and is encouraged to the other teachers who are less dear to him, however more exalted their status, as embodied in and subsumed by the root guru.[21] Often the teacher the student sees as root guru is simply the one who first introduced him to Buddhism, but a student may also change his personal view of which particular teacher is his root guru any number of .


Skepticism is an important aspect of Tibetan Buddhism, an attitude of critical skepticism is encouraged to promote abilities in analytic meditation. In favour of skepticism towards Buddhist doctrines in general, Tibetans are fond of quoting sutra to the effect that one should test the Buddha's words as one would the quality of gold.[22]

The opposing principles of skepticism and guru devotion are reconciled with the Tibetan injunction to scrutinise a prospective guru thoroughly before finally adopting him as such without reservation. A Buddhist may study with a lama for decades before finally accepting him as his own guru.

Preliminary practices and approach to Vajrayāna

Vajrayāna is acknowledged to be the fastest method for attaining Buddhahood but for unqualified practitioners it can be dangerous.[23] To engage in it one must receive an appropriate (also known as an "empowerment") from a lama who is fully qualified to give it. From the one has resolved to accept such an initiation, the utmost sustained effort in guru devotion is essential.

The aim of preliminary practices (ngöndro) is to start the student on the correct path for such higher teachings.[24] Just as Sutrayāna preceded Vajrayāna historically in India, so sutra practices constitute those that are preliminary to tantric ones. Preliminary practices include all Sutrayāna activities that yield merit like hearing teachings, prostrations, offerings, and acts of kindness and , but chief among the preliminary practices are realizations through meditation on the three principle stages of the path: renunciation, the altruistic bodhicitta wish to attain enlightenment and the wisdom realizing emptiness. For a person without the basis of these three in particular to practice Vajrayāna can be like a small child trying to The Vajrayāna , ride an unbroken horse.[25] While the practices of Vajrayāna are not known in Sutrayāna, all Sutrayāna practices are common to Vajrayāna. Without training in the preliminary practices, the ubiquity of allusions to them in Vajrayāna is meaningless and even successful Vajrayāna initiation becomes impossible.

The merit acquired in the preliminary practices facilitates progress in Vajrayāna. While many Buddhists may spend a lifetime exclusively on sutra practices, however, an amalgam of the two to some degree is common. For example, in order to train in calm abiding, one might use a tantric visualisation as the meditation object.


In Vajrayāna particularly, Tibetan Buddhists subscribe to a voluntary code of self-censorship, whereby the uninitiated do not seek and are not provided with information about it. This self-censorship may be applied more or less strictly depending on circumstances such as the material involved. A depiction of a may be less public than that of a deity. That of a higher tantric deity may be less public than that of a lower. The degree to which information on Vajrayāna is now public in western languages is controversial among Tibetan Buddhists.

Buddhism has always had a taste for esotericism since its earliest period in A India.[26] Tibetans today maintain greater or lesser degrees of confidentiality also with information on the and emptiness specifically. In Buddhist teachings generally, too, there is caution about revealing information to people who may be unready for it. Esoteric values in Buddhism have made it at odds with the values of Christian missionary activity, for example in contemporary Mongolia. Native Tibetan developments

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A distinct feature of Tibetan Buddhism is the system of incarnate lamas,[27] but such genuine innovations have been few.[28] A small corpus of extra-canonical scripture, the treasure texts () is acknowledged by some practitioners, but the bulk of the canon that is not commentary was translated from Indian sources. True to its roots in the Pāla system of North India, however, Tibetan Buddhism carries on a tradition of eclectic accumulation and systematisation of diverse Buddhist elements, and pursues their synthesis. Prominent among these achievements have been the Stages of the Path and motivational training. Study of tenet systems

Tibetan Buddhists practice one or more understandings of the true nature of reality, the emptiness of inherent existence of all things. Emptiness is propounded according to four classical Indian schools of philosophical tenets.

Two belong to the older path of the Foundation Vehicle:

Vaibhaṣika (Tib. bye-brag smra-ba) Sautrāntika (Tib. mdo-sde-pa)

The primary source for the former is the -kośa by and its commentaries. The Abhidharmakośa is also an important source for debating in Drepung the Sautrāntikas. Dignāga and Dharmakīrti are the most prominent exponents.

The other two are Mahayana (Skt. Greater Vehicle) (Tib. theg-chen):

Yogācāra, also called Cittamātra (Tib. sems-tsam-pa), Mind-Only (Tib. dbu-ma-pa)

Yogacārins base their views on texts from Maitreya, Asaṅga and Vasubandhu, on Nāgārjuna and Āryadeva. There is a further classification of Madhyamaka into Svatantrika-Madhyamaka and Prasaṅgika- Madhyamaka. The former stems from Bhavaviveka, Śāntarakṣita and Kamalaśīla, and the latter from Buddhapālita and Candrakīrti.

The tenet system is used in the and colleges to teach Buddhist in a systematic and progressive fashion, each philosophical view being more subtle than its predecessor. Therefore the four schools can be seen as a gradual path from a rather easy-to-grasp, "realistic" philosophical point of view, to more and more complex and subtle views on the ultimate nature of reality, that is on emptiness and dependent arising, culminating in the philosophy of the Mādhyamikas, which is widely believed to the most sophisticated point of view.[29] Schools

The diagram to the right shows the growth of Tibetan Buddhist traditions. The four main ones overlap markedly, such that "about eighty percent or more of the features of the Tibetan schools are the same".[30] Differences include the use of apparently, but not actually, contradictory terminology, opening dedications of texts to different and whether phenomena are described from the viewpoint of an unenlightened practitioner or of a Buddha.[30] On questions of philosophy they have no fundamental differences, according to the Fourteenth [31]

Nyingma(pa),[32] “the Ancient Ones”. This is the oldest, the original order founded by and Śāntarakṣita.[33] Whereas other schools categorize their teachings into the three vehicles: The Foundation Vehicle, Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna, the Nyingma tradition classifies its into nine vehicles, among the highest of which is that known as Atiyoga or (“Great Perfection”).[34] Hidden treasures (terma) are of particular significance to this tradition.

Kagyu(pa), “Lineage of the (Buddha's) Word”. This is an oral tradition which is very much concerned with the experiential dimension of meditation. Its most famous exponent was , an 11th-century mystic. It contains one major and one minor subsect. The first, the , encompasses those Kagyu schools that trace back to the Indian master via Marpa, Milarepa and [33] and consists of four major sub-: the , headed by a , the Tsalpa Kagyu, the Barom Kagyu, and Pagtru Kagyu. There are a further eight minor sub-sects, all of which trace their root to Pagtru Kagyu and the most

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notable of which are the and the Drukpa Kagyu. The once-obscure , which was famously represented by the 20th century teacher Kalu , traces its history back to the Indian master Naropa via , and Kyungpo Neljor.[33]

Sakya(pa), “Grey Earth”. This school very much represents the scholarly tradition. Headed by the , this tradition was founded by Khon Konchog Gyalpo, a disciple of the great translator Drokmi and traces its lineage to the Indian master Virupa.[33] A renowned exponent, Sakya (1182–1251CE) was the great grandson of Khon Konchog Gyalpo.

Gelug(pa), “Way of Virtue”. Originally a reformist movement, this tradition is particularly known for its emphasis on logic and debate. Its spiritual head is the and its temporal one the Dalai Lama. The Dalai Lama is regarded as the embodiment of the of Compassion.[35] Successive Dalai Lamas ruled Tibet from the mid-17th to mid-20th centuries. The order was founded in the 14th to 15th century by , renowned for both his (adapted with modifications from and his virtue. Tibet's great Milarepa, by W. Y. Evans-Wentz (1928), p. 14) These major schools are sometimes said to constitute the ”Old Translation” and ”New Translation” traditions, the latter following from the historical Kadampa lineage of translations and tantric lineages. Another common but trivial differentiation is into "Red Hat" and "Yellow Hat" schools. The correspondences are as follows:

Kalu Rinpoche (right) and Lama Denys at Karma Ling Institute in Savoy

Sakya Pandita

Nyingma Kagyu Sakya Gelug Old Translation New Translation New Translation New Translation Red Hat Red Hat Red Hat Yellow Hat

Besides these major schools, there is a minor one, the . The Jonangpa were suppressed by the rival Gelugpa in the 17th century and were once thought extinct, but are now known to survive in Eastern Tibet, their leader lives in Dharamsala, India near the Dalai Lama. It has been recognized by the Dalai Lama as an authentic living Buddhist tradition of Tibet.

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Thuken Chökyi Nyima's Crystal Mirror of Philosophical Systems is a classic history of the different schools and provides broad and useful historical information.[36]

The pre-Buddhist religion of Bön has also been recognized by Tenzin , the fourteenth Dalai Lama, as a principal spiritual school of Tibet.[37]

There is also an ecumenical movement known as Rimé.[38] Monasticism

See also: List of Tibetan monasteries

Although there were many - in Tibet, monasticism was the foundation of Buddhism in Tibet. There were over 6,000 monasteries in Tibet, however nearly all of these were ransacked and destroyed by Red Guards during the .[39] Most of the major monasteries have been at least partially re-established while, many other ones remain in ruins.

In Mongolia during the 1920s, approximately one third of the male population were monks, though many lived outside monasteries. By the beginning of the 20th century about 750 monasteries were functioning in Mongolia.[40] These monasteries were largely dismantled during Communist rule, but many have been reestablished during the Buddhist revival in Mongolia[citation needed] which followed the fall of Communism.

Monasteries generally adhere to one particular school. Some of the major centers in each tradition are as follows:


The Nyingma lineage is said to have "six mother monasteries," although the composition of the six has changed over time:

Dorje Drak Palyul

Also of note is

Samye — the first monastery in Tibet, established by Padmasambhāva and Śāntarakṣita


Many Kagyu monasteries are in , eastern Tibet. Tsurphu, one of the most important, is in central Tibet, as is Ralung and Drikung.

Palpung Monastery — the seat of the and Ralung Monastery—the seat of the Monastery — the seat of the Trungpa tülkus — the seat of H.H. the Gyalwa Karmapa


Sakya Monastery — the seat of H.H. the Sakya Trizin Tibetan Buddhist monks at in Sikkim Gelug

The three most important centers of the Gelugpa lineage which are also called 'great three' Gelukpa university monasteries of Tibet, are Ganden, Sera and Drepung Monasteries, near :

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Ganden Monastery — the seat of the Ganden Tripa — the home monastery of the Dalai Lama

Three other monasteries have particularly important regional influence:

Mahayana Monastery — the seat of the H.H Kadhampa (The 25th Atisha Jiangqiu Tilei), Nepal Tashilhunpo Monastery in — founded by the first Dalai Lama, this monastery is now the seat of the in eastern Jampaling in central Amdo

Great spiritual and historical importance is also placed on:

The in Lhasa — said to have been built by King in 647 AD, a major site Tibetan Buddhism in the contemporary world

Today, Tibetan Buddhism is adhered to widely in the , Nepal, Bhutan, Mongolia, Kalmykia (on the north-west shore of the Caspian), and Russian Far East (Tuva and Buryatia). The Indian regions of Sikkim and Ladakh, both formerly independent kingdoms, are also home to significant Tibetan Buddhist populations. In the wake of the Tibetan diaspora, Tibetan Buddhism has gained adherents in the West and throughout the world. Celebrity practitioners include Brandon Boyd, , Yauch, Jet Li, Sharon Stone, , Philip Glass, Mike The statue of Buddha in Barson and (who has been proclaimed the of , Mongolia the Chungdrag Dorje).[41] Fully ordained Tibetan Buddhist Monks also work in academia (see Ven. Alex Bruce ('Tenpa')).[42]

In Buddhism in China (Princeton University Press, 1965), Kenneth Chen proposed the idea that Buddhism adapts itself to its host culture. A more traditional viewpoint is that the is like a Yak, able to carry the "baggage" of culture and religion of the societies in which it gains hold, thus giving rise to the various "Buddhisms". Within this view the various "adaptations" Buddhism undergoes are actually nothing more than the unloading and reloading of the "Yak of the Dharma" with different local 'baggage'.

"Adaptations" of Buddhism to contemporary Western culture include Tricycle magazine, the modern notion of a dharma center, and Celtic Buddhism. Buddhist author Michaela Haas notes that Tibetan Buddhism is undergoing a sea change in the West. "Of all these changes that we are watching Buddhism undergo in the West, the most momentous may be that women are playing an equal role."[43] Glossary of terms used

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English spoken Tibetan Wylie Tibetan Sanskrit affliction nyönmong nyon-mongs kleśa analytic meditation jegom dpyad-sgom yauktika dhyāna calm abiding shiné zhi-gnas śamatha devotion to the guru lama-la tenpa bla-ma-la bsten-pa guruparyupāsati fixation meditation joggom 'jog-sgom nibandhita dhyāna foundational vehicle t’ek män theg sman hīnayāna incarnate lama tülku sprul-sku nirmānakāya inherent existence rangzhingi drubpa rang-bzhin-gyi grub-pa svabhāvasiddha mind of enlightenment changchub sem byang-chhub sems bodhicitta motivational training blo-sbyong autsukya dhyāna omniscience t’amcé k’yempa thams-cad mkhyen-pa sarvajña preliminary practices ngöndro sngon-'gro prārambhika kriyāni root guru zawé lama rtsa-ba'i bla-ma mūlaguru stages of the path lam-rim pātheya transmission and lungtok -rtogs āgamādhigama realisation

See also

Tibetan Buddhist History Parkhang Milarepa Buddhism (Tibetan) Buddhism Tibetan letter "A", the symbol of Tibetan wheel Tibetan prayer flag Tibetan Buddhist teachers (category) Traditional Tibetan medicine Wrathful deities

Geshe Tenzin Zopa (www.tenzinzopa.com)

Documentary movie on reincarnation

- The Unmistaken Child ( in search of the reincarnation of the great Mahasidda - Geshe Lama Konchong )


1. ^ An alternative , "lamaism" apparently derives other forms of Buddhism as well). from Chinese lama jiao and was used to distinguish 2. ^ Conze, 1993) Tibetan Buddhism from , fo jiao. The 3. ^ The 2007 U.S. State Department report on religious term was taken up by western scholars including Hegel, freedom in Bhutan notes that "Mahayana Buddhism is as early as 1822 (Lopez, Donald S. Jr. (1999). the state religion..." and that the Bhutanese government Prisoners of Shangri-La: Tibetan Buddhism and the supports both the Kagyu and Nyingma sects. State.gov West. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 6, 19f. (http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2007/90227.htm) ISBN 0-226-49311-3.). Insofar as it implies a 4. ^ Statistics on Religion in America Report discontinuity between Indian and Tibetan Buddhism, (http://religions.pewforum.org/reports) -- The 2007 Pew the term has been discredited (Conze, 1993). Another Forum on Religion & Public Life Survey estimates that term, "Vajrayāna" is also sometimes used mistakenly although Tibetan Buddhism adherents are less than 0.3 for Tibetan Buddhism. More correctly, it signifies certain percent of the population, Buddhism has had a 0.5 net practices included in, not only Tibetan Buddhism, but increase in reported adherents.

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5. ^ Adherents.com estimates twenty million for Lamaism 27. ^ Tib.: tulku, Wylie: sprul-ku (/Tibetan/Tantric). (http://www.adherents.com 28. ^ Conze (1993). Moreover, that even this is a distinctly /adh_branches.html#Buddhism) Tibetan development is disputable. Two centuries 6. ^ Cf. Dhargyey (1978), 111; Pabongka Rinpoche, 533f; before Buddhism was introduced to Tibet, in the fifth Tsong-kha-pa II: 48-9 century CE, the Abhidharma teacher Buddhaghoṣa was 7. ^ Thurman, Robert (1997). Essential Tibetan declared by Sri Lankan elders to be a reincarnation of Buddhism. Castle Books: 291 the bodhisattva Maitreya. Berzin, Alexander (2002). 8. ^ Thurman, Robert (1997): 2-3 Introductory Comparison of and Mahayana 9. ^ Cf. Dhargyey (1978), 64f; Dhargyey (1982), 257f, etc; (http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en/archives/study Pabongka Rinpoche, 364f; Tsong-kha-pa II: 183f. The /comparison_buddhist_traditions former are the afflictions, negative states of mind, and /theravada_hinayana_mahayana the – desire, anger, and ignorance. The /intro_comparison_hinayana_mahayana.html:) latter are subtle imprints, traces or "stains" of delusion 29. ^ Sopa & Hopkins (1977), 67-69; Hopkins (1996). that involves the imagination of inherent existence. Non-Tibetan scholars have suggested that historically, 10. ^ Pabongka Rinpoche, 152f Madhyamaka predates Cittamātra, however. Cf. Conze 11. ^ Pabongka Rinpoche, 243, 258 (1993). 12. ^ a b Hopkins (1996) 30. ^ a b Introductory Comparison of the Five Tibetan 13. ^ Dhargyey (1978), 61f; Dhargyey (1982), 242-266; Traditions of Buddhism and , Pabongka Rinpoche, 365 http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en/archives/study 14. ^ Pabongka Rinpoche, 252f /comparison_buddhist_traditions/tibetan_traditions 15. ^ Pabongka Rinpoche, 367 /intro_compar_5_traditions_buddhism_bon.html, 16. ^ Dhargyey (1978), 74; Dhargyey (1982), 3, 303f; Retrieved 31.07.2013 Pabongka Rinpoche, 13f, 280f; Berzin, Alexander 31. ^ http://www.rigpawiki.org (2002). Introductory Comparison of Hinayana and /index.php?title=The_four_main_schools_of_Tibetan_Buddhism Mahayana (http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en retrieved 31.07.2013 /archives/study/comparison_buddhist_traditions 32. ^ The Tibetan adjectival suffix -pa is translatable as /theravada_hinayana_mahayana "-ist" in English. /intro_comparison_hinayana_mahayana.html:) 33. ^ a b c d Berzin. Alexander (2000). Introductory History 17. ^ Conze (1993): 26 of the Five Tibetan Traditions of Buddhism and Bon: 18. ^ Cf.Pabongka Rinpoche, 66, 212f Berzinarchives.com (http://www.berzinarchives.com 19. ^ Lama is the literal Tibetan translation of the Sanskrit /web/en/archives/study/history_buddhism guru. For a traditional perspective on devotion to the /general_histories guru, see Tsong-ka-pa I, 77-87. For a current /introduction_history_5_traditions_buddhism_bon.html) perspective on the guru-disciple relationship in Tibetan 34. ^ Kagyuoffice.org (http://www.kagyuoffice.org Buddhism, see Berzin, Alexander. Relating to a /buddhism.nyingma.html) See section: The Nine Spiritual Teacher: Building a Healthy Relationship Journey (http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en/archives 35. ^ Sanskrit: Avalokiteśvara, Tibetan: Chenrezig. /e-books/published_books/spiritual_teacher 36. ^ 土觀宗派源流 (http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/BDLM/sutra/tibet /spiritual_teacher_preface.html) /keru/author_J01_1.htm) 20. ^ notably, Gurupancasika, Tib.: Lama Ngachupa, Wylie: 37. ^ "In 1978 the Dalai Lama acknowledged the Bon bla-ma lnga-bcu-pa, “Fifty Verses of Guru-Devotion” by religion as a school with its own practices after visiting Aśvaghoṣa the newly built Bon monastery in Dolanji." Tapriza 21. ^ Indian tradition (Cf. Saddharmapundarika Sutra II, Projects [1] (http://www.tapriza.org/e/kultur 124) encourages the student to view the guru as /s_reli_02.htm) representative of the Buddha himself. 38. ^ Wylie: ris-med 22. ^ "Do not accept my Dharma merely out of respect for 39. ^ "Tibetan monks: A controlled life" me, but analyze and check it the way a goldsmith (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7307495.stm). analyzes gold, by rubbing, cutting and melting it." BBC News. March 20, 2008. (Ghanavyuhasutra; sTug-po bkod-pa'i mdo); A Sutra 40. ^ "Mongolia: The Bhudda and the Khan" [on Pure Realms] Spread Out in a Dense Array, as (http://www.orientmag.com/8-30.htm). Orient Magazine. quoted in translation in The Berzin Archives. 41. ^ Statement by H.H. Regarding the (http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en/archives Recognition of Steven Seagal as a Reincarnation of the /e-books/published_books/spiritual_teacher Treasure Revealer Chungdrag Dorje of Palyul /pt3/spiritual_teacher_13.html) On the same need for Monastery (http://sangyetashiling.dk/kt/seagal.htm:) skepticism in the satipatthāna tradition of 42. ^ Bruce A (ed). One World – Many Paths to Peace Buddhism, cf. (1965), 83. Further ANU E-Press 2009 (launched by His Holiness the 14th on skepticism in Buddhism generally, see the article, Dalai Lama) http://eview.anu.edu.au/one_world . /index.php (accessed 11 May 2013) 23. ^ Pabonka, p.649 43. ^ "A Female Dalai Lama? Why It Matters" 24. ^ (1986), The Gem Ornament of (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/michaela-haas/female- Manifold Instructions. , p. 21. dalai-lama-why-it-matters_b_2982005.html). The 25. ^ Pabongka Rinpoche, 649 Huffington Post. Retrieved May 4, 2013. 26. ^ Cf. Conze (1993), 26 and 52f. References

Ancient Tibet: Research Materials from The Yeshe De Project. Dharma Publishing, Berkeley, . ISBN 0-89800-146-3. Coleman, Graham, ed. (1993). A Handbook of . Boston: Shambhala Publications, Inc.. ISBN 1-57062-002-4. Conze, Edward (1993). A Short (2nd ed.). Oneworld. ISBN 1-85168-066-7. Dhargyey, Geshe Ngawang; ed. Alexander Berzin, based on oral trans. by Sharpa Tulku (3rd edn, 1978). Tibetan Tradition of Mental Development. Dharmsala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives. [A pithy lam-rim by a geshe appointed in 1973 by the Dalai Lama as head of the translation team at the Tibetan Library.]

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Dhargyey, Geshe Ngawang; ed. Alexander Berzin, based on oral trans. by Sharpa Tulku (1982). An Anthology of Well-Spoken Advice on the Graded Paths of the Mind, Vol. I. Dharmsala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives. ISBN 81-86470-29-8. [The first part of a more extensive lam-rim by a geshe appointed in 1973 by the Dalai Lama as head of the translation team at the Tibetan Library. The language of this publication is very different from that of the 1978 work by the same lama due to widespread changes in choice of English terminology by the translators.] Hill, John E. "Notes on the Dating of Khotanese History." Indo-Iranian Journal, Vol. 13, No. 3 July 1988. To purchase this article see: [2] (http://www.springerlink.com/content/gg8740360243350j/). An updated version of this article is available for free download (with registration) at: [3] (http://independent.academia.edu/JHill/Papers/439945 /Notes_on_the_Dating_of_Khotanese_History) Hopkins, Jeffrey (1996). Meditation on Emptiness. Boston: Wisdom. ISBN 0-86171-110-6. [Definitive treatment of emptiness according to the Prasaṅgika-Madhyamaka school.] ; trans. & ed.: Elizabeth Napper (1980). Mind in Tibetan Buddhism: Oral Commentary on Ge-shay Jam-bel- sam-pel’s "Presentation of Awareness and Knowledge Composite of All the Important Points Opener of the Eye of New Intelligence. Valois, NY: Snow Lion. ISBN 0-937938-02-5. Mullin, Glenn H. (1998). Living in the Face of Death: The Tibetan Tradition. 2008 reprint: Snow Lion Publications, Ithica, New York. ISBN 978-1-55939-310-2. Nyanaponika Thera (1965). The Heart of . Boston: Weiser. ISBN 0-87728-073-8. Pabongka Rinpoche; Ed. Trijang Rinpoche, transl. Michael Richards (3rd edn. 2006). Liberation in the Palm of Your Hand, A Concise Discourse on the Path to Enlightenment. Somerville, MA: Wisdom. ISBN 0-86171-500-4. [This famous lam-rim text was written from notes on an extended discourse by the Gelugpa geshe, Pabongka Rinpoche in 1921 and translated through extensive consultation with Achok Rinpoche (Library of Tibetan Works and Archives).] Powers, John. History as Propaganda: Tibetan Exiles versus the People's Republic of China (2004) Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-517426-7 Ringu Tulku. The Ri-Me Philosophy of Jamgon Kongtrul the Great: A Study of the Buddhist Lineages of Tibet. Shambhala. ISBN 1-59030-286-9. Smith, E. Gene (2001). Among Tibetan Texts: History and Literature of the Himalayan Plateau. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-179-3 Sopa, Geshe Lhundup; (1977). Practice and Theory of Tibetan Buddhism. New : B.I. Publications. ISBN 0-09-125621-6. [Part Two of this book, ‘’Theory: Systems of Tenets’’ is an annotated translation of ‘’Precious Garland of Tenets (Grub-mtha’ rin-chhen phreng-ba)’’ by Kön-chok-jik-may-wang-po (1728-1791).] The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment Tsong-kha-pa; the Lamrim Chenmo Translation Committee; Joshua Cutler, ed. in chief; Guy Newland, ed. (2000). The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment, Volume I. Canada: Snow Lion. ISBN 1-55939-152-9. Tsong-kha-pa; the Lamrim Chenmo Translation Committee; Joshua Cutler, ed. in chief; Guy Newland, ed. (2002). The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment, Volume II. Canada: Snow Lion. ISBN 1-55939-168-5. Tsong-kha-pa; the Lamrim Chenmo Translation Committee; Joshua Cutler, ed. in chief; Guy Newland, ed. (2004). The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment, Volume III. Canada: Snow Lion. ISBN 1-55939-166-9. Wallace, B. Alan (1999), "The Buddhist Tradition of : Methods for Refining and Examining ", Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (2-3): 175-187 . Further reading

Introductory books

Wallace, B. Alan (October 25, 1993). Tibetan Buddhism From the Up: A Practical Approach for Modern Life. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-075-4, ISBN 978-0-86171-075-1 Yeshe, Lama Thubten (2001). "The Essence of Tibetan Buddhism". Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive. ISBN 1-891868-08-X

Other books

Coleman, Graham, ed. (1993). A Handbook of Tibetan Culture. Boston: Shambhala Publications, Inc.. ISBN 1-57062-002-4. Lati Rinpoche; trans. & ed.: Elizabeth Napper (1980). Mind in Tibetan Buddhism: Oral Commentary on Ge-shay Jam-bel-sam-pel’s "Presentation of Awareness and Knowledge Composite of All the Important Points Opener of the Eye of New Intelligence. Valois, NY: Snow Lion. ISBN 0-937938-02-5. Ringu Tulku. The Ri-Me Philosophy of Jamgon Kongtrul the Great: A Study of the Buddhist Lineages of Tibet. Shambhala. ISBN 1-59030-286-9. Smith, E. Gene (2001). Among Tibetan Texts: History and Literature of the Himalayan Plateau. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-179-3 External links

Student film about Tibetan Monks studying at Emory University [4] (http://www.youtube.com /watch?feature=player_embedded&v=jXa12Tm6EH4)

Tibetan Buddhism (http://www.dmoz.org//Society/Religion_and_Spirituality/Buddhism/Lineages/Tibetan/) on the Open Directory Project

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Buddhist Meditation Traditions in Tibet: The Union of Three Vehicles (http://info-buddhism.com /Tibetan_Buddhism-The_Union_of_Three_Vehicles-Georgios_Halkias.html) by Georgios T. Halkias LamRim.com (http://www.lamrim.com/) — Tibetan Buddhist Internet Radio The Tibetan and Himalayan Digital Library (http://thdl.org/) The Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center (http://www.tbrc.org/) the Tibetan bibliography database (http://www.bibliographietibet.org/) Tibetan by Dzongsar Khyentse Rinpoche (http://www.siddharthasintent.org /Pubs/West.htm) Songtsen — The rescue and preservation of Tibet's cultural and spiritual traditions (http://www.songtsen.org) Famous Monasteries of Tibet (http://www.buddhist-tourism.com/countries/tibet/monasteries/) Tibetan Buddhism: History and the Four Traditions (http://www.nyingmatrust.org/DharmaPerspectives /buddhismSchools.html) The extensive archives of teachings from Alexander Berzin (http://www.berzinarchives.com) Lotsawa House | Tibetan | Translations (http://lotsawahouse.org/translations.html) Tibetan Rimé Text Library (http://www.dharmadata.org/) — Buddhist Text Library of all traditions Tibetan Buddhism Forums (http://www.dharmawheel.net/) A In The Life Of A Tibetan Monk (http://www.npr.org/blogs/pictureshow/2010/09/17/129930953/monks) - article and slideshow by National Geographic Tibetan Buddhist Practice eCalendar (http://home.valornet.com/overbeck/tibet.html) Karma Kagyü (https://www.facebook.com/karmakagyucalendar)

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Vajrayana From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Vajrayāna ( Bengali: বযান; Devanagari: वयान; Sinhala: වායන; : വജയാന; Oriya: ବଯାନ; Tibetan: ་་ཐེག་པ་, rdo rje theg pa; Mongolian: Очирт хөлгөн, Ochirt Hölgön; Chinese: 密 宗 , mì zōng) is also known as Tantric Buddhism, Tantrayāna, Mantrayāna, Secret Mantra, Esoteric Buddhism and the Diamond Way or Thunderbolt Way. Vajrayāna is a complex and multifaceted system of Buddhist thought and practice which evolved over several centuries.[1]

According to Vajrayāna scriptures "Vajrayāna" refers to one of three vehicles or routes to enlightenment, the other two being the Hinayāna and Mahayana. Note that Hinayāna (or Nikaya) is not to be confused with Theravada (a practice lineage); although is sometimes equated to it.

Founded by the Indian Mahāsiddhas, Vajrayāna subscribes to Buddhist tantric literature.[1]


1 History of Vajrayāna 1.1 India 1.1.1 Mythological origins 1.1.2 Historical origins Mantrayana and Vajrayana Sahajayāna and Kalachakrayāna 1.1.3 Despised classes 1.2 China 1.3 Tibet and other Himalayan kingdoms 1.4 Japan 1.5 Indonesian Archipelago 1.6 Mongolia 2 Place within Buddhist tradition 2.1 Third turning of the wheel 2.2 and Vajrayana 2.3 Paramitayana and Vajrayana 3 Philosophical background 3.1 4 Characteristics of Vajrayana 4.1 Goal 4.2 Motivation 4.3 4.4 4.5 Esoteric transmission 4.6 Vows and behaviour 5 techniques 5.1 Classifications of tantra 5.1.1 Fourfold division 5.1.2 Outer and Inner 5.2 Annuttara- tantras 5.2.1 Generation stage 5.2.2 Four purities 5.2.3 Completion stage 5.3 Deity yoga 5.4 Guru yoga 5.5 Death yoga 6 Symbols and imagery

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6.1 The 6.2 Imagery and ritual in deity yoga 7 Vajrayana textual tradition 8 Schools of Vajrayana 8.1 Tibetan Buddhism 8.2 Nepalese 8.3 Ari Buddhism 8.4 Azhali religion 8.5 Chinese Esoteric Buddhism 8.6 Japan 8.6.1 8.6.2 Buddhism 8.6.3 Shugendō 8.7 Literary characteristics 8.8 manuscripts 9 Academic study difficulties 9.1 Terminology 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Web references 14 Sources 15 Further reading 16 External links 16.1 General 16.2 Schools

History of Vajrayāna

Although the first tantric Buddhist texts appeared in India in the 3rd century and continued to appear until the 12th century,[2] scholars such as Hirakawa Akira assert that the Vajrayāna probably came into existence in the 6th or 7th century,[3] while the term Vajrayāna itself first appeared in the 8th century.[1] The Vajrayāna was preceded by the Mantrayāna, and then followed by the Sahajayāna and Kalacakrayāna.[4]


The period of Indian Vajrayāna Buddhism has been classified as the fifth[3] or final[1] period of Indian Buddhism. The literature of Vajrayāna is absent from the oldest Buddhist literature of the Canon and the Agamas.

Mythological origins

In the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, it is claimed that the historical Shakyamuni Buddha taught tantra, but that since these are 'secret' teachings, confined to the guru/disciple relationship, they were generally written down long after the Buddha's other teachings, the hi Pali Canon and the . The Vajrayana tradition holds that its teachings were first expounded by the Buddha sixteen after his enlightenment. Historians have identified an early stage of Mantrayana beginning in the 4th century, and argue that assigning the teachings to the historical Buddha is "patently absurd."[5]

According to some traditions, Tantric Buddhism first developed in Uddiyana, a country which was

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divided into the two kingdoms Shambaḷa and Lankapuri. Shambaḷa has been identified with and Lankapuri with Subarnapura (Sonepur).[web 1] , the king of Sambalpur founded Vajrayana, while his sister, who was married to Prince (Yuvaraja) Jalendra of Lankapuri (Sonepur), founded Sahajayana.[6]

Historical origins

Mantrayana and Vajrayana

Although the Vajrayana claims to be as ancient and authentic as any other Buddhist school, it may have grown up gradually in an environment with previously existing texts such as the mahasannipata and the ratnaketudharani.[7] The basic position of Vajrayana is still the same as the early Buddhist position of not-self.[8] The changes that took place reflected the changing society of medieval India: the presentation changed, the techniques of the way to enlightenment changed, and the outward appearance of Buddhism came to be dominated by ritualism, and the array of Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, and gods and goddesses.[8]

There are differing views as to where in the Indian sub-continent that Vajrayāna began. There are assumptions about the origin of Vajrayana in ,[9] Uddiyana, located at , or in the modern day Valley in .

The earliest texts appeared around the early 4th century. Nālanda University in eastern India became a center for the development of Vajrayana theory, although it is likely that the university followed, rather than led, the early Tantric movement. Statues of Padmasambhava, Buddha and Amitayus at Namdroling [5] Only from the 7th or the beginning of the 8th century, Monastery. tantric techniques and approaches increasingly dominated Buddhist practice in India.[2] From the 7th century onwards many popular religious elements of a heterogeneous nature were incorporated into Mahayana Buddhism, which finally resulted in the appearance of Vajrayāna, Kalachakrayana, and Sahajayana Tantric Buddhism. These new Tantric of Buddhism introduced Mantra, and Mandala, along with six tantric Abhicharas (practices) such as Marana (Death), Stambhana, Sammohana, Vidvesan, Uchchatana and Vajikarana. These cults revived primitive beliefs and practices, a simpler and less formal approach to the personal god, a liberal and respectful attitude towards women, and denial of the caste system.[web 2][web 3]

India would continue as the source of leading-edge Vajrayana practices up until the , producing many renowned .

(Vajrayāna) Buddhism had mostly died out in India by the 13th century, and tantric versions of Buddhism and were also experiencing pressure from invading Islamic armies. By that time, the vast majority of the practices were also manifest in Tibet, where they were preserved until recently.

In the half of the 20th century a sizable number of Tibetan exiles fled the oppressive, anti-religious rule of the Communist Chinese to establish Tibetan Buddhist communities in northern India, particularly around Dharamsala.

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Sahajayāna and Kalachakrayāna

The Vajrayana established the symbolic terminology and the that would characterize all forms of the tradition.[5]

The Sahajayana developed in the 8th century in Bengal.[10] It was dominated by long-haired, wandering who openly challenged and ridiculed the Buddhist establishment.[5] Its most important text is the Dohakosa, written by Sarahapada.[10]

The Kalachakrayana developed in the 10th century.[4] It is farthest removed from the earlier Buddhist traditions, and incorporates concepts of messianism and not present elsewhere in Buddhist literature.[5]

Despised classes

The Tantric Buddhist sects made efforts to raise the dignity of the lowest of the low of the society to a higher level. Many celebrated Vajrayana like , Hadipa, Dombi, Tsangnyön , Tantipa (Tantripāda) and Luipāda came from the so-called despised classes.

The exerted a tremendous influence over the tribal and despised classes of people of Sambalpur and Bolangir region.

In the 9th or 10th century seven famous Tantric maidens appeared in the Patna (Patnagarh) region, which was then called Kuānri-Pātaṇā. These maidens are popularly known as Sāta Bhauni (seven sisters), namely, Gyanadei Maluni, Luhakuti, Luhuruṇi, Nitei Dhobani, Sukuti Chamaruṇi, Patrapindhi Sabaruṇi, Gangi Gauduṇi and sua Teluṇi. They hailed from the castes which were considered the lower castes of society, and were followers of Lakshminkara. Because of their miraculous power and feats, they were later deified and worshiped by the locals.[11]


Main article: Tangmi

Esoteric teachings followed the same route into northern China as Buddhism itself, arriving via the Road sometime during the first half of the 7th century, during the Tang Dynasty. Esoteric Mantrayana practices arrived from India just as Buddhism was reaching its zenith in China, and received sanction from the emperors of the Tang Dynasty. During this time, three great masters came from India to China: Śubhakarasiṃha, , and . These three masters brought the esoteric teachings to their height of popularity in China.[12] During this , the two main source texts were the Mahāvairocana Abhisaṃbodhi Tantra, and the Tattvasaṃgraha Tantra. Traditions in the Sinosphere still exist for these teachings, and they more or less share the same doctrines as Esoteric practices related to Cundī Shingon, with many of its students themselves traveling to have remained popular in Chinese Japan to be given transmission at Mount Koya. Buddhism and East Asia.

