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AS and A LEVEL Set Text Guide CLASSICAL H044, H444 For first teaching in 2016

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www.ocr.org.uk/alevelclassicalgreek Introduction CONTENTS Talking Points Women inClassicalAthens The Great BC century inthefifth Context 6 Talking Points 4 The LabdacidSaga 3 Sophocles General Introduction GCSE (9–1)ClassicalGreek Talking Points ofKey TermsGlossary FeaturesStylistic Themes andMotifs Antigone Antigone The Text 1-99,497-525,531-581,891-928 10 10 10 13 12 11 11 3 8 7 6 6 5 3 2 Further reading andresources andstudentActivities tasks Publishing information For students For teachers 19 14 20 19 19 ©OCR 2016 Set TextSet Guide Introduction GENERAL INTRODUCTION seven survive intact. intact. seven survive There are three handeddown stories ofhisdeath(allwhich dramatic production in468,untilatleast409,hewrote over 120plays, ofwhichonly career waseven more literary distinguishedthanhispoliticalone:from hisfirst His his own house. introduced to Athens, provided Sophocles thefirstaltarandahomefor thegod in tothe life religion; extended ofthecity itissaidthatwhen thecultofAsclepius was government ofAthens to theoligarchy oftheFour Hundred. involvement His in great ), andoneofthecommissioners( hewasoneoftheten generalsintheSamianwarof441/0(alongside know wasstateSophocles treasurer in443/2B.C, andfrom sources otherwritten we of histime, wasprominent intheaffairsofcity. records Aninscription that family. Hewaswell educated, andaswell asbeingthemostsuccessfultragedian beingAeschylustwo around Hewasborn andEuripides). 495B.C. to awealthy Attic isoneofthethree (theother Sophocles Attic have tragedianswhoseworks survived Sophocles GCSE (9–1)ClassicalGreek seen asfittingendto hiscareer –ashisgreatest perhaps. work, show thanhisdeath,theinclusionofthesestories usthatthe earlier ancient thirdly thathediedofjoy when secondly, thathediedlosinghisbreath whilereadingsociability; out festival hisdeathto ofDionysus atraditionofhisgreat -thusconnecting drinking probably untrue):firstly,are very grape onan unripe attheChoes–a thathechoked hypothesis (summary) ofthe (summary) Antigone Antigone wasawarded firstprize. Althoughthe suggests that it was performed much suggeststhatitwasperformed probouloi ) whohandedover the Antigone Antigone was ; and 3 of the Labdacids – the family of (son of Labdacus), and , theill-fatedof theLabdacids–familyLaius(sonLabdacus),andJocasta, Antigone The Saga Labdacid Athenian army. the Athenian hero , by an backed issecuredburial through the mediationof innovation: inotherversions ofthestory, his . ofitisprobably Much Sophoclean Polynices, over ofthebody theburial and Antigone, thesister ofEteocles and The where theplotof name meaninginGreek andthisis ‘ruler’), brother, over takes asrulerof Thebes (his eachother. brotherstwo kill , Jocasta’s against Seven Thebes) are defeated, butthe Polynices andhissixArgive champions(the an Argive army against hisbrother in Thebes. succession, andeventually Polynices leads sons, andPolynices, argue over the blinds himself.herself andOedipus ’ When thetruthisdiscovered, kills Jocasta hismother,father Laius, andmarries Jocasta. hisown kills unknowingly his parents atbirth, narrative is as follows: Oedipus, separated from The generaloutlineoftheoverarching ofthenarrative. parts andre-imagine characters free well-known to take Potterwhich hassprunguparound or ofHarry theworld Twilight, where authorsare ofnarrative; inmany countless variations ways fan-fiction similarto themodern epics, setofrelationships thetraditioncombinedawell-known andcharacters, with oftheHomeric thestory-cycle the mostpopularthemesfor Like andart. parents ofOedipus. The myths were to aGreek well-known audience, andare oneof Antigone was probably performed in442or441. wasprobably performed fromThe plotistaken thesaga is the struggle between Creon isthestrugglebetween Antigone begins. Universal History Archive \UIG Universal History Sophocles

©OCR 2016 Set TextSet Guide Introduction and choruswore masks. of wasamixture Dialogueamongtheactors played Antigone, Haemon, , (inthiscase, meaningthatallfour andEurydice opponentsofCreon would have withtheonevoice). Alltheactors beenheard speaking There wasamaximumofthree would (again,allmale),althougheachactor have for played moreinstance, inthe thanonepart: andchoral odes sungby obliquelyby theall-malechorus, bringing speaking, inothermythsactors commentingontheaction often andnarratives. all usedasimilarformat. The wholeplay wasinverse, inacombinationofdifferent metres dependingonthescene, andthegeneralstructure alternates sceneswith between The plays generallytook traditionalGreek Aechylus’ myth survives, astheirtheme(althoughoneplay basedonrecent history heincreased fromfeatures thenumberofactors to two three, oftragedy: and (possibly)enlarged thechorusfrom twelve to fifteen. probably wrote atleastthematicallylinked. Sophocles conventions hisplays andconstraints, withinanunderstood setofliterary but alsochangedsomeofthedistinctive ’ All theGreek tragedieswe have were for written theGreat Dionysia, anAthenian religious festival. They were intrilogies survives, written (althoughonlyonecomplete Tragedy GCSE (9–1)ClassicalGreek line-by-line conversation, aswellline-by-line asirregular, orthree two dialoguebetween lessstylized speakers. Marie-Lan Nguyen Marie-Lan theatermaskrepresentingAncient ayouth. ), with a fourth play, a kind of burlesque called a play, play, calledaSatyr ), withafourth ofburlesque attached. akind tellThe trilogiesthree did notnecessarily stories, connected were thoughthey

