-induced human casualities are very rare. A 32- o1d nan living in French Settlement, Ld. was bitten by an alligator on July 25, L992. He was doing repair work under his house on the bank of the Amite when he was attacked. Just one rnonth earlier he had been bitten by a water moccasin, also at his house on the rnuddy riverbank.

To our knowledge there have been no alligator-related fatalities in , although it was belj.eved that a blacksrnith was attacked and killed by an alligator while bathing in the Red

River at Fort St. Jean Baptiste in Na+'chi'uoches, LA in L734.

Alligator Far:ling/RancbiDg Progr:n

Louisiana has an extensive alligacor farming/ranching program which has been described previously (Joanen and McNease 1987,L99l-,

Elsey et aI 1991). Most stock is derived by ranching of wild e99s collected from privately-owned . A percentage of the hatched is returned to the wj-Id when are approxirnately

4 feet in length to ensure wild populations are not depleted. A conservative program such as this was establj.shed due to the aggressive collections (nearly 300,000 harvested in 1990) and superimposed annual September harvest of 25,000 (predoninantly adults ) aJ.J-i-gators .

Declining prices of crocodilian ski-ns causeo some of the smal1er, Iess well-established farrns to dj.scontinue production in recent )rears. The maxirnum number of farms licensed was i35 in l-99L, however onJ.y 119 had stock. Some "Iicensed farmsrr actually are land managers setling eggs, or egg hatcheries that collect, incubate, hatch eggs and seII hatchll-ngs, etc. but do not have facilities to raise alligators nor sell skins. At present there are 101 licensed farms in Louisiana, of which 86 have stock. ?ffz The sizes (by inventory) of the farms in La. is shown in TabLe

2 below. t'enty fatsls are very sma1L, having only 1-1Oo alligators

left in stock. Ten have between 101 and 500 alligrators, and the

rest are larger farms. six farms have over 10,000 alligators; the

Iargest has some 59,000 alligators. Total year-end stock (December

L993) was approximately 258t3t4 (Table 3 below).


r}rVENTORY 1989 1990 19 91 1qo"

. I AA IUU o I\J 1n L7 20 101 500 z+ z2 2L

501 1, 000 J-d z.L zz L7

1, 001 2 ,5OO 4L 30 29 20 2,sOL 5, ooo 8 t7 11 10 5,001 10,000 q I

> 10,000 6

Fifty farms were 'ractive" in egg ranchj.ng in 1993, some

L22,409 hatchlings e/ere added to Louisiana farms frorn ranched eggs.

The downward trend in egg collection since the peak in 1990 appears to be stabilizing; only four fewer farrns ranched eggs in t 993 compared to l-992 (Tab1e 4 below).



198 9 150,095 57 L>+,lJU/

1990 249 ,6L6 l6 325 ,45L

199 1 It'U,JIJ 72 ? 1 R 1'7'7

L992 L46 ,077 CA 4>L,>6JAA<

1qa" L22,4O9

ALl sheds on alligator farnrs/ranches were inspected by Fur and N3 Refuge Division personnel in L992/L993 to ensure cornpliance with f ar-ming regrulations and standards of care. Extensive annual reports documenting inventory, hatch rates, etc. are required and reviewed in detail prior to issuance of the new year's farrning license.

Recent changes (Sept L992) in a1lJ-gator regulations stipulate that every skin (farm or wild) be inspected by LDWF before shipping in state to a tannery or overseas. A mani.fest containing CITES tag numbers, lengths, buyer deaLer records and severance tax must be provided; and each CITES is individually verified before a "d9 shipping tag is issued. Also (since Sept. 1993), the S4.00 CITES tag fee is now paid by the dealer at the tj.ne of shiprnent, rather than by the farmer/hunter before the alligators are harvested. It would be naive tro presume the dealers do not adjust their skin price so the farmer pays all or a portion of the tag fee, but this does prevent the farmer from having to pay the tag fee "up frontrl before a definite sale for his skins is set.

More interest has been seen recently in the demand for smaller

( 3 , ) f arm skins (Figrure 3 belon) , whereas the wild skins taken still average 7t length. FREOUENCY BY SIZE OF ALLIGATOFIS. 1992 - 93


- FARM. N = i28.30O 40 1 - WILD, N = z4,soo


loi I I i 0i 0 1234 o 7 I 9 10 11 12 t3 14 ft M 't.2 .. q.J .3 .6 .9 t.f 1.8 z. | 1.q 4.t J 3.7 m The nurnber of Louisiana farms selling skins and the number of

skins sold is shown in Table 5 berow. Again, the rising number of

skins sold in 199L/L992 reflects the very high egg collecti-on rates

fron 1989 /L99o, taking L-2 for an alligator to reach market

size. The number of skins sold in the 1993 tag year should.

decrease in propor-.ion to the decrease in eqg corlection in

L99L/L992, and then stabilize as has the number of hatchlinqs aoded annually recently.



1988 27 ,7 49 ?1

1989 56,737 ot 1990 88 ,220

l qql 11q '7ae -1v I t r v >U

L992 LZO,JJ) 80

Major receivers of Loui-siana skins is shown in Figure 4. This represents skins soLd in the L992 tag year (Septernber Lg92-August

1993) . There has been a substantial increase in the percent of skins sent to Singapore (72 in 1990 , L7Z in Lgg2) and tannerles in the uni.ted stares (4e. in l-990, L6z in l-992) ; whrle r*-a1y receiveci

39t in 1990 but just 158 in 1992. This may be d.ue:-o che -urade ban at that time in Italy and expansion of US tanneries, including two in Louisiana. France continues to receive the majoriry of Louisiana produced skins.


FHANCE 44",L FFIANCE 27",'," PAN ']-i1. 8",'o

ITALY UN|TEDSTATES ::::'*-* rTALY 1se.. 149'," 1""" 16" srNGApoRE 1 6/" UNITEDSTATES 18.,L Wild Skins = 25,864 Farm Skrns = 125.31't

Faru rrreturus to tbe wildrf Progran

Due 'r-o the very large number of alligrator eggs harvested in

Louisiana and the superi-mposed adult harvest, alligat'or ranchers nust return a percentage of eggs hatched to the wild as juvenile allj-gators. The amount to return is based on estimated natural survivorship/nortality curves in alligators (Taylor and Neal 1984) and varies with the size of the alligators. A sliding of return percentages is based on the averagre length of the alligators to be returned. For example at 35tr average length,29.6Z of e99s hatched are returned; at 48rr a L7* return rate is needed, and at

EOil only 9. Bt are returned, ES larger presunably survive better and would be less prone to cannibalism, probably the hi.ghest mor-.ality factor in subadult alligators (Rootes, 1989). Alligators are measured, Sexed, and tagged by LDWF personnel and releases carefully nonitored. The number of eggs ranched and alliga*-ors returned is shown in Table 5 below. The rancher has tvo years from the year -.he eggs were collected until a 3'-5'alligator must be returned',o the wi1d. Prelininary results documented that released alligators grow as well as wild alligators and feed normally (Elsey et aI 1991, L992) .



r:rt'0 L, )ZJ

L>6 t 18,041

54 ,88'l 1, 580

-vLtv-J t,vt<5 'l aqn 293 ,4L2 5, 0gg

t98 , 089 44 ,405

?q F'l 1 LO+ , A>Z JJ'JJL

L44 ,84l. 28 ,5L2 I'mark An ex'i-ensive wild and recapture[ prograrn of night work

was started in 1990 for comparison of growth and survivorshj-p to

the farro-released alligators, and also to attempt to recapture

farm-released alligators. In l-990, 183 alli-gators were caught in

2 nights;1004 al-ligators were caught in 1991 in 8 nights;3oo

alligators were caught in !992 in 3 nights; and in L993 over 14oo

alligators were caught in 9 nights. Also during september wi1d. -,o harvests, alligators trapped and brought skinning sheds are

searched by LDWF personnel at processing sheds to check for

retrapped wiid or farm alligators. Over ilOO retraps have been

recordeC. Numerous farm-released juvenlies have reached adult s:ze

class, ano several 5'-7'farm-released alli-gators were harvest.ed in

1993. The iargest farm retrap was a 7,3n nare caught 9-lo-93 whrch / was released nearly 4 years earlier at 3 3 " .

A series of reproductive tracts has been collected from rarm-

reieased alligators which v/ere harvested in the wild season. ft

has been shown that alligators can attain sexual maturity earLler when raised initially in heated tanks than witd alligator (Joanen

and McNease 1987). we are comparing the reproductive tracts of N7 farm-released alligators (gonad dirnensj-on and status) to similar

sized wj.ld alligators.

As the ranched egg collecti.on peaked in 1990, the alligators

released peaked in L991 (Table 5 prior page). Generally released

farmed alligators average 42'tl thus these al-ligator's growth races

in the wild should have them approaching 6 feet in Iength in

1994/L995 and appear in the September harvests those years,

generating more recapture data. Cornbined with additional years of

night work data v/e anticipate having an adequate database upon

whj.ch to evaluate survival of the farm-released alligators. A

recent telernetry study also showed good survival of farm-released

alligator's (57t after tvo years), not significantly different chan

radj.o collared wild alligators (Addison, L993). Survival should

probably have been higher than this, as the author noted the radio

collars hj.ndered rnovement and feeding.

Our current prelininary data (excellent growth, normal

feeding, many retraps) suggests our required experimental return

rates (L7Z at 48rr average iength) need not be raised. Further daca

collecti.on and analysis is underway to see !f return rates could be

lowered, thus decreasing this overhead cost to alligator far:ners

and ranchers. A limiting fac:cr is i.hat our population numbe:s are

based on nest surveys, so an overharvest of eggs wi'-hout

supplemental juveniles returned to the wild would noc be seen for many years. wild alligators reach sexual maturity at' 10 vears of

d9€, thus a declining population trend in nest counts wouldn/t be

seen until 10 years after a possible egg overharvest without

compensatory returns.

To assist in evaluating the necessity of returning juveni.le

alligators to compensate for egg harvesti.ng and adurts traoped, 208 experimental harvests on several different sites were es"ablished with varying harvest rates and return rates. Nesting surveys and resulti-ng population figures on these areas will- be analyzed in conjunction with recapture data for wild and farm-released alligators to determine the need for and/or degree of returns needed at different harvest levels to ccnserve the wild resource while promoting rnaximum sustained utilization.


The technical staff at Rockefeller Refuge has numerous ongoing research projects related to the biology and culture of the alligator. These projects are outlined briefly below as are some stud.j.es cornpleted since the last vrorking meetj-ng of the

Specialist Group

Nestiag Vegetation and Eatcb Rates

During routine egg collections made in 1989-1991 v/e noticed high egg mortality early in incubation from nests conscructed of certain fresh vegetative , particularly bulltongue

(Saqqittaria sp. ) , oD Salvaoor wildlife Management area in southeast Louisiana. Several nests of each vegetative were

Iocat,ed and continuous 24o Taylor recorders placed to monitor t,emperature through the nest cavity. Vegetative cypes s:uciied include bulltongue (Saqqi-.taria sp. ) , cutgrrass (Zizaniopsis) , and maidencaine (pail1e fine, Pani-cum hemitomon). Temperatures in the

Sactgittaria nests were well above 100oF within the first few days of incubation, associated with nearly total mortality early in erobrvonic development. Moderate mortality was seen i.n the cutgrass/organic materials nests and less in the pailIe fine. A follow-up study in L993 again documented marked embryonic mortality associated with alligator nests of certain vegetative types. Data 2W analyzed in detail for from this study is presently being publication. Eurricane Aadres 6tudY by Hurricane on August 25-26, L9g2 coastal LOuisiana was hi*' Delta Wildlife Andrew wj-th winds of Lzo nph near Atchafalaya - l{ew lberta, Managemen*- Area and 110 i15 nPh surrounding the' effect's of the Louisiana. A stud.y was initiated to evaluate hit just at storm on al-Iigator populatlons; of note the hurrj-cane season' Three the tirne hatching was beginning in the Lggz nesting by the storn/s sites e/ere chosen (two designated "impacted" rrnot not in the path of location and one control area impactedrr, night counts in each ttre st,orm surge) . Trips were made to conduct' the storm' area (three trips to each site) over the weeks following in the slze class Data wil] be analyzed to see if there are changes ected vs ' non-irnpacced freguency d.istribution (scFD) seen in af f seasons will be areas. A1so, harvest data from wild alligator and two years reviewed from three years preceding the hurricane in SCFD possibly to following the storm, again to look for changes This study is do mortality or d,ispersal caused by the hurricane' offlce' being directed. by NoeI Kinler of the New Iberia EgglEatcbling Size of alligaccr we have long noted a wide variation in the s:-ze a single clu.uch are e99s between clutches, alt,hough eggs within would produce larger fully uniform. we assumed that larger eggs hacchlings, buc had hatchlings, and smalI eggs would produce small rrvery large" e99s, not previously documented this. Two clutches of egg-size f our ClutChes rrvery small" eggs, and f ive "normalrr e99s were clutches were selected for this study. Just after

collected from the wi1d, each egg v/as weighed, measured, and 2L0 incubated g9 o at . one day after ha-.ching, the arligators r./ere weighed to the nearest gram, and totaL body length recorded to the

nearest 0. 1 cm. Hatchling weights vrere strongly positiveJ_y

correlated to egg weights (r2 = 0.9691, p study this sulnmer will compare growth rates of the extremely larqe. and extremely small hatchlings.