Esoteric methods were naturally incorporated into Chinese Buddhism during the Tang Dynasty. Śubhakarasiṃha's most eminent disciple, Master Yixing (Ch. ⼀行 ), was a member of the

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school. In such a way, in Chinese Buddhism there was no major distinction between exoteric and esoteric practices, and the northern school of Zen Buddhism even became known for its esoteric practices of dhāraṇīs and .[13][14]

During the , the Mongol emperors made Esoteric Buddhism the official religion of China, and Tibetan lamas were given patronage at the court.[15] A common perception was that this patronage of lamas caused corrupt forms of tantra to become widespread.[15] When the Mongol Yuan Dynasty was overthrown and the was established, the Tibetan lamas were expelled from the court, and this form of Buddhism was denounced as not being an orthodox path.[15]

In late imperial China, the early traditions of Esoteric Buddhism were still thriving in Buddhist communities. Robert Gimello has also observed that in these communities, the esoteric practices associated with Cundī were extremely popular among both the populace and the elite.[16]

In China and countries with large Chinese populations such as Taiwan, Malaysia, and Singapore, Esoteric Buddhism is most commonly referred to as the Chinese term Mìzōng (密宗 ), or "Esoteric School." Traditions of Chinese Esoteric Buddhism are most commonly referred to as referred as Tángmì (唐密 ), "Tang Dynasty Esoterica," or Hànchuán Mìzōng (漢傳密宗 ), "Han Transmission Esoteric School" (Hànmì 漢密 for short), or Dōngmì (東密 ), "Eastern Esoterica," separating itself from Tibetan and Newar traditions. These schools more or less share the same doctrines as Shingon.Casual attempts to revive Esoteric Buddhism occur in modern china.[17]

See Zhenyan (http://www.encyclopedia.com/article-1G2-3424503431/zhenyan.html) at encyclopedia.com on Chinese Esoteric Buddhism.

Tibet and other Himalayan kingdoms

Main article: Tibetan Buddhism

In 747 the Indian master Padmasambhava traveled from Afghanistan to bring Vajrayana Buddhism to Tibet and Bhutan, at the request of the king of Tibet. This was the original transmission which anchors the lineage of the Nyingma school. During the 11th century and early 12th century a second important transmission occurred with the lineages of Atisa, Marpa and Brogmi, giving rise to the other schools of Tibetan Buddhism, namely Sakya, , Kagyu, Jonang, and Geluk (the school of the Dalai Lama).


Main article: Japanese Buddhism See also: Shingon

During the Tang Dynasty in China, when esoteric Buddhist practices reached their peak, Japan was actively importing Buddhism, its texts and teachings, by sending monks on risky missions across the sea to stay in China for two years or more. Depending on where the monk stayed and trained, they may have brought back esoteric Buddhist material and training back to Japan.

In 804, monk Saicho came back from China with teachings from the , but was also trained in esoteric lineages. When he later founded the Japanese Tendai sect, esoteric practices were integrated with the Tendai teachings, but Tendai is not an exclusively esoteric sect. Subsequent disciples of Saicho also returned from China in later years with further esoteric training, which helped to flesh out the lineage in Japan.

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On the same mission in 804, Emperor Kammu also sent monk to the Tang Dynasty capital at Chang'an (present-day Xi'an). Kūkai absorbed the Vajrayana thinking from eminent Indian and Chinese Vajrayana teachers at the time, and synthesized a version of which he took back with him to Japan, where he founded the Shingon school of Buddhism, a school which continues to this day. Unlike Tendai, Shingon is a purely esoteric sect.

Indonesian Archipelago

Main article: Vajrayana Buddhism in

The empire of in southeast Sumatra was already a center of Vajrayana learning when Dharma Master (Ch. 法師義淨 ) resided there for six months in 671, long before Padmasambhava brought the method to Tibet. In the 11th century, Atisha studied in Srivijaya under Serlingpa, an eminent Buddhist scholar and a prince of the Srivijayan ruling house.

Through early economic relationships with the Srivijaya Empire, the Philippines came under the influence of Vajrayana.[18] Vajrayana Buddhism also influenced the construction of , a three-dimensional mandala, in central Java circa 800.


In the 13th century, the Tibetan Buddhist teachers of the Sakya school led by Kunga Gyaltsen, took part in a religious debate with Christians and before the Mongolian royal court. As a result the Mongolian Prince Godan adopted Tibetan Buddhism as his personal religion, although not requiring it of his subjects. Drogön Chögyal Phagpa, Kagyupa Pandita's nephew, eventually Young Monk in , converted to Buddhism. Shigatse, Tibet Since the Khan conquered China and established the Yuan Dynasty which lasted from 1271 to 1368, this led to the renewal in China of the Tantric practices which had died out there many years earlier. Vajrayana practice declined in China and Mongolia with the fall of the Yuan Dynasty. Mongolia saw another revival of Vajrayana in the 17th century, with the establishment of ties between the Dalai Lama in Tibet and the Mongolian princedoms. This revived the historic pattern of the spiritual leaders of Tibet acting as priests to the rulers of the . Having survived suppression by the Communists, is today primarily of the Gelugpa school of Tibetan Buddhism, and is being re-invigorated following the fall of the Communist government. Place within Buddhist tradition

Various classifications are possible when distinguishing Vajrayana from the other Buddhist traditions.

Third turning of the wheel

Vajrayana can also be seen as the third of the three "turnings of the wheel of dharma":[5]

1. In the first turning Shakyamuni Buddha taught the at Varanasi in the 5th century BC, which led to the founding of Buddhism and the later . Details of the first turning are described in the Dhammacakkapavattana Sutta. The oldest scriptures do not mention any further turnings other than this first turning.

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2. The Mahayana tradition claims that there was a second turning in which the Perfection of Wisdom sutras were taught at Vulture's Peak, which led to the Mahayana schools. Generally, scholars conclude that the Mahayana scriptures (including the Perfection of Wisdom Sutras) were composed from the 1st century CE onwards.[a] 3. According to the Vajrayana tradition, there was a third turning which took place at Dhanyakataka sixteen years after the Buddha's enlightenment. Some scholars have strongly denied that Vajrayana appeared at that time,[5] and placed it at a much later time. The first tantric (Vajrayana Buddhist) texts appeared in the 3rd century CE, and they continued to appear until the 12th century.[2]

Sutrayana and Vajrayana

Vajrayana can be distinguished from the Sutrayana. The Sutrayana is the method of perfecting good qualities, where the Vajrayāna is the method of taking the intended outcome of Buddhahood as the path.

Paramitayana and Vajrayana

According to this schema, Indian Mahayana revealed two vehicles (yana) or methods for attaining enlightenment: the method of the perfections (Paramitayana) and the method of mantra (Mantrayana).[20]

The Paramitayana consists of the six or ten paramitas, of which the scriptures say that it takes three incalculable aeons to lead one to Buddhahood. The tantra literature, however, claims that the Mantrayana leads one to Buddhahood in a single lifetime.[20] According to the literature, the mantra is an easy path without the difficulties innate to the Paramitanaya.[20] Mantrayana is sometimes portrayed as a method for those of inferior abilities.[20] However the practitioner of the mantra still has to adhere to the vows of the Bodhisattva.[20] Philosophical background

Vajrayana is firmly grounded in Mahayana-philosophy, especially Madhyamaka.

Two Truths Doctrine

Vajrayana subscribes to the two truths doctrine of conventional and ultimate truths, which is present in all Buddhist tenet systems.[21][22] The two truths doctrine is a central concept in the Vajrayana path of practice and is the philosophical basis for its methods. The two truths identifies conventional a.k.a. relative, and absolute a.k.a. . Conventional truth is the truth of consensus reality, common-sense notions of what does and does not exist. Ultimate truth is reality as viewed by an awakened, or enlightened mind. Characteristics of Vajrayana


The goal of spiritual practice within the Mahayana and Vajrayana traditions is to become a Bodhisattva (i.e. attainment of a state in which one will subsequently become a Buddha—after some further reincarnation), whereas the goal for Theravada practice is specific to become an arahant (i.e. attain enlightenment with no intention of returning, not even as a Buddha).

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In the Sutrayana practice, a path of Mahayana, the "path of the cause" is taken, whereby a practitioner starts with his or her potential Buddha-nature and nurtures it to produce the fruit of Buddhahood. In the Vajrayana the "path of the fruit" is taken whereby the practitioner takes his or her innate Buddha-nature as the means of practice. The premise is that since we innately have an enlightened mind, practicing seeing the world in terms of ultimate truth can help us to attain our full Buddha-nature.[23]

Experiencing ultimate truth is said to be the purpose of all A Buddhist ceremony in Ladakh. the various tantric techniques practiced in the Vajrayana. Apart from the advanced meditation practices such as Mahamudra and Dzogchen, which aim to experience the empty nature of the enlightened mind that can see ultimate truth, all practices are aimed in some way at purifying the impure perception of the practitioner to allow ultimate truth to be seen. These may be ngondro, or preliminary practices, or the more advanced techniques of the tantric .


As with the Mahayana, motivation is a vital component of Vajrayana practice. The Bodhisattva-path is an integral part of the Vajrayana, which teaches that all practices are to be undertaken with the motivation to achieve Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings.


The distinctive feature of Vajrayana Buddhism is ritual, which is used as a substitute or alternative for the earlier abstract .[24][25] For Vajrayana Tibetan death , see .


The Vajrayana is based on the concept of "skilful means" (Sanskrit: upaya) as formulated in Mahayana Buddhism. It is a system of lineages, whereby those who successfully receive an empowerment or sometimes called initiation (permission to practice) are seen to share in the of the realisation of a particular skillful means of the vajra Master. In the Vajrayana these skilful means mainly relate to tantric, Mahamudra or Dzogchen practices. Vajrayana teaches that the Vajrayana techniques provide an accelerated path to enlightenment. [citation needed]

Esoteric transmission

Main article: Esoteric transmission

Vajrayana Buddhism is esoteric, in the sense that the transmission of certain teachings only occurs directly from teacher to student during an initiation or empowerment and cannot be simply learned from a book. Many techniques are also commonly said to be secret, but some Vajrayana teachers have responded that secrecy itself is not important and only a side-effect of the reality that the techniques have no validity outside the teacher-student lineage.[26] In order to engage in Vajrayana practice, a student should have received such an initiation or permission:

If these techniques are not practiced properly, practitioners may harm themselves physically and mentally. In order to avoid these dangers, the practice is kept "secret"

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outside the teacher/student relationship. Secrecy and the commitment of the student to the vajra guru are aspects of the samaya (Tib. damtsig), or " bond", that protects both the practitioner and the integrity of the teachings."[27]

The teachings may also be considered "self-secret", meaning that even if they were to be told directly to a person, that person would not necessarily understand the teachings without proper context. In this way the teachings are "secret" to the of those who are not following the path with more than a simple sense of curiosity. [28][29]

Vows and behaviour Three ritual implements: Main article: Samaya vajra, bell, and counting Practitioners of the Vajrayana need to abide by various tantric vows beads. or samaya of behaviour. These are extensions of the rules of the Pratimoksha vows and Bodhisattva vows for the lower levels of tantra, and are taken during into the empowerment for a particular Anuttarayoga tantra. The special tantric vows vary depending on the specific mandala practice for which the initiation is received, and also depending on the level of initiation.

The Ngagpa/Ngakmo Yogis from the Nyingma school keep a special non-celibate , they are practitioners and are considered neither lay nor monk or nun.

A tantric guru, or teacher, is expected to keep his or her samaya vows in the same way as his students. Proper conduct is considered especially necessary for a qualified Vajrayana guru. For example, the Ornament for the Essence of Manjushrikirti states:[30]

Distance yourself from Vajra Masters who are not keeping the three vows

who keep on with a root downfall, who are miserly with the Dharma, and who engage in actions that should be forsaken. Those who them go to and so on as a result. Tantra techniques

Main article: Tantra techniques (Vajrayana)

Classifications of tantra

The various Tantra-texts can be classified in various ways.

Fourfold division

The best-known classification is by the Gelug, Sakya, and Kagyu schools, the so-called or New Translation schools of Tibetan Buddhism. They divide the Tantras into four hierarchical categories:

Kriyayoga, action tantra, which emphasizes ritual; Charyayoga, performance tantra, which emphasizes meditation; Yogatantra, yoga tantra;

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Anuttarayogatantra, highest yoga tantra, which is further divided into "mother", "father" and "non-dual" tantras.

Outer and Inner Tantras

A different division is used by the Nyingma or Ancient Translation school. Kriyayoga, Charyayoga and Yogatantra are called the Outer Tantras, while Anuttarayogatantra is divided into Three Inner Tantras, which correspond to the

Mahayoga Atiyoga, or Dzogchen. The practice of Atiyoga is further divided into three classes: Mental , Spatial , and Esoteric Instructional MenNgagDe.

Annuttara-yoga tantras

In the highest class of tantra, two stages of practice are distinguished. Details of these practices are normally only explained to practitioners by their teachers after receiving an initiation or 'permission to practice'.

In some Buddhist tantras, both stages can be practiced simultaneously, whereas in others, one first actualizes the generation stage before continuing with the completion stage practices.

Generation stage

Main article: Generation stage

In the first stage of generation, one engages in deity yoga. One practices oneself in the identification with the meditational Buddha or deity () by visualisations, until one can meditate single-pointedly on 'being' the deity.[b]

Four purities

In the generation stage of Deity Yoga, the practitioner visualizes the "Four Purities" (Tibetan: yongs su dag pa bzhi; yongs dag bzhi)[web 4] which define the principal Tantric methodology of Deity Yoga that distinguishes it from the rest of Buddhism:[31]

1. Seeing one's body as the body of the deity 2. Seeing one's environment as the pure land or mandala of the deity 3. Perceiving one's enjoyments as bliss of the deity, free from attachment 4. Performing one's actions only for the benefit of others (bodhichitta motivation, altruism)[web 5]

Completion stage

Main article: Completion stage

In the next stage of completion, the practitioner can use either the path of method (thabs lam) or the path of liberation ('grol lam).[32]

At the path of method the practitioner engages in yoga practices. These involve the subtle energy system of the body of the and the energy channels. The "wind energy" is directed and dissolved into the heart , where-after the Mahamudra remains,[33] and the

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practitioner is physically and mentally transformed.

At the path of liberation the practitioner applies ,[34] a preparatory practice for Mahamudra or Dzogchen, to realize the inherent emptiness of every-'thing' that exists.[35]

Deity yoga

Main article: Iṣṭa-devatā

Deity yoga (Tibetan: lha'i rnal 'byor; Sanskrit: ) is the fundamental Vajrayana practice. It is a sadhana in which practitioners visualize themselves as a deity or yidam. Deity Yoga brings the meditator to the experience of being one with the deity:

Deity Yoga employs highly refined techniques of creative imagination, visualisation, and photism in order to self-identify with the divine form and qualities of a particular deity as the union of method or skilful means and wisdom. As His Holiness the Dalai Lama says, "In brief, the body of a Buddha is attained through meditating on it".[36] and Nairātmyā, By visualizing oneself and one's environment entirely as a projection surrounded by a retinue of mind, it helps the practitioner to become familiar with the mind's of eight ḍākinīs. Marpa ability and habit of projecting conceptual layers over all experience. transmission. This experience undermines a habitual belief that views of reality and self are solid and fixed. Deity yoga enables the practitioner to release, or 'purify' him or herself from spiritual obscurations (Sanskrit: klesha) and to practice compassion and wisdom simultaneously.

Recent studies indicate that Deity yoga yields quantifiable improvements in the practitioner's ability to process visuospatial information, specifically those involved in working visuospatial memory.[37]

Guru yoga

Guru yoga (or teacher practice) (Tibetan: bla ma'i rnal 'byor)[38] is a tantric devotional process whereby the practitioners unite their mindstream with the mindstream of the guru.

The guru is engaged as yidam, as a manifestation of a Buddha. The process of guru yoga might entail visualization of an entire lineage of masters ( tree) as an invocation of the lineage. It usually involves visualization of the guru above or in front of the practitioner. Guru yoga may entail a liturgy or mantra such as the Prayer in Seven Lines. (Tibetan: tshig bdun gsol 'debs)[39]

The Guru or spiritual teacher is essential as a guide during tantric practice, as without their example, blessings and grace, genuine progress is held to be impossible for all but the most keen and gifted. Many tantric texts qualify the Three Jewels of Buddha, Dharma and thus: "The Guru is Buddha, the Guru is Dharma, the Guru is also Sangha"[40] to reflect their importance for the disciple. The guru is considered even more compassionate and more potent than the Buddha because we can have a direct relationship with the guru. The guru therefore appears with the yidam and in the refuge formulation of the three factors essential for tantric attainments.

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Death yoga

Main article:

According to the Vajrayana tradition,[41] at certain times the bodymind[42] is in a very subtle state which can be used by advanced practitioners to transform the mindstream. Such liminal times are known in Tibetan Buddhism as Bardo states and include such transitional states as during meditation, dreaming, sex and death.

Death yoga, or "bringing the three bodies into the path of death, (bardo) and ",[43] helps to prepare the practitioner for what they need to do at the time of death. It can be practiced first according to generation stage, and then according to completion stage. The accumulation of meditative practice helps to prepare the practitioner for what they need to do at the time of death.

At the time of death the mind is in a subtle state (clear light) that can open the mind to enlightenment if it is skilfully used to meditate on emptiness (shunyata). During completion stage meditation it is possible to manifest a similar clear light mind and to use it to meditate on emptiness. This meditation causes dualistic appearances to subside into emptiness and enables the practitioner to destroy their ignorance and the imprints of ignorance that are the obstructions to omniscience. It is said that masters like Lama Tsong Khapa used these techniques to achieve enlightenment during the death process. Actually, there are three stages at which it is possible to do this: at the end of the death process, during the bardo (or 'in between period') and during the process of rebirth. During these stages, the mind is in a very subtle state, and an advanced practitioner can use these natural states to make significant progress on the spiritual path. The Tibetan Book of the Dead is an important commentary for this kind of traditional practice.

This death yoga should not be confused with the non-Tantric meditation on and death, which is a common practice within Buddhist traditions used to overcome desirous attachment.

Another Tibetan ritual practice related to death is phowa (transference of one's consciousness), which can be done by oneself at the moment of death or by ritual specialists, phowa-lamas, on behalf of the dead. For the Anuttarayoga Tantras (Tib. rnal-’byor bla-med-kyi-rgyud), transferring one’s consciousness constitutes one of the two ways to separate the coarse and subtle bodies through meditation. Daniel Cozort explains that ’pho-ba (phowa) merely separates the coarse and subtle bodies without leading to the attainment of an “illusory body” (Tib. sgyu-lus). On the other hand, during the perfection type meditation, known as the “final mental isolation” (Tibetan: sems-dben) because it necessitates the presence of an “actual consort” (Tib. las-rgya), “the winds are totally dissolved in the indestructible drop”, and “the fundamental wind naturally rises into an illusory body”.[44] Symbols and imagery

The Vajrayana uses a rich variety of symbols and images.

The Vajra

The Sanskrit term "vajra" denoted the thunderbolt, a legendary weapon and divine attribute that was made from an adamantine, or indestructible, substance and which could therefore pierce and penetrate any obstacle or obfuscation. It is the weapon of choice of , the King of the Devas in Hinduism. As a secondary meaning, "vajra" refers to this indestructible substance, and so is

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sometimes translated as "adamantine" or "diamond"[citation needed]. So the Vajrayana is sometimes rendered in English as "The Adamantine Vehicle" or "The Diamond Vehicle".

A vajra is also a scepter-like ritual object (Standard Tibetan: ་་ dorje), which has a sphere (and sometimes a gankyil) at its centre, and a variable number of spokes, 3, 5 or 9 at each end (depending on the sadhana), enfolding either end of the rod. The vajra is often traditionally employed in tantric rituals in combination with the bell or ; symbolically, the vajra may represent method as well as great bliss and the bell stands for wisdom, specifically the wisdom realizing emptiness.

Imagery and ritual in deity yoga

Representations of the deity, such as a statues (), paintings (), or mandala, are often employed as an aid to visualization, in Deity yoga. are sacred enclosures, sacred architecture that house and contain the uncontainable essence of a yidam. In the book The World of Tibetan Buddhism, the Dalai Lama describes mandalas thus: "This is the celestial mansion, the pure residence of the deity."

All ritual in Vajrayana practice can be seen as aiding in this process of visualization and identification. The practitioner can use various hand implements such as a vajra, bell, hand-drum () or a ritual dagger (phurba), but also ritual hand gestures () can be made, special chanting techniques can be used, and in elaborate , sand rituals or initiations, many more ritual implements and tools are used, mandala. each with an elaborate symbolic meaning to create a special environment for practice. Vajrayana has thus become a major inspiration in traditional Tibetan art. Vajrayana textual tradition

The Vajrayana tradition has developed an extended body of texts:

Though we do not know precisely at present just how many Indian tantric Buddhist texts survive today in the language in which they were written, their number is certainly over one thousand five hundred; I suspect indeed over two thousand. A large part of this body of texts has also been translated into Tibetan, and a smaller part into Chinese. Aside from these, there are perhaps another two thousand or more works that are known today only from such translations. We can be certain as well that many others are lost to us forever, in whatever form. Of the texts that survive a very small proportion has been published; an almost insignificant percentage has been edited or translated reliably."[45] Schools of Vajrayana

Although there is historical evidence for Vajrayana Buddhism in Southeast Asia and elsewhere (see History of Vajrayana below), today the Vajrayana exists primarily in the form of the two major sub-schools of Tibetan Buddhism and Esoteric known as Shingon, with a handful of minor subschools utilising lesser amounts of esoteric or tantric materials.

The distinction between traditions is not always rigid. For example, the tantra sections of the

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Tibetan Buddhist canon of texts sometimes include material not usually thought of as tantric outside the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, such as the [46] and even versions of some material found in the Pali Canon.[47][c]

Tibetan Buddhism

Main article: Tibetan Buddhism

The Tibetan Buddhist schools, based on the lineages and textual traditions of the Kangyur and of Tibet, are found in Tibet, Bhutan, northern India, Nepal, southwestern and northern China, Mongolia and various constituent republics of Russia that are adjacent to the area, such as , Buryatia, Chita Oblast, the Tuva Republic and . Tibetan Buddhism is also the main religion in Kalmykia.

Vajrayana Buddhism was established in Tibet in the 8th century when Śāntarakṣita was brought to Tibet from India at the instigation of the Dharma King , some time before 767. He established the basis of what later came to be known as the Nyingma school. As a Tantric Mahasiddha Padmasambhava's contribution ensured that Vajrayana became part of Tibetan Buddhism. While Vajrayana Buddhism is a part of Tibetan Buddhism in that it forms a core part of every major Tibetan Buddhist school, it is not identical with it. Buddhist scholar Alexander Berzin refers to "the Mahayana and Vajrayana traditions of Tibetan Buddhism".[web 6] Training in the "common paths" of Sutra (including Lamrim) are said to be the foundation for the "uncommon path" of Vajrayana.[48] The Vajrayana techniques add 'skillful means' to the general Mahayana teachings for advanced students. The 'skillful means' of the Vajrayana in Tibetan Buddhism refers to tantra techniques, Dzogchen (Tibetan; Sanskrit:maha-ati) and Mahamudra (Tibetan:Chagchen).

Nepalese Newar Buddhism

Main article: Newar Buddhism

Newar Buddhism is practiced by Newars in Nepal. This is the only form of Vajrayana Buddhism in which the scriptures are written in Sanskrit. Its priests do not follow celibacy and are called .

Ari Buddhism

Ari Buddhism was common in Burma, prior to Anawrahta's rise Chinese use of the Siddhaṃ and the subsequent conversion to Theravada Buddhism in the script for the Pratisara Mantra. 11th century. 927 CE. Azhali religion

The religion is said to be a form of Vajrayana Buddhism transmitted from India to the Kingdom of Dali of the Bai people.[49] The monks have families, eat meat and drink wine. The Zhengde Emperor banned it in 1507.[50][51][52]

Chinese Esoteric Buddhism

Esoteric traditions in China are similar in teachings to the Japanese Shingon school, though the number of practitioners was greatly reduced, due in part of the under

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Emperor Wuzong of Tang, nearly wiping out most of the Chinese Esoteric Buddhist lineage. In China and countries with large Chinese populations such as Taiwan, Malaysia and Singapore, Chinese Esoteric Buddhism is commonly referred as Tángmì (唐密 ) "Tang Dynasty Secret Buddhism," or Hànchuánmìzōng (漢傳密宗 ) "Secret Buddhism of the Han Transmission" (Hànmì 漢密 for short), or Dōngmì (東密 ) "Eastern Secret Buddhism." In a more general sense, the Chinese term Mìzōng (密宗 ) "The Secret Way", is the most popular term used when referring to any form of Esoteric Buddhism. These traditions more or less share the same doctrines as the Shingon school, with many of its students themselves traveling to Japan to be given transmission at Mount Koya.

According to Master , the most popular example of esoteric teachings still practiced in many Zen monasteries of East Asia, is the and its dhāraṇī (Sitātapatroṣṇīṣa Dhāraṇī), along with the Great Compassion (Nīlakaṇṭha Dhāranī), with its 42 Hands and Eyes Mantras.[53]


Shingon Buddhism

Main article: Shingon Buddhism

The Shingon school is found in Japan and includes practices, known in Japan as Mikkyō, which are similar in concept to those in Vajrayana Buddhism. The lineage for Shingon Buddhism differs from that of Tibetan Vajrayana, having A Shingon with emerged from India during the 9th-11th centuries in the Pala Mahavairocana at the center of Dynasty and (via China) and is based on earlier the shrine, and the versions of the Indian texts than the Tibetan lineage. Shingon and mandalas. shares material with Tibetan Buddhism–-such as the esoteric sutras (called Tantras in Tibetan Buddhism) and mandalas – but the actual practices are not related. The primary texts of Shingon Buddhism are the Mahavairocana Sutra and Vajrasekhara Sutra. The founder of Shingon Buddhism was , a Japanese monk who studied in China in the 9th century during the Tang Dynasty and brought back Vajrayana scriptures, techniques and mandalas then popular in China. The school mostly died out or was merged into other schools in China towards the end of the Tang Dynasty but flourished in Japan. Shingon is one of the few remaining branches of Buddhism in the world that continues to use the siddham script of the Sanskrit language.

Tendai Buddhism

Main article: Tendai

Although the Tendai school in China and Japan does employ some esoteric practices, these rituals came to be considered of equal importance with the exoteric teachings of the . By chanting mantras, maintaining mudras, or practicing certain forms of meditation, Tendai maintains that one is able to understand sense as taught by the Buddha, have faith that one is innately an enlightened being, and that one can attain enlightenment within the current lifetime.


Main article: Shugendō

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Shugendō was founded in 7th century Japan by the ascetic En no Gyōja, based on the Queen's Peacocks Sutra. With its origins in the solitary hijiri back in the 7th century, Shugendō evolved as a sort of amalgamation between Esoteric Buddhism, and several other religious influences including . Buddhism and Shinto were amalgamated in the shinbutsu shūgō, and Kūkai's syncretic view held wide sway up until the end of the Edo period, coexisting with Shinto elements within Shugendō[54] Shugendō practitioners in the In 1613 during the Edo period, the Tokugawa Shogunate mountains of Kumano, Mie. issued a regulation obliging Shugendō to belong to either Shingon or Tendai temples. During the Meiji Restoration, when Shinto was declared an independent state religion separate from Buddhism, Shugendō was banned as a superstition not fit for a new, enlightened Japan. Some Shugendō temples converted themselves into various officially approved Shintō denominations. In modern times, Shugendō is practiced mainly by Tendai and Shingon sects, retaining an influence on modern Japanese religion and culture.[55]

Literary characteristics

Vajrayana texts exhibit a wide range of literary characteristics—usually a mix of verse and prose, almost always in a Sanskrit that "transgresses frequently against classical norms of grammar and usage," although also occasionally in various Middle Indic dialects or elegant classical Sanskrit.[56]

Dunhuang manuscripts

The Dunhuang also contains Tibetan Tantric manuscripts. Dalton and Schaik (2007, revised) provide an excellent online catalogue listing 350 Tibetan Tantric Manuscripts] from Dunhuang in the Stein Collection of the British Library which is currently fully accessible online in discrete digitized manuscripts.[web 7] With the Wylie transcription of the manuscripts they are to be made discoverable online in .[57] The 350 texts is just a small number compared to the vast cache of the . Academic study difficulties

Serious Vajrayana academic study in the Western world is in early stages due to the following obstacles:[3]

1. Although a large number of Tantric scriptures are extant, they have not been formally ordered or systematized. 2. Due to the Esoteric initiatory nature of the tradition, many practitioners will not divulge information or sources of their information. 3. As with many different subjects, it must be studied in context and with a long history spanning many different cultures,which is not a light task. 4. Ritual as well as doctrine need to be investigated.

Buddhist tantric practice are categorized as secret practice; this is to avoid misinformed people from harmfully misusing the practices. A method to keep this secrecy is that tantric initiation is required from a Master before any instructions can be received about the actual practice. During the initiation procedure in the highest class of tantra (such as the Kalachakra), students must take

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the tantric vows which commit them to such secrecy.[web 8] "Explaining general tantra theory in a scholarly manner, not sufficient for practice, is likewise not a root downfall. Nevertheless, it weakens the effectiveness of our tantric practice." [web 9]


The terminology associated with Vajrayana Buddhism can be confusing. Most of the terms originated in the Sanskrit language of tantric Indian Buddhism and may have passed through other cultures, notably those of Japan and Tibet, before translation for the modern reader. Further complications arise as seemingly equivalent terms can have subtle variations in use and meaning according to context, the time and place of use. A third problem is that the Vajrayana texts employ the tantric tradition of the , a means of instruction that is deliberately coded. These obscure teaching methods relying on symbolism as well as synonym, metaphor and word association add to the difficulties faced by those attempting to understand Vajrayana Buddhism:

In the Vajrayana tradition, now preserved mainly in Tibetan lineages, it has long been recognized that certain important teachings are expressed in a form of secret symbolic language known as saṃdhyā-bhāṣā, 'Twilight Language'. Mudrās and mantras, maṇḍalas and cakras, those mysterious devices and diagrams that were so much in vogue in the pseudo-Buddhist hippie culture of the 1960s, were all examples of Twilight Language [...] [58]

The term Tantric Buddhism was not one originally used by those who practiced it. As scholar Isabelle Onians explains:

"Tantric Buddhism" [...] is not the transcription of a native term, but a rather modern coinage, if not totally occidental. For the equivalent Sanskrit tāntrika is found, but not in Buddhist texts. Tāntrika is a term denoting someone who follows the teachings of scriptures known as Tantras, but only in Saivism, not Buddhism [...] Tantric Buddhism is a name for a phenomenon which calls itself, in Sanskrit, Mantranaya, Vajrayāna, Mantrayāna or Mantramahāyāna (and apparently never Tantrayāna). Its practitioners are known as mantrins, yogis, or sādhakas. Thus, our use of the anglicised adjective “Tantric” for the Buddhist religion taught in Tantras is not native to the tradition, but is a borrowed term which serves its purpose.[59] See also

Buddhism in Bhutan Newar Buddhism Gyuto Order Dugpas Tibetan Buddhist teachers (category) Taktshang Monastery Notes

a. ^ Large numbers of Mahayana sutras were b. ^ A comparison may be made with the "Role being composed in the period between the theory" of Hjalmar Sundén, which describes beginning of the and the fifth how identification with a religious figure can century.[19] lead to conversion. See (in Dutch) N. Hijweege (1994, Bekering in de

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gereformeerde gezindte, which describes how c. ^ Skilling, Mahasutras, volume I, parts I & II, the story of Paulus conversion on the road to 1997, , page 78, speaks of Damascus serves as an example of the "ideal- the tantra divisions of some editions of the conversion" in orthodox Protestant churches. Kangyur as including Sravakayana, Mahayana and Vajrayana texts


1. ^ a b c d Macmillan Publishing 2004, 27. ^ Ray 2001. p. 875-876. 28. ^ Morreale, Don (1998) The Complete Guide a b c to Buddhist America ISBN 1-57062-270-1 2. ^ Williams 2000, p. 194. p.215 a b c 3. ^ Akira 1993, p. 9. 29. ^ Trungpa, Chögyam and Chödzin, Sherab 4. ^ a b Schumann 1974. (1992) The Lion's Roar: An Introduction to a b c d e f g Tantra ISBN 0-87773-654-5 p. 144. 5. ^ Kitagawa 2002, p. 80. 30. ^ Tsongkhapa , Tantric Ethics: An Explanation 6. ^ Datta 2006. of the Precepts for Buddhist Vajrayana 7. ^ Warder 1999, p. 459-461. a b Practice ISBN 0-86171-290-0, page 46. 8. ^ Warder 1999, p. 477. 31. ^ Yuthok, Choedak (1997) p.27. : 9. ^ Banerjee 1977. Dawn of Enlightenment. (Transcribed and 10. ^ a b Schumann & 1974 163. edited by Pauline Westwood with valued 11. ^ Mishra 2011. assistance from Ot Rastsaphong, Rob Small, 12. ^ Baruah, Bibbhuti (2008) Buddhist Sects and Brett Wagland and Whitethorn. Cover Design: Sectarianism: p. 170 Rob Small) Canberra, : Gorum 13. ^ Sharf, Robert (2001) Coming to Terms With Publications. ISBN 0-9587085-0-9. Source: Chinese Buddhism: A Reading of the PDF (https://web.archive.org Treasure Store Treatise: p. 268 /web/20130201193403/http: 14. ^ Faure, Bernard (1997) The Will to //www.buddhanet.net/pdf_file/lamdre.pdf) Orthodoxy: A Critical Genealogy of Northern 32. ^ Harding 1996, p. 19. : p. 85 33. ^ Snelling 1987, p. 116. 15. ^ a b c Nan Huaijin. Basic Buddhism: Exploring 34. ^ Harding 1996, p. 17. Buddhism and Zen. York Beach: Samuel 35. ^ Harding 1996, p. 16-20. Weiser. 1997. p. 99. 36. ^ Beer, Robert (2004). The Encyclopedia of 16. ^ Jiang, Wu (2008). Enlightenment in Dispute: Tibetan Symbols and Motifs. Serindia The Reinvention of Chan Buddhism in Publications, Inc. ISBN 1-932476-10-5. p.142. Seventeenth-Century China: p. 146 Source: [1] (http://books.google.com 17. ^ http://www.tangmi.com /books?id=XlqeS3WjSWIC&pg=PA142& 18. ^ Buddhism In The Philippines lpg=PA142&dq=death+yoga+vajrayana+tibet& (http://sdhammika.blogspot.com/2009/07 source=web&ots=iGZAiL- /buddhism-in-philippines.html) ZBP&sig=KFghYWnRnJHmCxwnUKpwmYoF 19. ^ Macmillan Publishing 2004, p. 494. 1_Y) (accessed: January 9, 2008) a b c d e 37. ^ M. Kozhevnikov, O. Louchakova, Z. 20. ^ Macmillan Publishing 2004, p. 875. Josipovic, and M.A. Motes (2009). "The 21. ^ Williams, Paul. Buddhism: Critical Concepts Enhancement of Visuospatial Processing in Religious Studies, p. 315. Routledge, 2006. Efficiency Through Buddhist Deity Meditation". ISBN 0-415-33226-5 Psychological 20 (5): 645–53. 22. ^ Berzin, Alexander (2007). The Two Truths in doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02345.x Vaibhashika and Sautrantika. March 2001; (http://dx.doi.org revised September 2002 and July 2006. /10.1111%2Fj.1467-9280.2009.02345.x). Source: Berzin Archives: Two Truths PMID 19476594 (//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov (http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en /pubmed/19476594). /archives/sutra/level5_analysis_mind_reality 38. ^ 1994, p. 416. /truths/2_truths_vaibhashika_sautrantika.html) 39. ^ Patrul Rinpoche 1994, p. 442. (accessed: January 2, 2008). 40. ^ Lobsang Chökyi Gyaltsen, Offering to the 23. ^ Palmo, Tenzin (2002). Reflections on a Spiritual Guide (Tib. Lama Chopa), Tharpa Mountain Lake:Teachings on Practical Publications, p. 12 Buddhism. Snow Lion Publications. 41. ^ Luminous Emptiness. 2001. Francesca pp. 224–5. ISBN 1-55939-175-8. Fremantle. Boston: Shambala Publications. 24. ^ Warder 1999, p. 466. ISBN 1-57062-450-X 25. ^ Hawkins 1999, p. 24. 42. ^ Arpaia, Joseph & D. Lobsang Rapgay 26. ^ Dhammasaavaka. The Buddhism Primer: (2004). Tibetan Wisdom for Modern Life. An Introduction to Buddhism, p. 79. ISBN Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 1-4116-6334-9 81-208-1955-1.