rhesis , extended monologues,, extended oran 4 agon (contest orargument) speakers,and two between Persae , andthere were undoubtedly more), and Antigone , the same probably, thesameactor stichomythia ©OCR 2016 Set TextSet Guide , Introduction Talking Points GCSE (9–1)ClassicalGreek ancient ?ancient are themajordifferencesWhat and modern between Talking Point as thesettingsforitsstories? chosethemythic pastofaforeign city worldcontemporary ofitsaudience: why doyou think drama popular issetinthe Most modern, critique. usedasavehicle whichisoften for genre sciencefiction, withamodern draw socialorpolitical like acomparison or socialtruthsmore palatableormore visibleby framingthematadistance. A goodprompt for discussionisto political simpleescapismorexoticism; making mightincludesuggestions like fearResponses ofpoliticalbacklash; to develop. studentsshouldstart sixth-form withthereal ageneralunderstanding ofwhyfacts, however: interacts issomethingthat andhow world fiction thequestion more exploring generallybefore isworth Athens. pinningitto historical It century politics offifth This questionforms anappropriate and introduction to onthesociety covered thematerial section inthenext andplotsthatarecharacters differently familiarinoutline, butapproached very by different anddirectors. Students mightalsobeableto comeupwithsomeinteresting parallels–recent superhero films, for instance, use mightinclude: Responses the specificconstraintsofAthenian , for understandingofthetragedy. are afullcontextual important for aswell ourunderstandingofthetext, as ofperformance studentstoGetting appreciate boththeimportance Explanation and Teacher Notes • • • • audience familiarity withplot audience familiarity level ofrealism gender ofactors number ofactors 5 ©OCR 2016 Set TextSet Guide Context CONTEXT rhetoric, and the dangers of the art ofpersuasionwhenwieldedunjustly.rhetoric, andthedangersofart reflected intragedy, of values iscertainly aristocratic aswere importance therising than noblemenloyal to theirfamilies. and The tension democraticvirtues between influence, hadto even they present themselves ascitizens loyal to thecity, rather stillmanagedto wieldgreat privilege. Althoughatraditionalaristocracy hereditary of power were heldonlyfor ayear, orlot,ratherthanby onthebasisofelection andpositions washeldby thepopularassemblyandlaw courts, dynamism: authority ofthis The democraticsystem, firstintroduced in508,wasaninfluentialpart beyond. life intheGreek-speaking andeven world andliterary the hubfor intellectual, artistic over thePersians. the440s, By whenthe withinGreece effectively after leadingtheGreekstates to city victory pre-eminence civilisation. gainedmoralandpolitical,The city andlater, financial hastraditionallybeenviewed asthehighpointof century Athens ofthefifth Athens BC century inthefifth GCSE (9–1)ClassicalGreek The Granger Collection / Universal Images Group /UniversalThe GrangerCollection Images MARKET INATHENS wood engraving, -asit appeared inclassical antiquity: 19thcentury. Antigone was written, the city hadbecome thecity waswritten,

6 as atragedyandcomedy),butalsoinfluencedinspired ’ development (such Athens developed notonlyitsown forms andperformance distinctive ofwriting The Great Dionysia of , ofhisstudentsPlato andthewritings andXenophon. climate wasthisintellectual whichledto thephilosophicalenquiries political success. It whenthepower to to persuadealargerhetoric, important audiencewasthekey thesophists, whosestock-in-trade breeda new ofteacher andthinker: wasteaching of historiography andethnography. playedThe city hostnotjustto writers, butalso competition, theten provide aninescapablebackdrop to theplays themselves. At thebeginning ofthe The Great Dionysia’s civicprocessions, actions, andpoliticalceremonials priestly times, andhisplays were never given third place. demonstrated thathewon by theclaimofancientauthorities firstprize twenty-four judges waschosenby lotto adjudicate thecompetition,andSophocles’ is popularity stood to gainagreat dealofprestige from asuccessful production. Apanelof liturgies by awealthy citizen (the play) fora Satyr thecompetitive spectacle. The costfor eachsetofplays wasborn and transgression. Eachyear, three were chosento three write plays (plus ofcelebrationslastingseveral daysseries inhonourofDionysus, godofwine, theatre, All Sophocles’ tragedieswere attheGreat for written Dionysia, a andfirstperformed visitors from across theGreek world. of democraticAthens, infront ofbothitscitizens assembledasthe were namedandhonoured. wasacelebrationofthepower andcivicidentity It for Athens to were Athens paraded, andthosewhohaddoneconspicuous service its allieswaslaidoutinthetheatre, thesonsofthosewhohadlosttheirlives fighting in front oftheassembledcitizen bodyinthetheatre. The paidto tribute Athens by as a kind oftaxationonthewealthy, asakind the turn, In strategoi choregos poured libationsto the gods, openingtheceremony ), who was obliged by the city to undertake such to), whowasobligedby undertake thecity choregos and the andtheplaywright aswell as ©OCR 2016 Set TextSet Guide Context influential, are created by menfor predominantly maleaudiences. ofwomenAthenian men.Add as complicationthateven depictions to this theextra the control oftheirfathersorhusbands, andwere absentfrom themainsociallife of werethat they excluded from officialpoliticalroles, were legallycompletely under and, , ofcourse,, Antigone. Ontheotherhand, we know of themostmemorablefigures oftheGreek stageare female: suchasLysistrata, literature asstrong-willed socialandpoliticalforces. andpowerful Some a sound-bite would suggest,however. Ontheonehand, figure they prominently in Understanding therole ofwomen inclassicalAthens is more challenging thansuch aboutby are men, whetherthey talked praisingyou you.’ orcriticising be inferior to whatgodmadeyou, ofawoman andthegreatest isto beleast glory women to thoseamongyou whoare now widowed… Your isnotto great glory 2.46): oration ( ‘Perhaps Ishouldsay aword onthedutiesof ortwo The statusofwomen summed upinwords isoften from Pericles’ famousfuneral Women Athens inClassical GCSE (9–1)ClassicalGreek between the sexesbetween astopics ofdebate, andgreat conflict, importance. saw gender, domesticandcivicobligations, thebalancebetween andtherelations least,theprominence ofwomen intragedy showsAt thevery thatancientAthenians andmusic.engage indebate withmen,andwaswell-versed inpoetry freedoms, , thoughlessprotection: Pericles’ someonelike mistress, could women’s oftheirown home. For quarters there were hetairai(courtesans) more intheirteens,married generallyto oldermen,andpossiblyeven to restricted the to produce Athenian new citizens, andto thisend, theirlives were tightlycontrolled: Women’s lives differed greatly, too. The mainrole ofwell-born Athenian women was 7 The Granger Collection / Universal Images Group /UniversalThe GrangerCollection Images 19thcentury,Italian, afteranancientbust. Greek ofPericles. adventuress andconsort Lithograph, ASPASIA (c470-410 B.C.). ofMiletus. asAspasia -Known