60 -/ a5s = 5 stt | = 0.9691

__ li p < 0.0001 z =J0 9 :- - ?<

30 50 s5 60 65 70 i5 80 85 90 95 100 EGc WEIGHT(g)

Sex ratio wild alligators/TSD

Many prior studies have examined sex ratios of crocodilians.

Sorne studies have been difficult to analyze as adult alligators have sex-sPecific habitat preferences (Joanen and McNease !g-70,

L972) and collection or harvest cechniques may favor the selec+-ion of one sex over the other. such a problem does not occur rn juvenJ.le alligators before they choose cheir adult habitat. As part of our ongoing night work colIec+,ing alligators to evaluate our farm-reLease program, w€ were abre to corlect a large sampre (n=2500) juvenile of arrigators to check sex ratios. A hlgher percentage of males (s7.42) was found. This is particularly { interesting as temperature dependent sex determination in ztl alligators has a narrow window at which males can be produced

(Figure G below) . A rnanuscript discussing possibLe rnechanj-sms to e:plai-n why naturally occurring sex ratlos differ from what TSD

(ternperature dependent sex determination) night, predict would occur is being authored by Dr. Va1 Lance and Rockefeller personnel.

I 1 100'i I .t I 80i I'l' IJJ .l lti

= I iri ou 'i


rrl I I I I I 0' ,) 7 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 rNcuBATloNTEMPERATURE (CELCIUS)

Culture of Capture Bteeder Alligators

As d.iscussed in detail recently (Elsey et aI 1993 Darvin),

captive breed.ing of crocodilians has met with liniied success, but

can play a role in crocodile conservation and pose some interestinq

physiology questions. Recently we have noted a decline in

reproauc-,i ve performance in a group of known age capt:ve breecing

aliigators at RockefeLler Refuge (Elsey er- al 1993 Darwrn) . We are

examrning the role of d.iet in the low fertility/hatchabilicy of

captive-produced eggs in association with Dr. Mark Staton &

Professor Mark Ferguson.

The breeding pens at Rockefeller Wild1ife Refuge are generally

colony-type pens, with multiple males and females in one pen; all

of which were raised entirely in captivity and in recent years have

been fed nutria rneat. In 1993, w€ added vitanin E and selenium to 2t2 the diet of i,he females in two pens, added vitamj.n E, selenium and fatty acids to the diet of females i.n two other pens, and had one -uhe control pen. fwo of each of six unitized pen (1 o with 1A) were placed as controls. The additives were provided i-n the form / of frsausagesrr and fed individually to the pen femalesi *,o avoid possible oxidation by alIowi.ng additives 'go be exposed to the sun for extended tirne periods before consumption.

Hatchability in one of the colony pens (Pen 5) increased dramatically to 56;58 with the addition of vitanin E and sel-enium.

However, Do such increase was seen in che other colony pen under this treatrnent. No improvement was seen in the colony pens receivi-ng vitamin E, selenium, and fatcy aci.dsl however very few females would approach to take the trsausagelr as offered; and thus a fair trial was not really given. No improvement was noted in the unici-zed Dens on either treatment and overall nesting rernains poor.

However the marked inprovernent in Pen 6 is encouraging and further work on thj-s project is ongoing.

The irnportance of fresh for breeders cannot be ernphasized enough. Previously we found that frozen narine fish was an inferior diet as cornpared to red meat (nutria, Mvocastor ccvpus)

(Joanen & McNease 1987) and causeci lower natch rates. Recen-.11,"we discovered that 'roldrf frozen nutria (5 L2 nonths) can undergo oxidation and have higher TBA (thiobarbicuric acid) rancidir-y and peroxi.de values than fresh frozen nutria.

Wild-caught captive breeders-trunitizedrt pens

American alli.gators are solitary nesters in the wild, so colony type pens may create adverse social interactions and stressors which linit reproducti-on (Elsey et al t-993) . some improved captive breeding was noted in C. porosus in trunitized 213 Pens'r of one male stocked with one fenaLe (Webb 1990, Hutton & Webb

L992). Early attempts at unitized pens at Rockefeller in the

1960's stocked with wild-caught alligators resulted in excessive fighting and rnortality, with a nesti.ng rate of 4ez (Joanen and

McNease, L97]-). we constructed six unj.tized pens in L99o and stocked these with al-1i-gators bred entireJ-y in captivity and. previously housed in the colony pens at Rockefeller. Nesting rates have been good, but fertility and hatchability remaj-n quite low.

Some problems nay be due to obesi.ty of the animals or nutritional deficiencies.

In June 1993, w€ built ten new unitized pens (approxirnately

55' x 35') and stocked these with wild caught adult females. ?he females were captured defending successfuL nests, So they are proven nesters. we caught srnall alligators (ranging from 5,6Lzu to | 7 5n ) and will linit feeding to try to avoid overfeeding and resulti-ng obesity. After the females were rrset',Iedrr, we caught the ' male alligators in October 1993 ( size range 6, 3lz'r to 7 4n ) and stocked theur with the appropriately size matched female. The diet will be dead, day-o1d chi.cks rather than nutria as our other pens are fed due to possible oxidation problens with frczen nurria, '";i-ncer which is only availabie fresh in monc.ns. Five of t,he ten pens will be supplemented with fish oils/fatty acids.

It should be stressed that we feel chat collecting wild eggs is the preferred and more economical method of acquiring stock for alllgator farming/ranching. However there is a role for captive breeding in crocodilian conservation and a challenging husbandry problem that must be solved in order to further understand captive breeding physiology of crocodilians. 214 LoDg telm growth ia captive alligators

The captive breeders at Rockefeller are a unique and valuable herd, ES they are known-age animals (hatched in t9i2 or 1973). A database is being maintained on lengths and weights when alligators are captured periodj.cally for any reason (relocation to a new peD, obtaining blood samples, or simply to check interval growth). Six males hrere caught on July 26, L993 to be weighed and measured.

Unf ortunately, two ( 1L'10rr, 590 lbs; and L!' 6tt, 585 lbs. ) had no remaining web tags as growth of the massive foot di.splaced the tags. Changes in growth are as belov in Table 7.

Weight Prior Prior Location Length ( lbs. ) Last Cauqht Length wt. (Ibs)

Lake 14 14 r 0rl ol n Aug. 5, 1985 L3 | 4tl

' 1^tr Pen 1 12 10r1 6ZO Aug. 5, 1985 L2t 5tl

Pen 6 11' 9 rl 645 April 25, 1991 11, 10rl Pen 7 /8 L2 ' 0,1 550 ApriL 19, 1991 lL/9|l 520

Thus, these alligators are continuing to grow slowly in length but substantially in weight. The alli.gator at L4 is an older alligator and was initially caught in the wild as a h:i.ah]inn in

1953. It was donated to Rockefeller Refuge in 1959.

Four adul'. pen females were caught in June/Ju1y l-993 and ranged in size from 8/l0rr to 9t 4n. In l99L chey ranged from 8/irl to 9' oi" . Weights were not obtained as we tr j-eo tc minimize the tirne restrained for the nesting fenales.

Cbinese alligator (A. siaensis) culture

Rockefeller Refuge has on loan one pair of Chinese alligators

(A. sinensis) obtained from the New York Zoo. They have successfully nested several times, and in each of the last three years. We obtained 4 hatchlings in 1991,, !4 in L992, and 20 in 215 1993. The nest i-n 1993 was located on 6-L6-93 at which time "he eggs appeared to be 7 days of age. We were asked by the NYZS to

|ncubate the eggs at 91o to attempt to further study ternperature dependent sex deterrnination in this species, and try to produce males. On 8-6-93 the eggs began to hatch and 20 hatchlings were obta j.ned from a clutch of 3 L eggs ; of the rernainder one egg was 'infert-i'le: weeks, b--- t 3- died at 2 weeks incubation, one at four three d.ied at 8 weeks of incubation and 3 at an undetermj-ned stage. All hatchlings $/e,re shipped to the .

Another study on the rnorphology and ultrastructure of the

Chinese alligator eggshell has been conpleted in collaboration with

Dr. C. S. wink and is "in reviewrr for publication in the Journal of


Juveaile Alligators Feeding Trials

Annual feedj-ng trials are conducted at Rockefeller Refuge to assist the farning industry by test'inq conmercially available diets

(alone or supplenented with meat) to nake reconmendations to

alligator farmers on the best dj.ets available.

One of our recent tests in 199I-92 showed that growth achieved wir.h commercially available extrudeo dry pelletized rations

increased Linearly wich lncreasing avaiiabie protein by pe:c€fl-ua$e.

Dj-ets tested included Burris Alliga-'or Feed with 4OZ, 472, anC 56?

protein; and ground nutria (Mvocastor covnus) meat. Nutria gave

the best grrowth (Figure 7), though the economics and convenience of

providing dry which need not be stored frozen must be


216 WEIGHT(gm)

J co"/"BURRts I q7"/oBURRTs 1,600 il s6o,6BURRts B nurnn l I I i 1,1oOl I I

i 1001

409"BURFIS i21 .: :,C+. / 9101 47','.BURRIS i20.7 zt z"J 556.6 :rol.+.c

569'"BURRIS t/t - 3A7.7 L+t'J"Z- I,CU4

NUTFIA 294.8 464 1.54/./ DAYSIN STUDY

In L992-9 3 we tested f eeds wi.th report,edly 4SZ, 562, and GO?

protein versus nutria,' surprisingly this year no differences were

noted with protein leveIs throughout the study (Figure 8). tna roanufacturer felt that there nay have been a quality

control/nanufacturing problem and the actual protein 1evels were in guestion.

Both years three replications of each of the four diets were used, and twelve alligators were used in each group to study each d.iet (total t44 alligators used each year) . .{vERAcEIVEIGI{T (g)

157oB' Sb?oB 60?o NUTRIA 217 FOODTYPE

Septcrnbcr 13, 1992through February 5, 1993 This year (1993-94) we are studying the effects of various feed components (certain vitamins, minerals, arginine, etc. ) on skin guality. These have been shown to improve skj-n integrity and promote wound healing in other species. This should be useful to the farning industry as recent competition due to the falling skin

Pri.ces has made the grade of the ski.n of unprecedented irnportance.

Preliminary results have shown significant differences in growEh in the three diets tested (Three replicates of each diet, 23 animals per treatment group for a total of 207 aniurars in the study). we will assess skin quality and wound heali-ng frorn the various d.iets.

This study is being rnanaged under the direction of Dr. Mark Staton.