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43. ^ Guide to Dakini Land, pages 109-119, 51. ^ 南诏大理国佛教新资料初探 (2nd. ed., 1996) ISBN (http://hk.plm.org.cn/gnews/2009218 978-0-948006-39-5 /2009218106378.html) 44. ^ Highest Yoga Tantra: An Introduction to the 52. ^ 阿吒力教与密教 ──依现存之大理古代文物 Esoteric Buddhism of Tibet. Ithaca: Snow 所作的考察 (http://blog.sina.com.cn Lion, 1986: p. 98. /s/blog_4bab9525010008jk.html) 45. ^ Isaacson, Harunaga (1998). Tantric 53. ^ Hua 2003, p. 68-71. Buddhism in India (from c. 800 to c. 1200). In: 54. ^ Miyake, Hitoshi. Shugendo in History. Buddhismus in Geschichte und Gegenwart. pp45–52. Band II. Hamburg. pp.23–49. (Internal 55. ^ 密教と修験道 (http://www.cnet-ga.ne.jp publication of Hamburg University.) pg 3 PDF /kenta/mitsu/mitsu.html) (https://web.archive.org/web/20120307044139 [citation needed] /http://www.buddhismuskunde.uni-hamburg.de 56. ^ Isaacson /fileadmin/pdf/digitale_texte 57. ^ Dalton, Jacob & van Schaik, Sam (2007). /Bd2-K02Isaacson.pdf) Catalogue of the Tibetan Tantric Manuscripts 46. ^ Conze, The Literature from Dunhuang in the Stein Collection 47. ^ Peter Skilling, Mahasutras, volume I, 1994, [Online]. Second electronic edition. Pali Text Society[2] (http://www.palitext.com), International Dunhuang Project. Source: [3] Lancaster, page xxiv (http://idp.bl.uk/database 48. ^ Tantric Grounds and Paths: How to Enter, /oo_cat.a4d?shortref=Dalton_vanSchaik_2005 Progress on, and Complete the Vajrayana ) (accessed: Tuesday February 2, 2010) Path, page 1, Tharpa Publications (1994) 58. ^ Bucknell, Roderick & Stuart-Fox, Martin ISBN 978-0-948006-33-3 (1986). The Twilight Language: Explorations 49. ^ 云南阿吒力 (http://www.plm.org.hk/qikan in Buddhist Meditation and Symbolism. /cyfy/2003.1/2k0301f16.htm) Curzon Press: London. ISBN 0-312-82540-4. 59. ^ Isabelle Onians, "Tantric Buddhist 50. ^ 大理国写本佛经整理研究综述 Apologetics, or Antinomianism as a Norm," ( D.Phil. dissertation, Oxford, Trinity Term 2001 /downloadArticleFile.do?attachType=PDF& pg 8 id=8354) Web references

1. ^ Buddhist remains in western Orissa (http://www.scribd.com/doc/27923300/Buddhist-Remains- in-Western-Orissa) 2. ^ Buddhist Heritage Travel Information (http://www.bharathtravels.com/Buddhist.asp) 3. ^ Official Website of Bargarh District (http://bargarh.nic.in/tourism.htm) 4. ^ yongs su dag pa bzhi (http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/translation /Tibetan+%2528Transliterated%2529/yongs+dag+bzhi) (accessed: January 3, 2008) 5. ^ Kalachakranet (2006), Tantric Practice (http://buddhism.kalachakranet.org/tantra_practice.html) (Source: January 3, 2008) 6. ^ "Berzin Archives" (http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en/index.html). Retrieved 2008-06-22. 7. ^ Catalogue of the Tibetan Tantric Manuscripts from Dunhuang in the Stein Collection (http://idp.bl.uk /database/oo_cat.a4d?shortref=Dalton_vanSchaik_2005) 8. ^ Kalachakra Tantra taking initiation (accessed June 26, 2010) (http://kalachakranet.org /kalachakra_tantra_taking_initiation.html) 9. ^ Dr Alex Berzin on Tantric Vows accessed June 26, 2010 (http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en /archives/practice_material/vows/general_tantra/common_root_tantric_pledges.html) Sources

Akira, Hirakawa (1993), Paul Groner, ed., History of Indian Buddhism, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Unknown parameter |translator= ignored (|others= suggested) (help) Banerjee, S. C. (1977), Tantra in Bengal: A Study in Its Origin, Development and Influence, Manohar, ISBN 81-85425-63-9 Datta, Amaresh (2006), The Encyclopaedia Of Indian Literature (Volume One (A To Devo), Volume 1 (http://books.google.co.in/books?id=ObFCT5_taSgC&lpg=PA647&dq=%20oriya& pg=PA647#v=onepage&q=charyapada%20oriya&f=false), Sahitya Akademi publications, ISBN 978-81-260-1803-1 Harding, Sarah (1996), Creation and Completion - Essential Points of Tantric Meditation, Boston: Wisdom Publications Hawkins, Bradley K. (1999), Buddhism, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-21162-X Hua, Hsuan; Bhikshuni Rev. Heng Chih, Bhikshuni Rev. Heng Hsien, David Rounds, Ron Epstein, et

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al (2003), The Shurangama Sutra - Sutra Text and Supplements with Commentary by the Venerable Master Hsuan Hua (http://www.bttsonline.org/product.aspx?pid=165), Burlingame, California: Buddhist Text Translation Society, ISBN 0-88139-949-3 Kitagawa, Joseph Mitsuo (2002), The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture, Routledge, ISBN 0-7007-1762-5 Macmillan Publishing (2004), Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism, Macmillan Publishing Mishra, Baba; Dandasena, P.K. (2011), Settlement and urbanization in ancient Orissa Patrul Rinpoche (1994), Brown, Kerry; Sharma, Sima, eds., The Words of My Perfect Teacher (Tibetan title: kunzang lama'i shelung). Translated by the Padmakara Translation Group. With a forward by the Dalai Lama, , California, USA: HarperCollinsPublishers Unknown parameter |isben= ignored (help) Ray, Reginald A (2001), Secret of the Vajra World: The Tantric Buddhism of Tibet, Boston: Shambhala Publications Schumann, Hans Wolfgang (1974), Buddhism: an outline of its teachings and schools, Theosophical Pub. House Snelling, John (1987), The Buddhist handbook. A Complete Guide to Buddhist Teaching and Practice, London: Century Paperbacks Wardner, A.K. (1999), Indian Buddhism, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Williams, Paul; Tribe, Anthony (2000), Buddhist Thought: A complete introduction to the Indian tradition, Routledge, ISBN 0-203-18593-5 Further reading

Tantric Ethics: An Explanation of the Precepts for Buddhist Vajrayana Practice by Tson-Kha-Pa, ISBN 0-86171-290-0 Perfect Conduct: Ascertaining the Three Vows by Ngari Panchen, Dudjom Rinpoche, ISBN 0-86171-083-5 (Treasury of Knowledge) by Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Taye, ISBN 1-55939-191-X Āryadeva's Lamp that Integrates the Practices (Caryāmelāpakapradīpa): The Gradual Path of Vajrayāna Buddhism according to the Esoteric Community Noble Tradition, ed. and trans by Christian K. Wedemeyer (New York: AIBS/Columbia Univ. Press, 2007). ISBN 978-0-9753734-5-3 S. C. Banerji, Tantra in Bengal: A Study of Its Origin, Development and Influence, Manohar 1992. ISBN 8185425639 Gyatso, Geshe Kelsang (2003). Tantric Grounds and Paths. Glen Spey: Tharpa Publications ISBN 978-0-948006-33-3. Gyatso, Geshe Kelsang (2005). Mahamudra Tantra. Glen Spey: Tharpa Publications ISBN 978-0-948006-93-7. Arnold, Edward A. on behalf of Institute of , fore. by Robert A. F. Thurman. As Long As Endures: Essays on the Kalacakra Tantra in Honor of H.H. the Dalai Lama, Snow Lion Publications, 2009. External links


The Berzin archive. Archive on texts and teachings of Vajrayana, Tibetan Buddhism, and Bon (http://www.berzinarchives.com) A View on Buddhism - Tantric Practice (http://viewonbuddhism.org/tantra_practice.html) Kheper.net - Vajrayana (Tantric Buddhism) (http://www.kheper.net/topics/Buddhism /Vajrayana.htm) about-tantra.org - Introduction and explanation of Buddhist Tantra (http://www.about- tantra.org/) Examples of Vajrayana Buddhist Mantras (http://www.tibetanbuddhistmantras.com) A Study of Traditional Vajrayana Buddhism of Nepal (https://web.archive.org /web/20080724172912/http://www.lrcnepal.org/papers/nbcp-ppr-3.htm)

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Shugendo, japanese vajrayana sources by a western priest of Kyoto Shogoin temple (http://www.shugendo.fr) del Lama Kunsal Kassapa (http://www.trikaya.es/) Shugendo Website from Christian Grübl an Austrian Monk (http://www.shugendo-austria.org/)

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Yogatantra From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The 'Yogatantra' (Sanskrit) 'conveyance' (Sanskrit: yana) is the most sublime of the three Outer Tantras. It includes a class of Buddhist tantric literature as well as 'praxis' (Sanskrit: sadhana) associated with this class. The Yogatantra yana is evident in both the Sarma traditions of Tibetan Buddhism as well as the Nine Yana path of the Nyingmapa tradition.

Jamgon Kongtrul (1813-1899) defines Yoga tantra by making reference to the Two Truths doctrine and 'method' (Sanskrit: upaya) and 'wisdom' (Sanskrit: ) and is rendered into English from the Tibetan by Guarisco and McLeod, et al. (2005: p.128) thus:

"Yoga tantra is so named because it emphasizes the inner yoga meditation of method and wisdom; or alternatively, because based on knowledge and understanding of all aspects of the profound ultimate truth and the vast relative truth, it emphasizes contemplation that inseparably unites these two truths."[1]


1 Nomenclature, orthography and etymology 2 Praxis 3 Literature 4 Notes 5 References

Nomenclature, orthography and etymology

'Yogatantra' (Tibetan: ལ་འར་ད, Wylie: rnal 'byor rgyud) Praxis

Yoga tantra involves 'deity yoga' (Tibetan: ་ལ་འར, Wylie: lha'i rnal 'byor; Sanskrit: Devata- yoga). Literature

Tattvasamgraha tantra 'Summation of the Real and the Glorious Paramãdya' (Sanskrit: Śriparamãdya) Notes

1. ^ Guarisco, Elio (trans.); McLeod, Ingrid (trans., editor); Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Taye, Kon-Sprul Blo-Gros-Mtha-Yas (compiler) (2005). The Treasury of Knowledge: Book Six, Part Four: Systems of Buddhist Tantra. Ithaca, New York, USA: Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-210-X, p.128 References

Mkhas-grub-rje (compiler); Lessing, R.D (senior translator) & Wayman, Alex (journeyman

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translator, annotations) (1968, 1993). 'Introduction to The Buddhist Tantric Systems' (Wylie: rgyud sde spyi'i rnam par gzhag pa rgyas par brjod). Tibetan transliterated in Wylie with English Translation. Second edition. Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0834-7 Guarisco, Elio (trans.); McLeod, Ingrid (trans., editor); Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Taye, Kon-Sprul Blo-Gros-Mtha-Yas (compiler) (2005). The Treasury of Knowledge: Book Six, Part Four: Systems of Buddhist Tantra. Ithaca, New York, USA: Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-210-X

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Yogatantra&oldid=561247928" Categories: Shingon Buddhism Buddhism in Japan Tibetan Buddhist texts

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第 2 頁,共 2 頁 14/1/10 上午 11:11 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahayoga

Mahayoga From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mahāyoga (Skt. "great yoga") is the designation of the first of the three Inner Tantras according to the ninefold division of practice used by the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism.

Ray (2002: p. 124) associates the Mahāyoga with removing the obscuration of the mula klesha of aggression (or anger). The relative aspect of the two truths is mentioned and an embedded quotation by Tulku Thondup:

Mahāyoga-yana is associated with the masculine principle and is for those whose primary defilement is aggression. In Mahāyoga, one visualizes oneself as the divinity with consort. "All manifestation, thoughts and appearances are considered to be the sacred aspects of the divinities within relative truth," in the words of Tulku Thondup. By visualizing all phenomena as the deities of the mandala of buddhahood, in the development stage, all appearances are purified.[1]

As with the other yanas, Mahāyoga represents both a scriptural division as well as a specific emphasis of both view (Tibetan: ta-ba) and practice (Tibetan: yod-pa). Mahāyoga is held to emphasize the generation stage (or "development stage") of Tantra, where the succeeding two yana, anuyoga and atiyoga, emphasise the completion stage and the synthesis or transcendence of the two, respectively.

Mahāyoga scriptures are further divided into two sections: the Sadhana section, consisting of practice texts for meditation on specific deities, and the Tantra section.

Ray (2002: p. 124) highlights the pre-eminent usage of visualization amongst the techniques of tantric sadhana and the teaching of the "eight cosmic commands":[2]

One particular keynote of mahāyoga-yana has to do with the use of visualization. In the Vajrayana in general, one visualizes oneself as the buddha, thus giving external form to the enlightenment within. Like-wise, one visualizes the external world as pure and sacred, thus under-cutting the usual practice of taking things as impure and defiled. In mahāyoga, one comes to the realization that actually all of our everyday experience is a visualization. Just as we can visualize ourselves as a buddha and the world as pure, so we can visualize ourselves as an existent ego and the world as defiled. Realizing that all of our images and conceptions of reality are in fact complex visualizations, we gain a unique entry into the underpinnings of the conventional world and gain a certain kind of unparalleled leverage over it. This is reflected in the mahāyoga-yana teaching of the "eight cosmic commands," eight kinds of ways to intervene in the operation of the conventional world and alter its momentum for the benefit of others.[1]


1 Mahāyoga textual tradition 1.1 Eighteen great tantras of Mahāyoga 1.1.1 Root tantras 1.1.2 Practice tantras 1.1.3 Activity Tantras 1.1.4 Last Tantras that complete whatever is incomplete

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2 Eight of the Nyingma Mahāyoga 3 References 4 Further reading

Mahāyoga textual tradition

In introducing the mTshams brag Edition of the Collected Tantras of the Ancients rnying ma rgyud 'bum, the textual tradition of the Mahāyoga-yana, the THDL[3] states:

The Mahāyoga section of the Collected Tantras of the Ancients is the largest of the three. It is divided into two major sections: the Tantra Series (rgyud sde) and the Practice Series (sgrub sde). One of the seminal Tantras of the Ancients found in this section is the Secret Essence Tantra or gsang ba'i snying po'i rgyud, which has spawned not only a plethora of Indo-Tibetan commentaries but also a heated debate in Tibet over its authenticity.[4]

The THDL states that "although the mTshams brag edition of The Collected Tantras does not rigorously organize its texts according to sub-categories, the Mahāyoga category can be further subdivided according to the following scheme":[4]

1. Tantra Series (rgyud sde) 1. The eightfold set of root Magical Emanation Tantras (Mayajala, rtsa bar gyur sgyu 'phrul sde brgyad) 2. The eighteenfold set of explanatory tantras (bshad pa dang cha mthun gyi rgyud tantra sde bco brgyad) (see below) 1. Enlightened Body (sku) 2. Enlightened Speech (gsung) 3. Enlightened Mind (thugs) 4. Enlightened Qualities (yon tan) 5. Enlightened Activities (phrin las)[5] 3. Miscellaneous 2. Practice Series of the Eight Proclamation Deities (sgrub sde bka' brgyad) 1. The Practice Series (sgrub sde) 1. Summary of the Highest Intention (bla ma dgongs pa 'dus pa) 2. Consortium of Sugatas (bde gshegs 'dus pa) 3. Miscellaneous 2. The Eight Proclamation Deities (bka' brgyad) 1. The Mañjushrī Cycle on Enlightened Form ('jam dpal sku'i skor) 2. The Lotus Tantras on Enlightened Communication (pad ma gsung gi rgyud) 3. The Real Tantras on Enlightened Mind (yang dag thugs kyi rgyud) 4. The Nectar Tantras on Enlightened Qualities (bdud rtsi yon tan gyi rgyud) 5. The Sacred Dagger Cycle on Enlightened Activities (phrin las phur pa'i skor) 6. The Cycle on Invoking the Fierce Ma- Deities (ma mo rbod gtong skor) 7. Offerings and Praises to Protect the Teachings (bstan srung mchod bstod) 8. The Cycle on Fierce Mantras (drag sngags skor) 9. Miscellaneous 3. Miscellaneous 3. Miscellaneous

Eighteen great tantras of Mahāyoga

The 'eighteen great tantras' (Wylie: bshad pa dang cha mthun gyi rgyud tantra sde bco brgyad) from the Tantra series described above are at the heart of the Mahāyoga tradition. These are

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grouped into 'five root tantras' (Wylie: rtsa ba sku gsung thugs yon tan phrin las kyi rgyud chen po lnga), 'five practice tantras' (Wylie: sgrub pa lag len du bstan pa rol pa' rgyud chen po lnga), and 'five activity tantras' (Wylie: spyod pa'i yan lag tu 'gro ba'i rgyud chen po lnga), and the 'two supplementary tantras' (Wylie: ma tshang kha bskong ba'i rgyud chen po gnyis). Together they are known as the Māyājāla. They are as follows:

The "" (Wylie: rDo rje sems dpa' sgyu 'phrul drwa ba; gSang ba snying po) is the foremost of all of these and it abridges the content of the seventeen others as follows:

Root tantras

Equalizing Buddhahood (the tantra of the body) (Wylie: Sangs rgyas mnyam sbyor gyi rtsa ba mkha' 'gro ma bde mchog rtsa ba'i rgyud) The Secret Moon, (the tantra of speech) (Wylie: dPal Zla gsang thig le rtsa ba'i rgyud) The Assembly of Secrets (Guhyasamaja Tantra) (the tantra of mind) (Wylie: dPal gSang ba 'dus pa) The Glorious Supreme Primal Tantra (the tantra of qualities) (Wylie: dPal mchog dang po) The Activity Garland Tantra (the tantra of activities) (Wylie: Kar ma ma le)

Practice tantras

The Heruka Practice Tantra (Wylie: He ru ka rol pa'i rgyud) The Supreme Practice Tantra (Wylie: rTa mchog rol pa'i rgyud) The Compassion Tantra (Wylie: sNying rje rol pa'i rgyud) The Nectar Practice Tantra (Wylie: bDud rtsi rol pa'i rgyud) The Arising of the Twelve Kilayas Tantra (Wylie: Byit to ta ma rol pa'i rgyud; Phur pa bcu gnyis)

Activity Tantras

The Mountain Pile (Wylie: Go 'phang dbang gis bgrod pa ri bo brtsegs pa'i rgyud) The Awesome Wisdom Lightning (Wylie: La spyod pas dor ba rngam pa glog gi 'khor lo'i rgyud) The Array of (Wylie: gZhi dam tshigs gis bzung ba bkod pa rgyal po'i rgyud) The One-Pointed (Wylie: Nyams su ting 'dzin gyis blangs pa rtse gcig bsdus pa'i rgyud) The Rampant Elephant (Wylie: 'Phang lta bas bcad pa glang po rab 'bog gi rgyud)

Last Tantras that complete whatever is incomplete

The Vairochana Net of Magical Display (Wylie: rNam par snang mdzad sgyu 'phrul drwa ba'i rgyud) The Noble, Skilful Lasso, the Concise Lotus Garland (Wylie: Thabs kyi zhags pa pad mo'i phreng ba'i rgyud)[6] Eight Herukas of the Nyingma Mahāyoga

The eight Herukas (Wylie: sgrub pa bka’ brgyad) of the Nyingma mahāyoga tradition (and their corresponding ) are said to have been received by Padmakara from the Eight Vidyadharas (Tib. Rigdzin), or Eight Great Acharyas: Manjushrimitra, Nagarjuna, Vajrahumkara, , Prabhahasti, Dhanasamskrita, Shintamgarbha and Guhyachandra.[2] (http://www.dharmafellowship.org/biographies/historicalsaints/lord-padmasambhava.htm#promulgating) They were proficient in the practices of, respectively,

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1) (Tib. Jampal Shinje, ’jam dpal sku) the wrathful , the deity of body 2) Hayagriva (Tib. Pema Sung, padma gsung) the wrathful Avalokiteshvara, the deity of speech 3) Vishuddha/Sri (Tib. Yangdak Thuk, Wylie: yang dag thugs) the wrathful Vajrapani deity of mind 4) Vajramrita (Tib. Dudtsi Yonten, bdud rtsi yon tan) the wrathful , the deity of enlightened qualities 5) /Vajrakumara (Tib. Dorje Phurba, phur ba ‘phrin las), the wrathful Nivaranavishkambin, the deity of action 6) Matarah (Tib. Mamo Botong, ma mo rbod gtong) the wrathful Akasagarbha, the deity of calling and dispatching 7) Lokastotrapuja-natha (Tib. Jigten Chotod, ’jig rten mchod bstod) the wrathful Ksitigarbha, the deity of worldly offering and praise 8) Vajramantrabhiru (Tib. Mopa Dragnak, mod pa drag sngags) the wrathful Maitreya, the deity of wrathful mantras References

1. ^ a b Ray, Reginald A. (2002). Indestructibe Truth: The Living Spirituality of Tibetan Buddhism - The World of Tibetan Buddhism Volume One. Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.: Shambala Publications, Inc. ISBN 1-57062-910-2. P.124. 2. ^ "Eight Cosmic Commands" Kabgye Deshek Düpa (bka' brgyad bde gshegs 'dus pa) (http://rywiki.tsadra.org/index.php/bka'_brgyad_bde_gshegs_'dus_pa) 3. ^ THDL (http://www.thdl.org) 4. ^ a b Source: [1] (http://www.thdl.org/xml/ngb/showNgb.php?doc=Tb.ed.xml&l=3vt&mode=dsp) (accessed: Saturday May 2, 2008) 5. ^ For further discussion associated with the 'Five fundamental aspects of an enlightened being', as per the nomenclature of , please refer Three . 6. ^ Ringu Tulku & Ann Helm, The Ri-Me Philosophy of Jamgon Kongtrul the Great: A Study of the Buddhist Lineages of Tibet, pg. 75, Shambhala Publications, Boston:2006 Further reading

Mahā-yoga Tantra-s in the Collected Tantra-s of the Ancients (http://www.thdl.org/xml/ngb /showNgb.php?doc=Tb.ed.xml&l=3vt&mode=dsp)

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mahayoga&oldid=589574770" Categories: Yoga styles Nyingma Tibetan Buddhist practices

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第 4 頁,共 4 頁 14/1/10 上午 11:10 Mandala - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandala

Mandala From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mandala (Sanskrit: मडल Maṇḍala, 'circle') is a spiritual and ritual symbol in Hinduism and Buddhism, representing the Universe.[1] The basic form of most mandalas is a square with four gates containing a circle with a center point. Each gate is in the general shape of a T. [2][3] Mandalas often exhibit radial balance.[4]

The term is of Hindu origin. It appears in the Rig Veda as the name of the sections of the work, but is also used in other , particularly Buddhism.

In various spiritual traditions, mandalas may be employed for focusing attention of aspirants and adepts, as a spiritual teaching tool, for establishing a sacred space, and as an aid to meditation and induction.

In common use, mandala has become a generic term for any plan, chart or geometric pattern that represents the metaphysically or symbolically; a microcosm of Thangka painting of Mandala the universe.


1 Hinduism 1.1 Religious meaning 1.2 Political meaning 2 Buddhism 2.1 Early and Theravada Buddhism 2.2 Tibetan Vajrayana 2.2.1 Visualisation of Vajrayana teachings Wisdom and impermanence Five Buddhas 2.2.2 Practice 2.2.3 Offerings 2.3 Shingon Buddhism 2.4 Buddhism 2.5 3 4 Western psychological interpretations 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 External links

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Religious meaning

A is a two- or three-dimensional geometric composition used in sadhanas, or meditative rituals. It is thought to be the abode of the deity. Each yantra is unique and calls the deity into the presence of the practitioner through the elaborate symbolic geometric designs. According to one scholar, " function as revelatory symbols of cosmic truths and as instructional charts of the spiritual aspect of human experience"[5] A Hindu Maṇḍala Many situate yantras as central focus points for Hindu tantric practice.Yantras are not representations, but are lived, experiential, nondual realities. As Khanna describes:

Despite its cosmic meanings a yantra is a reality lived. Because of the relationship that exists in the Tantras between the outer world (the macrocosm) and man’s inner world (the microcosm), every symbol in a yantra is ambivalently resonant in inner–outer synthesis, and is associated with the and aspects of human consciousness.[6]

Political meaning

Main article: Mandala (political model)

The "Rajamandala" (or "Raja-mandala"; circle of states) was formulated by the Indian author Kautilya in his work on politics, the (written between 4th century BC and 2nd century AD). It describes circles of friendly and enemy states surrounding the king's state.[7]

In historical, social and political sense, the term "mandala" is also employed to denote traditional Southeast Asian political formations (such as federation of kingdoms or vassalized states). It was adopted by 20th century Western historians from ancient Indian political discourse as a means of avoiding the term 'state' in the conventional sense. Not only did Southeast Asian polities not conform to Chinese and European views of a territorially defined state with fixed borders and a bureaucratic apparatus, but they diverged considerably in the opposite direction: the polity was defined by its centre rather than its boundaries, and it could be composed of numerous other tributary polities without undergoing administrative integration.[8] Empires such as Bagan, Ayutthaya, , Khmer, Srivijaya and are known as "mandala" in this sense. Buddhism

Early and Theravada Buddhism

The mandala can be found in the form of the [9] and in the Atanatiya Sutta[10] in the , part of the Pali Canon. This text is frequently chanted.

Tibetan Vajrayana

Main article: Vajrayana

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In the Tibetan branch of Vajrayana Buddhism, mandalas have been developed into . They are also a key part of Anuttarayoga Tantra meditation practices.

Visualisation of Vajrayana teachings

The mandala can be shown to represent in visual form the core essence of the Vajrayana teachings. The mind is "a microcosm representing various divine powers at work in the universe."[11] The mandala represents the nature of experience, and the intricacies of both the enlightened and confused mind.

While on the one hand, the mandala is regarded as a place separated and protected from the ever-changing and impure outer world of samsara,[12] and is thus seen as a "Buddhafield"[13] or a place of Nirvana and peace, the view Painted 17th century Tibetan 'Five of Vajrayana Buddhism sees the greatest protection from Deity Mandala', in the center is samsara being the power to see samsaric confusion as the Rakta Yamari (the Red Enemy of "shadow" of purity (which then points towards it). Death) embracing his consort Vajra Vetali, in the corners are the Red, Mount Meru Green White and Yellow Yamaris, Rubin Museum of Art A mandala can also represent the entire universe, which is traditionally depicted with Mount Meru as the in the center, surrounded by the continents.[14]

Wisdom and impermanence

In the mandala, the outer circle of fire usually symbolises wisdom. The ring of eight charnel grounds[15] represents the Buddhist exhortation to be always mindful of death, and the impermanence with which samsara is suffused: "such locations were utilized in order to confront and to realize the transient nature of life."[16] Described elsewhere: "within a flaming rainbow nimbus and encircled by a black ring of dorjes, the major outer ring depicts the eight great charnel grounds, to emphasize the dangerous nature of human Sandpainting showing Buddha life."[17] Inside these rings lie the walls of the mandala mandala which is made as part of palace itself, specifically a place populated by deities and the death rituals among Buddhist Buddhas. Newars of Nepal.

Five Buddhas

One well-known type of mandala is the mandala of the "Five Buddhas", archetypal Buddha forms embodying various aspects of enlightenment. Such Buddhas are depicted depending on the school of Buddhism, and even the specific purpose of the mandala. A common mandala of this type is that of the Five Wisdom Buddhas (a.k.a. Five Jinas), the Buddhas , Aksobhya, , Amitabha and . When paired with another mandala depicting the Five Wisdom Kings, this forms the Mandala of the Two Realms.

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Mandalas are commonly used by tantric Buddhists as an aid to meditation.

The mandala is "a support for the meditating person",[18] something to be repeatedly contemplated to the point of saturation, such that the image of the mandala becomes fully internalised in even the minutest detail and can then be summoned and contemplated at will as a clear and vivid visualized image. With every mandala comes what Tucci calls "its associated liturgy [...] contained in texts known as tantras",[19] instructing practitioners on how the mandala should be drawn, built and visualised, and indicating the mantras to be recited during its ritual use.

By visualizing "pure lands", one learns to understand experience itself as pure, and as the abode of enlightenment. The protection that we need, in this view, is from our own minds, as much as from external sources of confusion. In many tantric mandalas, this aspect of separation and protection from the outer samsaric world is depicted by "the four outer circles: the purifying fire of wisdom, the vajra circle, the circle with the eight tombs, the lotus circle."[18] The ring of vajras forms a connected fence-like arrangement running around the perimeter of the outer mandala circle.[20]

As a meditation on impermanence (a central teaching of Buddhism), after days or of creating the intricate pattern of a sand mandala, the sand is brushed together into a pile and spilled into a body of running water to spread the blessings of the mandala.

Kværne[21] in his extended discussion of , discusses the relationship of sadhana interiority and exteriority in relation to mandala thus:

...external ritual and internal sadhana form an indistinguishable whole, and this unity finds its most pregnant expression in the form of the mandala, the sacred enclosure consisting of concentric squares and circles drawn on the ground and representing that adamant of being on which the aspirant to Buddha hood wishes to establish himself. The unfolding of the tantric ritual depends on the mandala; and where a material mandala is not employed, the adept proceeds to construct one mentally in the course of his meditation." [22]


A "mandala offering"[23] in Tibetan Buddhism is a symbolic offering of the entire universe. Every intricate detail of these mandalas is fixed in the tradition and has specific symbolic meanings, often on more than one level.

Whereas the above mandala represents the pure surroundings of a Buddha, this mandala represents the universe. This type of mandala is used for the mandala- offerings, during which one symbolically offers the universe to the Buddhas or to one's teacher. Within Vajrayana practice, 100,000 of these mandala offerings (to create Chenrezig sand mandala created at merit) can be part of the preliminary practices before a the House of Commons of the [24] student even begins actual tantric practices. This United Kingdom on the occasion of mandala is generally structured according to the model of the Dalai Lama's visit in May 2008 the universe as taught in a Buddhist classic text the

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Abhidharma-kośa, with Mount Meru at the centre, surrounded by the continents, oceans and mountains, etc.

Shingon Buddhism

The Japanese branch of Mahayana Buddhism -- Shingon Buddhism—makes frequent use of mandalas in its rituals as well, though the actual mandalas differ. When Shingon's founder, Kukai, returned from his training in China, he brought back two mandalas that became central to Shingon ritual: the Mandala of the Womb Realm and the Mandala of the Diamond Realm.

These two mandalas are engaged in the abhiseka initiation rituals for new Shingon students, more commonly known as the Kechien Kanjō (結縁灌頂 ). A common feature of this ritual is to blindfold the new initiate and to have them throw a flower upon either mandala. Where the flower lands assists in the determination of which the initiate should follow.

Sand mandalas, as found in Tibetan Buddhism, are not practiced in Shingon Buddhism.

Nichiren Buddhism

The Mandala in is called a moji-mandala (文字曼陀羅 ) and is a paper hanging scroll or wooden tablet whose inscription consists of and medieval-Sanskrit script representing elements of the Buddha's enlightenment, protective , and certain Buddhist concepts. Called the , it was originally inscribed by Nichiren, the founder of this branch of Japanese Buddhism, during the late 13th Century. The Gohonzon is the primary object of veneration in some Nichiren schools and the only one in others, which consider it to be the supreme object of worship as the embodiment of the supreme Dharma and Nichiren's inner enlightenment. The seven characters Nam Myoho Renge Kyo, considered to be the name of the supreme Dharma, as well as the invocation that believers chant, are written down the center of all Nichiren-sect Gohonzons, whose appearance may otherwise vary depending on the particular school and other factors.

Pure Land Buddhism

Mandalas have sometimes been used in Pure Land Buddhism to graphically represent Pure Lands, based on descriptions found in the Larger Sutra and the Contemplation Sutra. The most famous mandala in Japan is the , dated to approximately 763 CE. The Taima Mandala is based upon the Contemplation Sutra, but other similar mandalas have been made subsequently. Unlike mandalas used in Vajrayana Buddhism, it is not used as an object of meditation or for esoteric ritual. Instead, it provides a visual representation of the Pure Land texts, and is used as a teaching aid.[citation needed]

Also in Buddhism, and his descendant, , sought a way to create easily accessible objects of reverence for the lower-classes of Japanese society. Shinran designed a mandala using a hanging scroll, and the words of the nembutsu (南無阿彌陀佛 ) written vertically. This style of mandala is still used by some Jodo Shinshu Buddhists in home , or . Christianity

Forms which are evocative of mandalas are prevalent in Christianity: the celtic cross; the rosary; the halo; the aureole; oculi; the Crown of Thorns; rose windows; the Rosy Cross; and the dromenon on the floor of Chartres Cathedral. The dromenon represents a journey from the outer

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world to the inner sacred centre where the Divine is found.[25]

Similarly, many of the Illuminations of Hildegard von Bingen can be used as mandalas, as well as many of the images of , as in Christian , Christian , and . Western psychological interpretations

According to art therapist and mental health counselor Susanne F. Fincher, we owe the re-introduction of mandalas into modern Western thought to C. G. Jung, the The round window at the site of the Swiss psychoanalyst. In his pioneering exploration of the Marsh Chapel Experiment unconscious through his own art making, Jung observed supervised by Walter Pahnke the motif of the circle spontaneously appearing. The circle drawings reflected his inner state at that moment. Familiarity with the philosophical writings of India prompted Jung to adopt the word "mandala" to describe these circle drawings he and his patients made. In his autobiography "Memories, , Reflections," Jung wrote:

"I sketched every morning in a notebook a small circular drawing,...which seemed to correspond to my inner situation at the time....Only gradually did I discover what the mandala really is:...the Self, the wholeness of the personality, which if all goes well is harmonious." pp 195 – 196.

Jung recognized that the urge to make mandalas emerges during moments of intense personal growth. Their appearance indicates a profound re-balancing process is underway in the psyche. The result of the process is a more complex and better integrated personality. As Jungian analyst Marie Louise von Franz explains:

"The mandala serves a conservative purpose—namely, to restore a previously existing order. But it also serves the creative purpose of giving expression and form to something that does not yet exist, something new and unique….The process is that of the ascending spiral, which grows upward while simultaneously returning again and again to the same point.[26]

Creating mandalas helps stabilize, integrate, and re-order inner life.[27]

According to the psychologist David Fontana, its symbolic nature can help one "to access progressively deeper levels of the unconscious, ultimately assisting the meditator to experience a mystical sense of oneness with the ultimate unity from which the cosmos in all its manifold forms arises."[28] Gallery

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A diagramic drawing of the Sri Mandala Yantra, showing the outside square, with four T-shaped gates, and the central circle.

Painted 19th century Tibetan Painted Bhutanese Medicine mandala of the Naropa tradition, Buddha mandala with the goddess stands in the center of Prajnaparamita in center, 19th two crossed red triangles, Rubin century, Rubin Museum of Art Museum of Art

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Tibetan monks making a temporary Mandala of the Six Chakravartins sand mandala in the City-Hall of Kitzbühel in Austria in 2002.

Vajravarahi Mandala Kalachakra Mandala

Jain cosmological diagrams and A mandala near the entrance to text. .