©OCR 2016 Set TextSet Guide Context Talking Points GCSE (9–1)ClassicalGreek reading ofGreek tragedy? religious context oftheGreat Dionysia influence our How mightourknowledge ofthepolitical and Talking Point how we interpret Greek drama? Great Dionysia. How would itmake adifference to whether women were present intheaudience atthe There isagreat asto dealofdebate scholars among read by theteacher to inform discussion, orgiven to studentsto consider. ontheissuehasbeenFromaOne ofthemostinfluential articles Zeitlin’s ‘Playing theother’, whichcouldeitherbe viewpoints? distancing uncomfortable female something anaudienceidentifieswith,orare characters merelytheplaceandtime)away they of (like hadargued about thehouseholdbudget,doingwashingup,whom they thatmorning etc.? Are thestrong Athenians were to theirwives, sittingnext century if we mothers, thoughthosefifth sisters anddaughters, with class discussion;ifwe imagine thisheard by mensittingtogether asthe(male) ’s claimthatwomen by pointfor nature shouldnote fightagainstmen(61-2)mightform agoodstarting ones whichseetheirlives asimmenselyconstricted. from positive assessments ofwomen’s fairly autonomy andpower drawn (usingevidence largely from tragedy)to Athenian, world, wildly, has fluctuated understandingoftherole and particularly ofwomenModern intheGreek, stretching exercise. it to themore mean? Introducing advancedto Barthes’ Roland oftheAuthor’ Death ‘The willbeachallenging boundeitherby whattheoriginal author of thetext ‘intended’ orwhattheoriginal audiencemay have taken isthemeaning to whatextent For more theory: advancedstudents, thiscouldleadto somediscussionofliterary would have beengiven quite different insuchacontext. overtones place. takes inwhichtheperformance butalsothecontext way itwas performed, this guide).Students’ interpretation ofthemeaningplay itselfandthe shouldbeguidednotonlyby thetext Nothing todowithDionysus There usefulbackground reading isawealth to ofmaterial is bediscussedhere: particularly andZeitlin’sWinkler Explanation and Teacher Notes Antigone dimensioncouldbe addedto thediscussionby introducingAn extra studentsto Anouilh’s Jean version of the politicalprocess ofAthens. authority, obedience, andconscienceare influencedby itsstaging infront ofthepolis, surrounded by reminders of , stagedinFrance Nazioccupationin1944:clearly, during thediscussionofobedienceandresistance 8 , includingSimonGoldhill’s, Great Dionysia andCivicIdeology’‘The (seedetaillater in polis Antigone’s , dowe hearitdifferently than discussionsofpolitical ©OCR 2016 Set TextSet Guide Context GCSE (9–1)ClassicalGreek our political system? literature concerns ordrama modern reflect about examples modern What of fortheAntigone). (and century issueforAthenians ofthefifth important The power oflanguage persuasive and isan speech Talking Point the debates over languageandpower in , ofthe withtherise andeven theaftermath, Tyranny ofthe of Thirty, allreflect theimportance statesmen (suchasPericles ofcharismatic orAlcibiades),the versusThe theimportance role ofdemocracy bereflecting? debates mightthetext backtoThe ancient Athens: discussioncanalsobeturned whatparticular ofThronesGame Yes, Minister Ianucci’s satires drasticallywiththeirtastes, fromanswers theobviously ofstudentswillvary political Students here are encouragedto therangeof thinkabouthow thepoliticaldimensionsofdramafunction: Explanation and Teacher Notes ), to interesting discussionsofhow thesuperhero andinterprets genre politics, depicts orwhether The Thick ofIt canbeviewed aspoliticalcommentary. 9 and In theLoop Antigone (andfor thosewithmore retro tastes, possibly . House ofCards The West Wing or Armando orArmando ©OCR 2016 Set TextSet Guide oreven The text respectively. The role ofthegods way, asfoils to Creon andAntigone introduced andsignificant inanew of HaemonandIsmeneare both Creon andAntigone. The characters family disputean internal between into isturned oftheSeven corpses (or Argos) and Thebes over the original dispute Athens between introduced emphases. new An significantly and altered thestory narrative; Sophocles, however, the basic already knowing come to Sophocles’ The original audiencewould have Antigone GCSE (9–1)ClassicalGreek that his wife, , has also killed herself ingrief attheloss ofherson. that his wife, hasalso killed Eurydice, commit suicide over herbody. As Creon leaves thescene, heistold by amessenger tomb justintimeto seehisson,Haemon, whohadbeenbetrothed to Antigone, herself inthetomb,but itistoo late: Antigone haskilled andCreon atthe arrives all around.the naturalworld Creon, by theprophet warned Tiresias, atlastrepents, Meanwhile, ofleaving Polynices’ theimpiety in causesdisturbances bodyunburied into atomb, alive. obedience to thelaws of thecity. Antigoneiscaptured andsentenced to bewalled thatherreligious to herbrother, duty asserts than traitor ornot,ismore important forpenalty anyone hisbody. whodares to bury Antigonerefuses to comply, and by Creon (now Thebes’ ruler),andCreon proclaiming publishesanedict thedeath withfullhonours,is buried butPolynices rites, isdeniedburial brandedatraitor died battlingfor Thebes. Eteocles Eteoclesafter andPolynices have theday oftheplay starts The action innovation.a Sophoclean his familialdutiesseemsalsoto be disapproval ofCreon for failingin and theintroduction ofdivine THE TEXT Antigone