A second feeding trial was conducted in 1991-92 to dets:mine if the addition of steroids as an appetj.te stirnuLant wou1d enhance growth in juvenile alligators. Three groups of alligators were supplemented with increasing doses of prednisone, and a control giroup l'as f ed only dry pelletj-zed rations. A nodest increase in growth rate was achieved with the addition of steroids (conpared to controls) but it was not sufficient to warrant the required testing as to clearance of the drug from alligator tissues/meat to be used for human consumption. (fiqure 9).

Effect oI Prednisone(Steroids)

Avlitt^(;l; lvEIGllT (lt)

1,00oi I I 300! I I 6(l()! I crxrI I 2(X)


Sc;rrernbcrZG, l99l lhrrnghlvlnrch 27, 1992 2L8 I = t:iI;,i*"? l'ilil7if,'j"t"'t = 2nrg/kgqorr D = 2nre/ks/ rr

Juvenile allJ.gator nutrition is being studied intensively by

Drs. R. coulson and Dr. J. Herbert at the LSU School of Med.icine, Department of Biochernistry. The addition of gelatin and glycine

are being studied this year. Much of their work suggests that

alligators fed pelletized diets supplemented with neat grow better

than those on dry pelletized feeds alone. Work continues studying

the stomach enptying tirnes of d.ry dj-ets, the ef f icacy of proline

and other supplenents, and attenpts to find the least arnount of

neat needed to add to a dry pelletized diet to get maximum growth.

Rockefeller Refuge Egg Earvest

Alligator nesting study sites are napped carefully each-year,

and data recorded on nesting efforts relative to water levels,

sali-nity, tenperature, etc. Intensive egg harvests contj.nue at

Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge to supply eggs for research,

trRockef e1ler Sutriplement" f arm progrram, and 'rPrivate Assistedrl programs. The Rockefeller Supplement is a continuatj-on of an early progrram wherein the first few alligator farmers in Louisiana were provided hatchlings from eggs from state-ovned properties as a

source of stock to encorlragle the f ledgling industryi as egg ranching was not alloved at that point. Later, when the deuand for

eggs exceeded what could be provided from Rockefell-er wildlife

Refuge the ranching program was developed. !.tany early ranchers

collected eggs with the assistance of Louisi.ana Departmenc of wildlife & Fisheries personnel while the ranching program technigues were being developed. These progrrams are phasinq out, only four fa:mers have not yet conpleted their ten years on the supplement program. Eggs are still collected extensively for researchers as outrined elsewhere in this paper. rn L993 approximately 41000 eggs rrrere collected for researchr- and 11,G95 hatchlings were provided for the private assisted and supplernent Programs. Alligator hbryology/lanperature Depeudeat sea Detemiaation

Numerous dj.stingruished international scientists have worked

out highly specialized aspects of the developurent of the alligator

enbryo using sanples collected at Rockefeller Refuge. A wealth of

data has been generated by these ind,ividuals and their expertise in

molecular biology technigues, radioirnmunoassay, tissue grafting,

etc. ' has answered many questj.ons on the reproductive biology and.

physi.oloqf of the alligator. We have had the pleasure through the

last several years of providing alligator eggs and tissues to Drs.

Paul Cardeilhac, Harriet Austj-n, Mark Fergruson, Anne Marie Coriat,

Jean Joss, Va1 Lance, Jeff Lang and Craig snith and others in order

to support their research.

t{olecular Geaetics of tbe

Work continues with Dr. Herb Dessaue,r to study questions of

uultJ.ple parentage, pair bond existence, etc. in alligators using

blood samples from captj.ve breeders at Rockefeiler and resulting

hatchlings. Preliminary data suggests all genotype distributj-ons

can be explained by single nale-to-fenale crosses (on1y one male

alligator fathered the entire clutch in the 5 clutches studied in

1993, i.e. other males di-d not contribute to the femaLe,s clutch).

There is no evidence of rnultiple rnale parentage of a single brood thus far. A single dominant nale appeared to have nated with three

females in Pen 6; this large maLe was the presurnptive father of 3 of the 5 clutches in that pen.

Biliary ot tbe alligator "yrt"r Several Projects were initiated in early L9g2 in associatj.on with Dr. Steve Tint and Dr. Guorong Xu to study the rate of production of bile in the A:nerican alligator and its/ exact composition using labelled cholesterol. Bile fistulas Irere nn surgically constructed to allow complete collection of bile, and to monitor the anount produced over certain tine periods. Final lab

analysis of the sanples collected i.s nearly cornplete. Another

radiologic study on the ultrastructure of the biliary system was

done in L992-93 as several variations were noted in the anatomv of

the biliary tree on initial dissections.

Alligator nornatodes

During a study of food habits of farnr-released and native wild alligators, we noticed that wild alligators more frequently (83.3?) hadnematodespresentthanfarm-re1easeda11j.gators(47.4z;P<

0.05) (E1sey et a1 L992). Also, neuatodes were more numerous in native wild alligators (13.1 t 3.8 nematodes/stomach) when present

in wild alligators versus 2.I : 0.5 nernatodes/stomach in f a:m- released alligators with nematodes (p < 0.05) (Elsey et al L992).

These nematode samples are being identifj-ed by Dr. Robin Overstreet and his staff at'the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory.

rrF (Forld rildlife 3u!d) Project/Sustaiaed Utilizatiou

A special project is unde::vay to docr:nent the conservation benefits of sustained utilization of crocodilian speci.es. Although the philosophy of 'rsustaj.ned use!r is wj-dely accepted by most crocodilian biologists and managers, the conservation benefits derived frorn the economic Aain of utilization of these species is not well documented, though generally accepted by those in the field. We are preparing an extensive nanuscript for the World

Wildlife Fund to document the conservati.on benefits of the well nanaged and strictly regrulated sustained use programs involving the

A:nerican alligator (wild harvest and egg ranching). Interviens with

Iand managers and the role the alligator plays in their wetlands managrement practices will be included to demonstrate how NL crocodilian uti.1i-zation can conserve and enhance marshlands and the many species utilizing those rretlands.

Exteasion Services

Due to the resources available at Rockefel]er Wildlife Refuge and the interest in supporting alligator research, we often provide sanpies to various investigators to help support their research on alligators or in general. A parti-al list of those indivj,duals, their institutions, and general areas of research follows.


we thank Guthrie Perry, Leisa Theriot, and Karen McCall for assistance with data analysis and preparation of the manuscript.

We acknowledge Barry Wilson for helpful review of the manuscript.

),) Receut Eatensiou Researebers

Austin, II. University of Colorado. Depart:nent of EPO Biology. Boulder, Colorado. Regrulatory nechanisms of Mullerian duct regression. cardeilhac, P. University of . College of Veterinary Medicine. Gainesville, Florida. Factors affecting captive breeding/reproductive successr' disease, etc.

Canfield, W. Unj-versity of Health Sciences Center. oklahoma city, oklahoma. Evolution of the mannose 6- phosphate/insulin like growth factor If receptor system ( nodel).

Conlon, J. M. Creighton University School of Medicine. omaha, Nebraska. Neuroendocrine peptides, tachykinins.

Coulson, R. A./Herbert, J. (see text). Louisiana State Unj-versity. Department of Biochemistry. , Louisiana. Alligator biochemistry, physioloqf , nutrition.

Dessauer, H. (see text). Louisiana State University. Department of Biochemistry. New Orleans, Louisiana. Molecular genet,ics, breeding physiology.

Fergnrson, lq. /Coriat, A. l{. (see text,). University of Manchester. Cell and st:rrctural biolog11. Manchester, England. Genetj.c factors/regnrlation of TSD, eggr hatchability/enbryologry.

Janke, A. Univelrsity of Ge:::oany, Zoology Institute. Munich, . Molecular phylogeny of (1iver tissue for DNA source).

Jones, D./Phelps, R. University of British Colunbia. Vancouver, BC, Canada. Cardi.ovascular physiolog:y/cardiac anatomy and blood shunting.

Joss, J. /Snith, C. Macguarie University. Sydney, Australia. TSD/gonadal sex differentiation/reproductive endocrinology.

Kasinsky, H. University of British Colurnbia. vancouver, BC, Canada. IiPlC/protein sequencing of sperm protamines.

Lance, V. (see text). San Diego Zoological society. San Diego, California. Comparative and developmental endocrinology, reproductive physiology, stress physiology/heroatology.

Lang, J. Universj-ty of North Dakota. Grand Forks, North Dakota. Control of and temperature sensitive peri.ods in TSD, reproductive biology, incubation physiology.

Owen, w. Mayo Clj-nic. Rochester, Minnesota. Nonrnammalian clotting systens/thrombin biochemistry.

223 Powell, J. George Washington University. Washington, D.C. postembryonic development of sexually dirnorphic osteologica] characteristics in living/extinct .

Rieppel, O. Field l{useum of Natural l{j.story. Chi.cago, Illinois. Patterns of ossification in the endo- and exoskeleton.

Staton, M. (see text). P. O. Box 30985, Lafayette, Louisiana. Alligator nutrition, skin gtrality, breeder diets.

Tint, S./Xu, G. (see text). Veteran's Administration Hospital. East Orange, New Jersey. Bile composit.ion, synthesj-s, biliary Eree anatromy.

Urtl, R. Louisiana State University. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Function of the cyt,ochrome P4S0-dependent microsomal nixed function oxidase sYstem. vigna,- s . Drrke unj.versity, Durham, . Rvolution/physiologt'y of the regulatory peptides of the cholecystokinin/ gastrin f anily .

Weldon, P. Texas A & M University. College Station, Texas. Composlti-on -and function of glandular secretions, f eedi.ng bebavior, chemj.cal attractants-

Wharburton, S. University of Nevada. Las Vegas, Nevada. Effects of hlpoxia on cardiovascular/respiratory development in enbryogenesis.

Witner, L. New York College of Osteopathic Medicine. Long Is1an6, New York. Grorrth/morphemetrics of the skul1 and sinus system.

?24 Rootes, W. L., Chabreck, R. H., Wright, V. L., Brown, B. w", and Hess, T. J. 1991. Grorrth rates of Anerican alligators in estuarine and palustrine wetlands in Louisiana. Estuaries 14 (4) :489-494.

Taylor, D., Kinler, N. W., and Linscornhe, G. 1991". Female alligator reproduction and associated population estimates" J. wildl. Manage. 55(4):682-588.

Weldon, P. J. , and McNease, L. 1991. Does the Anerican alligator di.scriminate between venomous and non-venomous prev? Iierpetologica 47 z 403-405.


Banta, M. R., Joanen, T., and Weldon, P. J. L992. Foraging responses by the American alligator to meat extracts. pp. 413-417. In R. Doty and D. Muller Schwarze [eds], Chemical signals in vertebrates VI., Plenun Press, NY.

E1sey, R. M., Joanen, T., McNease, L., and Kinler, N. L992. Grorrrth rates and body condj.tion f actors of Alliqator nissi.ssiopiensis in coastal Louisiana wetlands: a conparison of wiLd and fa:m-released juveniles. comp. Biochen. Physiol. 103A(4) 3667-672. Presented at the 11th Working Ueeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group, Victoria Falls, Zinbabwe (Abstract, pp. 95 Volume 1).

Elsey, R. M., Joanen, T., McNease, L., and Kinler, N. 1992. Food habits. of native wild and f arm-released juvenile alligators. Proc. Southeast. Assoc. Fish and Wildl. Agencies 46: (In press). Presented at tbe l1th Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group, Victoria Falls, Zinbabwe (Abstract, pp. 96 Volume 1),

Joanent T., and McNease, L. t992. Sequence of nesting, clutch sj.ze, and hatch rate for alligators. Proc. l1th Working Meeting of tbe Crocodile Specialist Group, Vi.ctoria Fa1ls, Zimbabwe (pp. 207-22]. Volume 1).

Kinler, N. W., and Taylor, D. Intensive alligator harvest on Salvador Wildlife Managenent Area, Louisiana durj.ng 1986-1990. Proc. Southeast. Assoc. Fish and Wildl. Asencies 46: (In press).