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Mandala painted by a patient of Carl A modern mandala Jung

See also

Architectural drawing Astrological symbols Form constant Bhavachakra Magic Great chain of being Life energy Chakra Quincunx Manna Sacred art Chi Yantra Quintessence References

1. ^ "mandala" (http://www.merriam-webster.com 7. ^ Singh, Prof. Mahendra Prasad (2011). /dictionary/mandala). Merriam–Webster Indian Political Thought: Themes and Online Dictionary. 2008. Retrieved Thinkers (http://books.google.com 2008-11-19. /books?id=80q_hd7ASdEC). Pearson 2. ^ Artiste Nomade, What's a mandala? Education India. ISBN 8131758516. pp. (http://www.artistenomade.com 11-13. /gb/art_asie.htm) 3. ^ Kheper,The Buddhist Mandala - Sacred Geometry and Art (http://www.kheper.net /topics/Buddhism/mandala.html) 4. ^ www.sbctc.edu (adapted). "Module 4: The Artistic Principles" (http://www.saylor.org /site/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/Module- 4.pdf). Saylor.org. Retrieved 2 April 2012. 5. ^ Khanna Madhu, Yantra: The Tantric Symbol of Cosmic Unity. Thames and Hudson, 1979, p. 12. 6. ^ Khanna, Madhu, Yantra: The Tantric Symbol of Cosmic Unity. Thames and Hudson, 1979, pp. 12-22

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8. ^ Dellios, Rosita (2003-01-01). "Mandala: 16. ^ Charnel Grounds (http://www.yoniversum.nl from sacred origins to sovereign affairs in /dakini/charnel_g.html) traditional Southeast Asia" 17. ^ http://www.sootze.com/tibet/mandala.htm (http://epublications.bond.edu.au 18. ^ a b Mandala (http://www.jyh.dk/indengl.htm) /cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1007& 19. ^ The Mandala in Tibet context=cewces_papers&sei-redir=1& (http://www.asianart.com/mandalas/tibet.html) referer=http%3A%2F 20. ^ Mandala (http://www.jyh.dk %2Fwww.google.co.id%2Furl%3Fsa%3Dt%26 /indengl.htm#Circles) rct%3Dj%26q%3Dmandala%2520srivijaya%2 21. ^ Per Kvaerne 1975: p. 164 520political%2520federation%26source%3Dw 22. ^ Kvaerne, Per (1975). "On the Concept of eb%26cd%3D11%26ved%3D0CBgQFjAAOAo Sahaja in Indian Buddhist Tantric Literature". %26url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fepublicat (NB: article first published in Temenos XI ions.bond.edu.au%252Fcgi%252Fviewcontent (1975): pp.88-135). Cited in: Williams, Jane .cgi%253Farticle%253D1007%2526context% (2005). Buddhism: Critical Concepts in 253Dcewces_papers%26ei%3DxrfkTu3fKdDQ Religious Studies, Volume 6. Routledge. ISBN rQfpmuCSCA%26usg%3DAFQjCNHApSYyF 0-415-33226-5, ISBN 978-0-415-33226-2. UfMf3LtiD2a95urqw- Source: [1] (http://books.google.com.au X5w%26sig2%3DSrOqXV_mGyJ6xCRIIOpJQ /books?id=Ypsz9qEzZjwC&pg=PA137& A#search=%22mandala%20srivijaya%20politi dq=g.yu+sgra+snying+po& cal%20federation%22). Bond University lr=&ei=HjXIS_SOJoOeMoP9sIEP& Australia. Retrieved 2011-12-11. cd=21#v=onepage& 9. ^ Prebish & Keown, Introducing Buddhism, q=g.yu%20sgra%20snying%20po&f=false) ebook, Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 2005; (accessed; Friday April 16, 2010) printed edn, Routledge, 2006; page 89 23. ^ The Meaning and Use of a Mandala 10. ^ Skilling, Mahasutras, volume II, parts I & II, (http://www.berzinarchives.com/tantra Pali Text Society, pages 553ff /meaning_use_mandala.html) 11. ^ John Ankerberg, John Weldon, 24. ^ Preliminary Practice (Ngondro) Encyclopedia of New Beliefs: The New (http://www.thubtenchodron.org Age Movement (http://books.google.com /PrayersAndPractices /books?id=SghdYBbMds0C&pg=PA343), /preliminary_practice.htm) p. 343 25. ^ See David Fontana: "Meditating with 12. ^ Sudden or Gradual Enlightenment Mandalas", p. 11, 54, 118 (http://www.angelfire.com/electronic 26. ^ C. G. Jung: "Man and His Symbols," p. 225 /awakening101/sudgrad2.html) 27. ^ see Susanne F. Fincher: "Creating 13. ^ Ngondro (http://home.swipnet.se/ratnashri Mandalas: For Insight, Healing, and /ngondro.htm) Self-Expression," p. 1 - 18 14. ^ Mipham (2000) pp. 65,80 28. ^ See David Fontana: "Meditating with 15. ^ A Monograph on a Vajrayogini Thanka Mandalas", p. 10 Painting (http://www.bdcu.org.au /scw/thanka.html) Sources

Brauen, M. (1997). The Mandala, Sacred circle in Tibetan Buddhism Serindia Press, London. Bucknell, Roderick & Stuart-Fox, Martin (1986). The Twilight Language: Explorations in Buddhist Meditation and Symbolism. Curzon Press: London. ISBN 0-312-82540-4 Cammann, S. (1950). Suggested Origin of the Tibetan Mandala Paintings The Art Quarterly, Vol. 8, Detroit. Cowen, Painton (2005). The Rose Window, London and New York, (offers the most complete overview of the evolution and meaning of the form, accompanied by hundreds of colour illustrations.) Crossman, Sylvie and Barou, Jean-Pierre (1995). Tibetan Mandala, Art & Practice The , Konecky and Konecky. Fontana, David (2005). "Meditating with Mandalas", Duncan Baird Publishers, London. Gold, Peter (1994). Navajo & Tibetan sacred wisdom: the circle of the spirit. ISBN 0-89281-411-X. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions International. Mipham, Sakyong Jamgön (2002) 2000 Seminary Transcripts Book 1 Vajradhatu Publications ISBN 1-55055-002-0 Śabara, “Yoginīsarvasvaṃ Nāma Guhyavajravilāsinīsādhanaṃ,” Dhīḥ, No. 17, Review of Rare Buddhist Texts, , Varanasi: Central Institute for Higher Tibetan Studies, 1984, pp. 5-17. Tucci,Giuseppe (1973). The Theory and Practice of the Mandala trans. Alan Houghton Brodrick, New York, Samuel Weisner. Vitali, Roberto (1990). Early Temples of Central Tibet London, Serindia Publications. Wayman, Alex (1973). "Symbolism of the Mandala Palace" in The Buddhist Tantras Delhi, Motilal

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Banarsidass. Chris Bell (n.d.). The Maṇḍala (https://collab.itc.virginia.edu/access/wiki/site/679c2e7e-ca49-462b- 0038-a5e0534b709f/maṇḍala.html) External links

Introduction to Mandalas (http://kalachakranet.org/mandala_introduction.html) Expnation of Vajradhatu Mandala by Thangka Centre (http://www.thangka.de /Gallery-1/otherbuddhas/3-26/dhatu-0.htm) Berzin, Alexander (2003). The Berzin Archives. The Meaning and Use of a Mandala. (http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en/archives/advanced/tantra/level1_getting_started /meaning_use_mandala.html) Mandalaweb.info - Documents, researches and interviews about Mandalas (http://english.mandalaweb.info/) Mandalas in the Tradition of the Dalai Lamas' Namgyal Monastery by (http://losangsamten.com/mandalas.html) Information on creating and interpreting mandalas

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mandala&oldid=590015789" Categories: Buddhist philosophical concepts Buddhist practices Ceremonies Hindu philosophical concepts Iconography Meditation Religious objects Religious symbols Tibetan Buddhist practices

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第 11 頁,共 11 頁 14/1/10 上午 11:15 Mantra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mantras

Mantra From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Mantras)

Mantra (Sanskrit म) means a sacred utterance, numinous sound, or a , word, phonemes, or group of words believed by some to have psychological and spiritual power. [2][3] Mantra may or may not be syntactic nor have literal meaning; the spiritual value of mantra comes when it is audible, visible or present in thought.[2][4]

Earliest mantras were composed in Vedic times by in India, and those are at least 3000 years old.[5] Mantras are now found in various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikhism.[3][6] Similar hymns, chants, compositions and concepts are found in ,[7] Taoism, Christianity and elsewhere.[2] The syllable is considered a The use, structure, function, importance and types of mantra in its own right in mantras varies according to the school and philosophy of school of Hinduism. Hinduism and of Buddhism. Mantras serve a central role in the tantric school of Hinduism.[5][8] In this school, mantras are considered equivalent to deities, a sacred formula and deeply personal ritual, and considered to be effective only after initiation. However, in other schools of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism or Sikhism, this is not so.[7][9]

Mantras come in many forms, including ṛc (verses from for example) and sāman (musical chants from the Sāmaveda for example).[2][5] They are typically melodic, mathematically structured meters, resonant with numinous qualities. At its simplest, the word ॐ (Aum, Om) serves as a In Tibet, many Buddhists carve mantra. In more sophisticated forms, they are melodic mantras into rocks as a form of phrases with spiritual interpretations such as human longing meditation. for truth, reality, light, , peace, love, knowledge and action.[2][9] In other forms, they are literally meaningless, yet musically uplifting and A Mantra Chant spiritually meaningful.[5] 0:00 MENU A mantra chant set to Indian classical music (6 19 seconds)[1]

Contents Problems playing this file? See media help. 1 Etymology and origins 2 Definition 3 The meaning or meaninglessness of mantras 4 Hinduism 4.1 History of Hindu mantras 4.2 Function and structure of Hindu mantras 4.3 Examples

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5 Jainism 6 Buddhism 6.1 Non-esoteric Buddhism 6.2 Shingon Buddhism 6.3 Indo-Tibetan Buddhism 6.3.1 6.3.2 Some other mantras in Tibetan Buddhism 6.4 Other sects and religions 6.5 Collection 7 Sikhism 8 China 8.1 Taoism 9 Zoroastrianism 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links 13.1 Buddhist mantra 13.2 Hindu mantra

Etymology and origins

The Sanskrit word mantra- (m.; also n. mantram) consists of the root man- "to think" (also in "mind") and the suffix -tra, designating tools or instruments, hence a literal translation would be "instrument of thought".[10][11]

Scholars[5][2] consider mantras to be older than 1000 BC. By the middle Vedic period - 1000 BC to 500 BC - claims Frits Staal, mantras in Hinduism had developed into a blend of art and science to include verses, saman, yajus, and nigada.[5] Mantras written on a rock near Namche Bazaar Nepal The Chinese translation is zhenyan 眞言 , 真言 , literally "true words", the Japanese on' reading of the Chinese being shingon (which is also used as the proper name for the prominent esoteric Shingon sect).

According to Schlerath, the concept of sātyas mantras is found in Indo-Iranian Yasna 31.6 and Rigveda, where it means more than 'true Word', it is considered formulated thought which is in conformity with the reality or poetic (religious) formula with inherent fulfillment.[12]

Mantras are neither unique to Hinduism, nor to other Indian religions such as Buddhism; similar creative constructs developed in Asian and Western traditions as well.[5] Mantras, suggests Staal, may be older than language. Definition

There is no generally accepted definition of mantra.[13]

Renou has defined mantra as thought.[14] Mantras are structured formulae of thoughts, claims Silburn.[15] Farquhar concludes that mantras are a religious thought, prayer, sacred utterance, but

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also believed to be a spell or weapon of supernatural power.[16] Zimmer defines mantra as a verbal instrument to produce something in one’s mind.[17] Bharati defines mantra, in the context of tantric school of Hinduism, to be a combination of mixed genuine and quasi morphemes arranged in conventional patterns, based on codified esoteric traditions, passed on from a guru to a disciple through prescribed initiation.[18]

Jan Gonda, a widely cited scholar on Indian mantras,[19] defines mantra as general name for the verses, formulas or sequence of words in prose which contain praise, are believed to have religious, magical or spiritual efficiency, which are meditated upon, recited, muttered or sung in a ritual, and which are collected in the methodically arranged ancient texts of Hinduism.[20] There is no universally applicable uniform definition of mantra because mantras are used in different religions, and within each religion in different schools of philosophy. In some schools of Hinduism for example, suggests Gonda, mantra is sakti (power) to the devotee in the form of formulated and expressed thought.[2] Staal clarifies that mantras are not rituals, they are what is recited or chanted during a ritual.[5] The meaning or meaninglessness of mantras

There has been a long, scholarly disagreement on the meaning of mantras and whether they Gayatri Mantra Audio are really instruments of mind as implied by the 0:00 MENU etymological origin of the word mantra. One Hindu's mantra for universe as source school suggests mantras are mostly of knowledge, sun as source of primordial energy (19 seconds) meaningless sound constructs, the other school suggests mantras are mostly meaningful Problems playing this file? See media help. linguistic instruments of mind.[21] Both schools agree that mantras have melody, a well designed mathematical precision in their construction, and their influence on the reciter and listener is similar to one observed on people around the world listening to their beloved music that is devoid of words.[5][2]

Staal[5] presents a non-linguistic view of mantras. He suggests that verse mantras are metered and harmonized to mathematical precision (for example, in the viharanam technique), which resonate, but a lot of them are hodge podge meaningless constructs that is found in folk music around the world. Staal cautions that there are many mantras that can be translated and do have spiritual meaning and philosophical themes central to Hinduism, but that does not mean all mantras have literal meaning. He further notes that even when mantras do not have literal meaning, they do set a tone and ambience in the ritual they are recited, and thus have a straightforward and uncontroversial ritual meaning.[5] The sounds may lack literal meaning, but they can have an effect. He compares mantras to bird songs, that have the power to communicate, yet do not have a literal meaning.[22] On saman category of Hindu mantras, which Staal calls as resembling the arias of Bach's oratorios and other European classics, he notes that these mantras have musical structure, but they almost always are completely different from anything in the syntax of natural languages known to man. Mantras are literally meaningless, yet musically meaningful to Staal.[23] The saman chant mantras were transmitted, from one Hindu generation to next, verbally for over 1000 years, but never written, a feat suggests Staal that was made possible by the strict mathematical principles used in constructing the mantras. These saman chant mantras are also mostly meaningless, cannot be literally translated as Sanskrit or any Indian language, but nevertheless are beautiful in their resonant themes, variations, inversions and distribution.[5] They draw the devotee in. Staal is not the first person to view Hindu

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mantras in this manner. The ancient Hindu Vedic ritualist Kautsa was one the earliest scholars to note that mantras are meaningless; its function is phonetic and syntactic, not semantic.[24]

Harvey Alper,[25] along with others,[26] present the linguistic view of mantras. They admit Staal's observation that many mantras do contain bits and pieces of meaningless jargon, but they question what language or text doesn't. Presence of superfluous abracadabra bits, does not necessarily imply the entire work is meaningless. Alper lists numerous mantras that have philosophical themes, moral principles, a call to virtuous life, and even mundane petitions. He suggests that from a set of millions of mantras, the devotee chooses some mantras voluntarily, thus this expresses the intention of that speaker, and the audience for that mantra is that speaker's chosen spiritual entity. Mantra deploy the language of spiritual expression, they are religious instruments, and that is what matters to the devotee. Mantras create a feeling in the practicing person, it has an emotive numinous effect, it mesmerizes, it defies expression, it creates sensations that are by definition private, and at the heart of all religions and spiritual phenomena.[2][18][27] Hinduism

History of Hindu mantras

During early vedic period, claims Staal,[5] Vedic poets became fascinated by the inspirational power of poems, metered verses and music. They referred to them with the root -, which evolved into dhyana (meditation) of Hinduism, and the language used to start and assist this process manifested as mantra. By middle vedic period (1000 BC to 500 BC), mantras were derived from all vedic compositions. They included ṛc (verses from Rigveda for example), sāman (musical chants from the Sāmaveda for example), yajus (a muttered formula from the for example), and nigada (a loudly spoken yajus). During the Hindu Epics period and after, mantras multiplied in many ways and diversifed to meet the needs and passions of various schools of Hinduism. Mantras took a center stage in Tantric school.[28] The tantric school posited that each mantra (bijas) is a deity;[29] it is this distinct school of Hinduism and 'each mantra is a deity' reasoning that led to the perception that some Hindus have tens of millions of gods.

Function and structure of Hindu mantras

One function of mantras is to solemnize and ratify rituals.[30] Each mantra, in Vedic rituals, coupled to acts. According to Apastamna Srauta Sutra, each ritual act is accompanied by one mantra, unless the Sutra explicitly marks that one act corresponds to several mantras. According to Gonda,[31] and others[32] there is a connection and rationale between a Vedic mantra and each Vedic ritual act that accompanies it. In these cases, the function of mantras was to be an instrument of ritual efficacy for the priest, and an instrument of instruction for ritual act for others.

Over time, as the and Epics were composed, the concepts of worship, virtues and spirituality evolved in Hinduism. Religions such as Jainism and Buddhism branched off, new schools were founded. Each of these continued developing and refining their own mantras. In Hinduism, suggests Alper,[33] the function of mantras shifted from quotidian to redemptive. In other words,[34] in Vedic times, mantras were recited with a practical quotidian goal as intention, goal such as requesting a deity's help in discovery of lost cattle, cure from illness, succeeding in competitive sport or journey away from home. Literal translation of Vedic mantras suggest that the function of mantra, in these cases, was to cope with the uncertainties and dilemmas of daily life. In later period of Hinduism,[35] mantras were recited with a transcendental redemptive goal as

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intention, goal such as escape from cycle of life and rebirth, forgiveness for bad karma, experiencing spiritual connection with the god. The function of mantra, in these cases, was to cope with the human condition as a whole. According to Alper,[36] redemptive spiritual mantras opened the door for sounds and structure of mantras where every part need not have literal meaning, but together their resonance and musical quality assisted the transcendental spiritual process. Overall, explains Alper with Śivasūtra mantras example, Hindu mantras have philosophical themes, are metaphoric with social dimension and meaning; in other words, they are a spiritual language and instrument of thought.[35]

According to Staal,[5] Hindu mantras may be spoken aloud, anirukta (not enunciated), upamsu (inaudible), or recited manasa (not spoken, but recited in mind). In ritual use, mantras are often silent, they are instruments of meditation.


The most basic mantra is Om, which in Hinduism is known as the "pranava mantra," the source of all mantras. The behind this is the premise that before existence and beyond existence is only One reality, , and the first manifestation of Brahma expressed as Om. For this reason, Om is considered as a foundational idea and reminder, and thus is prefixed and suffixed to all Hindu prayers. While some mantras may invoke individual Gods or principles, fundamental mantras, like the 'Shanti Mantra,' the 'Gayatri Mantra' and others all ultimately focus on the One reality.

Tantric school

In the tantric school the universe is sound.[citation needed] The supreme (para) brings forth existence through the Word (). Creation consists of vibrations at various frequencies and amplitudes giving rise to the phenomena of the world.

Buhnemann notes deity mantras are an essential part of Tantric compendia. The tantric mantras vary in their structure and length. Malamantras are those mantras which have very large number of . In contrast, are bija mantras, which are one-syllabled typically ending in anusvara (a simple nasal sound). These are derived from the name of deity; for example, deity yields dum and deity yields gam. Bija mantras are prefixed and appended to other mantras thereby creating complex mantras. In tantric school, these mantras are believed to have supernatural powers, and they are transmitted by a preceptor to a disciple in an initiation ritual.[37] Tantric mantras found a significant audience and adaptations in medieval India, Hindu southeast Asia and numerous Asian countries with Buddhism.[38]

Majumdar, and other scholars[2][39] suggest mantras are central to tantric school, with numerous functions: from initiating and emancipating a tantric devotee to worshiping manifested forms of the divine, from enabling heightened sexual energy in the male and the female to acquiring supranormal psychological and spiritual power, from preventing evil influences to exorcizing demons, and many others.[40] These claimed functions and other aspects of tantric mantra are a subject of controversy among scholars.[41] Tantra school is not unique to Hinduism, it is also found in Buddhism in India and outside India.[42]


Main article: Japa

Mantra japa is a practice of repetitive muttering the same mantra for an auspicious number of

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times, the most popular being 108, and sometimes just 5, 10, 28 or 1008.[2][43][44] Japa is found in personal prayer or meditative efforts of some Hindus, as well during formal (group prayers). These are assisted by malas (bead necklaces) containing 108 beads and a head bead (sometimes referred to as the 'meru', or 'guru' bead). The devotee performing japa using his/her fingers counts each bead as he/she repeats the chosen mantra. Having reached 108 repetitions, if he/she wishes to continue another cycle of mantras, the devotee turns the mala around without crossing the head bead and repeats the cycle.[45] Japa- is claimed to be most effective if the mantra is repeated silently in mind (manasah).[43]

According to this school, any shloka from holy like the , , , Yoga Sutra, even the , , Durga saptashati or Chandi is a mantra, thus can be part of the japa, repeated to achieve numinous effect.[46][47][48] The Dharmasāstra claims Gāyatri mantra derived from Rig Veda verse 3.62.10, and the Purușasūkta mantra from Rig Veda verse 10.90 are most auspicious mantras for japa at sunrise and sunset; it is claimed to purify the mind and spirit.[2]

Notable Hindu mantras


Main article: Gayatri Mantra

The Gayatri mantra is considered one of the most universal of all Hindu mantras, invoking the universal as the principle of knowledge and the illumination of the primordial Sun. The mantra is extracted from the 10th verse of Hymn 62 in Book III of Rig Veda.[49]

: | | | : ॐ भभवव तसवतवयम् भग वय धीमह धयो यो न Mantra of the Hare चोदयात् school of Hinduism.

Om Bhū~~Bhurva~Swah' Tat Savitur varenyam bhargo devasya dhīmahi dhiyo yo nah prachodayāt,[50]

"Let us meditate on that excellent glory of the divine Light (Vivifier, Sun). May he stimulate our understandings (knowledge, intellectual illumination).[49]

Pavamana mantra

Main article: Pavamana Mantra

असतोमा सगमय । तमसोमा योितर् गमय । मृयोमामृतं गमय ॥

asato mā sad gamaya, tamaso mā jyotir gamaya, mṛtyor māmṛtaṃ gamaya (Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad 1.3.28)[51]

"from the unreal lead me to the real, from the dark lead me to the light, from death lead me to immortality.

Shanti mantra

Main article: Shanti Mantra

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Oṁ Sahanā vavatu sahanau bhunaktu Sahavīryam karavāvahai Tejasvi nāvadhītamastu Mā vidviṣāvahai Oṁ Shāntiḥ, Shāntiḥ, Shāntiḥ.

"Om! Let the Studies that we together undertake be effulgent; "Let there be no Animosity amongst us; "Om! Peace, Peace, Peace. – 2.2.2

There are numerous other important mantras.[52]

Transcendental Meditation

The Transcendental Meditation technique, also known as 'TM', uses mantras that are assigned to the practitioner to be used as thought sound only, not chanted, without connection to any meaning or idea.[53]

The spiritual exercises of Surat Shabda Yoga include (repetition, particularly silent repetition of a mantra given at initiation), dhyan (concentration, viewing, or contemplation, particularly on the Inner Master), and (listening to the inner sounds of the Shabda or the Shabda Master).

Repetition of a "mantram" (e.g., mantra) or holy mane is Point 2 in the eight-point Passage Meditation program taught by Eknath Easwaran, who recommended using a mantram drawn from a faith tradition, east or west. The mantram is to be used frequently throughout the day, at opportune moments.[54] This method of mantram repetition, and the larger program, was developed for use in any major faith tradition, or outside all traditions.[55] Easwaran's method of mantram repetition has been the subject of scientific research at the San Diego Veterans Administration, which has suggested health benefits that include managing stress and reducing symptoms of PTSD.[56][57] Jainism

Navkar mantra

The Navkar Mantra is a central mantra in Jainism.

Namo Arihantânam I bow to the Arihantâs (Prophets). Namo Siddhânam I bow to the Siddhâs (Liberated ). I bow to the Âchâryas (Preceptors or Spiritual Namo Âyariyânam Leaders). Namo Uvajjhâyanam I bow to the Upadhyâya (Teachers). Namo Loe Savva Sahûnam I bow to all the Sadhûs (Saints). Eso Panch Namokkaro, Savva Pâvappanâsano, This fivefold bow (mantra) destroys all sins and Mangalanam Cha obstacles Savvesim, and of all auspicious mantras, is the first and foremost Padhamam Havai one. Mangalam.


Non-esoteric Buddhism

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In Buddhism in China and Vietnam, ten small mantras[58][59][60][61][62][63][64] were finalized by the monk Yulin (玉琳國師 ), a teacher of the Shunzhi Emperor for monks, nuns, and laity to chant in the morning.

Along with the ten mantras, the Great Compassion Mantra, the of the Shurangama, Heart Sutra and various forms of are also chanted.[65][66]

The Shurangama Mantra may be the longest mantra.

There are Thai buddhist amulet katha.[67][68][69]

Shingon Buddhism

Kūkai (774-835), a noted Buddhist monk, advanced a general theory of language based on his analysis of two forms of Buddhist ritual language: dharani (dhāra.nī) and mantra. Mantra is restricted to esoteric Buddhist practice whereas dharani is found in both esoteric and exoteric ritual. for instance are found in the Heart Sutra. The term "shingon" (lit. true word) is the Japanese pronunciation of the Chinese term for mantra, chen yen.

The word dharani derives from a Sanskrit root dh.r which means to hold or maintain. Ryuichi Abe suggests that it is generally understood as a mnemonic device which encapsulates the meaning of a section or chapter of a sutra. Dharanis are also considered to protect the one who chants them from malign influences and calamities.

The term mantra is traditionally said to be derived from two roots: man, to think; and the action- oriented suffix -tra. Thus a mantra can be considered to be a linguistic device for deepening ones thought, or in the Buddhist context for developing the enlightened mind. They have also been used as magic spells for purposes such as attaining wealth and long life, and eliminating enemies. In daily living, many thought the pronunciation of the mantra was not important to take its effect and the expected effect may not happen because of fixed karma (定業 ), or because there appears a better way to solve the situation.

The distinction between dharani and mantra is difficult to make. We can say that all mantras are dharanis but that not all dharanis are mantras. Mantras do tend to be shorter. Both tend to contain a number of unintelligible phonic fragments such as Om, or Hu.m, which is perhaps why some people consider them to be essentially meaningless. Kūkai made mantra a special class of dharani which showed that every syllable of a dharani was a manifestation of the true nature of reality – in Buddhist terms that all sound is a manifestation of shunyata or emptiness of self-nature. Thus rather than being devoid of meaning, Kūkai suggests that dharanis are in fact saturated with meaning – every syllable is symbolic on multiple levels.

One of Kūkai's distinctive contributions was to take this symbolic association even further by saying that there is no essential difference between the syllables of mantras and sacred texts, and those of ordinary language. If one understood the workings of mantra, then any sounds could be a representative of . This emphasis on sounds was one of the drivers for Kūkai's championing of the phonetic writing system, the , which was adopted in Japan around the time of Kūkai. He is generally credited with the invention of the kana, but there is apparently some doubt about this story amongst scholars.

This mantra-based theory of language had a powerful effect on Japanese thought and society which up until Kūkai's time had been dominated by imported of thought, particularly in the form of the Classical which was used in the court and amongst the literati, and Confucianism which was the dominant political ideology. In particular

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Kūkai was able to use this new theory of language to create links between indigenous Japanese culture and Buddhism. For instance, he made a link between the Buddha Mahavairocana and the Shinto sun Goddess Amaterasu. Since the emperors were thought to be descended form Amaterasu, Kūkai had found a powerful connection here that linked the emperors with the Buddha, and also in finding a way to integrate Shinto with Buddhism, something that had not happened with Confucianism. Buddhism then became essentially an indigenous religion in a way that Confucianism had not. And it was through language, and mantra that this connection was made. Kūkai helped to elucidate what mantra is in a way that had not been done before: he addresses the fundamental questions of what a text is, how signs function, and above all, what language is. In this he covers some of the same ground as modern day Structuralists and others scholars of language, although he comes to very different conclusions.

In this system of thought all sounds are said to originate from "a" – which is the short a sound in father. For esoteric Buddhism "a" has a special function because it is associated with Shunyata or the idea that no thing exists in its own right, but is contingent upon causes and conditions. (See Dependent origination) In Sanskrit "a" is a prefix which changes the meaning of a word into its opposite, so "vidya" is understanding, and "avidya" is ignorance (the same arrangement is also found in many Greek words, like e.g. "atheism" vs. "theism" and "apathy" vs. "pathos"). The letter a is both visualised in the Siddham script, and pronounced in rituals and meditation practices. In the Mahavairocana Sutra which is central to Shingon Buddhism it says: Thanks to the original vows of the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, a miraculous force resides in the mantras, so that by pronouncing them one acquires merit without limits". [in Conze, p. 183]

A mantra is Kuji-kiri in Shugendo and Shingon.

The practice of writing mantras, and copying texts as a spiritual practice, became very refined in Japan, and the writing in the Siddham script in which the Sanskrit of many Buddhist Sutras were written is only really seen in Japan nowadays.[citation needed]

Indo-Tibetan Buddhism

Mantrayana (Sanskrit), that may be rendered as "way of mantra", was the original self-identifying name of those that have come to be determined 'Nyingmapa'.[citation needed] The Nyingmapa which may be rendered as "those of the ancient way", a name constructed due to the genesis of the Sarma "fresh", "new" traditions. Mantrayana has developed into a synonym of Vajrayana.

Noted translator of Buddhist texts (1904–1979) distinguishes three periods in the Buddhist use of mantra.

Initially, according to Conze, like their fellow Indians, Buddhists used mantra as protective spells to ward off malign influences. Despite a Vinaya rule which forbids monks engaging in the Brahminical practice of chanting mantras for material gain, there are a number of protective for a group of ascetic monks. However, even at this early stage, there is perhaps something more than animistic magic at work. Particularly in the case of the the efficacy of the verses seems to be related to the concept of "truth". Each verse of the sutta ends with "by the virtue of this truth may there be happiness".

Conze notes that later mantras were used more to guard the spiritual life of the chanter, and sections on mantras began to be included in some Mahayana sutras such as the White Lotus Sutra, and the Lankavatara Sutra. The scope of protection also changed in this time. In the Sutra of Golden Light the Four Great Kings promise to exercise sovereignty over the different classes of demigods, to protect the whole of Jambudvipa (the India sub continent), to protect monks who proclaim the sutra, and to protect kings who patronise the monks who proclaim the sutra. The

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apotheosis of this type of approach is the Nichiren school of Buddhism that was founded in 13th century Japan, and which distilled many previously complex Buddhist practices down to the veneration of the Lotus Sutra through recitation of the daimoku: "Nam myoho renge kyo" which translates as "Homage to the Lotus Sutra".

The third period began, according to Conze, in about the 7th century, to take centre stage and become a vehicle for salvation in their own right. Tantra started to gain momentum in the 6th and 7th century, with specifically Buddhist forms appearing as early as 300CE. Mantrayana was an early name for the what is now more commonly known as Vajrayana, which gives us a hint as to the place of mantra in Indo-Tibetan Buddhism. The aim of Vajrayana practice is to give the practitioner a direct experience of reality, of things as they really are. Mantras function as symbols of that reality, and different mantras are different aspects of that reality – for example wisdom or compassion. Mantras are often associated with a particular deity, one famous exception being the Prajnaparamita mantra associated with the Heart Sutra. One of the key Vajrayana strategies for bringing about a direct experience of reality is to engage the entire psycho-physical organism in the practices. In one Buddhist analysis the person consists of 'body, speech and mind' (refer: Three Vajra). So a typical sadhana or meditation practice might include mudras, or symbolic hand gestures; the recitations of mantras; as well as the visualisation of celestial beings and visualising the letters of the mantra which is being recited. Clearly here mantra is associated with speech. The meditator may visualise the letters in front of themselves, or within their body. They may be pronounced out loud, or internally in the mind only.

Om mani padme hum

Main article: Om mani padme hum

Probably the most famous mantra of Buddhism is Om mani padme hum, the six syllable mantra of the Bodhisattva of compassion Avalokiteśvara (Tibetan: Chenrezig, Chinese: ). This mantra is particularly associated with the four-armed Shadakshari form of Avalokiteśvara. The Dalai Lama is said to be an incarnation of Avalokiteshvara, and so the mantra is especially revered by his devotees.

The book Foundations of Tibetan by Lama , gives a classic example of how such a mantra can contain many levels of symbolic meaning. Om mani padme hum on the Gangpori (photo 1938–1939 Donald Lopez gives a good discussion of this mantra and German expedition to Tibet. its various interpretations in his book Prisoners of Shangri-LA: Tibetan Buddhism and the West. Lopez is an authoritative writer and challenges the stereotypical analysis of the mantra as meaning "The Jewel in the Lotus", an interpretation that is not supported by either a linguistic analysis, nor by Tibetan tradition, and is symptomatic of the Western Orientalist approach to the 'exotic' East. He suggests that Manipadma is actually the name of a bodhisattva, a form of Avalokiteshvara who has many other names in any case including Padmapani or lotus flower in hand. The Brahminical insistence on absolutely correct pronunciation of Sanskrit broke down as Buddhism was exported to other countries where the inhabitants found it impossible to reproduce the sounds. So in Tibet, for instance, where this mantra is on the lips of many Tibetans all their waking , the mantra is pronounced Om mani peme hum.

Some other mantras in Tibetan Buddhism

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The following list of mantras is from Kailash - Journal of Himalayan Studies, Volume 1, Number 2, 1973. (pp. 168–169) (augmented by other contributors). It also includes renderings of Om mani padme hum.

Please note that the word swaha is sometimes shown as svaha, and is usually pronounced as 'so-ha' by Tibetans. Spellings tend to vary in the to English, for example, hum and hung are generally the same word. The mantras used in Tibetan Buddhist practice are in Sanskrit, to preserve the original mantras. Visualizations and other practices are usually done in the Tibetan language.

Om vagishvara hum This is the mantra of the Mahabodhisattva Manjusri, Tibetan: Jampelyang (Wylie "'jam dpal dbyangs")... The Buddha in his wisdom aspect. Om mani padme hum The mantra of Avalokitesvara, Mahabodhisattva, the Buddha in his compassion aspect. Om vajrapani namo hum The mantra of the Buddha as Protector of the Secret Teachings. i.e.: as the Mahabodhisattva Dorje (Vajrapani). Om vajrasattva hum The short mantra for White Vajrasattva, there is also a full 100-syllable mantra for Vajrasattva. Om ah hum vajra guru padma hum The mantra of the Vajraguru Guru Padma Sambhava who established Mahayana Buddhism and Tantra in Tibet. Om tare tuttare ture mama ayurjnana punye pushting svaha The mantra of Dölkar or White , the emanation of Tara [Chittamani Tara]. Variants: Om tare tuttare ture mama ayurjnana punye pushting kuru swaha (Drikung Kagyu), Om tare tuttare ture mama ayu punye puktrim kuru soha (Karma Kagyu).

Om tare tuttare ture svaha, mantra of Green Arya Tara - Jetsun Dolma or Tara, the Mother of the 0:00 MENU Buddhas: om represents Tara's sacred body, speech, Om Tare Tutare Ture Soha. and mind. Tare means liberating from all discontent. Tutare means liberating from the eight fears, the external dangers, but mainly from the internal dangers, the delusions. Ture means liberating from duality; it shows the "true" cessation of confusion. Soha means "may the meaning of the mantra take root in my mind."

According to Tibetan Buddhism, this mantra (Om tare tutare ture soha) can not only eliminate disease, troubles, disasters, and karma, but will also bring believers blessings, longer life, and even the wisdom to transcend one's circle of reincarnation. Tara representing long life and health.

oṃ amaraṇi jīvantaye svāhā (Tibetan version: oṃ ā ma ra ṇi dzi wan te ye svā hā) The mantra of the Buddha of limitless life: the Buddha Amitayus (Tibetan Tsépagmed) in celestial form. Om dhrung svaha The purification mantra of the mother Namgyalma. Om ami dhewa hri The mantra of the Buddha Amitabha (Hopagmed) of the Western Pureland, his skin the colour of the setting sun. Om ami dewa hri The mantra of Amitabha (Ompagme in Tibetan). Om ah ra pa ca na dhih The mantra of the "sweet-voiced one", Jampelyang (Wylie "'jam dpal dbyangs") or Manjusri, the Bodhisattva of wisdom. Om muni maha muniye sakyamuni swaha The mantra of Buddha Sakyamuni, the historical Buddha Om gate gate paragate parasamgate bodhi svaha The mantra of the Heart of the Perfection of Wisdom Sutra (Heart Sutra) Namo bhagavate Bhaishajya-guru vaidurya-praba-rajaya tathagataya arhate samyak- sambuddhaya tadyata *Tadyata OM bhaishajye bhaishajye maha bhaishajya raja-samudgate svaha The mantra of the 'Medicine Buddha', from Chinese translations of the Master of Healing Sutra.

There are mantras in Bön and some Chinese sects.[70][71][72]

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Other sects and religions

Ye Dharma Hetu Ancient Buddhist mantra, often found in India and other countries Nam Myōhō Renge Kyō The mantra of the Nichiren Buddhism. Myō Myōhō Renge Kyō (名妙法連結経 ) The mantra of the Tenshō Kōtai Jingūkyō Ná Mó Běn Shī Dà Zì Zai Wáng Fó (南無本師大自在王佛 )[73][74] The mantra of the Buddhayana sect (佛乘宗 ). Ganenmiaochanshifu zantanmiaochanshifu (感恩妙禪師父 !讚歎妙禪師父 !) The mantra of Rulai Buddhism (如來宗 )[75] Námó Tiānyuán Tàibǎo Āmítuófó (南無天元太保阿彌陀佛 ) The mantra of the Way of Former and the T'ung-shan She.[76][77] Guān Shì Yīn Pú Sà (觀世音菩薩 ) The mantra of the Li-ism[78][79] Zhēnkōngjiāxiàng, wúshēngfùmǔ (真空家鄉,無生父母 ) The mantra of the Luo Sect (羅教 ) [80][81] Gomtrazan. Gwaarla. Rarunka. Sohuan. Satnum The mantra of Ching Hai.[82] Zhōngshùliánmíngdé, zhèngyìxìnrěngōng, bóxiàoréncíjiào, jiéjiǎnzhēnlǐhé (忠恕廉明德、正 義信忍公、博孝仁慈覺、節儉真禮和 ) The mantra of the Tiender and the Lord of Universe Church[83] Qīngjìng guāngmíng dàlì zhìhuì wúshàng zhìzhēn móní guāngfó (清淨光明大力智慧無上至 真摩尼光佛 ) The mantra of the Manichaeism in China[84]


The mantra in are collected by into a book. Kuang-Ming Lin (林光明 ) amended it.[85][86] Sikhism

In the Sikh religion, a mantar or mantra is a Shabad (Word or hymn) from the Adi Granth to concentrate the mind on God and the message of the ten Sikh .

Mantras in Sikhism are fundamentally different from the secret mantras used in other religions.[87] Unlike in other religions, Sikh mantras are open for anyone to use. They are used openly and are not taught in secret sessions but are used in front of assemblies of Sikhs.[87]

The Mool Mantar, the first composition of , is the most widely known Sikh mantra. China

When Buddhism arrived in China, the concept of mantras came with it. The emphasis in China was not as much on sound, but towards writing with characters that were flexible in pronunciation but precise in meaning. The Chinese prized written language much more highly than did the Indian Buddhist missionaries, and the writing of mantras became a spiritual practice in its own right.