Christian Michelides /Burgtheater /CC Michelides Christian BY-SA 4.0 Aenne Antigone, Burgtheater Schwarz, Wien,2015 10

Antigone begins her climactic final Antigone begins herclimactic c) 891-928:From epeisodion scene/ fourth thefifth that bothsisters shalldie. of thegods. to loyalty thecity,members outweighs andendsindignantly questioningthejustice towards whetherpiety family speech weighs upthefierce oftheplay: contradictions she isto bewalled up, heraddress butthenturns directlyto herdeadfamily. Her a) 1-99: Antigone Ismene’s protestations thatAntigoneishisson’s fiancee, hiscommand confirms tells Ismeneto save herself. himselfinthedialogue, Creon anddespite reasserts and Ismemeadmitsto thecharge. Antigone, however, angrily rejectsthisand and Creon avoid directly interacting. Instead, Creon andIsmenefirstconverse, Polynices.helped bury The dialogue, sceneisathree-way butpointedly, Antigone ofIsmenefrom thepalacetothe arrival answer Creon’s accusationthatshe whichtheleaderofchorusannounces during We choralinterlude missashort hardened. stichomythia 1090). Antigoneisunrepentant andaggressive inheropeningspeech,andthe beingCreonother two andHaemonat631-765,Creon and Tiresias att988- one ofthree confrontations climactic around whichtheplay isstructured(the andhave brought ofcovering herbefore thebody withearth, act Creon. This is placedtoSoldiers guard thebodyofPolynices have caughtAntigoneinthe b) 497-525,531-581:From thethird scene/ second convince Ismeneto assisther. himregardless, toAntigone isdetermined (unsuccessfully)to bury andtries pronouncement Polynices thatanyone whodares willbeputto bury death. Antigone meetsIsmenebefore dawn, andtells hersister ofCreon’s Prologos at 508-25 is a furious exchange, at508-25isafurious inwhichresolve onbothsidesis 1-99,497-525,531-581,891-928 rhesis by addressing firstthetomb inwhich epeisodion ©OCR 2016 Set TextSet Guide The text Structure ofatragedy GCSE (9–1)ClassicalGreek are based, by eachpunctuated choralsinging. Epeisodon sometimes omitted) inaslightlydifferent metre, delivered standingstill. direction (inthesamemetre asthe one direction;thenthe usually structuredasfollows: first,the didboth.Choral odeswere likely how thechorussanganddanced, very butthey Eisodos Prologos or moralising on the aftermath ofthetragedy.or moralisingontheaftermath Exodos Stasimon - songofthechorus, the last episode,The after departure usuallyreflecting - The entrancesongofthechorus, inanapaests. often We littleabout know -Amonologueordialoguesettingoutthetopic ofthetragedy. - The choralodereacting to theepisode, chanted standing. - There ofaplay are or acts several ofthese(3-5),onwhichthemodern antistrophê (‘counter-turn’), inwhichitmoves intheopposite strophê strophê ); andfinally, the (‘turn’), inwhichthechorusmoves in epode (‘after-song’, 11 χρή μετὴν δύστηνον ἐςθεοὺς ἔτι/βλέπειν divine, andeven sheseemsto waver inherassurance ofthegods’ favour at921-8: judgments. Antigone’s deathseemsto show ofthe acallousdisregard onthepart over (see1074-5);buttheplay secularobligationsto resists thecity suchsimple reading oftheplay seesits conclusionasthevindicationofreligious superficial duty chorus’ finaljudgment isthat mustnotbeimpiousto‘we thegods’ (1349-50).A 542: Creon imposes;seeinparticular dutiesto herfamily,divinely-ordained asopposedto theman-madelaws which – Human andDivine commonly heldviews. πρὸς ἄνδραςοὐμαχουμένα Ismene’s attheoutset: warning highlightsthesetensions andthecontestedthe settext) oftheplay. masculinity μὲν οὐκἀνήρ,αὕτηδ᾽ἀνήρ autonomy simmerthroughout thetragedy. Creon’s almostpatheticcry, limits ofmaleauthority, thepower offemale ofmasculinespeech,andthepossibility state forms the heart ofSophocles’state forms theheart drama. firstwords oftheplayThe very highlight Polis Themes andMotifs Male andFemaleMale – οὐδ᾽ ὅταν θάνῃ,φίλος στείχοντα τῶν ἐχθρῶν κακά. andenemy friend infamilialterms: between theboundary marks Antigonein lineten andkinship. quitephilia, denotingbothfriendship clearly ἀδελφόν recapitulation oftheirrelationship: forbidden ( to thecity αὐτάδελφον familial relationship, asAntigoneaddresses Ismemewiththepleonastic and (44-6). Much ismadethroughout (44-6).Much oftheword theplay oftheflexibility . In response to. In Ismene’s statement thatshewould dare something – to loyalty one’s between The conflict to familyandloyalty the Gender is, of course, hugely important to the play: issuesof to is, theplay: Gender ofcourse, hugelyimportant ἀπόρρητον πόλει - Antigone framesherstruggleasanattempt to fulfil philia , / (61-2)shows how farAntigone goesincontroverting In contrast, Creon asserts at511-25: contrast,Creon asserts In ishere dependentonpoliticalcircumstances. εἰ ταῦτ᾽ ἀνατὶτῇδεκείσεται κράτη ἀλλ᾽ ἐννοεῖνἀλλ᾽ χρὴτοῦτο μὲν γυναῖχ᾽ ὅτι/ἔφυμεν, ὡς τὸν γοῦνἐμὸν καὶ τὸν σόνἢν σὺμὴθέλῃς/ ὧν τοὔργον, Ἅιδης χοἰ κάτω ξυνίστορες ;), Antigonereplies withtheemphatic ; (922-3). οὔτοι ποθ᾽οὑχθρός (484-5,justbefore πρὸς τοὺς φίλους ἦ νῦνἐγὼ ὦ κοινὸν ©OCR 2016 Set TextSet Guide . The τί