Staton, M. , Edwards, It. U. , Brisbin , !. L. , Joanen I I., and McNease, L. L992. The influence of environrnental temperature and dietary factors on utiLization of dietary energy and protei-n in purified diets by alligators, Alliqator nississippiensis (Daudin) . Aquaculture 107:369-381.


Dessauer, H. C. , and E1sey, R. l!. 1993. of the A:nerican alligator. (Abstract) Proc. Fed. An. Soc. Expt1. Biol. Mtg. p" 814. EI Elsey, R. !1., Joanen, T., and McNease, L. 1993. Captive breeding of alligators and other crocodilians. Proc. 2nd Regrional Conference of the Crocodi.le Specialj.st group, Danrin, Australia.

Lance, V. A., E1sey, R. M. , and Coulson, R. A. 1993. Biological actj.vity of alligator, avj.an, and ma'nmalian insulin in juvenile allJ,gators: plasma glucose and amino acids. General and Comparative Endocrinolog.y 892267-275.


E1sey, R. M., Joanen, T., and McNease, L. L994. Ectopj-a cordis in hatchling Allicrator rni.ssissippiensis . Herp. Rev. (In press).

Joanen, T., McNease, L., Elsey, R., and Perry, G. 1994. U.S. Alligrator Farming: A dynanic Arowth industry in Louisiana. (Abstract). Proc. World Aquaculture Society Meeting. p. f58. New Orleans, Louisiana.

Joanen, T., McNease, L., Elsey, R., and Staton, M. llt. A. 1994. The coranercial consu:nptj.ve use of the Anerican alligator (Alliqator mississinniensis) in Louisiana: Its' effect on conservatj.on. A case study (in review) Project D#009 of WWF Project 920534.04. First draft conpleted March 1994.

Lance, V. A. and Elsey, R. l{. L994. Effect of alligator insulj.n on plasua lipids in juvenj-le atrligators. (In preparation).

Lance, V. A. and Elsey, R. M. L994. Response of juvenile alligrators to cold shock (Abstract). Presented at the 1994 Western Regional Conference on Comparative Endocrinologry. San Diego, California.

Lance, V. A. and E1sey, R. I't. 1994 . Plasma catecholamines , corticosterone and glucose during a 48-hour stress in juvenile alligators. (In preparation) .

Lance, V. A. r Elsey, R. 1,1.,Joanen, !., and McNease, L. L994. Are American alligator populations nale-biased? (In preparation) .

Wink, C. S. and Elsey, R. M. L994. ltorphology of shells from viable and non-viable eggs of the (Alliqator sinensis). (In review).

n8 Literature Cited (Not Listed in LDWF Recent Publicatj.ons)

Addison, B. L. 1993. Survival and novement of farm-raised allj-gators released in a freshwater marsh in southeastern Louj,siana. 79 pages. Unpublished lt. S. thesis, Louisiana State UniversitY.

Hutton, J. and Webb, G. L992. An introduction to the fa:ning of Crocodilians. b Lu:onore, R. A. Directory of Crododilian Farming operations. 2nd Edition, fUcN, G1and, Switzerland. 350 pages.

Joanen, T. and McNease, L. 1970. A telemetric study of nesting female alligators on Rockefeller Refuge, Louisiana. Proc. Ann. Conf. Southeastern Assoc. Gane and Fish Conrn. 242L75- >J.

Joanen, T. and McNease, L. 1,97L. Propagation of the American alligator in captivity. Proc. Ann. Conf. of Southeastern Game and Fish Coilrn. 25 : 106-116 .

Joanen, T. and l{cNease, L. L972. A telemetric study of adult male alligators on Rockefeller Refuge, Louisiana. Proc. Ann. Conf . Southeastern Assoc. Garne and Fish Cornm. 262252-75.

Joanen, T. and McNease, L. 1987. Alligator famj.ng research in Louisiana, USA. In wildlife Management: Crocodile and Alligators (Edited by Webb G. J. W., Manolis, S. and l{tritehead P. J. ), pp. 329-340. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty, Northern , Australia:

Palmisano, A. w., Joanen, T., and McNease, L. t973. An analysi-s of Louj.siana's L972 experimental alligator harvest program. Proc. 27i-|. Ann. Conf. Southeastern Assoc. Game and Fish Conm. 184-206.

Rootes, w. L. 1989. Behavior of the American alligator in a Louisiana freshwater marsh. PhD. Dissertation, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. 108 Pp.

Taylor, D. and Neal, W. 1984. Management implications of sLze- class freqrrency distributions in Louisiana alligator populations. wiIdl. Soc. 8u11. L2, 312-318.

Webb, G., Manolis, S. C., and CooPer-Preston, H. Crocodile managrement and research in the Northern Territory: 1988-90. Proceedings 10th Working Meeti.ng of the Crocodile Specialj.st Group, Gainesville, Florida. 1990. 253-273.


SomeAspects ofPolicy and achiervements

Antonio Villa Jefe Divisi6n Fauna II{DERENA

The Conference of the CITES PartiesResolution 8.22 (environmentalvalue of captivebreeding -coutOand ranching)and the Editorial Note in CSGNewslgrrER 12 (2) makeu think n€, as a whole community, go to one exu€me. Pastexperiences have shovm that extremesarc not good or safeand providevery limited managementconditiorrs.

Within ttte debateon captivebreeding verss ranching Colombianould like to staysomervhere in the middle and keepoptiors openin both directions. Of course,we will strive to keepour attentionon ecosy$ern dyunics and productivitywhile achiwing conservationand sstainable gseof species.

C.onditionspaniolar to Colombiahave led ts to work very hard on the captivebreeding side of t6g suainable useoptions, and we are interestedin teuing the public aboutoru wor* with someryecieq their wild populatiorqrestocking and sustainableutilization

With many species( for example),rre think it will be easierto refocrs our consenration effortson the wild poputationonce regrrlated legal trade and the economicbenefits firom closed

This presentationwill be brid. Colombiahas presentedto prwiors SteeringCorunitree meetings of the CSG and to the 29th and 30th StandingComminee Meetings of CITES (Washingtonand Bnrsselq t-9s:) r€portson the captivebrceding scheme we havebeen managing. More recently,the Chairmanof the Animals Committeeof CITES and the Vice€hairman of the CSG havepresented a comprehensiver€port on Colombia to the 3lth meetingof the StandingCommittee of CITES (GeneyaN{arch 1994) and to this l2th meetingof the CSGSteering Commiuee.

At this time n'e would like to su€sssonp main relevantconsiderations about the Colombianprognurl

l. The totat internal and external uade in anfunalsin Colombia has decreasedsigrificantly since regulationsbonnd commercialhunting ofwild anfunalsand opened the captivebreeding option

2. Crocodiliansbecame truIy protectedand the legal sustainableuse is helping to stop illegal non- sstainable trade. Wild crocodilianpopulations in Colombiaare recoveringor stablein mostforested ar€as.

3. The most endangeredspecies in Colombia, intermedius, urgently needscaptive breeding beforewild poprtationscan be restocked

4. The costsof protectingthe thrcatenedcrocodiles and rearingthem in captivity havebeen paid by the 'babilla', closedcyclefarms and legalbade in Caimancrocodilus. 'ls$ille' 5. () legal trade also has helped pay tlrc cost of dweloping ftrms for s$ainabale utilization of other species,giving continuousemployment to peoplein rurat depressedzoneq and contnbutingto increasedawareness ofnanue conservationand sustainableuse. m 6. Closed'cycleAnns in Colombiaare locatedmostty in areaswhere is highly disuube4 where main human sefiIementsare locate4 and where cattle ranching and extensiveagiqd1111e has developed. Thtts, the close-cycle&rms help bring wild animals back to theseregioru as land use alternatives.

7. In Colombia closed-cyclefrrms, and alsocrocodilian tannerieg are e,xamplesof advancedenterprises taking careof the environment They controlwater disposal,recycle nutrientg avoid soil erosioq and promoteeconomic investrnent in conservationin rural areaswhere cattle and agriorlture raditionally arc not involvedin conservation

8. Closedcycle operationsin Colombiahave provideda valuableopporhrnity for tearn work between gwernmentand the privatesector, thrs helpingpolicy developnrcntand implementation

9. Closedcycle firms in Colombiaare contnbuting to the knowledgeof wild speciesand to the naining of peoplefor management Thsy are also prwiding much more informationthan in the past,when ttre aryttrreand exportof wildlife uas widespreadand uncontrolled

10. The programwe havedeveloped now is giving tu the opporuurityto approachnew fore*ed regiors where local peoplecould be implementingoptions for ranching or lrarve*ing frrom the wild under technicallybased quotas.

Colombiais re-evaluatingia wildtife progams. That rwieril will to imprwed regulationand policyforwildlife utilization It might leadto a generalpolicy of captivebreeding of CITES AppendrxI ryecies, and ranchingand wild turvest of Appendixtr andIII species.

The managementof the marketfor sustainableutilization of speciesis not a single country task In sriving to reachthat goal, we want to shareexperiences and efforts with other countriesand organizatiors. Cmperationwill be neededto ensurethat tradewill b€ carriedout with productsof legal origin If this is not possible,Colombia will haveto stick to captivebreeding as the only optionto maintaincDntrol. An Assessmentof CrocodileResource Potential in

JackH. Cox and M.M. Rahman

2919 ColonyRoad ResearchOfficer (Wildlife) Charlotte,NC BangladeshForest Research Institute usA 28211 G.P.O.Box 273, Chittagong Bangladesh 4OOO

1. Acknowledgements

The authors are gratefulto the many peoplewho helpedfacilitate an enjoyable and fruitful visit to the relevant locations and resource persons in Bangladesh. In particular,Mr. EnamHoque of CrocodilianTanning Assistance Associates (CTAA) is warmly acknowledgedfor his ardent interestin establishinga conservation-based programof crocodilemanagement in Bangladeshand for arrangingsponsorship of co- author JC's visit and subsequentreporting costs.

Dr. M.M. Hassan,Director of the BangtadeshForest Research Institute (BFRI) has been extremely helpfulin providingbackground information on the status and conservationof crocodiles,as well as other wildlife,in Bangladesh.His permission for co-author MR to undertakesite visits in the Chittagong and Cox's Bazaarareas allowed an excellentoverview of crocodilerearing potential to be obtainedfor those importantareas.

Thanksare alsodue to JamilAhmed, P.K.Barman, Jillur Chowdhury, and A.K. shamsuddin Kahn of the private sector for their important contributions related to evaluation of feed prospects. SongklodChantarasri, Peter Myers, Kirti Tamang, and Gusti Tantra of the Food and AgricultureOrganization (FAO) graciouslyprovided information,facilities and hospitality. In addition,support by SergeDarroze of FAO Headquartersfor suggestedfollow-up measures is most appreciated.

BangladeshBiman staff facilitatedtravel on severaloccasions by coming up with airlineseats when nonewere to be had. Similarfine assistancewas providedby many other people in various walks of life, enablinga great deal of ground to be coveredand relevantpersons contacted during a brief and gratifyingstay.

Appreciationis also extendedto Harry Andrews, John Hutton, Phil Hall, and Rom Whitaker for their commentsand constructivecriticisms of this report and its precedingversion. 2. Introduction:

Bangladesh is a largely alluvial country in southcentral Asia (Figure 2l ot approximately 120 million people and supports one of the world's highest densities of rural human population. Most lowland habitat has been converted for agricultural purposesto meet the basic needs of a burgeoningclass of hard-corepoor. Almost all remainingcrocodile habitat is under intensepressure from fishing, transportation, and forest product extraction.

At leastthree crocodilians have historically occurred and persistin Bangladesh: the Gavialisgangeticus, mugger (or marsh crocodile) Crocodylus palustris and estuarinecrocodile C. porosus. The gharialis restrictedin present distribution to the Indian sub-continent (and possiblyMyanmar), while the mugger extends to the Near East and Sri Lanka, and the estuarineor is a wide-ranging lndo- Pacificspecies.