There are mantras in Taoism such as the words in Dafan yinyu wuliang yin (大梵隱語無量音 ) and the Tibetan Buddhism mantra om (唵 ).[88][89][90][91]

There are mantras in Cheondoism, Daesun Jinrihoe, Jeung San Do and Onmyōdō.[92][93]

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In the Zoroastrian scriptures is a section called the Gathas or hymns. These hymns are believed to be the original words of Zarathushtra, faithfully preserved as an oral tradition through the generations. Zarathushtra, and later tradition, refer to the Gathas as mathra (later called a manthra). See also

Bīja Dhikr Khadgamala Kotodama Kuji-in Rabbit rabbit rabbit, superstition periodic mantra. Sandhyavandanam Notes

1. ^ This is a Buddhist chant. The words in Pali are: Buddham saranam gacchami, Dhammam saranam gacchami, Sangham saranam gacchami; The equivalent words in Sanskrit, according to Georg Feuerstein, are: Buddham saranam gacchâmi, Dharmam saranam gacchâmi, Sangham saranam gacchâmi. The literal meaning: I go for refuge in knowledge, I go for refuge in teachings, I go for refuge in community. In some traditions of Hinduism, the mantra is expanded to seven lines, with first word of the additional lines being Satyam (truth), Ahimsam (non-violence), Yogam (yoga) and Ekam (one universal life). For example, an additional line with Ahimsam is: Ahimsam saranam gacchâmi. 2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Jan Gonda (1963), The Indian Mantra, Oriens, Vol. 16, pages 244-297 3. ^ a b Feuerstein, G. (2003), The Deeper Dimension of Yoga. Shambala Publications, Boston, MA 4. ^ James Lochtefeld, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Volume 2, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, pages 422-423 5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Frits Staal (1996), Rituals and Mantras, Rules without meaning, ISBN 978-8120814127, Motilal Banarsidass 6. ^ Nesbitt, Eleanor M. (2005), Sikhism: a very short introduction, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-280601-7 7. ^ a b Boyce, M. (2001), Zoroastrians: their religious beliefs and practices, Psychology Press 8. ^ Teun Goudriaan (1981), Hindu Tantric and Śākta Literature, in A History of Indian Literature, Vol. 2, ISBN 978-3447020916, Chapter VIII 9. ^ a b Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York 10. ^ Macdonell, Arthur A., A Sanskrit Grammar for Students § 182.1.b, p. 162(Oxford University Press, 3rd edition, 1927). 11. ^ Whitney, W.D., Sanskrit Grammar § 1185.c, p. 449(New York, 2003, ISBN 0-486-43136-3). 12. ^ Schlerath, Bernfried (1987). ""Aša: Avestan Aša"". Encyclopaedia Iranica. 2:694-696. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul p. 695. 13. ^ Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York, page 3-7 14. ^ T Renou (1946), Litterature sanskrite, Paris, page 74 15. ^ L. Silburn (1955), Instant et cause, Paris, page 25 16. ^ J. Farquhar (1920), An outline of the religious literature of India, Oxford, page 25 17. ^ Heinrich Robert Zimmer (1946), and symbols in and civilization, ISBN 9780691017785, Washington DC, page 72 18. ^ a b Agehananda Bharati (1965), The Tantric Tradition, London: Rider and Co., ISBN 0-8371-9660-4

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19. ^ Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York, page 9 20. ^ Jan Gonda (1975), Vedic Literature (Samhitäs and Brähmanas), (HIL I.I) Wiesbaden: OH; also Selected Studies, (4 volumes), Leiden: E. J. Brill 21. ^ Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York 22. ^ Frits Staal (1985), Mantras and Bird Songs, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 105, No. 3, Indological Studies, pages 549-558 23. ^ Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York, page 10-11 24. ^ Frits Staal (1996), Rituals and Mantras, Rules without meaning, ISBN 978-8120814127, Motilal Banarsidass, page 112-113 25. ^ Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York, page 10-14 26. ^ Andre Padoux, in Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York, page 295-317; see also Chapter 3 by Wade Wheelock 27. ^ Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York, page 11-13 28. ^ Frits Staal (1996), Rituals and Mantras, Rules without meaning, ISBN 978-8120814127, Motilal Banarsidass, Chapter 20 29. ^ Teun Goudriaan (1981), Hindu Tantric and Śākta Literature, in A History of Indian Literature, Vol. 2, ISBN 978-3447020916, Chapter VIII 30. ^ Jan Gonda (1963), The Indian Mantra, Oriens, Vol. 16, pages 258-259 31. ^ Jan Gonda (1980), Vedic Ritual: The non-Solemn Rites, Amsterdam; see also Jan Gonda (1985), The Ritual Functions and Significance of Grasses in the Religion of the Veda, Amsterdam; Jan Gonda (1977), The Ritual Sutras, Wiesbaden 32. ^ P.V. Kane (1962), History of Dharmasastra, Volume V, part II 33. ^ Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York, see Introduction 34. ^ Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York, pages 7-8 35. ^ a b Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York, Chapter 10 36. ^ Harvey Alper (1989), Understanding Mantras, ISBN 81-208-0746-4, State University of New York 37. ^ Gudrun Bühnemann, Selecting and perfecting mantras in Hindu tantrism, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies / Volume 54 / Issue 02 / June 1991, pages 292-306 38. ^ David Gordon White (2000), Tantra in Practice, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691057798 39. ^ Jean Herbert, Spiritualite hindoue, Paris 1947, ISBN 978-2226032980 40. ^ Bhattāchārya, Majumdar and Majumdar, Principles of Tantra, ISBN 978-8185988146, see Introduction by Barada Kanta Majumdar 41. ^ Brooks (1990), The Secret of the Three Cities: An Introduction to Hindu Sakta Tantrism, University of Chicago Press 42. ^ David Gordon White (Editor) (2001), Tantra in practice (Vol. 8), Motilal Banarsidass, Princeton Readings in Religions, ISBN 978-8120817784, Chapters 21 and 31 43. ^ a b Monier Monier-Williams (1893), Indian Wisdom, Luzac & Co., London, page 245-246, see text and footnote 44. ^ A Dictionary of Hinduism, Margaret and James Stutley (Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers) 2002, p.126 45. ^ , Swami Sivananda. Mantras: Words of Power (http://books.google.com /books?id=BFfxHiQb3HAC). Timeless Books, Canada. ISBN 1-932018-10-7. Page 54; quote: Mantra Yoga (chanting), Japa Yoga: Vaikhari Japa (speaking), Upamsu Japa (whispering or humming), Manasika Japa (mental repetition), Likhita Japa (writing) 46. ^ Some very common mantras, called Nama japa, are: "Om Namah (name of deity)"; for example, or Om Namo Bhagavate Rudraya Namah (Om and salutations to Lord ); Om Namo Narayanaya or Om Namo Bhagavate Vasudevãya (Om and salutations to Lord Vishnu); Om Shri Ganeshaya Namah (Om and salutations to Shri Ganesha) 47. ^ Meditation and Mantras, Swami Vishnu-Devananda (Motilal Banarsidass Publishers) 1981, p.66 48. ^ A Dictionary of Hinduism, p.271; Some of the major books which are used as reference for Mantra Shaastra are: Parasurama Sutra; Shaarada Tilakam; Tantra; Prapanchasara 49. ^ a b Monier Monier-Williams (1893), Indian Wisdom, Luzac & Co., London, page 17 50. ^ Meditation and Mantras, p.75 51. ^ Brhadaranyaka-Upanisad (Brhadaranyakopanisad), Kanva recension; GRETIL version, input by members of the Sansknet project (formerly: www.sansknet.org) (http://fiindolo.sub.uni-goettingen.de /gretil/1_sanskr/1_veda/4_upa/brup___u.htm)

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52. ^ For example, see: Om Namo Narayanaya called as Narayana Ashtakshara Mantra; Om Namo Bhagavate Vasudevaya Dvadasakshari mantra; Om Sri Ram Jai Ram Jai Jai Ram; Hare Krishna Maha Mantra; Om Namah Shivaya Siva Panchakshara mantra; Sūrya namaskāra; So'ham (I am He or I am That) (See Meditation and Mantras, p.80); Ram Nam Mantra; Brahma Asmi (I Am Brahman); Sri Vidya Mantras - There are 3 Sri Vidya Mantras - Bala Tripurasundari Mantra, Mantra, Shodasi Mantra; Dakshinamoorthy Mantra; Chandi Navakshari Mantra; Santhana GopalaKrishna Mantra; Shoolini Durga Mantra; Maha Sudarshana Mantra; Maha Ganapathi Mantra; Svayamvara Kala Mantra 53. ^ Shear Jonathon (Editor), The Experience of Meditation:Experts Introduce the Major Traditions,pg.28.Paragon House. St Paul, MN.,2006. 54. ^ In Hinduism, frequent repetition at opportune moments is a common type of japa. 55. ^ Eknath Easwaran (2008). Mantram Handbook (see article) (5th ed.). Tomales, CA: Nilgiri Press. ISBN 1-58638-028-1 (originally published 1977). 56. ^ Jill E. Bormann, Steven Thorp, Julie L. Wetherell, & Shahrokh Golshan (2008). A Spiritually Based Group Intervention for Combat Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (http://dx.doi.org/10.1177 /0898010107311276). Journal of Holistic Nursing v26 n2, pp 109-116. PMID 18356284, doi:10.1177/0898010107311276 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1177%2F0898010107311276). 57. ^ Jill E. Bormann & Doug Oman (2007). Mantram or holy name repetition: Health benefits from a portable spiritual practice. In Thomas G. Plante, & Carl E. Thoresen (Eds.), Spirit, science and health: How the spiritual mind fuels physical wellness (pp. 94-112) (table of contents (http://www.loc.gov /catdir/toc/ecip0716/2007016344.html)), Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-99506-5 58. ^ " of ten mantras" (http://web.archive.org/web/20070324051507/http://www.amtfamtf.net /nfgy/sxz.htm). Web.archive.org. 2007-03-24. Archived from the original (http://www.amtfamtf.net /nfgy/sxz.htm) on 2007-03-24. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 59. ^ Rulu. "Introduction to Mahayana Buddhist Sutras and Mantras" (http://www.sutrasmantras.info /intro.html). Sutrasmantras.info. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 60. ^ " Ak=obhya如來滅定業真言 " (http://www.siddham-sanskrit.com/s-sanskrit2/ChuaBTuan/Ten-small- mantras.htm). Siddham-sanskrit.com. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 61. ^ Quang Duc. "Quang Duc" (http://www.quangduc.com/tudien/tudien-c.html). Quang Duc. Retrieved 2012-07-18. 62. ^ Thu Vien Hoa Sen (http://www.thuvienhoasen.org/tudienphathoc-anhviet-thienphuc-T.htm) 63. ^ "Cong Phu Khuya" (http://www.vanphatdanh.com/vietVPD1/canbanphatphap/phathoc/nghithuc /congphukhuya/thapchu.html). Van Phat Danh. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 64. ^ [1] (http://www.dharmaradio.org/dharmatalks/mp3/B101/On_Mahayana_Practice.pdf) 65. ^ "慈悲的咒語 " (http://www.bfnn.org/book/books3/2078.htm). Bfnn.org. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 66. ^ "Yuan 1" (http://www.siddham.org/yuan1/main_mantra.asp). Siddham. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 67. ^ "A mini reference archive library of compiled Buddhist Katha/Katta" (http://www.mir.com.my/leofoo /Thai-amulets/Chris_Tam_katha_libary/index.htm). Mir.com.my. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 68. ^ [2] (http://mingkok.buddhistdoor.com/cht/news/d/22471“悉曇真言 ”與 “普庵咒 ”(上) ) 69. ^ 泰国圣僧龙波班! “发财心咒 ”让人两年内致富 (http://astro.women.sohu.com/20121102 /n356519280.shtml) 70. ^ "雪域佛教 " (http://www.yzbj.com/doc/hcy_01_txt.txt). Retrieved 2012-07-17. 71. ^ "普傳各種本尊神咒 " (http://www.buddhasun.net/descript/utf_8/infotext1.php). Buddhasun.net. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 72. ^ "Mantra - 真佛蓮花小棧 (True Buddha Lotus Place)" (http://lotushouse.weebly.com/mantra.html). Lotushouse.weebly.com. 2010-02-27. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 73. ^ "本師『大自在王佛』的出處 " (http://epaper.buddhayana.info/?p=170). Epaper.buddhayana.info. 2004-05-15. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 74. ^ 大自在念佛三昧法 (http://www.fosheng.org.tw/node/56) 75. ^ 妙禪師父立佛教如來宗 | 妙禪師父 | 如來精舍 | 佛教如來宗如來實證協會 (http://www.rulaiwb.org /?ap=block&p1=903&p2=) 76. ^ 口訣辨正 (http://www.1-kuan-tao.org.tw/zongsu/culture/9902/206/206p7-9.pdf) 77. ^ "同善社 #" (http://www.fxzhwm.com/shijian/tongshanshe.htm). Fxzhwm.com. Retrieved 2013-03-16. 78. ^ "(三 )理 教 " (http://www.cass.net.cn/zhuanti/y_haixia/hx_01/hx_01_16_03.htm). Cass.net.cn. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 79. ^ 第 094卷 民国宗教史 (http://www.saohua.com/shuku/zhongguolishi/mydoc095.htm) 80. ^ "畫符念咒:清代民間秘密宗教的符咒療法 " (http://www2.nutn.edu.tw/randd/post/40-2/humanistic /2-29-2.pdf) (PDF). Retrieved 2012-07-17. 81. ^ 清代的民间宗教 (http://jds.cass.cn/Item/8362.aspx) 82. ^ "附佛外道 -清海與盧勝彥 " (http://ramsss.com/ching-hai/c/buddhist_cults_2.htm). Ramsss.com. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 83. ^ "人生守則廿字真言感恩、知足、惜福,天帝教祝福您! " (http://tienti.info/v2/precepts). Tienti.info. Retrieved 2012-07-17.

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84. ^ "光明之城泉州 " (http://hk.chiculture.net/20205/html/d18/20205d18.html). Hk.chiculture.net. Retrieved 2012-07-18. 85. ^ "新編大藏全咒 " (http://www.qingis.com/books/zangzu.doc). Retrieved 2012-07-18. 86. ^ 咒語百科全書《新編大藏全咒》精裝十八冊 (http://www.mantra.com.tw/e-new88/www/md/cgi-bin /detail.cgi?id=MD040819000005) 87. ^ a b Tālib, Gurbachan Siṅgh (1992). "MŪL MANTRA" (http://www.advancedcentrepunjabi.org /eos/MUL%20MANTRA.html). Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Patiala: Punjabi University. Retrieved 19 September 2010. 88. ^ 中国周易在线 . "神咒集合 " (http://www.20tv.cn/showart.asp?art_id=331&page=1). 20tv.cn. Retrieved 2012-07-18. 89. ^ "咒 " (http://www.spacetao.com/page3_1_1.htm). Spacetao.com. Retrieved 2012-07-18. 90. ^ 道教咒術初探 (http://www.taoism.org.hk/religious-studies/9902/art8.htm) 91. ^ "道炁长存 -众妙之门 -天台山 -桐柏宫 -道教 -符录神咒 " (http://www.dao7.net/html/xiuxing/fuzhou/). Dao7.net. Retrieved 2012-07-18. 92. ^ "民間信仰 " (http://portal.nricp.go.kr/kr/data/mkr/original/download.jsp?no=1046&mode=file1). Retrieved 2012-07-18. 93. ^ "呪 文 (주 문 )" (http://ijinwon.kr/cndokyo/cndogiongjeon/cdgj006.htm). Ijinwon.kr. Retrieved 2012-07-18. 94. ^ "좋은만남 !!! 증산도 " (http://www.megapass.co.kr/~hanare79/eng/mantra_tae02.htm). Megapass.co.kr. Retrieved 2012-07-18. 95. ^ "(5) 주문 " (http://www.dsjr.org/kor/dje/dje03-2.php). Dsjr.org. Retrieved 2012-07-18. 96. ^ "口遊 " (http://www2s.biglobe.ne.jp/~Taiju/970_kuchizusami.htm). S.biglobe.ne.jp. Retrieved 2012-07-18.


Abe, R. The weaving of mantra: Kukai and the construction of esoteric Buddhist discourse. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.) Beyer, S. Magic and ritual in Tibet: the cult of Tara. (Delhi: Motilal Banarsisdass, 1996). Conze, E. Buddhism : its essence and development. (London : Faber, c1951). Eknath Easwaran Mantram Handbook (see article) Nilgiri Press (4th ed. ISBN 978-0-915132-98-0) (5th ed. ISBN 978-1-58638-028-1) Gelongma Karma Khechong Palmo. Mantras On The . Kailash - Journal of Himalayan Studies, Volume 1, Number 2, 1973. (pp. 168–169). Gombrich, R. F. Theravaada Buddhism: a social history from ancient Benares to modern Colombo. (London, Routledge, 1988) Govinda (Lama Anagarika). Foundations of Tibetan Mysticism. (London : Rider, 1959). Khanna, Madhu. Yantra: The Tantric Symbol of Cosmic Unity. (Inner Traditions, 2003). ISBN 0-89281-132-3 & ISBN 9780-89281-132-8 Lopez, D. Prisoners of Shangri-La: Tibetan Buddhism and the West. (Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1998) Mullin, G.H. The Dalai Lamas on Tantra, (Ithaca : Snow Lion, 2006). The Rider Encyclopedia of and religion. (London : Rider, 1986). Skilton, A. A concise history of Buddhism. (Birmingham : Windhorse Publications, 1994). . Transforming Self and World: themes from the Sutra of Golden Light. (Birmingham : Windhorse Publications, 1994). Walsh, M. The Long discourses of the Buddha: a translation of the Digha Nikaya. (Boston : Wisdom Publications, 1987) Durgananda, Swami. Meditation Revolution. (Agama Press, 1997). ISBN 0-9654096-0-0 Vishnu-Devananda, Swami. Meditation and Mantras. (Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, 1981). ISBN 81-208-1615-3 Ashley-Farrand, Thomas. Mantras. (Ballantine Books 2003). ISBN 0-345-44304-7 Stutley, Margaret and James. A Dictionary of Hinduism. (Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 2002). ISBN 81-215-1074-0 External links

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Mantra Marga on Hindupedia (http://www.hindupedia.com/en/Mantra_Marga)

Buddhist mantra

tibetanbuddhistmantras.com (http://www.tibetanbuddhistmantras.com/) ommantra.com (http://www.ommantra.com/)

Hindu mantra

Hinduism Mantras (http://www.godandguru.com/mantras/index.html) (English/Sanskrit) Mantra - The Spiritual Background of "Yoga in Daily Life" (http://www.yogaindailylife.org /esystem/yoga/en/160400/the-spiritual-background/mantra/) Vedic Mantra (http://www.vedicrishi.in/mantra/)

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第 17 頁,共 17 頁 14/1/10 上午 11:21 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vajradhara

Vajradhara From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Vajradhara (Sanskrit: व"धार Vajradhāra, Tibetan: !"་$%་འཆང། rdo rje 'chang (Dorje Chang);Javanese: Kabajradharan; Japanese: ; Chinese: English: Diamond- holder) is the ultimate primordial Buddha, or Adi Buddha, according to the Gelug and Kagyu schools of Tibetan Buddhism.

In the evolution of Indian Buddhism, Vajradhara gradually displaced Samantabhadra, who remains the 'Primordial Buddha' in the Nyingma, or "Ancient School." However, the two are metaphysically equivalent. Achieving the 'state of vajradhara' is synonymous with complete realisation.

According to the Kagyu lineage, Vajradhara is the primordial Buddha, the Buddha. He is depicted as dark blue in color, expressing the quintessence of buddhahood itself and representing the essence of the historical Buddha's realization of enlightenment.[1] 18th-century Chinese statue of Vajradhāra As such, Vajradhara is thought to be the supreme essence of all (male) Buddhas (his name means "the bearer of the thunderbolt"). It is the Tantric form of Sakyamuni which is called Vajradhara. Tantras are texts specific to Tantrism and are believed to have been originally taught by the Tantric form of Sakyamuni called Vajradhara. He is an expression of Buddhahood itself in both single and yabyum form.[2] Vajradhara is considered to be the prime Buddha of the Father tantras [3] (tib. pha-rgyud) such as Guhyasamaja, Yamantaka, and so on [4]

From the primordial Vajradhara/Samantabhadra/Dorje Chang were manifested the Five Wisdom Buddhas (Dhyani Buddhas):

Akshobhya Amoghasiddhi Amitabha Ratnasambhava Vairocana

Vajradhara and the Wisdom Buddhas are often subjects of mandala.

Vajradhara and Samantabhadra are cognate deities in Tibetan Buddhist with different names, attributes, appearances and iconography. Both are Dharmakaya Buddhas, that is primordial Buddhas: Samantabhadra is unadorned, that is depicted without any attributes; conversely, Vajradhara is often adorned and bears attributes, which is generally the iconographic representation of a Sambhogakaya Buddha. Both Vajradhara and Samantabhadra are generally depicted in yab-yum unity with their respective consorts and are primordial Buddhas, embodying void and ultimate emptiness.


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1 Dharmakaya as part of the Trikaya 2 Literature 3 See also 4 Notes 5 Link

Dharmakaya as part of the Trikaya

The Trikaya doctrine (Sanskrit, literally "Three bodies or personalities"; Chinese: Sānshēn, Japanese: sanjin) is an important Buddhist teaching both on the nature of reality, and what a Buddha is. By the 4th century CE, the Trikaya Doctrine had assumed the form that we now know.

Briefly, the doctrine says that a Buddha has three kayas or bodies: the nirmanakaya or created body which manifests in time and space; the sambhogakaya or body of mutual enjoyment which is an archetypal manifestation; and the Dharmakaya or reality body which embodies the very principle of enlightenment and knows no limits or boundaries.[5]

In the view of Anuyoga, the 'Mindstream' (Sanksrit: santana) is the 'continuity' (Sanskrit: santana; Wylie: rgyud) that links the Trikaya.[5] The Trikaya, as a triune, is symbolised by the Gankyil. Tibetan thangka of Vajradhara Literature

'Shining Relics of Enlightened Body' (Tibetan: ་གང་འབར་བ, Wylie: sku gdung 'bar ba) is numbered amongst the 'Seventeen Tantras of Menngagde' (Tibetan: མན་ངག་་ད་བ་བན, Wylie: man ngag sde'i rgyud bcu bdun) within Dzogchen discourse and is part of the textual support for the Vima Nyingtik. In the Dzogchen tantric text rendered in English as "Shining Relics" (Tibetan: ་གང་འབར་བ, Wylie: sku gdung 'bar ba), an enlightened personality entitled Buddha Vajradhara and a Dakini whose name may be rendered into English as "Clear mind" engage in discourse and dialogue which is a common convention in such esoteric Buddhist literature and tantric literature in general.[6] See also

Mahavairocana Trikaya Vajradharma Vajrayogini Vajra

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1. ^ Images of Enlightenment: Tibetan Art in Practice (http://www.amazon.com/Images-Enlightenment- Tibetan-Art-Practice/dp/1559390247) 2. ^ "Dharmapala Thangka Centre" (http://www.thangka.de/Gallery-3/Misc/12-13/Karmapa5.htm). Archived (http://www.webcitation.org/6At6ubVkH) from the original on 30 September 2012. Vajrayana View 3. ^ Father Tantra (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/202522/Father-Tantra) 4. ^ "Dharmapala Thangka Centre" (http://www.thangka.de/Gallery-1/otherbuddhas/3-27/vajradhara- 0.htm). Archived (http://www.webcitation.org/6At5ThrsG) from the original on 30 September 2012. Vajradhara is an emanation of Adibuddha, some people say. 5. ^ a b Welwood, John (2000). The Play of the Mind: Form, Emptiness, and Beyond. Source: http://www.purifymind.com/PlayMind.htm (accessed: Saturday January 13, 2007) 6. ^ Martin, Dan (1994). 'Pearls from Bones: Relics, Chortens, Tertons and the Signs of Saintly Death in Tibet'. Numen, Vol. 41, No. 3. (Sep., 1994), p.274. Link

The Essential Songs of Milarepa / VI. Songs About Vajra Love 46. Answer to Dakini Tzerima (http://www.quietmountain.org/links/teachings/yogi_chen/87.htm) body, speech, mind A Dictionary of Buddhism (http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O108- bodyspeechmind.html) rdo rje chos (vajradharma) ( b. ) (http://tbrc.xmeru2.org/kb/tbrc- detail.xq;jsessionid=21093129EABFC091DF6BCDCF65F5D80A?RID=P0RK581) The Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center

Nonsectarian movement

Ringu Tulku: The Rimé (Ris-med) movement of Jamgon Kongtrul the Great (http://www.abuddhistlibrary.com/Buddhism/A%20-%20Tibetan%20Buddhism/Authors /Ringu%20Tulku/The%20Rime%20Movement/THE%20RIME%20(%20Ris- med%20)%20MOVEMENT.htm)


The Vajracchedika Prajnaparamita Sutra (http://www.sinc.sunysb.edu/clubs/buddhism /sutras/diamond1.html)

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Nyingma From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism (the other three Nyingma being the Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug). "Nyingma" literally means "ancient," and is often referred to as Tibetan ང་མ་ Nga'gyur (Tibetan: ་འར།, Wylie: snga 'gyur, ZYPY: Nga'gyur, school of the ancient translations) Transcriptions or the "old school" because it is founded on the first Wylie rnying ma translations of Buddhist scriptures from Sanskrit into THDL Nyingma Tibetan, in the eighth century. The and grammar was actually created for this Tibetan Pinyin Nyingma endeavour. In modern times, the Nyingma lineage Lhasa IPA [ɲiŋma] has been centered in Kham in eastern Tibet. Chinese name Simplified Chinese 宁玛派、红教 Contents Traditional Chinese 寧瑪派、紅教 Transcriptions 1 Early lineage and traditions 2 History Mandarin 2.1 Geographical dissemination of Hanyu Pinyin Níngmǎpài, Hóngjiào Buddhism into the Tibetan plateau 2.2 Origins 2.3 25 disciples 2.4 Early period 2.5 Political ethos 2.6 Rise of scholasticism and monasticism 2.7 Chinese influence 3 Distinguishing features of the Nyingma lineage 3.1 Nine Yanas 3.2 Philosophy and doctrinal tenets 4 Tantra and Dzogchen texts and praxis in the Nyingma tradition 4.1 Mahayoga 4.2 "Eighteen" Texts of the Mind Division (Semde) 4.3 Yidam practice & protectors 5 Termas and tertons 5.1 Terma 5.2 Tertons 6 Various traditions and important historical figures Guru Rinpoche - Padmasambhava 6.1 (1308-1363) statue - near Kullu, India 6.2 (1730-1798) and the Longchen Nyingthig 6.3 Rinchen Terdzod 6.4 Jamgon Ju Mipham Gyatso (1846–1912) 6.5 Six mother monasteries 7 Contemporary lineage teachers 8 See also 9 Notes

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10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Early lineage and traditions

The Nyingmapa, a of Tibetan Buddhism, incorporate mysticism and local deities shared by the pre-Buddhist Bon religion, which has shamanic elements. The group particularly believes in hidden terma treasures. Traditionally, Nyingmapa practice was advanced orally among a loose network of lay practitioners. Monasteries with celibate monks and nuns, along with the practice of reincarnated spiritual leaders are later adaptations.[1]

The Nyingma tradition actually comprises several distinct lineages that all trace their origins to the Indian master Padmasambhava, who is lauded in the popular canon as the founder of Tibetan Buddhism in the eighth century, and is still propitiated in the discipline of reciprocity that is guru yoga sadhana, the staple of the tradition(s).

Historically, Nyingmapa[2] are categorised into Red Sangha and White Sangha. Red Sangha denotes a celibate, monastic practitioner; whereas White Sangha denotes a non-celibate practitioner who abstains from vows of celibacy. At different times in one's life, due to changing circumstances and proclivities, individuals historically moved between these two . Rarely was either determination of Red or White for the of one's life.

Nyingma maintains the earliest tantric teachings which have been given the popular nomenclature of Vajrayana. Early Vajrayana that was transmitted from India to Tibet may be differentiated by the specific term 'Mantrayana' (Wylie: sngags kyi theg pa).[3] 'Mantrayana' is the Sanskrit of what became rendered in Tibetan as "Secret Mantra" (Wylie: gsang sngags): gsang sngags is the self-identifying term employed in the earliest literature, whereas Nyingma became associated in differentiation from the "New Schools" Sarma. History

Geographical dissemination of Buddhism into the Tibetan plateau

Dargyay (1998: p. 5) provides a sound case[citation needed] that:

...at least in Eastern Tibet, there existed during and after the time of Lha-tho-tho-ri [Fl.173(?)-300(?) CE] a solid knowledge of Buddhism and that the upper classes of the people were faithfully devoted to it. But the border regions in the north and west probably had also come into contact with Buddhism long before the time of Srong- btsan-sgam-po. Buddhist teachings reached China via a route along the western and northern borders of the Tibetan culture and language zone; the same route was travelled by Indian Pandits and Chinese pilgrims in their endeavour to bring this Indian religion to China. There used to be contacts with the Tibetan population in these border regions. It is possible that the knowledge gained from these encounters was spread by merchants over large areas of Tibet. Thus, when Srong-btsan- sgam-po succeeded to the throne of Tibet in the 627, the country was ready for a systematic missionary drive under royal patronage.[4]


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Germano (2002: unpaginated) states:

While Buddhist figures and movements surely were active on the Tibetan plateau long before, Tibetan religious concentrate on events in the latter half of the eighth century as marking a watershed during which Buddhism definitively established itself within Tibetan culture. With the official sponsorship of the emperor Trisong Detsen (khri srong lde btsan), the first major monastery was established at (bsam yas), a broad scale translation project of the Buddhist canon into a newly minted Tibetan literary language was initiated, and a variety of lineages began to take hold. The explosive developments were interrupted in the mid-ninth century as the Empire began to disintegrate, leading to a century-long interim of civil war and decentralization about which we know relatively little.[5]

Around 760, King Trisong Detsen invited Padmasambhava and the University Śāntarakṣita (Tibetan Shiwatso) to Tibet to introduce Buddhism in the "Land of Snows." King Trisong Detsen ordered the translation of all Buddhist Dharma Texts into Tibetan. Padmasambhava, Shantarakṣita, 108 translators, and 25 of Padmasambhava's nearest disciples worked for many years in a gigantic translation-project. The translations from this period formed the base for the large scriptural transmission of Dharma teachings into Tibet. Padmasambhava supervised mainly the translation of Tantra; Shantarakshita concentrated on the Sutra-teachings. Padmasambhava and Shantarakshita also founded the first Buddhist monastery Samye on Tibetan ground. It was the main center for in Tibet during this age.

25 disciples

The miracle-powers of the 25 disciples of Padmasambhava are widely accepted among Tibetan Buddhists. These disciples were: King Trisong Detsen, , Nub Chen Sangye Yeshe, Gyalwa Choyang, the princess of Karchen Khandro , Palgyi Yeshe, Palgyi Senge, the great translator , Nyak Jnanakumara, Gyalmo , Nanam Dorje Dudjom,[6] Yeshe Yang, Sokpo Lhapal, Nanam Zhang Yeshe De, Palgyi Wangchuk, Denma Tsémang, Kawa Paltsek, Shupu Palgyi Senge, Dré Gyalwe Lodro, Drokben Khyenchung Lotsawa, Otren Palgyi Wangchuk, Ma Rinchen Chok, Lhalung Palgyi Dorje, Langdro Konchog Jungné and Lasum Gyalwa Changchup.

Early period

From this basis, Tantric Buddhism was established in its entirety in Tibet. From the eighth until the eleventh century, the Nyingma was the only school of Buddhism in Tibet. With the reign of King (836–842) a time of political instability ensued which continued over the next 300 years, during which time Buddhism was persecuted and largely forced underground. From the eleventh century onwards, the Nyingma tradition flourished along with the newer Sarma schools, and it was at that time that Nyingmapas began to see themselves as a distinct group and the term "Nyingma" came into usage.

Political ethos

Historically, the Nyingma tradition is unique amongst the four schools in that its supporters never held political power, and therefore its practitioners were mostly removed from the political machinations of Tibet. Indeed, the Nyingma traditionally had no centralized authority and drew significant power from not having one. Only since the Tibetan diaspora following the Chinese annexure of Tibet have the Nyingma had a head of the Tradition and this seat was only invested at the polite request of the Dalai Lama. Even so, the Nyingma tradition is still politically

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decentralized and often decisions are made in an oligarchy or community of the senior sangha within a given jurisdiction or locale. Nyingmapa are also historically characterized and distinguished by decentralization and by their general wider political disinterest, with a lesser emphasis on monasticism relative to the other schools, with a correspondingly greater preponderance of ngakpas, uncelibate householders and yogins.

There was never a single "head of the lineage" in the manner of either the Ganden Tripa or Dalai Lama of the Gelugpa, the Karmapa of the Kagyu, or the Sakya Trizin of the Sakya. It was only recently in exile in India that this role was created at the request of the Tibetan Government in Exile, and it is largely administrative. Nevertheless, the lamas who have served in this role are among the most universally highly regarded. They are:

Dudjom Rinpoche (c. 1904–1987), served from the 1960s until his death. Rinpoche (c. 1910–1991), served from 1987 until his death. Penor (Pema Norbu) Rinpoche (1932–2009) served from 1991 until retirement in 2003. Mindroling Trichen Rinpoche (c. 1930–2008), served from 2003 until his death. (1923–2011), served from 2010 until his death on September 2, 2011. Selected after Chatral Rinpoche declined the position.[7] (born 1926) accepted this position on 22 March 2012.

Rise of scholasticism and monasticism

In 1848, Dzogchen Shri Sengha (rdzogs chen srwi sengha), was founded by a charismatic teacher, Zhanphan Thaye (gzhan phan mtha' yas, 1800-), in association with the active participation of Do Kyentse (rndo mkhyen rtse). As scholar Georges Dreyfuss reports,

The purpose of this school was not . . . the study of the great Indian treatises . . . but the development of Nyingma monasticism in Kham, a particularly important task at that time. Up to then, the Nyingma tradition had mostly relied on non-ordained tantric practitioners to transmit its teachings through authorized lineages. The move toward monasticism changed this situation, putting a greater emphasis on the respect of exoteric moral norms of behavior as a sign of spiritual authority. This move participated in the logic animating the nonsectarian movement, the revitalization of non-Geluk traditions so that they could compete with the dominant Geluk school. Since the Geluk hegemony was based on a widespread monastic practice, it was important for the other schools to develop their own monasticism to rival the dominant Geluk tradition. This seems to have been one the goals of Zhanphan Thaye in creating the Dzokchen commentarial school. . . .A further and equally important step was taken a few decades later with the transformation by [] Zhenga of this institution into a center devoted to the study of the exoteric tradition. This step was decisive in creating a scholastic model that could provide an alternative to the dominant model of the Geluk seats and could train scholars who could hold their own against the intellectual firing power of Geluk scholars.[8]

For Zhenga and his followers, the way to return to this was the exegetical study of commentaries, the proper object of scholarship. By downplaying the role of debate emphasized by the Geluk monastic seats and stressing exegetical skills, they accentuated the differences between these two traditions and provided a clear articulation of a non-Geluk scholastic tradition. In this way, they started the process of reversal of the damage inflicted on the non-Geluk scholarly traditions and created an alternative to the dominance of Geluk scholasticism, which had often tended to present itself in Tibet as the sole inheritor and legitimate interpreter of the classical Indian Buddhist tradition.[8]

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This scholastic movement led by Khenpo Shenga came on the heels of the work of Mipham, who "completely revolutionised rNying ma pa scholasticism in the late nineteenth century, raising its status after many centuries as a comparative intellectual backwater, to arguably the most dynamic and expansive of philosophical traditions in all of Tibetan Buddhism, with an influence and impact far beyond the rNying ma pa themselves."[9]

Chinese influence

Tibetan king Khri srong lde btsan (742–797) invited the Chan master Mo-ho-yen (whose name consists of the same Chinese characters used to transliterate “Mahayana”) to transmit the Dharma at Samye Monastery. Mo-ho-yen had been disseminating Dharma in the Tun-huang locale, but, according to Tibetan sources, lost an important philosophical debate on the nature of emptiness with the Indian master Kamalaśīla, and the king declared Kamalaśīla's philosophy should form the basis for Tibetan Buddhism.[10] However, a Chinese source says their side won, and some scholars conclude that the entire episode is fictitious.[11]

Pioneering Buddhologist speculated that Hwashang's ideas were preserved by the Nyingmapas in the form of dzogchen teachings.[12] According to A. W. Barber of the University of Calgary,[13] Chan Buddhism was introduced to the Nyingmapa in three principal streams: the teachings of Korean Master Kim, Kim Ho-shang, (Chin ho shang) 金和尚 transmitted by Sang Shi[14] in ca. 750 AD; the lineage of Master Wu Chu (無住禪師 ) of the Pao T'ang School was transmitted within Tibet by Ye-shes Wangpo; and the teaching from Mo Ho Yen, 和尚摩訶衍 (Tibetan: Hwa shang Mahayana) that were a synthesis of the Northern School of Chan and the Pao T'ang School.[15]

John Myrdhin Reynolds and Sam van Schaik hold a very different point of view. Reynolds states "Except for a brief flirtation with Ch'an in the early days of Buddhism in Tibet in the eighth century, the Tibetans exhibited almost no interest at all in Chinese Buddhism, except for translating a few Sutras from Chinese for which they did not possess Indian originals."[16] Schaik emphasises that Chan and Dzogchen are based on two different classes of scripture, Chan being based on sutras, while Dzogchen being based on tantras.[17] Schaik further states "apparent similarities can be misleading."[17] Distinguishing features of the Nyingma lineage

Nine Yanas

The doxography employed by the Nyingma tradition to categorize the whole of the Buddhist path is unique. Nyingmapas divide the Buddhist path into nine yanas, as follows:

The Sutra System

Shravakayana (Hinayana) the Vehicle of the Listeners or disciples. Pratyekayana (Hinayana) the Vehicle of the Solitary Buddhas, the way of solitary meditation. Bodhisattvayāna (Mahayana) the Great or Causal Vehicle, the Vehicle of Enlightened Beings, is the way of those who seek or attain enlightenment for the sake or intention of liberating not just oneself, but all sentient beings from Saṃsāra.

Outer/Lower Tantra

Kriya (Wylie: bya ba'i rgyud) Tantra of Action

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Carya or Ubhaya (Wylie: u pa'i rgyud or spyod pa'i rgyud) Tantra of Conduct Yogatantra (Wylie: rnal 'byor gyi rgyud) Tantra of Union

Inner/Higher Tantra

Mahayoga (Wylie: chen po'i rnal 'byor) Great Yoga Anuyoga (Wylie: rjes su rnal 'byor) Subsequent Yoga Atiyoga/Dzogchen (Wylie: lhag pa'i rnal 'byor or rdzogs chen) Ultimate Yoga; The Great Perfection

In the later schools the inner tantric teachings are known as Anuttarayogatantra, which corresponds to Mahayoga in the Nyingma system, while the Mahamudra teachings of the later schools are said to lead to similar results as the Dzogchen teachings.

Dzogchen Rinpoche (2007: p. 89) holds that:

When we study and practice the so-called lower and higher yanas, we might hear that the most sublime, or the pinnacle of all teachings are those of dzogchen, and this is true. The "lower" yanas of the shravaka and bodhisattva paths, the "higher" paths of the tantras, and the "pinnacle" path of dzogchen are distinguished from one another in this way. This gradation shows the various ways in which it is appropriate for beings of differing propensities to proceed upon the path. Ideally, a practitioner proceeds from the lower levels of practice to the higher levels, and then to the summit. This does not mean that the lower levels of practice are to be disparaged or ignored. We should not focus on the higher paths at the expense of the lower paths...".[18]

Philosophy and doctrinal tenets

Capriles (2003: p. 100) elucidates the Nyingma Dzogchenpa view which qualifies the doctrinal position of the Madhyamaka Rangtongpa (Prasangika and Svatantrika) in relation to the 'absence of self-nature' (Sanskrit: swabhava shunyata):

Though the teachings of the Nyingmapa agree that all phenomena lack a self-nature and a substance, according to many Nyingma teachings reducing voidness to a mere absence would be an instance of nihilism, and identifying absolute truth with such an absence would imply that this truth cannot account for the manifestation of Awakening, or even for the manifestation of phenomena; therefore, they explain voidness as lying in the recognition of the absence of mental constructs that is inherent in the essence of mind in which space and awareness are indivisible, and define absolute truth as consisting in the indivisibility of emptiness and appearances, or of emptiness and awareness.[19]

The following sentence is from Mipham's famed exegesis of Shantarakshita's Madhyamakalamkara and it foregrounds the relationship between the absence of the 'four extremes' (mtha' bzhi) and the nondual or 'indivisible Two Truths' (bden pa dbyer med), the Wylie is a transcription from Doctor (2004: p. 126), the first English rendering is by Doctor (2004: p. 127) and the second is by Blankleder and Fletcher of the Padmakara Translation Group (2005: p. 137):

"The learned and de lta bu'i mtha' "The learned and accomplished [masters] of bzhi'i spros bral accomplished masters of the the Early Translations bden pa dbyer med Old Translation school take considered this simplicity kyi gnas lugs 'di la as their stainless view the

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freedom from all conceptual beyond the four extremes, snga 'gyur gyi constructs of the four this abiding way in which mkhas grub rnams extremes, the ultimate reality the two truths are kyis rang lugs dri of the two truths inseparably indivisible, as their own ma med par bzung united" (Padmakara immaculate way" (Doctor, nas (Doctor, 2004: Translation Group, 2005: 2004: p.127).[20] p.126).[21] p.137).[22]

Tantra and Dzogchen texts and praxis in the Nyingma tradition

With the advent of the transmission of Sarma traditions into Tibet, various proponents of the new systems cast aspersions on the Indic origins of much of the Nyingma esoteric corpus. Indic origin was an important component of perceived legitimacy at the time. As a result, much of the Nyingma esoteric corpus was excluded from the Tengyur, a compilation of texts by Buton Rinchen Drub that became the established canon for the Sarma traditions.