, The text language; Antigone, inherpassion,speaksmore impetuously, sentences withshort andcautious IsmenespeaksinmeasuredThe sentences reserved withembellished areThese variations notjustfor variation’s to convey shifts character. hisstyle sake: words.by constantenjambement,andapreponderance ofshorter sentences, madeto feelplainer languageat69-77:short more immediate andprosaic forcethe rhetorical ofseven negatives inthree lines;to themore colloquialand Antigone addressing hersister as Contrast,(Griffith). for instance, andword-play theelevated style inlines1-6: all thetragediansSophocles’Of languageis varied’ mostflexibleandrichly ‘the Variations LanguageandCharacter instyle: both counts, ofanalysisthatispossible. butthisgives anindicationofthekind his useoflanguage, andsecondly, hisuseofstructure. more Much couldbesaidon The following justgive ofSophocles’ sections two ataste aspects oftwo firstly, style; Stylistic Features GCSE (9–1)ClassicalGreek part oftheclash. part heated questionandanswerout (literally) theirdifference constitute alarge ofview; aggressively contrasted at508-525;thecontrastbetween question, contrasted withAntigone’s firmness. AntigoneandCreon are even more linegiven by Ismeneisa of39-40.Almostevery in l. 41,parallel to theparticiples question ofl. 40isanswered by Antigonecontinuinghersentence withaconditional express herdoubtandfear, andsure. while Antigoneisassertive Ismene’s rhetorical attitude. So, for instance, inll. AntigoneandIsmene, 37-48,between thelatter’s lines inmoodor insyntaxaswellconnected speakers asrhetoric, butcontraststhetwo so engaging audience. to amodern Stichomythia generallyseesthelinesclosely dialoguecreates isoneofthereasonsthe quickline-by-line Greek tragedyremains thetension andconflict The useofthisformal oftragedycanbepowerful; device of tragicStichomythia: conflict theheart present (561-2),oraggressively withthepronoun is shown withhow headdresses thesisters inthethird are personeven whenthey and boldclaimsinimperatives orthefuture tense. Later, Creon’s nature imperious Ἰσμήνης κάρα , therhyming neuter adjectives, and σὺ , asat531. ὁρᾷς/ ὁρῶσι (508-9)sets 12 Glossary ofKeyGlossary Terms Agon Greek world Antigone’s observers; impartial chorusismadeupof Theban elders. dialogue intragedy, AntigoneandCreon. suchasbetween Stichomythia emphatic effect Pleonasm ofevents.situation, oradescription longer thanaboutahundred lines, offers inwhichacharacter anexpositionoftheir (pluralRhesis rheseis) Polis (plural poleis) Philia Oikos scholarsintheHellenisticperiod.been composedby Alexandrian Hypothesis Enjambement Chorus