A two week review was carriedout from 10-25 January 1993 to assessthe current status of crocodile populationsin Bangladeshand potential for conservation- based rehabilitationof the resource. Pertinentliterature and data were collated and studied. Interviews were conductedwith a variety of governmentofficials, aid agency personnel,researchers, captive stock managers,and other interestedentrepreneurs. Most captive stock locations and potentialfarming/ranching areas were visited, but time constraints did not allow direct inspection of representative examples of remainingcrocodile habitat. Emphasiswas given to evaluatingthe economic viability of ranchingand farming, and how such potentialoperations could enhance the in situ prospectsof crocodiliansin Bangladesh.

This report is an updated version of a report preparedin May 1993 for CTAA that describesin detailthe findingsof the visit and recommendationsfor follow-up action.

3. CrocodilianStatus and Distribution:

3.1 gangeticusi

Gharialwere reportedlycommon about 1OOyears ago in largefreshwater suchas the Jamuna,Padma, Meghna and Brahmaputra (Sarkar 1986). Until1950 the specieswas also distributedin many tributaries(Faizuddin 1985). Since then sub- populationsthroughout Bangladesh have undergone a steepdecline. In 1982 the total populationwas estimatedat 20 (Khan1982), anda 1985 surveyrecorded 28 in the Padma,Jamuna and Brahmaputrarivers (Faizuddin 1985). A year later,only 8-1O was estimated (Husainet al. 1986a). Caution with these figures is advised becausesystematic survey methodologyhas not been used. Most surveys have relied on counts of baskingcrocodiles and anecdotalinformation from local communities. The figures should be regardedas minimum approximationsof population size, Pigure 2. I'{ap of Bangladesh with annotated features (source: Rahnan 1992)

tra' lt t.. if l, (-.'..'i_ main river ., (\ == ^! rv.a] I :.'r. r- iI !-'ff'.l', u4,.{-/ _ district,di -stri..r. '-'\ '.. lNDla r- lt 0 tt . l"/t^ towns & citi .r / r.-'\-l t.'^'RAt{ffuB -f# m sundarbans ^^i: tto,fi{SR*'-';"";;"ii..dFi-' -i-. ---.-.i.- -.-.2,-.-'-'J -. -.\,:.-'-''"\ ------,:Itlt .t ' \ad'-o.-"'-'-,.- ''i C't}' l"-').- E\r\'1b, ;,\.f ') sYLHET RA,sHAHT ),' i., \, ) . .'ls->3\q_'rj'(Hncatt. \ ; t if-Rajshahi]sharl]. i,. ? hITANGAIL \\ ,,t ,.rt k.u-,,'*r"{fl :'"'-\ ;-(? .^r.J FRr; ^ lL'.-.; -'HAKA \: ,.A.- ..1 WK-'- OHAKA ) rl' rNorA frr.tt,- -Nci\ f ; lKrJsHTff,.-t -:\ nhava1r i '.? -\:/[icotttuL( j'._--^__'.,, / ) \ /-'Jgssont'e'\ i\'-"'----- ,o*oorri t ..'i \'/ ln 'l \ / rilofA (' - _fl_,,.r__j! ], i. i._.'f -, 7'.".-'1- ,,,nr-'-\li\; lroaT

/-:t$1 f'l)'o{rTrAtoNo\, , r.. t li iijlf-r,,1 il',) ) :*)'..*l,,.n"fn'."^ff-:!\. t t 1rlffikd/6t:1;\/r'",! \ i t; $-l tl Su..Aarbans t\'//' cox,ss^ru{L',\-,., U \ fl,-'.^\\r-" BANGLADESH . \t"tynxuAR o 20 40 60 80 loo MILES r r \ \ lt. I r I I \r XILOMETAFS \

. rf. I lt.

?y althoughowing to the relativelyconspicuous behavior of gharials,their novelty as a rare species, and the highly dispersed local presence of human informants, it is unlikely that gharial abundancehas been seriouslyunderestimated.

Since 1986 there have been very few sightingsof the species in degraded primary habitat comprised by the main channels of the Padma, Jamuna and Brahmaputrarivers. No nests have been reportedfor the past three years along the best known nesting-banksnear Rajshahi on the Padma(M. Rahman,pers. comm.), whereas during the period 1982-1985 two nesting colonies produced 12 nests (Rahman 199O). The last incidentalcapture of a gharialappears to have been a yearlingin 199O from Aricha near the confluenceof the Padmaand Jamuna (Md. SamsulAlam, caretaker,Dhaka Zoo, pers.comm.). The animalis beihg rearedunder good conditionsat DhakaZoo, where an additional1.7 m juvenile(9?) is kept (pers. obs.). The only other captive stock are two juvenilesat the RajshahiZoo (Rahman 1991a), which was not visited.

Although the gharial is protected by legislation in Bangladesh (Wildlife Preservation Act of 1973), the law is yet to be effectively implemented for crocodilians.Local people unintentionally drown gharialsin fishingnets and attendant females tip off villagersto the location of nests, which are excavated and destroyed with the unfounded belief that gharialsreduce the fish catch.

Gharial habitat is intensivelyutilized throughout Bangladeshfor fishing and as major transportation arteries. The nesting banks SE of Rajshahiare said to be still relativelyundisturbed (village informants, pers. comm.); however, no comprehensive survey has been conducted in Bangladeshto assessthe extent of suitable remaining or recoverablehabitat.

To further complicatethe situation,much of the suitablehabitat in the Padma Riversystem was lost in 1986 due to a courseshift in the riverto the lndianside of the border. After subsequentrecovery, the monsoonof 1991 againtransferred the gharialpopulated section of the Padmato Indianjurisdiction (Andrews 1992).

Consideringthe extremelylow, decreasingpopulation estimates and continuing degradationof remaininghabitat. the gharialin Bangladeshnow faces the imminent threat of being extirpated from the wild.

3.2 C. palustrisi

The muggeris evidentlyextinct in the wild in Bangladesh.ln captivity, only six individuals- all wild-derivedadult pairs- remain. Two of these are housed at Dhaka Zoo, where the femalesare said by the groundskeeper to nest annually,laying as many as 25 eggs each. However,successful hatching has yet to occur. The other pair is well-maintainedin a shrinepond at Bagarhat,south of Khulna. The female, ostensiblyaged and very tame, was reportedby the caretakerto still nest annually beginningin March. Since1984, 25-30 hatchlingshave been produced in most years,


I but (all?)were allegedlycannibalized by one or both parents. Clutchdata for the period1981-1987 has beencompiled by Rahman(1991b). A hatcheryis being construct8dby the BangladeshForest Research Institute (BFRI) at Chittagong. lt is envisagedthat this facilitywill be usedto incubatefertile eggs produced by the last remainingbreeders.

Mugger were probably once widespreadin rivers and associated haors ()of Bangladeshbut extensivehabitat loss and modification,in additionto huntingfor hides,has virtuallyextirpated the species. Althoughmugger are highly adaptableto a varietyof aquatichabitats, no significantexpanses of intact habitat- and in particularany suitablenesting habitat - couldbe identified.

3.3 C. porosus:

The estuarinecrocodile formerly inhabited the coastalmangrove associations of Chiftagongdistrict in SEBangladesh (and probably inhabited the maininland rivers of the country as welll but is now restrictedto the 3,8OOkm2 Sundarbans Reserve Forest (Whitaker1982). This vast maze of mangroveforest and tidal mudflats featuressome 1,2OO km2 of waterways,much of which remainsgood general habitat tor C. porosus(Figure 3.3).

Estuarinecrocodiles were common in the Sundarbansuntil unregulated for skinsbetween the 1940s and 1970s reducedthe populationfrom a minimumof severalthousandto probablyno morethan a few hundred(Whitaker 1982). Despite the impfementationof a huntingban since 1972, the populationshowed little if any signof a recoveryover the next decade,possibly as a resultof a severereduction in femalebreeding cohorts (Whitaker 1982).

No comprehensivesurvey of the estuarinecrocodile population in the Sundarbanshas been conducted, but an indicationof populationstatus can be gained from onemajor and several preliminary surveys. Akonda (1981) conducted day and nightcounts of crocodilesin the Swarankhola- Katkaarea. Supplementedwith local information,he estimateda minimum(non-hatchling?) density of 0.16 crocodiles/km over a courseof 56 km. Duringa nineday, wide-rangingstay in the Sundarbans, ForestryDepartment officers confirmedthe persistenceof a breedingpopulation (Husain,et al. 1986b). Othernon-systematic estimates of minimumpopulation size rangefrom 4O (Rahman1992) to 20O(Khan, cited in Rahman1g91bl.

A majorpopulation survey was carriedout by Whitakerin 1982 but because of weather and logisticalconstraints night counts coveredjust 95 km. However, forest productextractors recounted the presenceof some 85 nests and numerous sightingsof estuarinecrocodiles. On the basisof thisinformation, it may be inferred that a minimumpopulation on the orderof a few hundredexisted.

The most recentindication of statuscornes from initialfieldwork conducted in early 1993 duringthe currentFAO/Government of Bangladeshproject to assist

m Figure 3.3 Sundarbans Reserve Forest

N. B. Annotated figures refer to divisions where C. porosus reported. sustained-yieldmanagement of the Sundarbans. Although there are no data to suggestthat crocodilenumbers are increasing, evidence of a furtherdecline is lacking. Estuarinecrocodiles are occasionallyseen baskingon mudflats and there are several repofts of nests destroyed by local gatherers. of wildlife is considered uncommonif not virtuallynon-existent (K. TamanglAppend. 4], pers. comm.). As surmised by Whitaker (1982), the human disturbancegenerated by the collection activities of some 100,000 daily users (latestestimates) may be causing females to abandontheir nest guardingbehavior, leading in turn to increasedclutch predationand lack of recruitmentinto the population.lt is alsointeresting (and somewhat puzzling) that tiger maulsremain frequent but no crocodileattacks have beenreported in recent years(K. Tamang,p€rs. comm.).

4. Ranchinoand FarminoProsoects:

4.1 Concepts and strategies

Where crocodilepopulations have beendepleted to the levelthat direct cropping of animals is no longerfeasible, there are two other managementstrategies: farming and ranching,that can be utilizedto developcommercial potential and simultaneously promote recovery of the resource. Both strategiespossess conservation value in that a proportion of reared animals can be returned to the wild in order to replenish populations. The adoption of such strategiesis especiallyappropriate in countries such as Bangladeshwhere multiple species of crocodilians feature dissimilar populationstatus and utilizationpotential. Where suitabletracts of crocodile habitat still exist, a conservation-basedfarming scheme may later be phased into a ranching program.

Farming of crocodilesis based on the breedingof adults in a controlled environment. Eggslaid by femalesare collectedfrom nests and artificially incubated; hatchlingsare then rearedto desiredsize for slaughter. An importantadvantage of this strategyis that optimum conditionsfor breedingstock enableeggs of maximum fitness to be produced.

The ability to obtain young eggs is very important because they can be manipulatedby temperatureto choosethe sex of offspring. Incubationunder ideal 'programmed' conditionsalso allows maximumgrowth ratesto be for the entire life of the ,thus enhancingperformance and profit.

The major drawbacksof farminglie in its closed-cyclecharacter. The costs of constructingbreeding facilities and maintenanceof breedingstock are substantialand can hurt the profitability of the operation, particularlyin today's increasingly competitivemarketplace. Moreover, because there is no economicdependence on the maintenanceof healthy wild populations,benefits to conservation are minimal (Thorbiarnarson1992).

2X Ranching of crocodilesis based on the collection of eggs or young from the wild. Becausethese populationcomponents exhibit high naturalmortality, the risk of adversely impacting the population is considerably less than a harvest of larger animals subject to much lower mortalitiesin the wild. By salvaginga largely doomed component, ranchingstretches the productivity of the resourceto the mutual benefit of conservation and commercialproduction.

The recent worldwide surge of interestin this strategy is attributable in part to its abilityto confer a high degreeof conservationvalue. Ranchingforges a direct link between the health of wild populationsand the ability to obtain rearing stock (Thorbjarnarson1992). Dependanceon a harvest of eggs or young animalsalso underscoresthe value and importanceof protecting breedingstock in the wild.