In response, the Nyingmapas organized their esoteric corpus, comprising mostly Mahayoga, Atiyoga (Dzogchen) Mind class Semde and Space Class (Longde) texts, into an alternate collection, called the Nyingma Gyubum (the Hundred Thousand Tantras of the Ancient School, Wylie: rnying ma rgyud ‘bum).[6] (http://www.rangjung.com/gl/Nyingma_Gyubum.htm) Generally, the Gyubum contains Kahma (Wylie: bka' ma) and very little terma (Wylie: gter ma). The third class of Atiyoga, the Secret Oral Instructions (Menngagde), are mostly terma texts.

Various editions of the Gyubum are extant, but one typical version is the thirty-six Tibetan- language folio volumes published by Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche in New Delhi, 1974. It contains:

10 volumes of Ati Yoga (Dzogchen) 3 volumes of Anu Yoga 6 volumes of the tantra Section of Mahayoga 13 volumes of the sadhana Section of Mahayoga 1 volume of protector tantras 3 volumes of catalogues and historical background


Main article: Mahayoga

There are 'eighteen great tantras' (Wylie: bshad pa dang cha mthun gyi rgyud tantra sde bco brgyad) at the heart of the 'Mahayoga' (Wylie: rnal 'byor chen po) tradition, grouped into 'five root tantras' (Wylie: rtsa ba sku gsung thugs yon tan phrin las kyi rgyud chen po lnga), 'five practice tantras' (Wylie: sgrub pa lag len du bstan pa rol pa' rgyud chen po lnga), and 'five activity tantras' (Wylie: spyod pa'i yan lag tu 'gro ba'i rgyud chen po lnga), and the 'two supplementary tantras' (Wylie: ma tshang kha bskong ba'i rgyud chen po gnyis). Together they are known as the Māyājāla. The Guhyagarbha Tantra (Wylie: rDo rje sems dpa' sgyu 'phrul drwa ba gSang ba snying po) is the foremost of all of these and it abridges the content of the seventeen others.

"Eighteen" Texts of the Mind Division (Semde)

Main article: Semde

The mind class (semde) of Dzogchen was also said to comprise eighteen tantras, although the formulation eventually came to include slightly more. The Kunjed Gyalpo (Sanskrit: Kulayarāja

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Tantra; The All-Creating King) Tantras is the most significant of the group and is taken to be the primary or root tantra of the Mind Series. The first five are the "Five Earlier Translated Tantras", translated by Vairotsana. The next thirteen were translated primarily by Vimalamitra.

Yidam practice & protectors

The foremost deities practiced by the Nyingma masters are Vajrakīla (Tib. Dorje Phurba) and Vajra Heruka (also Vishuddha Heruka; Tib. Yangdak Tratung, Wylie: yang dag khrag 'thung), the third of the Eight Herukas who closely resembles Śrī Heruka of the Chakrasamvara tantra. The three principle protectors of the Nyingma lineage are said to be Ekajaṭī (Wylie: e ka dza ti), (Wylie: gza' ra hu la) and Dorje Legpa (Wylie: rdo rje legs pa, Sanskrit: Vajrasādhu). Termas and tertons

The appearance of terma ("hidden treasures") is of particular significance to the Nyingma tradition. Although there have been a few Kagyupa "tertons" (treasure revealers) and the practice is endemic to the Bönpo as well, the vast majority of Tibetan Buddhist tertons have been Nyingmapas. It is held that past masters, principally Padmasambhava, secreted objects and hid teachings for discovery by later tertons at appropriate and auspicious times such that the teaching would be beneficial. These teachings may be physically discovered, often in rocks and caves, or they may be "mind terma," appearing directly within the mindstream of the terton.


Main article: Terma (religion)

Padmasambhava and his main disciples hid hundreds of scriptures, ritual objects and relics in secret places to protect Buddhism during the time of decline under King Langdarma. These termas were later rediscovered and special terma lineages were established throughout Tibet. Out of this activity developed, especially within the Nyingma tradition, two ways of dharma transmission: the so-called "long" oral transmission from teacher to student in unbroken lineages and the "short" transmission of "hidden treasures". The foremost revealers of these termas were the five terton kings and the eight Lingpas.

The terma tradition had antecedents in India; Nagarjuna, for example, rediscovered the last part of the "Prajnaparamita-Sutra in one hundred thousand verses" in the realm of Naga, where it had been kept since the time of Buddha Shakyamuni.


According to Nyingma tradition, tertons are often mindstream emanations of the 25 main disciples of Padmasambhava. A vast system of transmission lineages developed through the ages. Nyingma scriptures were updated when the time was appropriate. Terma teachings guided many Buddhist practitioners to realisation and enlightenment.

The rediscovering of terma began with the first terton, Sangye Lama (1000–1080). Tertons of outstanding importance were Nyangral Nyima Oser (1124–1192), Guru Chowang (1212–1270), Rigdzin Godem (1307–1408), (1450–1521), Migyur Dorje (1645–1667), (1820–1892) and Orgyen Chokyur Lingpa (1829–1870). In the nineteenth century some of the most famous were the Khen Kong Chok Sum referring to Jamyang Khyentse, Jamgon Kongtrul and Chokgyur Lingpa.

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Various traditions and important historical figures

It is generally agreed that Rongzom Pandita, Longchenpa and Ju Mipham are three of the greatest scholars in the history of the Nyingma lineage. Also important in establishing the modern curriculum was Khenpo Shenga.

Longchenpa (1308-1363)

During the ages, many great scholars and tantric Masters appeared within the Nyingma lineage. Most famous of all is the master and scholar Longchenpa (Longchen Rabjam), who, along with Rongzom Pandita, and Jigme Lingpa are known as kun kyen or "omniscient ones" - a rare title denoting doctrinal infallibility. He wrote many scriptures on the whole Nyingma-dharma. He is especially known for his presentation of the Nyingma philosophical view, that of Dzogchen in particular. His main works are the "" (Dzö dün), "three cycles of relaxation" (Ngalso Korsum), "three cycles of natural liberation" (Rangdröl Korsum) and the three "inner essences" (Yangtig Namsum). Longchen Rabjam also systematized the transmission of Dzogchen, the Great Perfection, in a collection of texts called "The Four-fold Heart Essence" (Nyingthig Yabzhi).

Jigme Lingpa (1730-1798) and the Longchen Nyingthig

Jigme Lingpa further condensed the Nyingthig Yabzhi of Longchenpa into a cycle of termas called the Longchen Nyingthig, or "Heart Essence of the Vast Expanse". The Nyingthig Yabshi and the Longchen Nyingthig are known, respectively, as the earlier and later "heart essence." The Longchen Nyingthig became both the foundation of the main Dzogchen teachings in the contemporary period and of the Rime movement. Jigme Lingpa's teaching lineage flourished in Kham (eastern Tibet) around Dege, and after his death three incarnations were recognised as being his emanations: Do Khyentse (1800?-1859?), Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, (1820–1892) and Patrul Rinpoche, (1808–1887), all of whom were central to the Rime movement.

Rinchen Terdzod

The Rinchen Terdzod (Tibetan: ན་ན་གར་མད།, Wylie: rin chen gter mdzod) is the most important collection of terma treasure to Nyingmapas today. This collection is the assemblage of thousands of the most important terma texts from all across Tibet made by Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Thaye, at the behest of Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo in the nineteenth century.

Jamgon Ju Mipham Gyatso (1846–1912)

Jamgon Ju Mipham Gyatso (“Mipham the Great”) was born into an aristocratic family in 1846 in Kham, a province of eastern Tibet. His name, Mipham Gyatso, means “Unconquerable Ocean,” and as a scholar and meditator he was so accomplished that he was enthroned as an emanation of the Manjushri, the bodhisattva of wisdom. As such, he was asked to compose a definitive articulation of the philosophical outlook of the Nyingma lineage. This had never been systematized in the manner of the other four lineages and, as a result, was vulnerable to attack by hostile scholars.

As requested, Mipham Rinpoche composed authoritative works on both the Sutra and Vajrayana teachings as understood in the Nyingma tradition, writing particularly extensively on dzogchen. He is said to have composed these vast works effortlessly. They reinvigorated and revitalized the Nyingma lineage enormously, and he soon became one of the most renowned lamas in Tibet, attracting disciples from all traditions, many of whom became lineage holders. Mipham's works

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have become the foundation of study for not only the Nyingma lineage, but the Kagyu lineage as well. They hold a central position in all Nyingma monasteries and monastic colleges. Along with Longchenpa, he is considered the source of the Nyingma doctrine.

Six mother monasteries

Tradition has held that there are six monasteries known as "mother monasteries" of the Nyingma lineage, although there have been slightly different formulations of the six. At one time they included , Mindrolling monastery and Palri monastery in Upper Tibet; and Kathok, Palyul and Dzogchen monasteries in Lower Tibet. After the decline of Chongye Palri Thegchog Ling monastery and the flourishing of Shechen, the mother monasteries became Dorje Drak and Mindrolling in the upper region, Shechen and Dzogchen in the center, and Kathok and Palyul in the lower part of Tibet. Dodrubchen is often substituted for Kathok in the list. Out of these "main seats of the Nyingma" developed a large number of Nyingma monasteries throughout Tibet, Bhutan and Nepal.

Also of great importance to the Nyingma lineage is Samye, the first Tibetan monastery, founded by Shantarakshita. Contemporary lineage teachers

Contemporary Nyingma teachers include Trulshik Rinpoche, Chatral Rinpoche, Taklung Tsetrul Rinpoche, Kyabje Shechen Rabjam Rinpoche, Kyabje Dodrupchen Rinpoche, Kyabje Rinpoche, , Yangthang Rinpoche, Namkhai Norbu, , , Lama Gonpo Tseten, Rinpoche, Jigme Lodro Rinpoche, Terton Orgyen Kusum Lingpa, , The Fifth Padtshaling Trulku Pema kunzang Tenzin Jamtsho (1960), Palden Sherab Rinpoche, Khenpo Sherab Sangpo, Rinpoche (son of Thinley Norbu Rinpoche), Khentrul Lodro Thaye Rinpoche, Chamtrul Rinpoche, and Tsewang Dongyal Rinpoche. See also

Organizations Teachings Traditions

Rigpa Ngagpa Longchen Nyingthig Nam Cho


1. ^ Sherpa, Lhakpa Norbu (2008). Through a Sherpa Window: Illustrated Guide to Sherpa Culture. Kathmandu, Nepal: Vajra Publications. ISBN 978-9937-506205. 2. ^ Followers of the tradition are known as Nyingmapa "pa" being a common suffix comparable to "er" or "ite" in English. 3. ^ Source: [1] (http://rywiki.tsadra.org/index.php/Mantrayana) (accessed: Monday July 22, 2008) 4. ^ Dargyay, Eva M. (author) & Wayman, Alex (editor)(1998). The Rise of Esoteric Buddhism in Tibet. Second revised edition, reprint. Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt Ltd. Buddhist Tradition Series Vol.32. ISBN 81-208-1579-3 (paper) p.5 5. ^ Germano, David (March 25, 2002). A Brief History of Nyingma Literature. Source: [2] (http://www.thdl.org/collections/literature/nyingma.html) (accessed: Wednesday July 23, 2008) 6. ^ Mandelbaum, Arthur (August 2007). "Nanam Dorje Dudjom" (http://www.treasuryoflives.org /biographies/view/Nanam-Dorje-Dudjom/P0RK1005). The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-10.

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7. ^ [3] (http://www.mindrolling.com/news/100306_HeadofNyingma.cfm) 8. ^ a b "Where do Commentarial Schools come from? Reflections on the History of Tibetan Scholasticism" by Dreyfus, Georges. Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies Vol. 28, Nr 2 2006. pgs 273-297 9. ^ Review by Robert Mayer of Mipham’s and the Debates on Emptiness: To Be, Not to Be or Neither. Buddhist Studies Review 23(2) 2006, 268 10. ^ Yamaguchi, Zuihō (undated). The Core Elements of Indian Buddhism Introduced into Tibet: A Contrast with Japanese Buddhism. Source: Thezensite.com (http://thezensite.com/ZenEssays /Miscellaneous/Indian_buddhism.pdf) (accessed: October 20, 2007) 11. ^ Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism (Volume One), page 70 12. ^ Masao Ichishima, "Sources of Tibetan Buddhist Meditation." Buddhist-Christian Studies, Vol. 2, (1982), pp. 121-122, published by University of Hawai'i Press. 13. ^ A.W. Barber (http://www.ucalgary.ca/rels/barber) 14. ^ Sang Shi later became an abbot of Samye Monastery. 15. ^ Barber, A. W. (1990). "The Unifying of Rdzogs Pa Chen Po and Ch'an" (http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw /FULLTEXT/JR-BJ001/barber.htm). Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal. 3, 04.1990: 301–317. Retrieved April 23, 2011. 16. ^ Reynolds, John. http://vajranatha.com/teaching/DzogchenChinese.htm (accessed: November 18, 2010) 17. ^ a b RSchaik, Sam van. http://earlytibet.com/2011/11/22/tibetan-chan-v/ (accessed: February 27, 2011) 18. ^ Rinpoche, Dzogchen (2007). Taming the Mindstream in Wolter, Doris (ed.) "Losing the Clouds, Gaining the Sky: Buddhism and the Natural Mind." Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-359-1 p.89 Source: [4] (http://books.google.com.au/books?id=9_9tW2cHtOcC&pg=PA81&lpg=PA81& dq=mindstream&source=web&ots=zVowKgfwAK&sig=m601WoY8B5h-3y4pgC9k36tDT-c&hl=en& sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=7&ct=result) (accessed: July 29, 2008) 19. ^ Capriles, Elías (2003). Buddhism and Dzogchen: The Doctrine of the Buddha and the Supreme Vehicle of Tibetan Buddhism. Part One Buddhism: A Dzogchen Outlook. Source: [5] (http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/humanidades/elicap/en/uploads/Biblioteca/bdz-e.version.pdf) (accessed: Saturday, August 23, 2008) p.1004 20. ^ Doctor, Thomas H. (trans.) Mipham, Jamgon Ju.(author)(2004). Speech of Delight: Mipham's Commentary of Shantarakshita's Ornament of the . Ithaca: Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-217-7, p.127 21. ^ Doctor, Thomas H. (trans.) Mipham, Jamgon Ju.(author)(2004). Speech of Delight: Mipham's Commentary of Shantarakshita's Ornament of the Middle Way. Ithaca: Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-217-7, p.126 22. ^ Shantarakshita (author); Mipham (commentator); Padmakara Translation Group (translators)(2005). The Adornment of the Middle Way: Shantarakshita's Madhyamakalankara with commentary by Jamgön Mipham. Boston, Massachusetts, USA: Shambhala Publications, Inc. ISBN 1-59030-241-9 (alk. paper), p.137 References

Dudjom Rinpoche and Jikdrel Yeshe Dorje. The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism: its Fundamentals and History. Two Volumes. 1991. Translated and edited by Gyurme Dorje with Matthew Kapstein. Wisdom Publications, Boston. ISBN 0-86171-087-8 Dargyay, Eva M. (author) & Wayman, Alex (editor)(1998). The Rise of Esoteric Buddhism in Tibet. Second revised edition, reprint.Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt Ltd. Buddhist Tradition Series Vol.32. ISBN 81-208-1579-3 (paper) Further reading


Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche. The Opening of the Dharma. Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, Dharamsala 1974 . Skydancer - The Secret Life and Songs of the Lady Yeshe Tsogyal. Snow Lion Publ., Ithaca-New York 1996, ISBN 1-55939-065-4 Ngawang Zangpo. Guru Rinpoché - His Life and Times. Snow Lion Publications, Ithaca-New York 2002, ISBN 1-55939-174-X

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Sogyal Rinpoche. The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, ISBN 0-06-250834-2


Dudjom Lingpa. Buddhahood Without Meditation, A Visionary Account known as Refining Apparent Phenomena. Padma Publishing, Junction City 1994, ISBN 1-881847-07-1 Reynolds, John Myrdhin, Self-Liberation through seeing with naked awareness. Snow Lion Publications, Ithaca-New York 2000, ISBN 1-55939-144-8 Longchen Rabjam. A Treasure Trove of Scriptural Transmission, a Commentary on The Precious Treasury of the Basic Space of Phenomena. Padma Publishing, Junction City 2001, ISBN 1-881847-30-6 Longchen Ragjam. The Practice of Dzogchen. Snow Lion Publications, Ithaca-New York 1996, ISBN 1-55939-054-9 Longchen Rabjam. The Precious Treasury of the Basic Space of Phenomena. Padma Publishing, Junction City 2001, ISBN 1-881847-32-2 Longchen Rabjam. The Precious Treasury of the Way of Abiding. Padma Publishing, Junction City 1998, ISBN 1-881847-09-8 Longchenpa. You Are the Eyes of the World. Snow Lion Publications, Ithaca-New York 2000, ISBN 1-55939-140-5 Manjushrimitra. Primordial Experience, An Introduction to Dzogchen Meditation. Shambhala Publications, Boston & London 2001, ISBN 1-57062-898-X Nudan Dorje, James Low. Being Right Here - A Dzogchen Treasure Text of Nuden Dorje entitled The Mirror of Clear Meaning. Snow Lion Publications, Ithaca-New York 2004, ISBN 1-55939-208-8 Padmasambhava. Advice from the Lotus-Born. Rangjung Yeshe Publications, Hong-Kong 1994, ISBN 962-7341-20-7 Padmasambhava. Natural Liberation - Padmasambhava's Teachings on the Six . Wisdom Publications, Boston 1998, ISBN 0-86171-131-9 Reynolds, John Myrdhin. The Golden Letters. Snow Lion Publications, Ithaca New York 1996, ISBN 1-55939-050-6 External links

Kathok Nyingma Tradition of Tibetan Buddhism (http://www.kathok.org.sg/lineage_1.htm) Palyul Nyingma Tradition of Tibetan Buddhism (http://www.palyul.org) Nyingma Trust (http://www.nyingmatrust.org/) headed by Tarthang Tulku Nyingma Institute (http://www.nyingmainstitute.org/) headed by Tharthang Tulku, with centres in Berkeley, Amsterdam (http://www.nyingma.nl/) and Rio de Janeiro Zangthal (http://www.zangthal.co.uk/) Translations of Tibetan texts into English. Padmasambhava Buddhist Center (http://www.padmasambhava.org/) Headed by Kenchen Palden Sherab and Khenpo Tsewang Dongyal with centers around the world and Padma Samye Ling Center and Monastery in Sidney Center, New York. [7] (http://www.bodhicittasangha.org/) Bodhicitta Sangha - a Minnesota based dharma center Thubten Lekshey Ling (http://www.lekshey.org) - Nyingma Dharma Center in India Khordong (http://www.khordong.net) - Byangter and Khordong sangha of the tradition from Chhimed Rigdzin Rinpoche (also known as CR Lama, 1922-2002) with centres and groups in India, Poland, German, France, England

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Kagyu From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Kagyu, Kagyupa, or Kagyud (Tibetan: བཀའ་བད་པ, Wylie: bka' brgyud pa) school, also known as the "Oral Lineage" or Whispered Transmission school, is today regarded as one of six main schools (chos lugs) of Himalayan or Tibetan Buddhism, the other five being the Nyingma, Sakya, Jonang, Bon and Gelug. Along with the Sakya and Gelug schools, the Kagyu tradition is classified as one of the "New Transmission" schools (Sarma) as it primarily follows Tantric teachings (Vajrayāna) which were translated into Tibetan during the second diffusion of the Buddha Dharma into Tibet (diffusing the so-called New Tantras). Also, along with the Nyingma and Sakya schools it is considered a Red Hat sect.

Like all schools of Tibetan Buddhism, the Kagyu consider their practices and teachings inclusive of the full range of Buddha's teachings (or three yāna), since they follow the fundamental teachings and vows of individual liberation and monastic discipline (Pratimoksha). Those teachings in turn accord with the tradition of the Śrāvakayāna (sometimes called Nikāya Buddhism or "Hīnayāna" ); the Bodhisattva teachings, vows of universal liberation and philosophy of the Mahāyāna; and the profound means and samaya pledges of the Secret Mantra Vajrayāna.

What differentiates the Kagyu from the other schools of are primarily the particular esoteric instructions and tantras they emphasize and the lineages of transmission they follow.

Due to the Kagyu tradition's particularly strong emphasis on guru devotion and guru yoga, and the personal transmission of esoteric instructions (dam ngag or man ngag) from master to disciple, the early Kagyu tradition soon gave rise to a bewildering number of independent sub-schools or sub-sects centered around individual charismatic Kagyu teachers and their lineages. These lineages are hereditary as well as mindstream emanation in nature.


1 Nomenclature, orthography and etymology 1.1 "Kagyu" and "Kargyu" 2 Shangpa Kagyu 3 Marpa Kagyu and Dagpo Kagyu 3.1 Indian Origins 3.2 Marpa and his successors 3.3 Milarepa and his disciples 3.3.1 Gampopa 3.4 Twelve Dagpo Kagyu Lineages 3.4.1 Four primary schools of the Dagpo Kagyu Karma Kamtsang Sub-schools Karmapa controversy Barom Kagyu Tshalpa Kagyu Phagdru Kagyu 3.4.2 Eight Secondary schools of the Dagpo Kagyu Drikung Kagyu Sub-schools Lingre Kagyu and Drukpa Kagyu

第 1 頁,共 22 頁 14/1/10 下午 1:23 Kagyu - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kagyu Lingre Kagyu Drukpa Kagyu Martsang Kagyu ར་ཚང་བཀའ་བད་ི་ལོ་ས་ིང་བས། =Introduction to the Martsang Kagyu lineage Shugseb Kagyu Taklung Kagyu Trophu Kagyu Yabzang Kagyu Yelpa Kagyu 3.4.3 Dagpo Kagyu Lineages Today 4 Kagyu Doctrines 4.1 Mahāmudrā 4.2 The Six of Naropa 5 Kagyu Literature 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 Further reading 10 External links 10.1 Barom Kagyu 10.2 Drikung Kagyu sites 10.3 Drukpa Kagyu 10.4 Karma (Kamtsang) Kagyu 10.4.1 Sites associated with Trinlay Thaye Dorje 10.4.2 Sites associated with Urgyen Trinley Dorje 10.4.3 Karma Kagyu sites 10.5 Taklung Kagyu 10.6 Shangpa Kagyu

Nomenclature, orthography and etymology

Strictly speaking, the term Kagyu (Tibetan: བཀའ་བད, Wylie: bka' brgyud) ("Oral Lineage" or "Precept Transmission") applies to any line of transmission of an esoteric teaching from teacher to disciple. We sometimes see references to the "Atisha Kagyu" ("the precept transmission from ") for the early Kadampa,[1] or to "Jonang Kagyu" for the Jonangpa and "Ganden Kagyu" for the Gelugpa sects.[2]

Today, the term Kagyu almost always refers to the Marpa Kagyu or Dagpo Kagyu and its off-shoots, which developed from the teachings transmitted by the translator Marpa Chökyi Lodrö and his successors. It also applies to the separate lesser-known Shangpa Kagyu tradition, which developed from the teachings independently transmitted by Khyungpo Naljor.[3]

"Kagyu" and "Kargyu"

In his 1970 article "Golden Rosaries of the Bka' brgyud schools" E. Gene Smith, discusses the two forms of the name — Kagyu Tibetan: བཀའ་བད, Wylie: bka' brgyud and Kargyu Tibetan: དཀར་ བད, Wylie: dkar brgyud:

A note is in order regarding the two forms Dkar brgyud pa and Bka' brgyud pa. The term Bka' brgyud pa simply applies to any line of transmission of an esoteric teaching from teacher to disciple. We can properly speak of a Jo nang Bka' brgyud pa or Dge ldan Bka' brgyud pa for the Jo nang pa and Dge lugs pa sects. The adherents of the sects that practice the teachings centring around the Phyag rgya chen po and the Nā ro chos drug are properly referred to as the Dwags po Bka' brgyud pa because these teachings were all transmitted through Sgam po pa. Similar teachings and practices centering around the Ni gu chos drug are distinctive of the Shangs pa Bka' brgyud

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pa. These two traditions with their offshoots are often incorrectly referred to simply as Bka' brgyud pa.

Some of the more careful Tibetan scholars suggested that the term Dkar brgyud pa be used to refer to the Dwags po Bka' brgyud pa, Shangs pa Bka' brgyud pa and a few minor traditions transmitted by Nā ro pa, Mar pa, Mi la ras pa, or Ras chung pa but did not pass through Sgam po pa. The term Dkar brgyud pa refers to the use of the white cotton meditation garment by all these lineages. This complex is what is normally known, inaccuratly, as the Bka' brgyud pa. Thu'u kwan Blo bzang chos kyi nyi ma sums up the matter: "In some later 'Brug pa texts the written form 'Dkar brgyud' indeed appears, because Mar pa, Mi la, Gling ras, and others wore only white cotton cloth. Nevertheless, it is fine if [they] are all called Bka' brgyud." At Thu'u kwan's suggestion, then, we will side with convention and use the term "Bka' brgyud."[4]

One source indicates "the term 'Kagyu' derives from the Tibetan phrase meaning 'Lineage of the Four Commissioners' (Ka-bab-shi-gyu-pa). This four-fold lineage is

1. the illusory body and transference yogas of the Guhyasamaja and Chatushpitha Tantra, transmitted through , Nagarjuna, Indrabhuti, and Saraha; 2. the yoga practice of the Mahamaya from Tilopa, Charyapa, and Kukuripa; 3. the clear-light yoga of the Chakrasamvara, Hevajra, and other Mother Tantras, as transmitted from Hevajra, Dombipa, and Lavapa; and 4. the inner-heat yoga, Kamadevavajra, Padmavajra, Dakini, Kalpabhadra, and Tilopa."[5] Shangpa Kagyu

Main article: Shangpa Kagyu

The Shangpa Kagyu ཤངས་པ་བཀའ་བད (shangs pa bka' brgyud) differs in origin from the better known Marpa Kagyu or Dagpo Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism that is the source of all present day Kagyu schools. The Dagpo Kagyu and its branches primarily came from the lineage of the Indian siddhas Tilopa and Naropa transmitted in Tibet through Marpa, Milarepa, Gampopa and their successors; whereas the Shangpa lineage descended from two female siddhas Naropa's consort Niguma [6] and Virupa's disciple Sukhasiddhi transmitted in Tibet in the 11th century through Kedrub Khyungpo Naljor. The tradition takes its name from the valley of Shang (ཤངས) where Khyungpo Naljor established the monastery of Zhong Zhong ཞོང་ཞོང or Zhang Zhong.

For seven generations the Shangpa Kagyu lineage remained a one-to-one transmission.[7] Although there were a few temples and retreat centres in Tibet and Bhutan associated with the Shangpa transmission, the Shangpa Kagyu never really became established there as an independent religious institution or sect, but rather its teachings were transmitted down through the centuries by lamas belonging to many different schools.

In the 20th century the Shangpa Kagyu teachings were transmitted by the first Kalu Rinpoche, who had many disciples in Tibet, India and the West. Marpa Kagyu and Dagpo Kagyu

The Kagyu begins in Tibet with Marpa Chökyi Lodrö (1012–1097) who trained as a translator with Lotsawa Shākya Yeshe ('brog mi lo ts'a ba sh'akya ye shes) (993–1050), and then traveled three times to India and four times to Nepal in search of religious teachings. His principal gurus were the siddhas Nāropa - from whom he received the "close lineage" of Mahāmudrā and Tantric teachings, and Maitripa - from whom he received the "distant lineage" of Mahāmudrā.

Indian Origins

Marpa's guru Nāropa (1016–1100) was the principal disciple of Tilopa (988-1089) from East Bengal. From his own teachers Tilopa received the Four Lineages of Instructions (bka' babs

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bzhi),[8] which he passed on to Nāropa who codified them into what became known as the Six Doctrines or Six Yogas of Nāropa. These instructions consist a combination of the completion stage (Skt. sampannakrama; Tib. rdzogs rim) practices of different Buddhist highest yoga tantras (Skt. anuttarayoga tantra; Tib. bla-med rgyud), which use the energy-winds (Skt.vāyu, Tib. rlung; ), energy-channels (Skt. nāḍi, Tib. rtsa; ) and energy-drops (Tib. ) of the subtle vajra-body in order to achieve the four types of bliss, the clear-light mind and realize the state of Mahāmudrā.

The Mahāmudrā lineage of Tilopa and Nāropa is called the "direct lineage" or "close lineage" as it is said that Tilopa received this Mahāmudrā realisation directly from the Dharmakaya Buddha Vajradhara and this was transmitted only through Nāropa to Marpa. Tilopa The "distant lineage" of Mahāmudrā is said to have come from the Buddha in the form of Vajradara through incarnations of the Bodhisattvas Avalokiteshvara and Manjusri to Saraha, then from him through Nagarjuna, Shavaripa, and Maitripa to Marpa. The Mahāmudrā teachings from Saraha that Maitripa transmitted to Marpa include the "Essence Mahāmudrā" (snying po'i phyag chen) where Mahāmudrā is introduced directly without relying on philosophical reasoning or yogic practices.

According to some accounts, on his third journey to India Marpa also met Atiśa (982–1054) who later came to Tibet and helped found the Kadampa lineage [9]

Marpa and his successors

Marpa established his "seat" at Drowolung (gro bo lung) in Lhodrak (lho brag) in Southern Tibet just north of Bhutan. Marpa married the lady Dagmema, and took eight other concubines as mudras. Collectively they embodied the main consort and eight wisdom dakini in the mandala of his yidam Hevajra. Marpa wanted to entrust the transmission lineage to his oldest son Darma Dode who died in accident. Darma Dode's incarnation as Indian master Tiphupa became important for the future development of Kagyu in Tibet.

Marpa's four most outstanding students were known as the "Four Great Pillars" (ka chen bzhi):[10]

1. Milarepa (1040–1123), born in Gungthang province of western Tibet, the most celebrated and accomplished of Tibet's yogis, who achieved the ultimate goal of enlightenment in one lifetime became the holder of Marpa's meditation or practice lineage. 2. Ngok Choku Dorje (rngog chos sku rdo rje)[11] Marpa (1036–1102)- Was the principal recipient of Marpa's explanatory lineages and particularly important in Marpa's transmission of the Hevajra Tantra. Ngok Choku Dorje founded the Langmalung temple in the Tang valley of , Bhutan—which stands today.[12] The Ngok branch of the Marpa Kagyu was an independent lineage carried on by his descendants at least up to the time of the Second

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Drukchen Gyalwang Kunga Paljor ('brug chen kun dga' dpal 'byor) 1428-1476 who received this transmission, and 1476 when Go Lotsawa composed the .[13] 3. Tshurton Wangi Dorje (mtshur ston dbang gi rdo rje)[14] - (or Tshurton Wangdor) was the principal recipient of Marpa's transmission of the teachings of the Guhyasamāja tantra. Tshurton's lineage eventually merged with the Zhalu tradition and subsequently passed down to Tsongkhapa who wrote extensive commentaries on Guhyasamāja. 4. Meton Tsonpo (mes ston tshon po)

Marpa had wanted to pass his lineage through his son Darma Dode following the usual Tibetan practice of the time to transmit of lineages of esoteric teachings via hereditary lineage (father-son or uncle-nephew), but his son died at an early age and consequently he passed his main lineage on through Milarepa.

Other important students of Marpa include:

Marpa Dowa Chokyi Wangchuck (mar pa do ba chos kyi dbang phyug). Marpa Goleg (mar pa mgo legs) who along with Tshurton Wangdor received the Guhyasamāja teachings. Barang Bawacen (ba rang lba ba can) - who received lineage of the explanatory teachings of the Mahāmāyā Tantra.

In the 19th century Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Thaye (1813–1899) collected the initiations and sadhanas of surviving transmissions of Marpa's teachings together in the collection known as the Kagyu Ngak Dzö (Tibetan: "བཀའ་བད་གས་མད", Wylie: bka' brgyud sngags mdzod) ("Treasury of Kagyu Tantras").

Milarepa and his disciples

Main article: Milarepa

Among Milarepa's many students were Gampopa (sgam po pa bsod nams rin chen) (1079–1153), a great scholar, and the great yogi Rechung Dorje Drakpa, also known as Rechungpa.


Main article: Gampopa

Gampopa combined the stages of the path tradition of the Kadampa order with teaching and practice of the Great Seal (Mahamudra) and the Six Yogas of Naropa he received from Milarepa synthesizing them into one lineage, which came to be known as Dagpo Kagyu—the main lineage of the Kagyu tradition passed down via Naropa as we know it today. The other main lineage of the Kagyu is the Shangpa Kagyu passed down via Niguma.

Following Gampopa's teachings, there evolved the so-called "Four Major and Eight Minor" lineages of the Dagpo (sometimes rendered "Tagpo" or "Dakpo") Kagyu School. This phrase is descriptive of the generation or order in which the schools were founded, not of their importance.

Together Marpa, Milarepa and Gampopa are known as "Mar Mi Dag Sum" (mar mi dwags gsum) and together these three are considered the founders of the Kagyu school of Buddhism in Tibet.

Twelve Dagpo Kagyu Lineages

See also: Dagpo Kagyu

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Although few survive as independent linages today, there were originally twelve main Kagyu lineages derived from Gampopa and his disciples. Four primary ones stemmed from direct disciples of Gampopa and his nephew; and eight secondary ones branched from Gampopa's disciple Phagmo Drupa.[15] Several of these Kagyu lineages in turn developed their own branches or sub-schools. It must be said, though, that the terminology "primary and secondary" (che chung) for the Kagyu schools can only be traced back as far as Kongtrul's writings (19th century). The Tibetan terminology "che chung", literally "large (and) small," does not reflect the size or influence of the schools, as for instance the Drikung school was in the 13th century probably the largest and most influential of them, although it is, according to Kongtrul, "secondary".

The abbatal throne of Gampopa's own monastery of Daglha Gampo, passed to his own nephew Dagpo Gomtsul.

Four primary schools of the Dagpo Kagyu

Karma Kamtsang

Main article: Karma Kagyu

The Drubgyu Karma Kamtsang, often known simply as the Karma Kagyu, was founded by one of Gampopa's main disciples Düsum Khyenpa (1110–1193), later designated as the first Karmapa.


The Karma Kagyu itself has three subschools in addition to the main branch:[16]

Surmang Kagyu, founded by Trungmase, a student of Karmapa Deshin Shekpa, this sub-sect was centered on Surmang monastery, in what is now the province of China. Neydo Kagyu (Wylie: gnas mdo), founded by (kar ma chags med) (1613–1678), a disciple of the 6th (zhwa dmar chos kyi dbang phyug) (1584–1630). Gyaltön Kagyu

Karmapa controversy

Main article: Karmapa controversy

Following the death of the 16th Karmapa, Rangjung Rigpe Dorje in 1981, followers came to disagree over the identity of his successor. In the early 1990s two main candidates, and , were publicly identified. The 14th Shamarpa, and nephew of the 16th Karmapa, recognized Trinley Thaye Dorje as the 17th Karmapa; while other senior Karma Kagyu incarnates, including the 13th Palpung Situ and 12th Goshir Gyaltsab, recognized Ogyen Trinley Dorje as the 17th Karmapa, as did the Dalai Lama. Both of these candidates underwent enthronement ceremonies and each is now considered by his respective followers as the 17th Gyalwa Karmapa.[17][18] A minority of Karma Kagyu adherents recognize both candidates as legitimate incarnations of the previous Karmapa.

Barom Kagyu

The Barom Kagyu was founded by Gampopa's disciple Barompa Darma Wangchug ('ba' rom pa dar ma dbang phyug) (1127–1199/1200) who established Barom Riwoche monastery (nag chu 'ba' rom ri bo che) in 1160.

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An important early master of this school was Tishri Repa Sherab Senge ('gro mgon ti shri ras pa rab sengge ) (1164–1236).

This school was popular in the Nangchen principality of (now Nangqên, Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in southern Qinghai province) where it has survived in one or two pockets to the present day.

Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche (1920–1996) was a holder of the Barom Kagyu Lineage.

Tshalpa Kagyu

The Tshalpa Kagyu was established by Zhang Yudrakpa Tsöndru Drak (zhang g.yu brag pa brtson 'gru brags pa) (1123–1193) or Lama Zhang who founded the monastery of Tsal Gungtang (tshal gung thang). Lama Zhang was a disciple of Gampopa's nephew Dagpo Gomtsul (dwags sgom tshul khrims snying po) (1116–1169).

The Tshalpa Kagyu tradition continued to function independently until the 15th century when it was absorbed by the Gelugpa, who still maintain many of its transmissions.[19] All of the former Tshalpa properties became Gelugpa possessions under the administration of Sera monastery.