- - - Literally ‘struggle’ or ‘competition’, thisrefers to pivotal scenesofcompetitive

- ‘love’; ‘friendship’: acontested intheplay, term dependingonthefamilial ‘home’ or ‘extended family’. A formal part of the tragic apparatus, usually taking thedramaticform ofthetragic of apparatus,A formal usuallytaking part -

Using more words than necessary toUsing more express words meaning, for thannecessary often . -

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- a longer speech of varying length,thoughusuallyno - alongerspeechofvarying ©OCR 2016 Set TextSet Guide The text Talking Points GCSE (9–1)ClassicalGreek original language, rather justintranslation? than isitto inthe read theAntigone How important Talking Point What isthemoralWhat lessonofAntigone? guide. asanappropriate introductionto thedebateThis suggested questionmightserve intheresources ofthis section andambiguousenoughto allow interpretationsis open-ended ofwildlydiffering hues. moral oftheplay rests views. doesn’t inthesynthesisoftwo ButSophocles itthateasyfor make us:thedrama Creon represents thelawhas beenthedialectical, Hegelianview: ofthestate; Antigone, individualism, andthe there isorshouldbeasingle, definite, morallesson.Historically, oneofthemostinfluentialreadings ofAntigone This isadeliberately provocative question,andinway, deliberately misleading, encouraging students to think that guide. questions, to thePoetry andcanbelinked for commentary whenwriting Translation exercise featured later inthis offeature asgoodgrounding thekind are they sureThis to looking discussionserves make thestudentsknow them beingpresent intheGreek text. staging, ofthe Great andthecontext Dionysia, for example, to allcontribute themeaningofplay, without some whichneedmore thanjustlinguisticunderstanding–theconventions oftragedy, ofits thepracticalities translationandwhichdon’t. survive discussingwhichfeatures mightbeworth ofthepoetry It There are ofcourse philia. like the metres terms used, characters, between to to thedifficultiesoftranslationkey thesubtlechangesindiction convey theplotofdrama,itwillcoursefailto grasp features any ofthestylistic –from ofthetext thefeel of ) thinkit’s whetherthey andasked agoodtranslationornot. Whilst aprose translationmightbeableto studentsmightbeintroducedTranslation to difficulttask; isanotoriously Jebb’s ofpoetry translation(available on Explanation and Teacher Notes 13 ©OCR 2016 Set TextSet Guide Activities and student tasks Activities GCSE (9–1)ClassicalGreek ACTIVITIES AND STUDENT TASKS for theAntigone. Taking thetop 50%ofwords usedinthetragedywillgive alist useful,Particularly however, istheoption for list creating aspecificvocabulary morphological analysisofindividualwords. The Perseus canbeusedonitsown by text students–especiallyhelpfulisthe the mostfrequent words usedinOd. 6. Click on tool’‘vocab listwhichgives intheright-hand columnfor avocabulary t%3A1999.01.0185%3A http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/vocablist?works=Perseus%3Atex The Perseus Project Vocabulary Listfor the (short) videos. the (short) by world discussingorcritiquing inthemodern piece ofdramaticperformance Students canexplore theissuesofstaging andinterpretation oftheplay asa at theNT. ofresources,A series focus onthe2012version oftheAntigone withaparticular http://www.nationaltheatre.org.uk/backstage/greek-theatre National Theatre Antigone atranslationby rote.not justasmemorizing can prepare itthemselves, andseetheprocess ofreading asreading thetext – sothatthey ofthetext to getstudentsfamiliarwiththevocabulary off by heart, like ‘and’ and ‘but’ feature) won’t needto belearnt. This isgreat asatool, iflearnt of justover 160words, many ofwhich(especially atthetop, where simplewords on the Modern Stage ontheModern Antigone - 14 to the contemporary western world. to thecontemporary A more generalexaminationofthe process oftranslationancientGreek theatre classicists. theatre, withboththeatre and withsomeinteresting practitioners interviews ofGreek theatre atNational ofperformance An onlineexhibitionofthehistory al-theatre/wRnC0fJ0?position=56%2C40 https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/exhibit/greek-tragedy-at-the-nation National Theatre Greek theatre at the National Theatre Christian Michelides /Burgtheater /CC Michelides Christian BY-SA 4.0 Burgtheater by Sophokles, Antigone 2015(withMavie Hörbigerintherole ofIsmene) ©OCR 2016 Set TextSet Guide - Activities and student tasks GCSE (9–1)ClassicalGreek to convey thetone, feel, style, asEnglishpoetry. andform ofGreek poetry The challengeisnotmerely to translate theGreek words orsentences, butto try to translate ofthesettext into section Englishaspoetry. Choose ashort http://www.stephen-spender.org/spender_prize.html Spender TrustStephen Translating Poetry Braggdiscussestragedywithacademicexperts. Melvyn http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p005464v#play&in=collection:p01h9vvk BBC Time:Our Tragedy In the gutsto betray my country.” (E.M.Forster) andbetraying my betraying friend,between my Ihope Ishouldhave country A debate onthe topic, from usingevidence Debate coherent whole. creative format encouragesstudentsto linkallthemajor episodestogether asa in a retelling findtheirsenseoftheoveralloften thestory narrative lacking; ofclasstimeisspentindetailed readingGiven oftheLatin,students themajority thenarrative of Re-present Antigone reconfigured Antigone inanothercreative format. Antigone : Ihadto choose “If