Eggs are particularlywell-suited to this strategy due to 6ven greater mortality in the wild (- 5O-9O%)than hatchlingsor yearlings.Another advantage of choosing eggs over young animals is that higher quality "starter material" can be obtained if eggs are harvestedsoon after depositionand transportedproperly to a rearingfacility. Early collection also allows a higher percentageof vulnerableeggs to be salvaged before the effects of flooding and predationtake their toll.

Ranching is also more favorable to the economical conduct of a rearing operation than farming. Less investment is required becausethe costs associated with pen construction and maintenanceof breedingstock can be by-passed.

4.2 Speciessuitability

. Ranching prospectsfor the Bangladeshpopulations of mugger and gharialare bleak because the species have been nearly extirpated and suitable habitat for eventual recovery is evidently very limited. Even so, commercialfarming of mugger for skins and by-productsshould be a viable long-termstrategy. The skin quality of this speciesfalls within the valuable"classic" categoryand by-productssuch as meat, oil and glandscould add another30-5oo/o to export value.

A possiblenear-term contingency exists for the ranchingof mugger utilizing stock obtainedfrom . Since1975 a recoveryprogram initiated with the technical assistanceof FAO has succeededin resuscitatingthe mugger resourcein lndia by rearingjuveniles from wild-collectedeggs (and more recently)captive breedingfor reintroduction.

However,mugger habitat in lndiais limitedto a smallnetwork of refugiawithin suitableprotected areas and all locationsnow approach(or have reached)population carryingcapacity (H. Andrews[Append. 4], pers.comm.). Morethan 12,OOO mugger remain in captivity (Anon. 1993) due to the lack of additionalrelease sites and the government'scontinued unwillingness to permitcommercial utilization. The cost of feed and shortageof pen spacefor stock is creatinghardship for rearingfacilities, and contrary to the aim of their establishment,leaving no alternativefor many but to

89 destroyclutches or allow them to rot (Andrews1992). Bangladeshwould appearto be the ideal country within the home range of C. palustris to help alleviate this unfortunatesituation by importof eggsor excessjuveniles and, in turn, demonstrate the many merits of a ranchingstrategy to lndian authorities. Such a scheme would mutuallybenefit Bangladesh by expeditingdevelopment of muggerranching in addition to providing founder stock for a possiblere-introduction program.

Although the ossifiedcharacter of gharialskin rendersit of low value for the production of leather, cost-effectivebreeding of the species could be facilitated by integratingsuch a venturewith tourismand the rearingof other residentcrocodilians. Excellent potential to integrate domestic tourism was found in the Chittagong and Cox's Bazaarareas (see sections 4.4.1 and 4.4.21. The uniqueness,rarity and unusual appearanceof the gharialmake it an exemplarytourist attraction.

C. porosus continuesto command the highest price of all crocodilianskins on the internationalmarket (USD 7-1O per cm bellywidth),and becausecaptive breeding of the species has thus far met with only limited success, and in sr'fu utilization is limited by the seriously depleted nature of most remaining populations, marketing prospectsfor the nearfuture (andperhaps well beyond)are likely to remainfavorable.

A systematic survey is first requiredto confirm a viable breedingpopulation of estuarine crocodiles in the Sundarbansand the practicalityof locating active nests, but a ranching scheme based on wild egg harvests should present an attractive management option for this species. Ranchingcould be tailored to not only sustainably utilize the existing estuarine crocodile population but promote its replenishmentand providea strongereconomic incentive to conservehabitat.

lf the apparent high rate of failed nesting in the Sundarbanscan also be corroborated,then the wild populationshould incur virtually no risk from egg harvesting.Indeed, to rapidlyrestore the estuarinecrocodile resource and expandthe source of commercial"starter material",a proportionof harvestedeggs could be restocked within two years as young juveniles with greatly increased chances of survival.

4.3 Critical factors

Other than accessibilityof stock, the single most important factor in establishinga ranchingor farmingventure in Bangladeshis a secure,regular supply of cheap, fresh proteinas crocodilefeed. Ruralsources in the form of cow and goat offal are reportedtyavailable (Whitaker 1982), but these appeardifficu'lt to mobilize for the almost daily deliveryand quantity required. Moreover, such sources are dangerouslyunreliable because the investorwould have to bank on uninterrupted cooperationfrom severalsmall scale ventures or a host of independentfarmers. Lacking control over feed cost could prove risky, especiallywhen supplierssee a profitable venture coming on line. The importance of feed security is further

24 emphasizedby the lengthyperiod (> 5 yearslneeded to bring a ranchingor breeding enterpriseinto full operationand recoupthe substantialinitial investment.

Waste animalprotein is scarcein Bangladeshand there is virtuallyno trash fish. The 'hanging meat" (brainand connectivetissue) discarded by the shrimp industry was found in interviews with factory managersto be minuscule (< 1 kg per ton of catch). Crocodilefeed would be largelyrestricted to locally marketablefish, of which severalspecies are suitableand relativelycheap (USD O.2O - O.S0/kg),and incidental catches of even less expensiveskate and shark.

A long-termjoint venturewith a largeparastatal such as BangladeshFisheries DevelopmentCorporation (BFDC) could alleviatefeed cost uncertainty, but there are not yet any competing large suppliersto assist the prospects of smooth sourcing. Ample supplieswere found in most centersbut availabilitydrops seriously during the months of June through August when trawlers are reluctantto venture into the stormy Bay of Bengal. Becauseeven a few weeks without feeding can induce stress in rearingstocks that carriesover well beyond the time feed is again provided, installationof freezers may be necessaryto extend suppliesof fish.

Relying on fish is also potentiallyrisky as this can lead to imbalancesin metabolismand result in diseaseif the feed is not fed fresh or is composed of a high fat content. The problem can be overcome with vitamin and mineral supplements, and the use of freezers, but these add considerablyto the overall cost of operation.

To further ensurea regularsupply of feedand lessexpensive procurement, the potential for development of a fish meal based pellet feed merits scrutiny.

Alternative sourcesof feed are questionablebecause commercial production of meat and hides in Bangladeshis highly decentralizedand largelyrural-based. Offal from local production of legs and chicken is available in small quantities, but greater potential exists with integratedpoultry productionand to a lesserdegree with commercial rearing of for legs and skins. The potential for frog farming is still largelyunknown (Fugler1983) and particularlydeserving of further investigationas Bangladeshhas in recentyears becomethe world's largestexporter of frozen frog legs (Anon. 1992). Conservation-basedfrog farming could also prove valuableas there are increasingconcerns that a declinein frog populationsdue to overharvestinghas led to the proliferationof pests, which are in turn adversely affecting agriculturalproduction and communityhealth through the increaseduse of pesticides (Fugler1983).

Notwithstandingthe current weak internationalmarket in crocodile leather, economicprospects for ranchingand farmingin Bangladeshare promising.These are typified by:

. availabilityof suitably priced feed in the form of sea fish and possiblyother sources;

241 o inexpensiveland, costs of constructionand generallabor; . a favorable export market and near-futureprospects tor C. porosus skins; o excellent potential for integrationwith tourism to enhance viability; o a tropical climate conduciveto low cost grow-out of rearingstock; and, . creation of a new export market to generatemuch needed foreign exchange;

Becauseof lessthan idealfeed costs, the designand establishmentof rearing enterprises must, however, pay particular attention to the scale and efficiency of operation. This includesincorporation of advancedtechnologies, where feasible,to competeeffectively with establishedproducer countries. Presentindications are that for a ventureto be economicallyviable, skin productioncosts must not exceedUSD 2.OOlcmbellywidth.

Integration with domestic tourism was appraised as an excellent way to significantlycut overheadat two locationsand perhapssingularly finance a ranching or farming venture at one of them (c.f. sections4.4.1 and 4,4.2!.,

Similarly,joint ventures with overseastanners to produce processedskins for export could increaseoperationalviability and in-countryprofits (and thus add value to the resource),as well as enabletanners to cut their manufacturingcosts.

4.4 Evaluationsof potential rearinglocations

Severaltowns and cities were investigatedfor the feasibility of ranching and farming of resident crocodilians. The availabilityof freshwater, feed, eggs and tourism potential were the primary factors consideredin evaluatingthe following locations.

4.4.1 Cox's Bazaar

This small town at the southeasterntip of the country is the center for domestic tourism in Bangladesh. The principal attraction is a wide, largely undevelopedbeach, which from Septemberthrough April draws as rnanyas 10O,OOO visitors on weekends and 20,000 to 3O,0OOon weekdays. As there is a near total lack of recreationaland entertainmentfacilities, an attractively designed, well- managedand publicizedcrocodile enterprise should be able to offset most if not all operationalcosts. In addition,an excellentvenue could be developedto raisepublic awarenessconcerning crocodile and other wildlifeconservation.

The all-importantfactor of a cheapdependable source of protein as crocodile feed is to some degree limiting. Only fresh ocean fish is available,but can be organizedby BFDC in sufficient quantity (> 5OOkg/day) during most of the year. While there is a localmarket for nearlyall the catch, less palatablesmall speciesare sufficiently inexpensive(USD 0.35 - 0.50/kg). Tuna, which is a particularlygood feed species,and small prawns are usuallyavailable in the same price range. From Septemberthrough November,the prime commercialspecies, hilsa Hilsa /rsa floods

242 the market at reduced price (USD 0.25 - 0.40/kg). Skates and sharks are available most months and cheapestof all (USDO.2O '4olkg).

Alltypes of feed are subjectto reducedsupply duringthe monsoon months and there is a lean period in supply from early December through mid-February. Nonetheless,the annual catch appearsadequate to feed a minimum of 2,5OOmixed age class crocodiles,and may be expandablewith supplementssuch as unpopular chicken cuts, and offal from localslaughterhouses and frog leg producers. There are at least eight fish and prawn processingfactories operating in the vicinity of Cox's Baza(, but viftually no waste feed other than fish guts, which due to its high oil and fat content is usually unacceptablefor crocodiles.

An adequate source of clean freshwater is somewhat problematic. Only the river at the outskirts of town appears to contains ample volume. Groundwater supplies are said to be barely sufficient for the town in the hot months before the arrival of the monsoon. The feasibility of an artesian system is worth exploring. Acceptable quality of the river water could be attained with installationof a filtration system made primarilyof localmaterialsand a back-uppump and headertanksystem.

4.4.2 Chittaoono

Similarpotential exists for integrateddevelopment with tourism as most visitors bound for Cox's Bazarand vacation areas in the Hill Tracts must pass through this busy city of one million. Chittagongis the country's largest port and a center of fish and prawn (shrimp)exports. ' The feed situation is more encouragingwith largequantities of inexpensiveand suitable fish species availablethrough BFDC. One interested, well-diversified entrepreneur plans to establish a commercial poultry operation in the near future which could supply quality cheap feed in the form of guts, heads and feet for a ranchingor farmingventure. The combinedfeed sourcesappear sufficient to support a commercialoperation of 5,000 - 1O,OO0crocodiles.

4.4.3 Khulna

This small city in southwesternBangladesh is an importanttransit point for the severalhundred foreign tourists who annuallyvisit the Sundarbans.Domestic tourism remainsinsignificant but the planneddevelopment of additionalfacilities could boost this sector of the industry as well. One existingtourism enterpriseplans to add crocodilefarming to its attractions. A small hatcheryfor estuarinecrocodile eggs collectedfrom the Sundarbansappears eminently suitable.

Khulna is best known as the principalfish and prawn producing region in Bangladesh. More than 6o0/o of the country's prawn exports transit the city. Although these industriesproduce a negligibleamount of waste feed, small prawns and fish are regularlyavailable for USD 0.40 - 1.00 per kg and constitute a feed sourcefor the rearingof >2,500 mixedsize class crocodiles. The relativelyhigh cost of fish feed can be partially offset by integration with tourism and perhaps further reduced by procurementof frog and other offal.