Phagdru Kagyu

The Phagmo Drupa Kagyu (Tibetan: ཕག་་་པ་བཀའ་བད, Wylie: phag mo gru pa bka' brgyud) or Phagdru Kagyu (ཕག་་བཀའ་བད) was founded by Phagmo Drupa Dorje Gyalpo (Tibetan: ཕག་་་པ་ ་་ལ་, Wylie: phag mo gru pa rdo rje rgyal po), (1110–1170) who was the elder brother of the famous Nyingma Lama Ka Dampa Deshek (1122–1192) founder of Katok Monastery. Before meeting Gampopa, Dorje Gyalpo studied with (sa chen kun dga' snying po) (1092–1158) from whom he received whole Lamdré transmission.[20]

In 1158 Dorje Gyalpo built a reed-hut hermitage at Phagmo Drupa ("Sow's Ferry Crossing") in a juniper forest in Nedong (Tibetan: ་གང, Wylie: sne gdong) high above the Tsangpo (Brahmaputra) river. Later, as his fame spread and disciples gathered, this site developed into the major monastic seat of Dentsa Thel (Tibetan: གདན་ས་ལ, Wylie: gdan sa thel ). Following his death the monastery declined and his disciple Jigten Sumgon sent Chenga Drakpa Jungne (Tibetan: ན་ ་གས་པ་འང་གནས, Wylie: spyan snga grags pa 'byung-gnas) (1175–1255), a member of the Lang (rlang) family, to become abbot and look after the monastery. "Chenga Drakpa Jungne was abbot for 21 years and restored the monastery to its former grandeur. In 1253 when the Sakyapas came to power they appointed Dorje Pel [(Tibetan: ་་དཔལ, Wylie: rdo rje dpal)] the brother of Chenga Drakpa Jungne as Tripon [hereditary myriarch] of Nedon. From that time on the Tripon who as a monk, assumed the seat of government of Nedon and also ruled as abbot at Dentsa Thel and his brothers married in order to perpetuate the family line. This tie with the monastery founded by Phagmo Drupa led to the Tripons of Nedong to become known as Phagdru (short of Phagmo Drupa) Tripon and their period of rule in Tibet as the Phagmo Drupa period (or Phagmodrupa dynasty)."[21]

Changchub Gyaltsen (1302–1364) was born into this Lang family. In 1322, he was appointed by the Sakyapa's as the Pagmodru Myriarch of Nedong and given the title "Tai Situ" in the name of the Yuan emperor. Soon he fought with a neighboring myriarchy trying to recover land lost in earlier times. This quarrel displeased the Sakya ruler (dpon chen) Gyalwa Zangpo (Tibetan: ལ་བ་ བཟང་, Wylie: rgyal ba bzang po) who dismissed him as myriach. Following a split between

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Gyalwa Zangpo and his minister Nangchen Wangtson (Tibetan: ནང་ན་དབང་བན, Wylie: nang chen dbang brtson), the former restored Changchub Gyaltsen to his position in 1352. Taking advantage of the situation, Changchub Gyaltsen immediately went on the offensive and soon controlled the whole of the Central Tibetan province of U (dbus). Gyalwa Zanpo and Changchub Gyaltsen were reconciled at a meeting with the Sakya Lama Kunpangpa (Tibetan: ་མ་ན་ངས་པ, Wylie: bla ma kun spangs pa). This angered Nangchen Wangtson who usurped Gyalwa Zanpo as Sakya ruler and imprisoned him.

In 1351 Changchub Gyaltsen established an important Kagyu monastery at the ancient Tibetan capital of . This was later dismantled during the time of the 7th Dalai Lama Kelzang Gyatso (18th century) and replaced by a Gelugpa Monastery, Gaden Chokhorling.[22]

In 1358, Wangtson assassinated Lama Kunpangpa. Learning of this, Changchub Gyaltsen then took his forces to Sakya, imprisoned Wangtson, and replaced four hundred court officials and the newly appointed ruling lama. The Pagmodrupa rule of Central Tibet (U, Tsang and Ngari) dates from this coup in 1358.[23]

As ruler Changchub Gyaltsen was keen to revive the glories of the of Songtsen Gampo and assert Tibetan independence from the Mongol Yuan Dynasty and from Ming Dynasty China. He took the Tibetan title "Desi" (sde-srid), re-organized the thirteen myriarchies of the Yuan-Shakya rulers into numerous districts (rdzong), abolished Mongol law in favour of the legal code, and Mongol court dress in favur of traditional Tibetan dress.[24]

Tai Situ Changchub Gyaltsen died in 1364 and was succeeded as by his nephew Jamyang Shakya Gyaltsen (Tibetan: ཇམ་དངས་ཤ་་ལ་མཚན, Wylie: jam dbyangs sha kya rgyal mtshan) (1340–1373), who was also a monk. The subsequent rule of the Phagmodrupa dynasty lasted until 1435 followed by the Rinpungpa kings who ruled for four generations from 1435–1565 and the three kings 1566-1641.

In 1406 the ruling Phagmodrupa prince, Drakpa Gyaltsen, turned down the imperial invitation to him to visit China.

From 1435 to 1481 the power of the Phagmodrupa declined and they were eclipsed by the Rinpungpa (Rin spungs pa) of Tsang, who patronized the Karma Kagyu school.

The Phagmo Drupa monastery of Dentsa Thel "was completely destroyed during the Cultural Revolution in 1966-1978"[25]

Eight Secondary schools of the Dagpo Kagyu

The eight secondary lineages (zung bzhi ya brgyad or chung brgyad) of the Dagpo Kagyu all trace themselves to disciples of Phagmo Drupa.

Drikung Kagyu

Main article: Drikung Kagyu

One of the most important of the Kagyu sects still remaining today, the Drikung Kagyu (འི་ང་ བཀའ་པད་པ) takes its name from Drikung Thil Monastery founded by Jigten Gonpo Rinchen Pal ('Jig-rten dgon-po rin-chen dpal) (1143–1217) also known as Drikung Kyopa.

The special Kagyu teachings of the Drikung tradition include the "Single Intention" (dgongs gcig),

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the "The Essence of Mahāyāna Teachings" (theg chen bstan pa'i snying po), and the "Fivefold Profound Path of Mahāmudrā" (lam zab mo phyag chen lnga ldan).

Since the 15th century the Drikung Kagyupa received influence from the "northern terma" (byang gter) teachings of the Nyingma tradition.


Several sub-schools branched off from the Drikung Kagyu including the Lhapa or Lhanangpa Kagyu, Drikung Monаstery founded by Gyalwa Lhanangpa (1164–1224) who came to Bhutan in 1194. This school was at one time important in Western Bhutan, particularly in the and Paro regions where they were rivals of the Drukpa Kagyu. The Lhapa first came into conflict with the early Drukpa teacher, Phajo Drugom Zhigpo (b. 12th century) [26] and finally with Shabdrung (1594–1651). In 1640 the remaining followers of the Lhapa Kagyu were expelled from Bhutan together with the Nenyingpa followers as both had sided with the attacking Tsangpa forces against the Drukpa during their three invasions of Bhutan and continued to refuse to acknowledge the authority of the Shabdrung.[27]

Lingre Kagyu and Drukpa Kagyu

Lingre Kagyu

Lingre Kagyu refers to the lineages founded by Lingrepa Pema Dorje (Wylie: gling ras pa padma rdo rje) [1128-1188][28] also known as Nephupa after Nephu monastery (sna phu dgon) he founded near Dorje Drak (rdo rje brag) in Central Tibet (dbus). Lingrepa's teachers were Gampopa's disciple Phagmo Drupa Dorje Gyalpo; Rechungpa's disciple Sumpa Repa; and Ra Yeshe Senge, a lineage holder of Ra Lotsawa.

Drukpa Kagyu

Main article:

The Drukpa Lineage was established by Ling Repa's main disciple Yeshe Dorje (1161–1211) who established monasteries at Longbol (klong rbol) and Ralung (rwa lung). Later Tsangpa Gyare went to a place called Nam Phu where, legend has it, nine roaring rose from the ground and soared into the sky. The Tibetan word for is 'brug (pronounced '') and so Tsangpa Gyare's lineage and the monastery he established at the place became known as the Drukpa, and he became known as the Gyalwang Drukpa. This school became widespread in Tibet and in surrounding regions. Today the Southern Drukpa Lineage is the state religion of Bhutan; and, in the western Himalayas, Drukpa Lineage monasteries are found in Ladakh, , Lahul, and Kinnaur.

Along with the Mahamudra teachings inherited from Gampopa and Pagmodrupa, particular teachings of the Drukpa Lineage include the "Six Cycles of Equal Taste" (ro snyom skor drug), a cycle of instructions said to have been hidden by Rechungpa discovered by Tsangpa Gyare; and the "Seven Auspicious Teachings" (rten 'brel rab bdun) revealed to Tsangpa Gyare by seven Buddhas who appeared to him in a vision at Tsari.

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Several of Tsangpa Gyare's students started sub-schools, the most important of which were the Lower Drukpa founded by Gyalwa Lorepa Wangchug Tsondru and the Upper Drukpa founded by Gyalwa Gotsangpa Gonpo Dorje. This branch further gave rise to several important sub-schools. However the chief monasteries and succession of the First Gyalwang Drukpa Tsangpa Gyare passed to his nephew Önre Darma Senge at Ralung and this lineage was known as The Middle or Central Drukpa. This lineage of the hereditary "prince-abbots" of Ralung continued to 1616 when Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal fled to Bhutan due to a dispute over the incarnation of the 4th Gyalwang Drukpa and the enmity of the Tsangpa ruler. Due to those events the Central Drukpa split into the Southern Drukpa branch led by the Shabdrung and his successors in Bhutan, and the Northern Drukpa branch led by Pagsam Wangpo and the successive Drukchen incarnations in Tibet.[29]

(a) The Lower Drukpa

The Medruk (smad 'brug) or Lower Drukpa sub-school was founded by the First Gyalwang Drukpa Tsangpa Gyare's disciple Gyalwa Lorepa Wangchuk Tsondru (lo ras dbang phyug brtson 'grus) [1187-1250] who lived a simple life. Lorepa built the Üri (dbu ri) and Sengeri (seng ge ri) monasteries and visited Bhutan where he founded Tharpaling (thar pa gling) monastery in Bumthang. A special transmission of the Lower Drukpa Lineage is known as The Five Capabilities (thub pa lnga), which are:[30]

1. Being capable of [facing] death: capability of Mahāmudrā (phyag rgya chen-po 'chi thub). 2. Being capable of [wearing only] the cotton cloth: capability of psychic heat (gtum mo ras thub). 3. Being capable of the tantric activities done in seclusion (gsang spyod kyi ri thub) 4. Being capable of [facing] the disturbances of 'don spirits: sickness (nad 'don gyi 'khrug thub). 5. Being capable of [facing] circumstances: capability of [applying] antidotes (gnyen-po rkyen thub-pa).

(b) The Upper Drukpa

The Toddruk (stod 'brug) or Upper Drukpa sub-school was founded Tsangpa Gyare's disciple Gotsangpa Gonpo Dorje (rgod tshang pa mgon po rdo rje) [1189—1258] a highly realized yogin who had many disciples. His main disciples were Ogyenpa Rinchenpal (0 rgyan pa), Yangonpa (yang dgon pa), Chilkarpa (spyil dkar pa) and Neringpa.

Gotsangpa's disciple Ogyenpa Rinchenpal (1230—1309), who was also a disciple of Karma Pakshi, became a great who traveled to Bodhgaya, Jalandhar, and China. In Oddiyana he received teachings related to the Six Branch Yoga of the Kālacakra system known as Approach and Attainment of the Three Adamantine States (rdo rje gsum gyi bsnyen sgrub) and, after returning to Tibet, founded the Ogyen Nyendrub tradition and wrote many works including a famous guide to the land of Oddiyana. Ogyenpa had many disciples including the third Karmapa, Rangjung Dorje (rang byung rdo rje), Kharchupa (mkhar chu pa) [1284—1339] and Togden Daseng (rtogs dan zla seng).

Barawa Gyaltshen Palzang ('ba' ra ba rgyal mtshan dpal bzang) [1255—1343] was a great scholar of the upper Drukpa Kagyu succession of Yangonpa. He established the Barawa Kagyu sub-school, which for a time was widespread in Tibet, and survived as an independent lineage until 1959.[31] For a time this lineage was also important in Bhutan

(c) The Middle or Central Drukpa

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The Middle Drukpa (bar 'brug) was the hereditary lineage (dung rgyud) of Tsangpa Gyare centered at Ralung. Following Tsangpa Gyare the next holder of this lineage was his nephew Önre Darma Senge (dar ma sengge) [1177—1237] - son of Tsangpa Gyare's brother Lhanyen (lha gnyan). Darma Senge was succeeded by his own nephew Zhonnu Senge (gzhon nu seng ge) [1200—1266], and he by his nephew Nyima Senge (nyi ma seng ge) [1251—1287]. The lineage then went to his cousin Dorje Lingpa Senge Sherab (rdo rje gling pa seng ge shes rab) [1238—1287], son of Öntag (dbon stag) a member of the branch of the Drukpa lineage descended from Tsangpa Gyare's brother Lhabum (lha 'bum). The lineage passed to Senge Sherab's brother Senge Rinchen (seng ge rin chen) [1258—1313] who was succeeded in turn by his son Senge Gyalpo (seng ge rgyal po) [1289—1326], grandson Jamyang Kunga Senge ('jam dbyangs kun dga' seng ge) [1289—1326], great-grandson Lodro Senge (blo gros seng ge) [1345—1390], and great-great-grandson Sherab Senge (shes rab seng ge) [1371—1392]. These first nine holders of Tsangpa Gyare's lineage were known as the "Incomparible Nine Lions" (mnyam med seng ge dgu).

Sherab Senge, who died at the age of 21, was succeeded on the throne of Ralung by his elder brother Yeshe Rinchen (ye shes rin chen) [1364—1413] and he by his sons Namkha Palzang (nam mkha' dpal bzang) [1398—1425] and Sherab Zangpo (shes rab bzang po) [1400—1438]. These three were considered the emanations of the three great Bodhisattvas Manjusri, Vajrapani and Avalokiteshvara respectively. Sherab Zangpo's son was the first incarnation of Tsangpa Gyare (i.e., the second Gyalwang Drukpa), Gyalwang Je Kunga Paljor (rgyal dbang rje kun dga' dpal 'byor) [1428-1476] who received teachings from the most renowned lamas of his age and became a great author and teacher.

From Kunga Paljor the lineage passed to his nephew Ngawang Chögyal (ngag dbang chos rgyal) (1465—1540), then successively in turns from father to son to Ngakyi Wangchug (ngag gi dbang phyug grags pa rgyal mtshan) (1517—1554), Mipham Chögyal (mi pham chos rgyal) (1543— 1604), Mipham Tenpai Nyima (mi pham bstan pa'i nyi ma) (1567—1619) and Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal (zhabs drung ngag dbang rnam rgyal) (1594—1651) who was the great-great- grandson of Ngawang Chögyal.

In the Middle Drukpa tradition many great scholars appeared including the fourth Gyalwang Drukpa, Kunkhyen Padma Karpo (kun mkhyen padma dkar po) [1527—1592], Khewang Sangay Dorji (mkhas dbang sangs rgyas rdo rje) [1569—1645] and Bod Khepa Mipham Geleg Namgyal (bod mkhas pa mi pham dge legs rnam rgyal) (1618—1685) who was famed for his knowledge of poetics, grammar and medicine.

Three great siddhas of Middle Drukpa school were Tsangnyön Heruka (gtsang snyon) (1452-1507)- author of the Life of Milarepa, the Hundred Thousand Songs of Milarepa, the Life of Rechungpa, and compiler of the Demchog Khandro Nyengyud; Druknyon Kunga Legpa ('brug smyon kun legs) [1455-1529] also known as Drukpa Kunleg; and Unyon Kunga Zangpo (dbus smyon kun dga' bzang po) [1458-1532]. All three were disciples of Drukchen Gyalwang Je Kunga Paljor.

The fourth Gyalwang Drukpa incarnation of Tsangpa Gyare, "The Omisient" Padma Karpa, whose collected works fill over twenty volumes in modern editions, was the most famous scholar of the tradition and among the Drukpa practitioners as he is known as Kunkhyen Pekar (kun mkhyen pad dkar) or Druk Tamche Khyenpa. He founded the Sangngag Chöling (gsang sngags chos gling) monastery in Jaryul (byar yul) southern Tibet in 1571,[32] which became the seat of the successive Gyalwang Drukpa incarnations in Tibet and so the center of the Northern Drukpa lineage.

Following the death of Kunkhyen Padma Karpo two incarnations were recognized: 1) Pagsam

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Wangpo (dpag bsam dbang po) who was the offspring of the Chongje Depa and 2) Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal (1594 1651) who was also the heir to Drukpa lineage of Ralung. Pagsam Wangpo gained the backing of the powerful Tsangpa Desi who was a patron of the Karma Kagyu school and hostile to Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal. The latter subsequently fled to Bhutan, where his lineage already had many followers, and established the Southern Drukpa Kagyu (lho 'brug pa dka' brgyud) and became both the spiritual and temporal head of the country after which the country became known as 'Druk Yul' or 'Country of the Drukpas' in the Tibetan and (Bhutanese) languages.

Martsang Kagyu རར ་ ་ ཚཚ ངང ་ ་ བབ ཀཀ འའ ་ ་ བབ དད ་ ་ ི་ ི་ ལལ ོ་ ོ་ སས ་ ་ ིངང ི ་ ་ བབ སས ། །

=Introduction to the Martsang Kagyu lineage

Martsang Kagyu is a tradition of Tibetan Buddhism that was founded by His Holiness Chöjé Marpa Sherab Yeshe (1134–1203), based solely on the teachings of the Buddha's sutras and tantras.

Born in East Tibet—Markham, Chöjé Marpa was chosen at age twenty to study at Sangphu the great monastic college of the Kadampa tradition in central Tibet. After five years he became a great scholar.

Afterwards, Chöjé Marpa spent five years with Phagmo Drupa Dorje Gyalpo (1110–1170), receiving and mastering the profound secret Kagyu teachings and the Lamdre teaching of the Sakyapa tradition, and became an exceptional practitioner in the highest level in Tibetan Buddhism. In 1167, at the age of thirty-three, Chöjé Marpa returned to Markham where he founded Tashi Sho monastery. During his lifetime, the monastic community came to number more than two thousand, establishing the Martsang kagyu tradition as a union of the Kadampa and Kagyu lineages.

The sutra tradition of Martsang Kagyu consists of the teachings and practices of the Indian texts in general, but in particular the Tibetan commentaries from Atisha's Kadampa lineage, and the texts composed by such Martsang Kagyu masters as Chöjé Marpa and his pupil, Drogön Rinchen.

The mantrayana tradition of Martsang Kagyu includes the six of Naropa, Chakrasamvara, Guhyasamaja and Hevajra, which are from the Kagyu lineage that was transmitted through Marpa, Milarepa, Rechungpa, and Phagmo Drupa; the Lamdré from the Sakya tradition; and Tara practices from the Kadampa tradition. In particular, numerous individuals became siddhas through practicing the meditation instructions of the transmission originating from Phagmo Drupa's and experiences and realizations.

Chöjé Marpa's principal pupil was Drogön Rinchen (1170–1249), who in 1200 founded Tsomdo Monastery in Markham. He promulgated the teachings and practices of Martsang Kagyu and had numerous pupils who were both foremost scholars and siddhas.(1235–1280), who was then the ruler of Tibet, visited Tsomdo Monastery and became its benefactor.

During the time of such lineage holders as Drogön Rinchen, Yeshe Gyaltsen, Changchub Drakpa, Sönam Yeshe, Rinchen Gyaltsen, and Könchok Gyaltsen, thousands of pupils from Tashi Sho and Tsomdo monasteries greatly benefited the teachings and beings in general.

In 1639, a Mongolian army destroyed the Martsang Kagyu monasteries along with many other Tibetan monasteries. Although both monasteries were rebuilt,Dzungarian destroyed them again in 1718, from which Martsang Kagyu entered a period of decline. However, many

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siddhas have prophesied that there will come a time when the embers of Martsang Kagyu will be revived. For example, the mahasiddha Nyakre Sewo wrote:

A time will come when Martsang teachings are protected. A time will come for the benefit for beings yet to be done, For this there needs to be good karma and prayer. The great seat is Sho Monastery.

Drogön Rinchen wrote: For sixteen lifetimes from now I will benefit beings in countless worlds. In seven hundred years, in the time of ruin, I will have the name Karma and in Gartok Natang in the center of Markham I will establish a Dharma community that will be destroyed by Maras. After eighteen cycles of obstacles I will revive the embers of the Martsang. I will guide countless beings Through great special conduct, to the ends of the ocean

Thus there are about how there would come a time when the embers of the Martsang Kagyu will be revived and the benefit for beings that has not yet been done will be carried out.

Martsang Kagyu teachings are still transmitted, and in the 20th century, The eleventh Gangri Karma rinpoche received the Martsang Kagyu teachings from and Trinlay Gyamtso, who was the Khenpo of the Tropu Kagyu, and passed them on to his main disciple, Chodrak Gyamtso. Chodrak Gyamtso was subsequently able to transmit these teachings to the rebirth of Gangri Karma rinpoche.(b. 1964)

The Eleventh Gangri Karma Rinpoche (1910-1959)

The eleventh Gangri Karma Rinpoche was born in 1910, as Gangri Butruk, in Markham, Tibet. The Gangris had once been a prominent local family, but by his parent’s generation, feuding and losses had reduced them to simple farmers. When for several years bad weather destroyed their harvest, the family was made homeless and forced to beg for food. Despite the early hardship, his parents worked tirelessly and eventually were able to acquire a small house and land, which they wanted their son to inherit, to carry on the family name. However, from a very young age, there were signs that Butruk was different. He would regularly sit cross-legged, as if in a meditation posture, and pretend to teach the Dharma to other children. Butruk was determined to become a monk, but when he was fifteen, his parents arranged a profitable marriage to a local girl called Pema Lhatso.

However, Butruk was not intended for an ordinary life. At the age of eighteen, he had a vision in a dream of a female spirit who said to him, “Oh, Gangri, samsara is a nest of snakes, attachment is a spell and a beautiful woman is but an illusory dream.” She pointed to the East and told him to “Have no doubt and go there!” He immediately ran away from home.

Rechungpa, my son who is like my heart, listen to this song of instruction, which is my final testament. In the ocean of the three realms of samsara, this illusory body is very sinful. It tries to fulfill its attachment to food and clothes and can never abandon worldly activities.

At first he headed to Pongri Monastery, where he felt great happiness at meeting the renowned master, Karma Lingpa. Butruk had nothing to offer Karma Lingpa except flowers to represent his faith and a prayer of aspiration. Karma Lingpa agreed to teach him and gave him the name Karma Rinchen. He sent him to Changkah Monastery, where he took the vows of monastic ordination from Trinlay Gyamtso (Trophu Kagyu Khenpo) and stayed for thirteen years, studying and meditating on the complete meaning of sutras. He then returned to Karma Lingpa and went into retreat, practicing and mastering many profound and secret tantric meditations and teachings. Karma Lingpa and Trinlay Gyamtso transmitted the Martsang Kagyu teaching to Butruk and after

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two years on retreat, Karma Lingpa recognized him to be the rebirth of Drogön Rinchen, and instructed him to return to his homeland to continue his practice and teach for the benefit of others.

From this point, Rinpoche spent the rest of his life in mountain caves and retreat huts, enduring much hardship, while meditating day and night. To survive in near isolation, he mastered longevity practices allowing him to sustain for long periods by eating only grains, flowers, stones and herbs. To withstand the icy conditions of the Himalayan mountaintops, he practiced inner heat meditation, allowing him to stay warm and melt the snow around him. He would never stay in once place for too long and, although he performed blessings and rituals for the sick and poor, he eschewed attention and fame, preferring to teach small groups of dedicated disciples. His primary student was Chödrak Gyamtso, a local boy who visited him at Mount Ukori and practiced with him until the end of his life.

Rinpoche dedicated his life to mastering the highest-level of tantric meditation and there were many exceptional signs and accomplishments reported by his students, such as seeing rainbows appearing inside his meditation cave and numerous birds and animals visiting him without fear. Rinpoche gained great mastery over his physical body and inner channels, such that he was reported to fly across the mountain ranges. This sight became so common at Mount Ukori, that the local herdsman barely paid notice when they saw the lama soar through the sky.

At Nego Mountain, Rinpoche achieved the rainbow body transference, a sign of attaining complete realization and, at Mount Dekpön, his student witnessed him transform himself into Chakrasamvara, a blue deity with four faces and twelve arms. Another famous story, which is still told by local people to this day, speaks of a sudden and fierce storm that gathered while Rinpoche was meditating with his students in the mountains. Suddenly, Rinpoche was struck directly by a bolt of lightning and, while his students ran and hid for cover, Rinpoche remained in meditation, completely undisturbed and unharmed.

Even though he was encircled by red thunderbolts, the yogin who had attained the rainbow body, bound the poisonous sky sorcery of the gyalpo and sinpo demons: that is the heroic act of Rechung Karma.

In 1958, as the Chinese tightened control over Tibet, Rinpoche realized that his way of life was nearing an end. In December of that year, he gather his students and arranged many silver offering bowls outside his mountain cave and for one offered a thousand butter lamps while performing elaborate practices and rituals. When he finished, he said to his pupils, “You must all return home. The time when Dharma practitioners can roam the mountains is coming to an end.” Rinpoche was subsequently shot at and arrested by Chinese soldiers.

Upon his release, Rinpoche told his students that he wanted to go to Mountain and that this would be the last place he would visit. On the way, they stopped at Yukpo village, where one of Rinpoche’s students, Pema Gyamsto, lived. As they passed this house, a dog leapt in front of him and barked. Rinpoche pointed his finger at the dog and said, “Don’t bark at me. Recognize me next time I come to your home.” The dog seemed to understand and although his students did not know at the time, this was to be the birthplace of his reincarnation.

On 25th January 1959, after reaching Khata Mountain, he said to his pupils, “Don’t worry, its time for me to leave.” He turned to Chödrak Gyamtso and said, “Can you look after my rebirth when he comes?” But the wind was blowing loudly and Chödrak couldn’t hear him and asked him to repeat his question. Rinpoche responded, “This isn’t time for you to understand,” turned to the south in a meditation posture and passed away. Only years later would Chödrak recall these words and realize their significance.

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As Rinpoche left his physical body, it shrunk to the size of a five-year-old child. His students were fearful that the communist army would take his body and so decided to cremate him. Upon lighting the firewood, his body burned like a torch and generated smoke that was the colours of the rainbow and lingered in the sky, before stretching out like a chord in the direction of Yukpo village. Many ringsel, pearl-like gemstones, were found in the ashes of the fire and at the cremation site.

The Twelfth Gangri Karma Rinpoche

Five years later, the twelfth Gangri Karma Rinpoche was born in 1964 in Yukpo village in Markham. His father was Pema Gyamtso, a student of the eleventh Gangri Karma Rinpoche, who he had first met as a young boy at Yangri Dolma Mountain, before becoming a dedicated student. A year before the birth of his son, he saw the great sage, Padmasambhava in a dream, who told him that he would have a child, who he must raise with exceptional care.

When his son was three years old, Pema took him on an overnight trip to a nearby mountain. The next morning as they walked home, they reached a fork in the path, with one side leading back to their village. However, his son insisted they should take the other path and led his father towards some prayer flags in the distance. Pema immediately realized that this was in the direction of the retreat hut of his old teacher, the eleventh Gangri Karma Rinpoche. With a sense of curiosity, he asked his son, “Where is your home? Can you take me there?” and with that, the boy led his father by the hand towards the hut. Pema asked, “Who lives in such a place without a window or curtains?” his young son responded “A bird without wings, like me.” The boy then offered his father tea and when Pema said that there was no water, his son led him outside the hut to a natural spring and said “Father, the water is here.” At that moment Pema firmly identified his son as the reincarnation of his teacher, the twelfth Gangri Karma Rinpoche.

At this time, the ruling communist party forbade religious and cultural beliefs in Tibet, but Pema was determined that his son should have a formal education and so one night, at midnight, he quietly took him to meet Chödrak Gyamtso. It was as though Chödrak had been expecting them, as he had spent the day cleaning the house and had burned incense and offered his guests a red carpet welcome with fine yak butter and tea.

When Rinpoche was twelve, the Chinese started lifting restrictions on the movement of Tibetan nationals and Rinpoche’s family was able to travel more freely. His father took him to the mountainous area of Kawagarbo, a sacred area where the famous sages, Padmasambhava and Milarepa, were said to have practiced. In this area there is a renowned mountain shrine, next to a dried-up spring, where the water is only said to run when bodhisattvas visit. When Rinpoche arrived, water began to flow from the spring and the local village elder came out to pay homage, saying that he had dreamt of Rinpoche’s arrival.

In 1982, Rinpoche repeated the pattern of his previous life and went in search of a formal teaching of the Dharma. He took the arduous journey across the Himalayas into India, initially to study at the Drepung Monastery, a famous Gelupa university. This was where he studied Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism under Geshe Losan Gyamtso. At Drepung, Rinpoche was ordained as a monk by His Holiness the Dalai Lama and then completed the Sakya lineage from His Holiness Sakya Trizin. This was under the guidance of Khenpo Kunga Wangchuk and followed by going on retreat to practice extraordinary longevity practices. After completing the retreat, Rinpoche took the position as a Dharma teacher at the of H.H. Sakya Trizin.

In 1993, after spending 13 years studying the Dharma, to the delight of his parents and with the blessing of the Dalai Lama, Rinpoche returned home to Tibet. Despite the freezing temperatures,

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when Rinpoche returned to Markham, almost one hundred monks and villagers came out to greet him with incense, butter, milk and fruit. Rinpoche went on to establish a Scientific Buddhist School and a Tibetan Medical School and orphanage in his home county. At the school, Rinpoche took the position as a Professor, as well as giving numerous lectures to students at the interface with modern science. They were the first new Buddhist institutions to be built in Markham for over one hundred years and provided education, medicine and support to the local communities.

Unfortunately, the Chinese authorities shut the school down and arrested Rinpoche. Upon his release, he realized that the only way to preserve the Martsang Kagyu teachings and to further his own practice was to leave Tibet. His escape from Markham almost cost him his life, when unfortunately the truck he was travelling in crashed into a river, killing 27 people, including his two younger sisters.

Since then, Rinpoche has travelled and taught in India, Singapore, Malaysia, Nepal, Bhutan and Taiwan, raising money for disadvantaged families and teaching the Dharma. In 2007, Rinpoche settled in England, where he continues to live a humble life, translating old texts from his lineage, teaching and writing for the benefit of his students. As the current lineage holder of the Martsang Kagyu tradition, Rinpoche is dedicated to ensuring the protection and continuation of these extraordinary teachings.

The twelfth Gangri Karma Rinpoche (born 1964) is an exceptional Buddhist scholar and Dharma practitioner and the current lineage holder of the Martsang Kagyu tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, having received the teachings in a direct unbroken line from the founder, Chöjé Marpa (1134-1203). Rinpoche is recognized as the reincarnation of the eleventh Gangri Karma Rinpoche (1910-1960), by H.H. Fourteenth Dalai Lama and His Holiness Sakya Trizin.

The twelfth Gangri Karma Rinpoche has the unique position of being the holder of the Martsang Kagyu lineage. Rinpoche held a commemoration of the founding of Martsang Kagyu, which took place 842 years earlier.

For this ceremony Samdhong Rinpoche, the prime minister of the Tibetan government in exile sent the following letter:

It is with great joy that I write to the Martsang Kagyu Foundation on its commemoration of the founding of the Martsang Kagyu 842 years and its collapse 370 years ago. His Holiness the Dalai Lama considers the Martsang Kagyu Foundation as praiseworthy in its altruistic intention to preserve the unique culture of Tibet and in particular revive the embers of the Martsang Kagyu by such activities as publishing and distributing the rare texts of the Martsang Kagyu, and having paintings made of the lamas of the Martsang lineage. This is a very critical time for the 's unique culture and politics the Martsang Kagyu Foundation is tirelessly dedicated to both religious and secular progress with such activities as bringing the Dharma to both Tibetan communities and British people in the UK, which is indicative of loyalty to the Tibetan cause and a courageous dedication. His Holiness prays and hopes that in the future your activities to bring happiness to beings and benefit the Buddha's teachings and the Tibetan people will be even greater than before. At this special time we send out best wishes and prayers for an excellent to Gangri Karma Chokyi Gyaltsen Rinpoche and to all taking part.

Prime Minister Samdhong Rinpoche, Dharamsala, 30 November 2009[33]

Introduction to the Kagyu Lineage

The founder of the Kagyu lineage was the Mahasiddha Tilopa (988-1069), who lived in Northern India. He is considered as having received a direct transmission from the primordial Buddha

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Vajradhara. In this context the Kagyu lineage has originated from the very essence of reality itself and thus transcends all space and time. Viewed from another level of understanding he also had human teachers, from whom he received four special transmissions, The Four Oral Instructions, for which he became the lineage holder. Some etymologies of the name "Kagyu" consider it as an abbreviation of Lineage of Four Oral Instructions. When Tilopa's transmission is linked directly to Vajradhara, it is called the "direct transmission" but when it is traced to his human teachers, it is referred to as the "indirect transmission."

These teachings were passed from Tilopa to his disciple, the Mahasiddha Naropa (1016–1100) and they were systematised as the Six Yogas of Naropa, meditations that are considered an essential teaching of the Kagyu lineage. Naropa transmitted his knowledge to Marpa Chökyi Lodrö (1012–1097), the great translator, who journeyed from Tibet to India in order to receive instructions and who subsequently returned to Tibet and spread the teachings of the Dharma widely.

Marpa's most important disciple was Jetsun Milarepa (1040–1123). He became one of Tibet's great yogis. His life began in difficult circumstances due to his father's early death, his vengeance upon his dishonest aunt and uncle, and his subsequent regret—which led him to an earnest desire to enter the way of the Dharma. His story is widely known among Tibetans. Through his perseverance and ability to accept all circumstances, he achieved profound realization of the ultimate nature of reality. His teachings are recorded in the 100,000 songs of Milarepa and other collections.

Milarepa's teachings were carried on by Gampopa (1079–1153), the physician from Dakpo. He first studied under the Kadampa tradition, which is a gradual and systematic path. At a later age, he met Milarepa and practicing under him received and realized the true meaning of the complete teachings. Since that time, the lineage has been known as the Dakpo Kagyu. It is from Gampopa that the first Kagyu schools originated: the Karma Kagyu, Tselpa Kagyu, Barom Kagyu, and Phagdru Kagyu.

The founder of the Phagdru Kagyu was Phagmodrupa Dorje Gyalpo (1110–1170), one of Gampopa's most important disciples. His own lineage died out as a religious institution, while his clan played an important role in the country's secular governance in the ensuing . Phagmodrupa's main disciples founded their own lineages, of which eight lineages.

The heart son of Gampopa is Phagmodrupa (1110~1170) who inherited Gampopa's teaching, while Phagmodrupa promoted the teaching with great popularity to form Phagmodrupa Kagyu sect. The eight major heart sons:

1. Chöjé Marpa Sherab Yishi founded Martsang Kagyu in 1167, 2. Yeshe Tseg founded Yelpa Kagyu in 1171, 3. Gyaltsab Rinchen founded Trophu Kagyu in 1171, 4. Kyopa Jigten Sumgyi founded Drikhung Kagyu in 1179, 5. Thangpa Tashi Pal founded Taklung Kagyu in 1180, 6. Gyergom Tsultrim Senge founded Shuksep Kagyu in 1181, 7. Tsangpa Gyare Yeshe Dorje founded Drukpa Kagyu in 1193, 8. The 2nd generation discipleYasang founded Yasang Kagyu in 1205.

Shugseb Kagyu

The Shugseb Kagyu (shug gseb bka' brgyud) was established by Gyergom Chenpo Zhonnu Drakpa (gyer sgom chen po gzhon nu grags pa) (1090–1171) who founded the Shugseb monastery in Nyiphu. The Shugseb Kagyu emphasised the Mahamudra teachings of the Dohas, spiritual songs of realisation by Indian masters such as Saraha, Shavaripa, Tilopa, Naropa and

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Maitripa etc.

Taklung Kagyu

Main article: Taklung Kagyu

Taklung Kagyu (stag lungs bka' brgyud) named after Taklung monastery established in 1180 by Taklung Tangpa Tashi Pal (stag lung thang pa bkra shis dpal) (1142–1210).

Trophu Kagyu

The Trophu Kagyu (khro phu bka' brgyud) was established by Gyal Tsha Rinchen Gon (rgyal tsha rin chen mgon) (1118–1195) and Kunden Repa (kun ldan ras pa) (1148–1217). The tradition was developed by their nephew, Thropu Lotsawa who invited Pandit Shakysri of , Buddhasri and Mitrayogin to Tibet.

The most renowned adherent of this lineage was Buton Rinchen Drub (bu ston rin chen grub) (1290–1364) of Zhalu[34] who was a student of Trophupa Sonam Senge (khro phu ba bsod nams sengge)[35] and Trophu Khenchen Rinchen Senge (khro phu mkhan chen rin chen sengge).[36] Other notable teachers of this tradition include Chegompa Sherab Dorje (1130?-1200) [37]

Yabzang Kagyu

Yabzang Kagyu (g.ya' bzang bka' brgyud) founded by Sharawa Kalden Yeshe Senge (d. 1207). His foremost disciple was Yabzang Chöje Chö Monlam (1169–1233) who in 1206 established the monastery of Yabzang, also known as Nedong Dzong, in Yarlung. The Yabzang Kagyu survived as an independent school at least until the 16th century.

Yelpa Kagyu

The Yelpa Kagyu (yel pa bka' rgyud) was established by Drubthob Yeshe Tsegpa (drub thob ye shes brtsegs pa, b. 1134). He established two monasteries, Shar Yelphuk (shar yel phug) and Jang Tana (byang rta rna dgon).