15 ©OCR 2016 Set TextSet Guide Activities and student tasks Student tasksheets GCSE (9–1)ClassicalGreek the student: to at thetask–specifically aimed Introduction PoetryTitle in ofactivity: Translation Extension activities/questions: Extension answers etc.), (alltaskinformation, questions, The activity Languages here –studentscancompare foreign translationsof the org/spender_prize.html The studentscan enter theirpoems into theStephen Spender prize competition: orderfrom into Englishpoetry. to tragedy)turned In translate, you willneedto considerthefollowing: spender.org/poetry_translation_notes.html), alongwithsomeexcellent examplesofclassicalpoems(includingmany translationcanbefound onthewebsite literary oftheStephenunderlying Spenderprize (http://www.stephen- have goodreasons for your changes, itmay itabetter well poetictranslation.Agooddiscussionof theprinciples make you have madeinyour translation. The translationmay notbeatallcloseto theoriginal Greek –butaslongyou Your apassagefrom andcreate taskisto select thesettext apoetictranslationofit,withanexplanationthechoices requires thoughtaboutalloftheseaspects. poetry all theeffects ofsound–rhythm, metre, alliteration, andrhyme, effects. to produce Successfultranslationof particular creates meaning:itplays withtheaudience’s ofgenre, expectations ofthecombinationform andcontent; ituses ‘correct’ translations ofindividualsentences. However, isfarmore literature complexintheway it (especially poetry) syntaxandgrammar definitionswiththeright to we translationasatask ofcombiningtheright produce view Often • • • • them asmysterious references, orglossthem withanexplanation? familiarto aGreek you one?Do audiencebutnotto replace referents, amodern themwithmodern keep ofthe HowContext: doyou ofthedrama,aswell copewiththepoliticalandsocialcontext astheknowledge them, avoid them,orreplace themwithEnglishequivalents, rhyme orword-play? like Poetic effects: alliteration, assonance, andotherauraleffects –how areto keep rendered? they you Do try poeticform between anddramaticrealism?What balancecanyou strike verse? Orspoken-word style?) Form: how does oneeffectively translate metre into English?UsinganEnglishverse form (Blankverse? Free . ForeignThere withEnglishorModern work for are excellent cross-curricular opportunities 16 Antigone , aswell asEnglishones. http://www.stephen-spender. ©OCR 2016 Set TextSet Guide Activities and student tasks GCSE (9–1)ClassicalGreek Extension activities/questions: Extension The activity (alltaskinformation, questions, The activity the student: to at thetask–specifically aimed Introduction Title ofactivity: answers etc.), Antigone reconfigured Languages here –studentscancompare foreign translationsoftheAntigone, aswell asEnglishones. org/spender_prize.html The studentscanenter theirpoemsinto theStephen Spenderprize competition: intimately. components, andusingtheexercise outthekey the story, asacreative picking tool to reallythetext getto know drawings willbenolessusefulthancarefully produced andedited filmversions. isreading over What isimportant It’s stressing worthwhile that thevalueofthisexercise doesn’t oftheretelling lieinthequality produced: stickfigure included intheretelling. whichmustbe events inthetext by comingupasaclasswithtimelineofkey theactivity may beusefulto start It assignment. Any format ormediumispossible: the wholeofthe Re-tell which asksearching questionsaboutthewholetext. andisagoodrevisionhelps settheindividualscenesintheircontext technique to helpprepare for essay questions carefully andoverarching structured unity design holdingtheplay together. inadifferent Retelling thestory medium iseasyto losesightofthebigpicture: theway thenarrativefitstogetherreading asawhole, It witha ofthesettext. oftheclasstimeforMuch ALevel oronclose Greek analysis–eitherfor willbespentonclosetextual languagework, • • • http://simitator.com/generator/twitter/tweet conversation; A twitter somesites willallow you to generate itinaform thatimitates itself-e.g. twitter A comic strip (there A comicstrip are somegoodsites whichcanhelphere: e.g. film. A (short) . ForeignThere withEnglish orModern work for are excellent cross-curricular opportunities Antigone 17 inadifferent medium. This taskcan either besetasgroup-work oranindividual , or http://www.lemmetweetthatforyou.com https://www.bitstrips.com/create/comic/ http://www.stephen-spender. . ©OCR 2016 Set TextSet Guide

). Activities and student tasks GCSE (9–1)ClassicalGreek the student: to at thetask–specifically aimed Introduction Debate:Title ofactivity: Ihadto between“If choose betraying my andbetraying country my friend, Ishouldhave Ihope thegutsto betray Extension activities/questions: Extension answers etc.), (alltaskinformation, questions, The activity my country.” (E.M. Forster) Does a modern viewpoint changetheway viewpoint we themoralofplay? amodern view Does ofthetragedy. ofthedramainwidercontext questions,essay-style andhelpplacethesetportions theirview. fromis findingevidence to support thetext asexcellentThis willfunction preparation for longerthematic repeating spendingawholelessononpreparation, would thesamearguments. beworthwhile aslongtheirfocus It sure prepare they can divideinto teams orthree each.Make two oftwo theircaseasateam speakers sodonotjust Ideally,is usuallylike. Greek bethecasewithasixth-form class),you withasmallclass(andthiswillalmostcertainly There ofdebate, are several ways dependingonhow many ofsettingupthiskind intheclassandwhatdynamic conditional. over ofthe claims ofthecity theclaimsoffamily?Usetext overprivilege theshared citizen, interests whosegoodcanonlybeprotected oftheordinary by arecognition ofthe moral oftheplay –thatwhilstAntigone’s claimsare emotionallymoving, aresimplydressing they infact uparistocratic ofconscienceover eyes, Orare politicallyexpedientconformity? we, missingtherealthe primacy with21stcentury sentiments from them.IsAntigonethetragic deathforces hero, anaudience to whoseunnecessary acknowledge the plays perspective?) seemopenenoughandambiguoustomodern read quite radicalandrevolutionary sees thestatusquoreinforced, state ofaffairs. Ontheotherhand (especially from asanunalterable andnecessary a the outcome ofthetragediesforecloses for orheadsoffthepossibility real change. The interpretation ofmany plays burdened hasoften Sophocles withareputation for pessimism;problematic socialandpoliticalissuesare raised, but 18 Antigone to justify or criticise Forster’s to justify or criticise infamous ©OCR 2016 Set TextSet Guide GCSE (9–1) Classical Greek Set Text Guide FURTHER READING AND RESOURCES