4.4.4 Satkhira

About 30 km north of the Sundarbansand the same distancewest of Khulna liesthe marshy areaof Satkhirawhere freshwateris reportedlyavailable in sufficient quantityand feed prospectsare bolstered by an abundanceof crabsin nearbybrackish channels(8. Hoque, CrocodilianTanning Assistance Associates, pers. comm). The crabs,which for religiousreasons are not locallyconsumed, can be harvestedby area residents at low cost during much of the year, except the cold season months of Decemberand Januarywhen they are harderto find. Fishfrom the docks at Khulna can probably be arrangedin times of decreasedsupply and to complement the diet.

Although Satkhirawas not visited by the authors,the area appearstoo distant from the Sundarbansto attract a substantialnumber of foreign tourists. A more in- depth study of the crab resourceand its potentialfor sustainedharvesting, as well as for other possiblefeed sources(fish and frogs), is neededto confirm the economic feasibilityof a ranchingor farmingoperation in the Satkhiraarea. The locationshould, however, attract governmentsupport becauseof the income a crocodile enterprise can generatefor impoverishedlocal communities which supply feed.

4.4.5 Dhaka

The economics of ranchingand farming in the vicinity of the capital are favorablebecause of the availabilityof chickenoffal from severalpoultry operations; however, most of these are small-scale.Prospects for fish feed are less promising becauseof erraticsupplies and significantly higher (30-65%) costs than othercenters.

One advantagethe capitaloffers is the proximityof majorinstitutions of higher education,particularly Dhaka University, and the main offices of the government.

4.5 Internationalconsiderations

Owing to concernfor the possibleeffects of commerceon the conservationof resources, governmentsigned and ratifiedthe Conventionon wildlife the Bangladesh '1981. InternationalTrade in EndangeredSpecies of Wild Faunaand Flora(CITES) in This agreement regulatesthe export and import of species considered to be threatenedor potentiallythreatened by internationaltrade. Species are listed by appendixdepending on the severityof the threat and updatedat Conferencesof the Parties(COP) to CITESwhich are convenedevery two to three years.

Appendix I is the most restrictive and includes species threatened with extinctionwhich are or may be adverselyaffected by trade. Although the intent of this category is to prohibit trade for primarilycommercial purposes, an important

24 exemptionis affordedanimals bred in captivity,where it canbe demonstratedthat the operationis not only innocuousto the survivalof the speciesin the wild but accords conservationvalue.

Appendixll is moreflexible and applies to lessendangered species. This listing is compatiblewith trade primarilyfor commercialpurposes; however, a system of strict regulationis necessaryin orderthat trade is broughtunder effective control. Specimensof captive-bredAppendix I Speciesmeeting the non-detrimentaland conservationvalue criteria are treated for purposesof tradeas Appendixll listed.

Appendixlll is seldomemployed and primarily for individual.Partiesthat wish to enhancein-country trade control and for which the cooperationof otherParties is soughtfor monitoringand reporting of trade.

Becauseof theirapparent highly endangered status, populations of all three crocodiliansin Bangladeshare currently listed by CITESas AppendixI species.While the listingsare certainlyappropriate for the muggerand gharial,indications are that populationsurveys of the estuarinecrocodile would confirm the feasibilityof a conservation-enhancingcommercial utilization scheme.

Severalresolutions have been adopted at COPswhich definethe criteriafor amendmentsto the Appendices. The most importantof these for threatened crocodiliansprior to the 1992 COPspecify procedures to downlistpopulations of AppendixI speciesto Appendixll underranching criteria. Theseare Ranching (ResolutionConf.3.15), Trade in RanchedSpecimens (Resolution Conf.5.16) and Monitoringand ReportingProcedures (Resolution Conf. 6.221.

The basic criteria set forth in the resolutionsare that:

the harvest of eggs or young to supply the ranchingoperation shall not have a detrimental effect on wild populations;

the operationshall be primarilybeneficial to the conservationof the local population(i.e., where applicable,contribute to its increasein the wild) through reintroductionor in other ways;

the operationshall be carriedout in a humane(non-cruel) manner;

a uniform markingsystem is adoptedfor productsentered into trade,. includingan inventoryof currentstocks of specimensand productson hand.

a monitoringprogram is establishedto track changesin the status of wild populations,including information on the numberof eggs or young taken from the wild; an estimateof the percentageof the total populationtaken; the numberof animalsreleased and their survivalrates as ascertainedby surveysand taggingprograms, if any; and,the mortalityrate in captivityand

245 causes of mortality. Resultsare to be reported to the CITES Secretariat along with data relatedto production,sales and exports of products.

(source: Briutigam 1989)

Recognizingthe significantconservation spin-offs of ranching, a resolution setting forth additional criteria (Conf 8.22l, was adopted at the March 1992 COP. Ranchingproposals based on collectionof eggs and young are to "be accepted as a matter of routine provided that appropriateinventories, harvest level controls and monitoringprogrammes are proposedand that sufficientsafeguards are established in the proposalto ensurethat adequatenumbers of animalsare returnedto the wild if necessary;"(CITES 1992a; emphasisadded). Becauseof the criticalreproductive functions of adult crocodilesin the wild, schemesbased on a wild harvest of these cohorts are discouragedby other parts of Conf. 8.22 and call for much more stringent appraisalby the Parties.

Another section of Conf 8.22 anda separateresolution Conf . 8.1 5 have revised criteria for the approval of captive breeding operations and replace several earlier resolutions. More stringentprocedures are set forth to registerand monitor operations which breed Appendix I speciesprimarily for commercialpurposes. Such enterprises must now be registered with the CITES Secretariat and satisfy the national Management Authority that "the captive breedingoperation will make a continuing meaningfulcontribution to the conservationof the species" (CITES1992b). Such concern for populationsof crocodilesin Bangladeshshould be easily allayed by the important role a captive breedingfacility can perform in the preservationof remaining gene pools. This is particularlyso for C. palustris, due to the current reproductive failurecaused by apparentlack of properincubation facilities, technical know-how and hatchlingcare. lf a remnantbreeding population of gharialis found to persist,this speciesmay be similarlyrescued by captivebreeding.

Marketing prospectsfor crocodileproducts is another internationalaspect of farm and ranch developmentthat should be carefully considered. There appearsto be negligible potential for domestic demand in Bangladeshbecause of very limited purchasingpower. For virtually all producernations, the markets for crocodileskins exist overseas in developed countries that manufacture luxury items such as handbags,wallets, and belts. Most of these productsare sold in-countrybut some are exported, primarilyto other developedcountries. Japan, France, ltaly, and Singaporeimport the greatmajority (> 90%) of raw or semi-processedcrocodile skins for tanning and manufactureof finishedproducts.

The history of the skin trade has been a volatile one, with the industry at presentin a depressedcycle. Pricesfor classicskins have fallen to lessthan half that receivedthree yearsago. The currentdownturn is a resultof two main factors: 1) the continuinginternational recession and 2) oversupplyof crocodileproducts coupled with largerearing stocks, broughton by the boom in ranchingand farmingduring the

246 past decade. The industry finds itself in a shakeoutperiod in which many enterprises that cannot substantiallyreduce their productioncosts are failing.

However, in a longerterm view, there is a silver lining to this dark cloud. lf failures occur on a wide scale, the decreasein overall world production of crocodile skins and ensuing depletion of stockpilesshould serve to stimulate price recovery. Moreover, even if prices remain at current levels, this will enable manufacturersto reduce the costs of products and make them affordable to many more potential consumers,thus servingto increasedemand. Thereremains vast, untappedpotential for an internationalcampaign to promotethe value-addedreturns to conservationof purchasingcrocodile products from approvedprograms worldwide, both to educate the general public and effectively counter the arguments of animal welfare rights groups.

5. Develoomentof a ManagementProoram: -

Available data on the status and reproductivebiology of mugger and gharialin Bangladeshwas recentlyreported in detailby Rahmant1991a; 1991b). Sponsored by the UNCTAD/GATT InternationalTrade Centre, Whitaker (1982) conducted an earlier in-depth and favorableevaluation of export prospectsfor commercial farming of crocodiles,particularly C. porosus. Althoughthe findings by Whitaker and Rahman clearly present a critical yet opportune situation, Bangladeshhas yet to formulate a program to conserveand sustainablyutilize its crocodileresource. With at least two of Bangladesh'sthree crocodiliansin apparentdire straits, there is urgent need to movr ;uickly beforethe situationdeteriorates further and rendersrehabilitation of the resourcea much costlierand time consumingendeavor.

5.1 Conservationrequirements

Becauseof the current severethreats to the viability of crocodilianpopulations in Bangladesh, a management program should initially emphasize a strong conservation component. lmmediate efforts are needed to secure the gharial and muggerbreeding stock in captivityas at leastpartial founder populations. Indications are that the current reproductivefailures of the muggerfemales can be easily resolved by applying proven, cost-effectivetechniques in the design and managementof hatcheriesand hatchlingcare facilities. MadrasCrocodile Bank in Tamil Nadu,South Indiais an idealregional center, well-experienced in the transferof necessarytechnical knowledgeand skillsinvolving a variety of crocodilians,particularly the muggerand gharial.

Existing founder stock for recovery of the mugger and gharial could be supplementedby acquisitionof eggs and juvenilesfrom countries within the home range of the species. The Departmentof NationalParks and Wildlife Conservation (DNPWC)in has indicatedits willingnessto provide captive-rearedjuvenile gharialfromChitwan National Park (T. Maskey,pers. comm.). As describedin section

2n 4,2, a large excess of captive-bredmugger and eggs, in addition to substantial numbersof juvenilegharial, are maintainedin lndia (Anon. 1993).

Boostedreintroduction of muggerand gharialby import of excessjuveniles from regionalrearingcenters should not presenta speciesintroduction (or related)problem. Due to proximity of rangeand absenceof topographicalbarriers, Indian and Nepalese stocks of these species are unlikely to exhibit significant differences in genetic composition at the population level. However, this assumption should be substantiatedby comparativeDNA and other biochemicalanalyses.

In laying the foundation for a comprehensiveprogram, the conservation component of a Management Plan for crocodiles in Bangladeshshould stress a recovery strategy for each species. Becauseof the dissimilarstatus and commercial potential of each residentcrocodilian, a combinationof strategies is appropriate.

C. porosus. An initial, comprehensivesurvey is urgently required in the Sundarbans to assess population status and recovery potential. Particular focus should be afforded to nesting cohorts and the formulation of a nest protection * egg harvest - restocking plan. The interaction of crocodiles with local communities shouldbe studied,and where potentialexists, the supportand active participationof local people with sustainableutilization of the resourceencouraged.

C. palustris. Efforts shouldbe directedat achievingsuccessful reproduction of relict breedingstock and acquisitionof appropriateextralimital specimens. An aftempt should be madeto identifyand protect any remainingand potentiallyrestorable habitat consideredsuitable for reintroductionof the speciesto the wild.

Gavialis gangeticus. The immature stock at present should be reared at locationsand in conditionsconducive to captivebreeding for eventualreintroduction. Acquisition of additionalstock to supplementthis effort and improve its chances of successshould be investigated.A systematicsurvey of the relictwild populationand assessmentof remaininghabitat, particularly in the Padmaand Jamunarivers, should be conducted with the maioraim of effectivelyprotecting crocodiles and at least some primary habitat (especiallynesting banks).

The BFRI hatchery can perform a important role in the recovery of crocodile populationsby hatchingeggs and rearinghatchlings for eventual release. Priority shouldbe givento obtainingeggs from muggerbreeding stock at Bagarhatand Dhaka, and possiblylater from estuarinecrocodile nests in the Sundarbans.Refinements of present construction in order to fully meet the requirementsof incubation and hatchlingcare will enablethe hatcheryto function as a conservationcenter as well as benefit private enterpriseby demonstratingthe proper techniques of egg and hatchlingmanagement. With additionalupgrading, there is alsoscope for husbandry researchand expandedconservation education.