Dagpo Kagyu Lineages Today

The principle Dagpo Kagyu lineages existing today as organized schools are the Karma Kagyu, Drikung Kagyu and the Drukpa Kagyu. For the most part, the teachings and main esoteric transmissions of the other Dagpo Kagyu lineages have been absorbed into one or another of these three independent schools. Periodic attempts are made to reestablish the institutional independence of some of the other lineages, such as the Taklung Kagyu and Barom Kagyu, but these have met with very modest success to date. Kagyu Doctrines


Main article: Mahamudra

The central teaching of Kagyu is the doctrine of Mahamudra, "the Great Seal", as elucidated by Gampopa in his various works. This doctrine focuses on four principal stages of meditative practice (the Four Yogas of Mahamudra), namely:

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1. The development of single-pointedness of mind 2. The transcendence of all conceptual elaboration 3. The cultivation of the perspective that all phenomena are of a "single taste" 4. The fruition of the path, which is beyond any contrived acts of meditation

It is through these four stages of development that the practitioner is said to attain the perfect realization of Mahamudra.

The Six Yogas of Naropa

Main article: Six Yogas of Naropa

Important practices in all Kagyu schools are the tantric practices of Chakrasamvara and Vajrayogini, and particularly the Six Yogas of Naropa. Kagyu Literature

In terms of view, the Kagyu (particularly the Karma Kagyu) emphasize the Hevajra tantra with commentaries by Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Thaye and Dakpo Tashi Namgyal, the Uttaratantra with commentaries by Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Thaye and another by Gölo Shönu Pal as a basis for studying buddha nature, and the Third Karmapa Rangjung Dorje's Profound Inner Reality (Tib. Zabmo Nangdon) with commentaries by Rangjung Dorje and Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Thaye as a basis for tantra. See also References

1. ^ Encyclopedia of Religions & Sects 9. ^ "Atisha and the Restoration of Buddhism in (http://www.thdl.org/xml/show.php?xml= Tibet by Gurugana Dharmakaranama" /reference/typologies/relsects.xml&l=6) (http://www.lamayeshe.com/otherteachers 2. ^ Smith, E. Gene. "Golden Rosaries of the /atisha/tibet.shtml). Lamayeshe.com. Bka' brgyud Schools." in Among Tibetan 2010-04-11. Retrieved 2012-09-10. Texts: History and Literature of the Himalayan 10. ^ Roerich, George N. (Translator) The Blue Plateau, ed. Kurtis R. Schaeffer, p.40. Boston: Annals. Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi 1988. Wisdom Publications, 2001 [reprint of Calcutta, 1949] p. 403 3. ^ TBRC P39 (http://www.tbrc.org 11. ^ TBRC P0RK1289 (http://www.tbrc-dlms.org /#library_person_Object-P39) /kb/tbrc-detail.xq?RID=P0RK1289) 4. ^ Smith, E. Gene "Golden Rosaries of the 12. ^ Dargey, Yonten. History of the Drukpa Bka' brgyud schools" in 'Among Tibetan Texts: Kagyud in Bhutan. Thimphu 2001. pg. 58 History and Literature of the Himalayan 13. ^ The hereditary lineages starting from Ngok Plateau, (pp. 40) Choku Dorje's son Ngok Dode (rngog mdo 5. ^ The Circle of Bliss: Buddhist Meditational Art sde) (b.1090) up to 1476 AD are detailed on by John C. Huntington and Dina Bangdel. pp. 406-414 in Roerich's translation of the Serindia Publications. pg 42 Blue Annals. 6. ^ Niguma Story (http://www.sukhasiddhi.org 14. ^ TBRC P3074 (http://www.tbrc-dlms.org /about_niguma.php) /kb/tbrc-detail.xq?RID=P3074) 7. ^ Ngawang Zangpo (trans) Timeless Rapture: 15. ^ Tenzin Gyatsho, Dalai Lama XIV. The Gelug Inspired Verse of the Shangpa Masters. 2003 / Kagyü Tradition of Mahamudra p. 262 Ithaca, NY. Snow Lion Publications p. 16 16. ^ "Transcriptions of teachings given by His 8. ^ These four lineages of instruction are Eminence the 12th Kenting Tai Situpa (2005)," enumerated by as: 1. The (http://www.nic.fi/~sherab/chen.htm). Nic.fi. instructions on Mahāmudrā (phyag rgya chen 17. ^ "The Karmapa's Return To Tsurphu In Tibet, po'i gdam ngags);2. The instructions on The Historic Seat Of The " caṇḍāli or 'heat yoga' (gtum mo'i bka' babs); 3. (http://www.kagyuoffice.org/karmapa.html) The instructions on clear light ('od gsal kyi Retrieved on December 22, 2008. bka' babs); 4. The instructions on Karma Mudrā (las kyi phyags rgya'i bka babs)

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18. ^ "The 17th Gyalwa Karmapa Trinley Thaye 28. ^ TBRC P910 (http://www.tbrc.org/kb/tbrc- Dorje" (http://www.sfi-usa.org/lineage/) detail.xq?RID=P910) Retrieved on December 22, 2008. 29. ^ Smith, "Golden Rosaries of the Bka' brgyud 19. ^ Dorje, Gyurme. Jokhang: Tibets most Schools" p.44-5. sacred . 2010 London, 30. ^ Martin, Dan (May 2006). "A Bronze Portrait Thames and Hudson . pg. 12 Image of Lo-ras-pa's Disciple: Tibetological 20. ^ Stearns, Cyrus. Luminous Lives The Story Remarks on an Item in a Recent Asian Art of the Early Masters of the Lam dre in Tibet. Catalog" (http://www.tibetan-museum- Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-307-9 society.org/java/arts-culture-lo-ras-pa.jsp). 21. ^ "The rise of Changchub Gyaltsen and the Tibetan Mongolian Museum Society. Phagmo Drupa Period″ in Bulletin of Retrieved 2009-05-20. , 1981 : Namgyal Institute 31. ^ Smith, "Golden Rosaries of the Bka' brgyud of Tibetology [1] (http://www.thdl.org/texts Schools" p.45. /reprints/bot/bot_1981_01_02.pdf) 32. ^ Berzin, Alexander. "A Brief History of Drug 22. ^ Dorje, Gyurme. Tibet Handbook: The Travel Sang-ngag Choling Monastery" Guide. Footprint 1999. p.185 ISBN (http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en 1-900949-33-4 /archives/study/history_buddhism 23. ^ Berzin, Alexandra A Survey of Tibetan /buddhism_tibet/kagyu History: 4 The Pagmodru, Rinpung, and /brief_history_drug_sang- Tsangpa Hegemonies ngag_choling_monastery.html). Retrieved (http://www.berzinarchives.com/web/en 2013-08-19. /archives/e-books/unpublished_manuscripts 33. ^ "Official Martsang Kagyu" /survey_tibetan_history/chapter_4.html) (http://www.martsankagyuofficial.org). 24. ^ Norbu, Dawa "China's Tibet Policy". 34. ^ Dorje, Gyurme. Tibet Handbook: The Travel RoutledgeCurzon 2001. p. 57 Guide p.200 25. ^ Stoddard, E Heather (2002) Golden 35. ^ TBRC P3098 (http://www.tbrc-dlms.org Buddhas from Tibet: Reconstruction of the /kb/tbrc-detail.xq?RID=P3098) Façade of a Stupa from Densathil. 36. ^ TBRC P3099 (http://www.tbrc-dlms.org (http://hosting.zkm.de/icon/stories /kb/tbrc-detail.xq?RID=P3099) /storyReader$83) 37. ^ "Chegompa Sherab Dorje - The Treasury of 26. ^ see: Dargye and Sørensen (2001) pp.ix–x, Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious 34–36, 41–46 Masters" (http://www.tibetanlineages.org 27. ^ Dorje, Sangay and Kinga (2008) pp.146–7. /biographies/view/106/7373). Tibetanlineages.org. Retrieved 2012-09-10. Sources

Dargye, Yonten (2001). History of the Drukpa Kagyud School in Bhutan (12th to 17th Century A.D.). Thimphu, Bhutan. ISBN 99936-616-0-0. Dargye, Yonten and Sørensen, P.K. (2001); The Biography of Pha 'Brug-sgom Zhig-po called The Current of Compassion. Thumphu: National Library of Bhutan (http://www.library.gov.bt/publications/books.html). ISBN 99936-17-00-8 Dorje, Gyurme. Tibet Handbook: The Travel Guide. Footprint 1999. ISBN 1-900949-33-4 Powers, John (1994). Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism. Snow Lion. ISBN 1-55939-026-3. Roerich, George N. (Translator) The Blue Annals. Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi 1988. [reprint of Calcutta, 1949]

Powers, John (1994). Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism. Snow Lion. ISBN 1-55939-026-3.

Smith, E. Gene (1970a, 2001). "Golden Rosaries of the Bka' brgyud Schools". In Schaeffer, Kurtis R. (ed). Among Tibetan Texts: History and Literature of the Himalayan Plateau. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-179-3.

Tulku Thondup Rinpoche (1988). Buddhist Civilization in Tibet. Arkana. ISBN 0-14-019083-X. Further reading

Kapstein, Matthew. "The Shangs-pa bKa'-brgyud: an unknown school of Tibetan Buddhism" in M. Aris and Aung San Suu Kyi (eds.), Studies in Honor of Hugh Richardson Warminster:

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Aris and Phillips, 1980, pp. 138–44.

Khenpo Konchog Gyaltsen. The Great Kagyu Masters: The Golden Lineage Treasury. Ithica: Snow Lion Publications, 1990. [A translation of part of the Bka' brgyud kyi rnam thar chen mo- a collection of 'Bri gung Bka' brgyud hagiographies by Rdo rje mdzes 'od]

Quintman, Andrew, transl. The Life of Milarepa. Penguin Classics, 2010. ISBN 978-0-14-310622-7

Roberts, Peter Alan. The Biographies of Rechungpa: The Evolution of a Tibetan hagiography. London: Routledge, 2007. ISBN 0-415-76995-7

Smith, E. Gene. "Golden Rosaries of the Bka' brgyud Schools." in Among Tibetan Texts: History and Literature of the Himalayan Plateau, ed. Kurtis R. Schaeffer, 39-52. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2001. ISBN 0-86171-179-3

Smith, E. Gene. "The Shangs pa Bka' brgyud Tradition." in Among Tibetan Texts: History and Literature of the Himalayan Plateau, ed. Kurtis R. Schaeffer, 53-57. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2001. ISBN 0-86171-179-3

Smith, E. Gene. "Padma dkar po and His History of Buddhism" in Among Tibetan Texts: History and Literature of the Himalayan Plateau, ed. Kurtis R. Schaeffer, 81-86. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2001. ISBN 0-86171-179-3

Thaye, Jampa A Garland of Gold. Bristol: Ganesha Press, 1990. ISBN 0-9509119-3-3

Thinley, Karma. The History of the Sixteen Karmapas of Tibet (1980) ISBN 1-57062-644-8

Brunnholzl, Karl. Luminous Heart: The Third Karmapa on Consciousness, Wisdom, and Buddha Nature (http://www.snowlionpub.com/html/product_9767.html) Snow Lion Publications, 2009.

Rinpoche, Drikung Kyabgon Chetsang. The Practice of Mahamudra (http://www.snowlionpub.com/html/product_9765.html) Snow Lion Publications 2009.

Rinpoche, Khenpo Konchog Gyaltsen. The Great Kagyu Masters: The Golden Lineage Treasury (http://www.snowlionpub.com/html/product_8284.html) Snow Lion Publications 2006. External links

Martin, Dan The Kagyu Tradition of Tibetan Buddhism (http://www.treasuryoflives.org /foundations/view/6/207590) at Treasury of Lives Kagyu Lineage Chart (http://www.himalayanart.org/pages/kagyu/index.html)

Barom Kagyu

Barom Kagyu Chodrak Pende Ling (http://www.baromkagyu.org/)

Drikung Kagyu sites

The Drikung Kagyu Official Site (http://www.drikung-kagyu.org)

Drukpa Kagyu

Site of His Holiness Gyalwang Drukpa (http://www.drukpa.org) Drukpa Kagyu Lineage - Dorzong Rinpoche (http://www.dorzongrinpoche.org/drkp_lin.htm)

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Drukpa Mila Center (http://www.drukpamilacenter.com/) ~ a Bhutanese Drukpa Kagyu Center

Karma (Kamtsang) Kagyu

Sites associated with Trinlay Thaye Dorje

Karmapa the Black Hat Lama of Tibet - official homepage (http://www.karmapa.org/) Karma Kagyu Tradition - official website (http://www.karma-kagyu.org/)

Sites associated with Urgyen Trinley Dorje

Kagyu Office (http://www.kagyuoffice.org/) Karma Triyana Dharmachakra Monastery, Woodstock, NY, USA (http://www.kagyu.org/) Kagyu Thubten Choling Monastery, Wappingers Falls, NY, USA (http://www.kagyu.com/) Kagyu Dzamling Kunchab, , NY, USA (http://www.kdk-nyc.org/)

Karma Kagyu sites

(Note: Karma Kagyu related sites that apparently do not take sides on the so-called "Karmapa controversy").

Khenkong Tharjay Buddhist Charitable Society (http://www.khyenkong-tharjay.org/) (http://www.karmathinleyrinpoche.com/) Karma Kagyü Calendar (https://www.facebook.com/karmakagyucalendar)

Taklung Kagyu

Riwoche Tibetan Buddhist Temple (http://www.riwoche.com/)

Shangpa Kagyu

Samdrup Dhargay Chuling Monastery (http://www.paldenshangpa.org/) Shangpa Kagyu Network (http://www.shangpa.net) Kagyu Dzamling Kunchab (Founded by Kyabje Kalu Rinpoche), New York, NY, USA (http://www.kdk-nyc.org/)

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Sakya From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This articles concerns the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism. For information on the ancient Śākya tribe, see Shakya.

The Sakya (Tibetan: ས་་, Wylie: sa skya, "pale earth") school is one of four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism, the others being the Nyingma, Kagyu, and Gelug. It is one of the Red Hat sects along with the Nyingma and Kagyu.


1 Origins 2 Teachings 3 Subschools 4 Feudal lordship over Tibet 5 Sakya today 6 The Rimé movement 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links


The name Sakya ("pale earth") derives from the unique grey landscape of Ponpori Hills in southern Tibet near Shigatse, where Sakya Monastery, the first monastery of this tradition, and the seat of the Sakya School was built by Khon Konchog Gyalpo (1034–1102) in 1073.

The Sakya tradition developed during the second period of translation of Buddhist scripture from Sanskrit into Tibetan in the late 11th century. It was founded by Drogmi, a famous scholar and translator who had studied at the University directly under Naropa, Ratnākaraśānti, Vagishvakirti and other great panditas from India for twelve years.[1]

Konchog Gyalpo became Drogmi's disciple on the advice of his elder brother.[2][3]

The tradition was established by the "Five Venerable Supreme Masters" starting with the grandson of Khonchog Gyalpo, Kunga Nyingpo, who became known as Sachen, or "Great Sakyapa":[4][5]

Sachen Kunga Nyingpo (1092–1158) Sonam Tsemo (1142–1182) Drakpa Gyaltsen (1147–1216) Sakya Pandita (1182–1251) Chogyal Pakpa (1235–1280)

Buton Rinchen Drub (1290–1364) was an important scholar and writer and one of Tibet's most celebrated historians. Other notable scholars of the Sakya tradition are the so called "Six Ornaments of Tibet:"

Yaktuk Sangyey Pal

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Rongton Sheja Kunrig (1367–1449) [6] Ngorchen Kunga Zangpo [7] Zongpa Kunga Namgyel Sonam Senge (1429–1489) Shakya Chogden (1428–1507)

The leadership of the Sakya School is passed down through a hereditary system between the male members of the Sakya branch of the Khon family. Teachings

Sachen, the first of the five supreme masters, inherited a wealth of tantric doctrines from numerous Tibetan translators or "" who had visited India: most importantly Drokmi Lotsawa [3], Bari Lotsawa and Mal Lotsawa.[8] From Drokmi comes the supreme teaching of Sakya, the system of Lamdré (lam 'bras) or "Path and its Fruit", deriving from the mahasiddha Virupa, based upon the Hevajra Tantra. Mal Lotsawa introduced to Sakya the esoteric Vajrayogini lineage known as "Naro Khachoma." From Bari Lotsawa came innumerable tantric practices, foremost of which was the cycle of practices known as the One Hundred Sadhanas. Other key transmissions that form part of the Sakya spiritual curriculum include the cycles of Vajrakilaya, and Guhyasamaja.

The fourth Sakya patriarch, Sakya Pandita, was notable for his exceptional scholarship and composed many important and Sakya Pandita influential texts on sutra and tantra, including, Means of Valid Cognition: A Treasury of Reasoning (tshad ma rigs gter), Clarifying the Sage's Intent (thub pa dgongs gsal) and Discriminating the Three Vows (sdom gsum rab dbye).

The main Dharma system of the Sakya school is the Path with Its Result (lam dang 'bras bu bcas), which is split into two main lineages, Explanation for the Assembly (tshogs bshad) and the Explanation for Close Disciples (slobs bshad).

The other major of the Sakya school is the Naropa Khechari Explanation For Disciples (Naro mkha spyod slob bshad). Subschools

In due course, two subsects emerged from the main Sakya lineage,

Ngor, founded in Tsang by Ngorchen Kunga Zangpo (1382–1457).[7] The school is centered around Ngor Evam Choden monastery. It represents 85% of the Sakyapa school[citation needed] and most if not all the monasteries in India are Ngorpa, apart from Sakya Trizin's monastery. Tshar, founded by Tsarchen Losal Gyamtso (1496 - 1560 or 1502–1556).[9]

There were three "mother" monasteries of the Sakya school: Sakya Monastery, founded in 1073, Ngor Evam Choden, founded in 1429, and Phanyul Nalendra in Phanyul, north of Lhasa, founded in 1435 by Kuntchen Rongten. Nalendra became the home of the 'whispered-lineage' of the Tsar

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school.[10] Feudal lordship over Tibet

Further information: Tibet under Yuan administrative rule and Tibet during the Ming Dynasty

The Mongols invaded Tibet after the foundation of their empire in the early 13th century. In 1264 the feudal reign over Tibet was given to Phagpa by the Mongolian emperor Kublai Khan. Sakya lamas continued to serve as viceroys of Tibet on behalf of Yuan emperors for nearly 75 years after Phagpa’s death (1280), until the Yuan Dynasty was greatly weakened by the Red Turban Rebellion in the 1350s, a decade before the Ming Dynasty founded by native Chinese overthrew Mongol rule in China. The leaders of the Sakya regime were as follows.[11]

Phagpa 1253-1280 Dharmapala Raksita 1280-1282, d. 1287 Jamyang Rinchen Gyaltsen 1286-1303 Zangpo Pal 1306-1323 Khatsun Namka Lekpa Gyaltsen 1325-1341 Jamyang Donyo Gyaltsen 1341-1344 Lama Dampa Sonam Lotro Gyaltsen 1344-1347 Lotro Gyaltsen 1347-1365 Sakya today

The head of the Sakya school, known as Sakya Trizin ("holder of the Sakya throne"), is always drawn from the male line of the Khön family. The present Sakya Trizin, Ngawang Kunga Tegchen Palbar Trinley Samphel Wanggi Gyalpo, born in Tsedong in 1945, is the forty-first to hold that office. 41st Sakya Trizin is the reincarnation of two great Tibetan masters: a Nyingmapa lama known as Apong Terton (Orgyen Thrinley Lingpa), who is famous for his Red Tara cycle, and his grandfather, the 39th Kyabgon Sakya Trizin Dhagtshul Thrinley Rinchen (1871–1936).[12] Today, he resides in Rajpur, India along with his wife, Gyalyum Kushok Tashi Lhakyi, and two sons and Gyana Vajra Rinpoche. Ratna Vajra Rinpoche being the older son, is the lineage holder and is married to Dagmo Kalden Dunkyi Sakya and Gyana Vajra Rinpoche is married to Dagmo Sonam Palkyi Sakya.

Traditionally hereditary succession alternates between the two Sakya palaces since Khon Könchok Gyelpo's (1034–1102) reign. The Ducho sub-dynasty of Sakya survives split into two palaces, the Dolma Phodrang and Phuntsok Phodrang. Sakya Trizin is head of the Dolma Phodrang. H.H. (b. 1929) is the head of the Phuntsok Phodrang, and lives in Seattle, Washington, where he co-founded Sakya Monastery of Tibetan Buddhism with III, and constructed the first Tibetan Buddhist Monastery in the . Dagchen Sakya's father was the previous Sakya Trizin, Trichen Ngawang Thutop Wangchuk, throne holder of Sakya, and his mother Dechen Drolma. Dagchen Sakya is married to Her Eminence Dagmo Jamyang Kusho Sakya; they have five sons, and several grandchildren.

Members of Sakya Colleges are called Zhoima Pochang (Tibetan: ལ་མ་་ང༌།, ZYPY: Zhöma Pochang). The Rimé movement

During the 19th century the great Sakya master and terton Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, the famous Kagyu master Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Thaye and the important Nyingma terton Orgyen

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Chokgyur Lingpa founded the Rime movement, an alleged ecumenical attempt to incorporate all teachings of all schools, to overcome the separation of Buddhist transmission in different traditions.

This movement still influences modern Tibetan Buddhist practice through the "five great treasures" of Jamgon Kongtrul and the treasure of rediscovered teachings (Rinchen Terdzöd). See also

Tibet under Yuan administrative rule Sakya Monastery Lamdré Tibetan Buddhism Jonang Notes

1. ^ Luminous Lives, Stearns, Wisdom 2001 2. ^ , Ch. 25, Treasures of the Sakya Lineage, Tseten, Shambhala, 2008 3. ^ a b Warner, Cameron David Warner (December 2009). "Drokmi Śākya Yeshe" (http://www.treasuryoflives.org/biographies/view/Drokmi-sakya-Yeshe/5615). The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 4. ^ Powers, John. Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism. Snow Lion Publications. 1995. p. 382. 5. ^ Townsend, Dominique (December 2009). "Sachen Kunga Nyingpo" (http://www.treasuryoflives.org /biographies/view/Sachen-Kunga-Nyingpo/2916). The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 6. ^ Townsend, Dominique (February 2010). "Rongton Sheja Kunrik" (http://www.treasuryoflives.org /biographies/view/Rongton-Sheja-Kunrig/6735). The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 7. ^ a b Townsend, Dominique; Jörg Heimbel (April 2010). "Ngorchen Kunga Zangpo" (http://www.treasuryoflives.org/biographies/view/Ngorchen-Kunga-Zangpo/2387). The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 8. ^ Gardner, Alexander (June 2010). "Mel Lotsāwa Lodro Drakpa" (http://www.treasuryoflives.org /biographies/view/Mal-Lotsawa-Lodro-Drakpa/5401). The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 9. ^ Gardner, Alexander (April 2010). "Nesar Jamyang Khyentse Wangchuk" (http://www.treasuryoflives.org/biographies/view/Nesar-Jamyang-Khyentse-Wangchuk/2338). The Treasury of Lives: Biographies of Himalayan Religious Masters. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 10. ^ The Circle of Bliss: Buddhist Meditational Art by John C. Huntington and Dina Bangdel. Serindia Publications. pg 42 11. ^ Central Asia - East (http://my.raex.com/~obsidian/Centasia2.html#Tibet) 12. ^ Hungarian website of Sakya Trizin (http://www.szakja.hu/english/teachers.html) References

Davidson, Ronald (1992). "Preliminary Studies on Hevajra's Abhisamaya and the Lam 'bras Tshogs bshad." In Davidson, Ronald M. & Goodman, Steven D. Tibetan Buddhism: reason and revelation. State University of New York Press: Albany, N.Y. ISBN 0-7914-0786-1 pp. 107–132. Powers, John (1995). Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism. Ithaca, N.Y. USA: Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-026-3. Trichen, Chogyay. History of the Sakya Tradition, Ganesha Press, 1993 External links

His Holiness the Sakya Trizin, Official Website. (http://www.hhthesakyatrizin.org/) The French Ngorpa temple. (http://sakya-ngor.org/)

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Palden Sakya - Website of Sakya Trizin's Monastery in Rajpur, India (http://www.paldensakya.org.in/) Tsechen Kunchab Ling - Sakya Trizin's seat in the United States (http://www.sakyatemple.org/) Sakya Tsechen Thubten Ling - Canada (http://www.sakyatsechenthubtenling.org/) Sakya Foundation - Canada (http://www.sakyafoundation.ca/) Sakya Dechenling - Canada (http://www.sakyadechenling.org/) Sakya Kachöd Chöling - Canada (http://www.sakya-retreat.net/) Sakya Lamas (http://www.sakya.org/aboutus/lamas.html) International Buddhist Academy (IBA) in Kathmandu, Nepal (http://internationalbuddhistacademy.org) Sakya Foundation - USA (http://www.sakyafoundation.org/) Sakya Monastery in Seattle, Washington (http://www.sakya.org/) Chödung Karmo, Sakya Translation Group (http://www.chodungkarmo.org/)

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第 5 頁,共 5 頁 14/1/10 下午 1:24 Gelug - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gelug

Gelug From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Gelug or Gelug-pa (or dGe Lugs Pa, dge-lugs-pa, or Dgelugspa; : Gelug Sharyn shashin, Yellow religion), also known as the Tibetan name Yellow Hat sect, is a school of Buddhism founded Tibetan by Je Tsongkhapa (1357–1419), a and ད་གས་པ Tibetan religious leader. The first monastery he Transcriptions established was at Ganden, and to this day the Wylie dge lugs pa Ganden Tripa is the nominal head of the school, though its most influential figure is the Dalai Lama. Tibetan Pinyin Gêlug Allying themselves with the Mongols as a powerful Lhasa IPA [ɡèluʔ] patron, the Gelug emerged as the pre-eminent Chinese name Buddhist school in Tibet since the end of the 16th century. Simplified Chinese 格鲁派、黄教、 新嘎档派 Traditional Chinese 格魯派、黃教、 Contents 新嘎檔派 Transcriptions 1 Origins and development 1.1 Tsongkhapa Mandarin 1.2 Establishment of the Dalai Lamas 1.3 Emergence as dominant school Hanyu Pinyin Gélǔpài, huángjiào 2 Teachings 2.1 Lamrim and Sunyata 2.2 Vajrayāna Practice 2.3 Vinaya 3 Texts 4 Monasteries and Lineage Holders 4.1 Monasteries 4.2 Lineage holders 5 Criticism 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 External links

Origins and development


The Gelug school was founded by Je Tsongkhapa. A great admirer of the Kadampa (Bka'- gdams-pa) teachings, Tsongkhapa was a promoter of the Kadam School's emphasis on the Mahayana principle of as the fundamental spiritual orientation. He combined this with a novel interpretation of Madhyamaka containing uncommon features not found elsewhere.[1][2]

Tsongkhapa said that these two aspects of the spiritual path, compassion and insight into wisdom, must be rooted in a wholehearted wish for liberation impelled by a genuine sense of renunciation. He called these the "Three Principal Aspects of the Path", and asserted that it is on the basis of

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these three that one must embark on the profound path of vajrayāna Buddhism.

Establishment of the Dalai Lamas

In 1577 Sonam Gyatso, who was considered to be the third incarnation of Gyalwa Gendün Drup,[3] formed an alliance with the then most powerful Mongol leader, .[3] As a result, Sonam Gyatso was designated as "Dalai" (a translation into Mongolian of the name Gyatso, meaning ocean),[3] and Gyalwa Gendün Drup and Gendun Gyatso were posthumously recognized as the 1st and 2nd Dalai Lamas.[4]

Sonam Gyatso was very active in proselytizing among the Mongols,[4] and the Gelug tradition was to become the main spiritual orientations of the Mongols in the ensuing centuries.[4] This brought the Gelugpas powerful patrons who were to propel them to pre-eminence in Tibet.[4] The Gelug-Mongol alliance was further strengthened as after Sonam Gyatso's death, his Statue of Je Tsongkhapa, founder of incarnation was found to be Altan Khan's great- the Gelugpa school, on the in His [4] grandson. Temple (His birth place) in , near , Qinghai Emergence as dominant school (Amdo), China. Photo by writer , July 7, 2006 By the end of the 16th century, following violent strife among the sects of Tibetan Buddhism, the Gelug school emerged as the dominant one. According to Tibetan historian Samten Karmay, Sonam Chophel[5] (1595-1657), treasurer of the Ganden Palace, was the prime architect of the Gelug's rise to political power. Later he received the title Desi [Wylie: sde-sris], meaning "Regent", which he would earn through his efforts to establish Gelugpa power.[6]

From the period of Lozang Gyatso, 5th Dalai Lama in the 17th century, the Dalai Lamas held political control over central Tibet.

Scottish Botanist George Forrest, who witnessed the 1905 Tibetan Rebellion led by the Gelug Lamas, wrote that the majority of the people in the valley in were Tibetan. According to his accounts, the Gelugpas were the dominant power in the region, with their Lamas effectively governing the area. Forrest said they used "force and fraud" to "terrorise the... peasantry".[7] Teachings

Lamrim and Sunyata

The central teachings of the Gelug School are the Stages of the Path (lamrim), based on the teachings of the Indian master Atiśa (c. 11th century), and the systematic cultivation of the view of emptiness.

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Vajrayāna Practice

This is combined with the yogas of highest yoga tantra deities such as Guhyasamāja, Cakrasaṃvara, Yamāntaka and Kālacakra, where the key focus is the direct experience of the indivisible union of bliss and emptiness.

Guhyasamāja is the principal one. As the Dalai Lama remarks,

There is a saying in the Gelug, 'If one is on the move it is Guhyasamāja. If one is still, it is Guhyasamāja. If one is meditating, it should be upon Guhyasamāja.' Therefore, whether one is engaged in study or practice, Guhyasamāja should be one's focus."[8]


The Gelug school focuses on ethics and monastic discipline of the vinaya as the central plank of spiritual practice. In particular, the need to pursue spiritual practice in a graded, sequential manner is emphasized. Arguably, Gelug is the only school of vajrayāna Buddhism that prescribes monastic ordination as a necessary qualification and basis in its teachers (lamas / gurus). [citation needed] Lay people are usually not permitted to give initiations if there are teachers with monastic vows within close proximity. Texts

Six commentaries by Tsongkhapa are the prime source for the studies of the Gelug tradition, as follows:

The Great Exposition of the Stages of the Path (Lam-rim chen-mo) The Great Exposition of Tantras (sNgag-rim chenmo) The Essence of Eloquence on the Interpretive and Definitive Teachings (Drnng-nges legs-bshad snying-po) The Praise of Relativity (rTen-'brel bstodpa) The Clear Exposition of the Five Stages of Guhyasamāja (gSang-'dus rim-lnga gsal-sgron) and The Golden Rosary (gSer-phreng)

Each Gelug monastery uses its own set of commentarial texts by different authors, known as monastic manuals (Tib. yigcha). The teachings of Tsongkhapa are seen as a protection against developing misconceptions in understanding and practice of mahāyāna and vajrayāna Buddhism. It is said that his true followers take The Great Exposition of the Stages of the Path as their heart teaching. Monasteries and Lineage Holders


Tsongkhapa founded the monastery of Ganden in 1409 as his main seat.

Drepung Monastery was founded by Jamyang Choje, Sera Monastery was founded by Chöje Shakya Yeshe and the Gyalwa Gendün Drup founded .

Labrang Monastery, in Xiahe County in province (and in the traditional Tibetan province of Amdo), was founded in 1709 by the first Jamyang Zhaypa, Ngawang Tsondru. Many Gelug monasteries were built throughout Tibet as well as in China and Mongolia.

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Lineage holders

Tsongkhapa had many students, his two main disciples being (1364–1431) and Khedrub Je (1385–1438). Other outstanding disciples were Togden Jampal Gyatso, Jamyang Choje, Jamchenpa Sherap Senge and Gyalwa Gendün Drup, the 'first' Dalai Lama (1391–1474).

After Tsongkhapa's passing, his teachings were held and spread by Gyaltsab Je and Khedrub Je who were his successors as abbots of . The lineage is still held by the Ganden Tripas – the throne-holders of Ganden Monastery – among whom the present holder is Thubten Nyima Lungtok Tenzin Norbu, the 102nd Ganden Tripa (and not, as often misunderstood, by the Dalai Lama).

Among the main lineage holders of the Gelug are:

The successive incarnations of the Dalai Lama (also Gelug monks in commonly referred to as 'Gyalwa Rinpoche') during the Gustor Festival The succession of the Panchen Lama, the Chagkya Dorje Chang, Ngachen Könchok Gyaltsen, Kyishö Tulku Tenzin Thrinly, Jamyang Shepa, Phurchok Jampa Rinpoche, Jamyang Dewe Dorje, Takphu Rinpoche, Khachen Yeshe Gyaltsen Successive incarnations of Kyabje Yongzin Successive incarnations of Kyabje Yongzin Trijang Rinpoche Criticism

Geshe , the translator of the , notes Tsongkhapa's Madhyamaka deviated from tradition:

"The traditional Geluk understanding of these deviations in Tsongkhapa's thought attributes the development of his distinct reading of Madhyamaka philosophy to a mystical communion he is reported to have had with the bodhisattva Manjusri... It is interesting that the tradition Tsongkhapa is claiming to honour is, in a strict sense, not the existing system in Tibet; rather, it appears to be in the tradition of Manjusri as revealed in a mystic vision!"[9]

Gorampa, a pillar of Sakya thought, insinuated Tsongkhapa conversed with a demon instead of Manjusri:

"Even as serious a scholar as Go rams pa cannot resist suggesting, for example, that Tsong kha pa's supposed conversations with Manjusri may have been a dialogue with a demon instead."[10]

Gorampa accuses Tsongkhapa of being seized by demons and spreading demonic words:

"Gorampa, in the Lta ba ngan sel (Eliminating the Erroneous View), accuses Tsongkhapa of being "seized by demons" (bdud kyis zin pa) and in the Lta ba'i shan 'byed (Distinguishing Views) decries him as a "nihilistic Madhyamika" (dbu ma chad lta ba) who is spreading "demonic words" (bdud kyi tshig)."[11]

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Karl Brunnholzl notes that Gelugpa Madhyamaka is not consistent with “any Indian text” or the other Tibetan schools:

"First, with a few exceptions, the majority of books or articles on Madhyamaka by Western - particularly North American - scholars is based on the explanations of the Gelugpa school of Tibetan Buddhism. Deliberately or not, many of these Western presentations give the impression that the Gelugpa system is more or less equivalent to Tibetan Buddhism as such and that this school's way of presenting Madhyamaka is the standard or even the only way to explain this system, which has led to the still widely prevailing assumption that this is actually the case. From the perspective of Indian and Tibetan Buddhism in general, nothing could be more wrong. In fact, the peculiar Gelugpa version of Madhaymaka is a minority position in Indo-Tibetan Buddhism, since its uncommon features are neither found in any Indian text nor accepted by any of the other Tibetan schools."[12]

"All critics of Tsongkhapa, including the Eighth Karmapa, agree that many features of his Centrism are novelties that are not found in any Indian sources and see this as a major flaw."[13]

Sam van Schaik notes that Tsongkhapa "wanted to create something new" and that the early Gandenpas defined themselves by responding to accusations from the established schools:

"Though the Sakya had their own teachings on these subjects, Tsongkhapa was coming to realize that he wanted to create something new, not necessarily a school, but at least a new formulation of the Buddhist Path."[14]

"As Khedrup and later followers of Tsongkhapa hit back at accusations like these, they defined their own philosophical tradition, and this went a long way to drawing a line in the sand between the Gandenpas and the broader Sakya tradition."[15] See also

Geshe Gyuto Order FPMT Tradition Yellow References

1. ^ Jinpa, Thupten. Self, Reality and Reason in Tibetan Philosophy. Routledge 2002, page 17-18. 2. ^ Brunnholzl, Karl. The Center of the Sunlit Sky. Snow Lion Publications. 2004, p. 17. 3. ^ a b c McKay 2003, p. 18. 4. ^ a b c d e McKay 2003, p. 19. 5. ^ also Sonam Choephel or Sonam Rabten 6. ^ Samten G. Karmay, The Great Fifth (http://www.iias.nl/nl/39/IIAS_NL39_1213.pdf:) 7. ^ Short 2004, p. 108. 8. ^ Speech to the Second Gelug Conference (http://www.dalailama.com/messages/dolgyal-shugden /speeches-by-his-holiness/gelug-conference) by the Dalai Lama (06-12-2000), retrieved 03-23-2010). 9. ^ Jinpa, Thupten. Self, Reality and Reason in Tibetan Philosophy. Routledge 2002, page 17. 10. ^ Cabezón, José. Freedom from Extremes. Wisdom Publications 2007, page 17. 11. ^ Thakchoe, Sonam. The Two Truths Debate:. Wisdom Publications 2007, page 125. 12. ^ Brunnholzl, Karl. The Center of the Sunlit Sky. Snow Lion Publications. 2004, pg. 17. 13. ^ Brunnholzl, Karl. The Center of the Sunlit Sky. Snow Lion Publications. 2004, pg. 555. 14. ^ Schaik, Sam van. Tibet: A History. Yale University Press 2011, page 103.

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15. ^ Schaik, Sam van. Tibet: A History. Yale University Press 2011, page 109. Sources

The Ri-Me Philosophy of Jamgon Kongtrul the Great: A Study of the Buddhist Lineages of Tibet by Ringu Tulku, ISBN 1-59030-286-9, Shambhala Publications Ringu Tulku: The Rimé (Ris-med) movement of Jamgon Kongtrul the Great (http://www.abuddhistlibrary.com/Buddhism/A%20-%20Tibetan%20Buddhism/Authors /Ringu%20Tulku/The%20Rime%20Movement/THE%20RIME%20(%20Ris- med%20)%20MOVEMENT.htm) Paper given on 7th Conference of International Association For Tibetan Studies in June 1995 McKay, A. (editor) (2003), , RoutledgeCurzon, ISBN 0-7007-1508-8 Short, Philip S. (2004), In pursuit of plants: experiences of nineteenth & early twentieth century plant collectors, Timber Press, ISBN 0-88192-635-3 External links

His Holiness the Dalai Lama (http://www.dalailama.com/) H.H. the Dalai Lama's Namgyal Monastery (http://namgyalmonastery.org/) Dictionary definition of Geluk (http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O101-Geluk.html)

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