For teachers For students 1. Griffith, Mark, Sophocles Antigone (Cambridge: CUP,1990) 1. Perseus http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/ The green and yellow commentary gives a solid introduction and hugely useful line- text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0185%3Acard%3D1 by-line notes. The Perseus website is a useful linguistic tool for preparation of the text, providing 2. Goldhill, Simon, Reading Greek Tragedy (Cambridge: CUP, 1986) a lookup tool for linguistic analysis with a link to Liddell & Scott; for the text of the Hugely influential work on Greek tragedy, described as an ‘advanced critical Antigone it also Jebb’s (rather archaic) and (rather more useful) brief notes. introduction’. Various selections from it would be useful, but particularly Chapter 4, 2. The British Museum on ancient theatre ‘Relations and Relationships’, which is focused for a large part on the Antigone. http://www.ancientgreece.co.uk/festivals/explore/exp_set.html 3. Goldhill, Simon, ‘The Great Dionysia and Civic Ideology’, JHS 107 (1987) Really a site for much younger children, this short exploration of the Athenian theatre 58-76, reprinted in revised form in Winkler and Zeitlin, Nothing to do with is a fun and useful introduction to the physical spaces which contained Greek drama. (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1990). 3. Archive of Performance of Greek and Roman Drama Excellent overview of the context and politics of Greek tragedy within the Great http://www.apgrd.ox.ac.uk/learning/apgrd-introductions-series Dionysia and as a political institution. The APGRD, based in Oxford, has a website with some good introductory material 4. Zeitlin, Froma, ‘Playing the Other: Theater, Theatricality, and the Feminine in on Greek drama, and particularly good extension material on reception of Classical Greek Drama’, Representations 11 (1985) 63-94, reprinted in Winkler and Zeitlin, drama. Nothing to do with Dionysus (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1990), and revised in Zeitlin, Playing the Other (Chicago and London: Chicago 4. Mnenomics for Greek verse University Press, 1996). http://www.armand-dangour.com/mnemonics-for-greek-metre/ Excellent and highly influential introduction to the issues of the presentation of Dr Armand D’Angour, fellow at Jesus College, Oxford, has a rather jolly collec- female characters on the Athenian stage. tion of mnemonics useful for remembering Greek metres, including those found in tragedy, which is particular useful in conjunction with Annis’ ‘Introduction to Greek 5. Gibbons, Reginald, and Segal, Charles, Antigone (Oxford: OUP, 2003). Meter’ (http://www.aoidoi.org/articles/meter/intro.pdf) A new translation, with useful introduction and an interesting essay on the difficulties 5. Greek theatre at the National Theatre of translating Sophocles. Further reading and resources reading Further https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/exhibit/greek-tragedy-at-the-national- 6. Anouilh, Jean, Antigone (London: Methuen, 1951) theatre/wRnC0fJ0?position=56%2C40 The famous French version of the play produced in occupied Paris. An online exhibition of the history of performance of Greek theatre at National thea- tre, with some interesting interviews with both theatre practitioners and classicists. 7. Barthes, Roland, ‘The Death of the Author’, Aspen 5-6 (1967) A seminal work on literary theory and interpretation; a good starting point for these issues for the more advanced students. 19 © OCR 2016 GCSE (9–1) Classical Greek Set Text Guide

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OCR Anthology for AS and A-level Classical Greek 9781474266024


Thucydides, Histories, Book IV: 11–14, 21–23, 26–28 Thucydides, Histories, Book IV: 29–40 with Introduction, Notes and Commentary by John Taylor and Malcolm Campbell , Apology, 18a7 to 24b2 Plato, Apology, 35e–end with Introduction by Steven Kennedy and Notes and Commentary by Ben Gravell , Memorabilia, Book 1.II.12 to 1.II.38 with Introduction, Notes and Commentary by Charlie Paterson , Odyssey X: 144–399 Homer, Odyssey IX: 231–460 with Introduction by Frederica Daniele and Notes and Commentary by Rob Colborn and Claire Webster

Further reading and resources reading Further Sophocles, Antigone, lines 1–99, 497–525, 531–581, 891–928 Sophocles, Antigone, lines 162–222, 248–331, 441–496, 998–1032 with Introduction, Notes and Commentary by Matthew McCullagh , Acharnians, 1–203, 366–392 with Introduction, Notes and Commentary by Sarah Harden

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