28 5.2 Establishmentof a monitoringunit

A unit within the ManagementAuthority will be neededto oversee ranch and farm operations and monitor the trends of crocodile populations in the wild. Field surveys should be established as a regime that affords repeatability in order to maximize their interpretive value. Standard night counts of crocodiles over a representativesample of habitat types appearsto be the most appropriate method, but an investigationof nestingfor egg harvest potential could include assessmentof nest counts during the peak nesting periodas an indicatorof populationstatus. Nest counts may be efficiently conducted in tandem with egg collection activities. For whichever technique used, its conduct should be cost-effective in relation to the returns from resource utilization. Baselinesurveys of the relict gharial population should also be an initial priority of the monitoring program.

As the designated CITESScientific Authority in Bangladesh,the Bangladesh Wildlife Advisory Boardshould be involvedin the decision-makingprocess concerning harvest quotas for eggs of C. porosus, and after assessing population survey results, assist in the determinationof restockingrequirements.

With some 1OO,0OOpeople directly dependentfor their livelihoodon collection activities in the Sundarbans,local people'ssupport and participationwill be essential. To achieve this they must receivesignificant benefits (extendingto th6 long term) so that the renewabilityof the estuarinecrocodile resource is recognizedas fundamental to its economic value, and therefore acts as a stimulus to further its conservation. Part of the unit's responsibilitiescould be to identify interactionsof forest extractors with crocodilesand their habitat, and to pose incentives(particularly economic onesl that.would elicit local support for crocodileconservation.

5.3 Revisedlegislation

To put the ManagementPlan into effective action, revisionof current legislation will be required to permit ranch and farm establishment and to incorporate key protection needs for each crocodilianspecies.

Private enterprise should be encouraged to play a leading role in firmly establishingthe industry. An attractive mix of investment incentivesand regulations setting minimum standardsof operationand providingfor a reasonablepercentage of fit stock to be made availablefor reintroductionwill likely prove pivotal to success of the program. lts effectivenesswill also be advancedby incorporationof recordingand reporting proceduresfor ranchingand farming operations. This will greatly enhance the ability of the ManagementAuthority to adequatelymonitor resourceutilization and the preparationof requiredannual reports to CITES.

Legislationis also neededto set asidehabitat for reintroductionand regulating the C. porosus egg harvest. Existing legislation (i.e., The Wildlife Protection Ordinanceof 19721 needs to be strengthenedto includeenforceable penalties for

249 seriousviolations (e.g., poaching,nest disturbance).The representativenessof the country's protected areas system should be reviewed to ensure that each type of crocodile habitat is included. For any gaps found to exist, initiatives should be undertakento formally protect examplesof sufficient size to promote perpetuationof the country's crocodile populations.

5.4 CITESendorsement

The CITESManagement Authority designated by the Governmentof Bangladesh is the Office of the Chief Conservatorof Forestslocated in the Ministry of Forestry. In order tor a C. porosus ranchingscheme to be consideredfor approvalby CITES,the Management Authority must submit a C. porosus downlisting proposal pursuant to Res. Conf. 3.15 and 8.22 at least 330 days prior to a Conferenceof the Parties (COP). Becausethe deadlinefor the 1994 COPin Ft. Lauderdalehas passed,CITES approvalcannot be sought until the followingCOP, approximately mid-1997.

In order to encourageinvestment by private enterprisein the developmentof a crocodileindustry, efforts are neededto convincethe Manag€mentAuthority of the critical, yet opportune, situation facing crocodilesin Bangladesh,and for the agency to endorsethe conservation-enhancingstrategy of ranchingbased on wild-harvested eggs.

The objectives of the current FAO/Governmentof Bangladesh proiect to strengthenintegrated resource development of the SundarbansReserve Forest would be well-served by inclusionof a crocodilecomponent. A modest amount of funding would allow a extensive survey of the wild population,as well as preparationof a comprehensiveManagement Plan and draft CITESproposal.

6. Recommendationsfor Follow-uoAction: l. Given the existing policy prioritiesfor a country such as Bangladeshit is unrealistic to expect the government to devote scarce resources to crocodile management. Externalassistance with funding and expeftise is needed for program start-up but this should be viewed as a short-term measure phased into local execution as soon as possible. Owing to a perceivedstrong, mutually beneficial linkage between the needs of conservation and commercial interests, private enterpriseshould be encouragedto play a leadingrole in the rehabilitationof the resource. This sector arguably has the most to lose or gain, and the fates of crocodilians in Bangladeshappear inextricablytied to the conservation spin-offs of successfulranching and farmingoperations. ll. As a matter of urgency,the servicesof a crocodilespecialist should be engaged to assist formulation of a management strategy, including preparation of a Management Plan and draft ranching proposalto CITES, for the Government's considerationof approval.

?fi lll. External governmental and non-governmental organizations should be approached to provide assistance with the training of national researchers in the techniquesof crocodilehusbandry and populationmonitoring. Due to limited sources of in-country funding, external assistance should be considered to support the purchase of basic equipment and other capital inputs of the BFRI hatchery at Chittagong, and possibleestablishment of a similarone at Khulna.

lV. Contacts should be initiated with appropriatecrocodile enterprises and the CITESManagement Authority in an effort to obtain muggereggs and/or juvenilestock for experimentalrearing and releasein Bangladesh.Indian authorities should also be solicited as to their willingness to export C. palustris stock (eggs included) for eventual commercial rearingas ranching products.

V. Becausethe Sundarbansecosystem extends considerably into the Indianstate of West Bengal, initiatives should be undertaken to coordinate management of crocodiles and other wildlife with the Governmentof India.

V. Cooperationshould be establishedwith officials of the Management Authority in Nepal (DNPWC) with the view of obtaining gharial eggs and/or juveniles for the purposes stated in point lV, and initiating other forms of collaboration relating to crocodiles.

Vl. Contacts with overseastanners should be establishedto attract added-value to the resourcethrough joint ventures in the manufacturingand export of high quality products from raw classic crocodile skins, particularlytop-of-the-line luxury items made from the estuarinecrocodile.

EL 7. LiteratureCited

Akonda,A.W.lgsl.ReportofthevisittoSundarbansfroml6thto24thJanuary lgSl.Unpubl.report.ForestryDept.Govt.ofBang|adesh.2pp. Asia: India' Crocodile Andrews, H. 1992. (untitled)' Area reports' Western Florida' SpecialistGroup Newsletter 11(4):6. IUCN/SSC'Gainesville'

Anon. 1992. FinalReport, CITESAnimal Committee' crocodilespecialist Group Anon. 1993. Meetings. Indiancrocodile conservation. Newsletter12(1):10. IUCN/SSC'Gainesville' Florida' A guide to amending the Briutigam, A. 1989. CITES:a conservationtool' in Endangered appendicesto the convention on InternationalTrade washington' 1O2pp' speciesof Faunaand Flora. secondedition. lucN/ssc. Parties.conf ' 8' 15' Guidelines cfTES. 1992a. Resolutionof the conferenceof the AppendixI animal for a procedureto registerand monitoroperations breeding speciesfor commercialpurposes' CITES' conf ' 8'22' Additional ctTES. 1992b. Resolutionof the conferenceof the Parties. and for the criteria for the establishment of captive-breedingoperations assessmentof ranchingproposals for crocodilians.CITES' of crocodilesin Faizuddin,M. 1985. Distribution,abundance and conservation Bangladesh. Tigerpaper 1214l,:22'23' the commerciallyexploited Fugler,c.M. 1983. An evaluationof the populationsof 2' FAO project trog Rana tigrina in Bangladesh. Field document No' BGD/79/015. Rome. of gharialsin the River Husain,K.2., S.M.A. Rashid,and s. sarkar. 1986a. survey Universityof Padma. The wildlife Newsletter.No. 2. December,1986' Dhaka. Dhaka. 1 P. of the salt- K.2., S.M.A. Rashid,and S. Sarkar. 1986b' Preliminarysurvey Husain, No' 2' water crocodiles in the sundarbans. The Wildlife Newsletter' p' December,1986. Universityof Dhaka' Dhaka' 1 (a Universityof Dhaka. Khan, M.A.R. 1982. Wild|ifeof Bang|adesh check|ist). Dhaka. 173 PP. crocodilespecialist Rahman,M.M. 199O. Statusof crocodilesin Bangladesh. Florida' GroupNewsletter 9(3):9-11. lUcN/ssc. Gainesville, Rahman,M.M. 1991a.The systematic status of crocodilein Bangladesh"Tigerpaper 18(1):1O-14.FAO. Rome.1991.

Rahman,M.M. 1991b" Presentstatusof the marshcrocodile (Crocodytuspatustris palustrisLesson) in Bangladesh.Tigerpaper 1g(4):12-12. FAo. Rome.

Rahman,M.M. 1992. Thesystematic status of crocodilesin Bangladesh.Wildlife seriesbulletin no. 2. BangladeshForest Res. lnst. chittagong. 11 pp. sarkar, s.u. 1987. crocodilesand Lizardsof siragonj(pabna), Bangradesh. Tigerpaper14(41:1 4-1 5.

Thorbiarnarson,J. 1992. Crocodiles. An action plan for their conservation. IUCN/SSCCrocodile Specialist Group. IUCN,Gtand, Switzerland. 135 pp. whitaker, R. 1982. Export prospectsfrom commercialcrocodile farms in Bangladesh. Mission report. UNCTAD/GATTilTC) project GTO/03/07. Geneva.47 pp. Appendix 1. LiteratureReviewed

Akonda,A.W. 1981. Reportof the visit to Sundarbansfrom 16th to 24th January 1981. Unpubl.report. ForestryDept. Govt. of Bangladesh.2 pp.

Andrews. 1992. (untitled).Area reports. WesternAsia: India. CrocodileSpecialist Group Newsletter11(4):6. IUCN/SSC.Gainesville, Florida.

Anon. 1992. FinalReport, CITESAnimal Committee.

Anon. 1993. Meetings. IndianCrocodile Conservation. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter12(1):1O. IUCN/SSC. Gainesville, Florida.

Faizuddin,M. 1985. Distribution,abundance and conservationof crocodilesin Bangladesh.Tigerpa per 1214l:22-23.

Fugler,C.M. 1983. An evaluationof the populationsof the commerciallyexploited lrog Bana tigrina in Bangladesh. Field document No. 2. FAO proiect BGD/79/O15.Rome.

Husain,K.2., S.M.A. Rashidand S. Sarkar. 1986. Survey of gharialsin the River Padma. The WildtifeNewsletter. No. 2. December,1986. University of Dhaka. Dhaka. 1 p.

Rahman,M.M. 1984. Preliminarystudies on the crocodilesof Bangladesh.Unpubl. . researchproposal. Annual researchprogramme. BangladeshForest Research. Chittagong. 1 p.

Rahman,M.M. 1986. Observationsonthe status,distribution and breedingbiology of gharialsin Bangladesh. p.94. ln: Abstracts. Fifth NationalZoological Conference. 1O-13March 1986. ZoologicalSociety of Bangladesh.Dhaka.

Rahman, M.M. 199O. Status of crocodilesin Bangladesh. CrocodileSpecialist Group Newslefter9(3):9-1 1. IUCN/SSC.Gainesville, Florida.

Rahman, M.M. 1991a. The systematicstatus of crocodilesin Bangladesh. Tigerpaper18(1 ):10-14. FAO. Rome.

Rahman, M.M. 1991b. Presentstatus of the marsh crocodile lCrocodyluspalustris palustrisLesson) in Bangladesh.Tigerpaper 18(4):12-17. FAO. Rome.

Rahman,M.M. 1992. The systematicstatus of crocodilesin Bangladesh.Wildlife seriesbulletin no. 2. BangladeshForest Res. lnst. Chittagong. 11 pp.

?3 Appendix3. ltinerarv

Date Location Remarks

1OJanuary 1993 Kathmandu- Dhaka flew via SO 413 directto Dhaka.

11 January1993 Dhakaand vicinity bookedflights; visited FAO/UNDP.

12 January1993 Dhaka and vicinity visited Mirpur Zoo & DhakaUniv.

13 January1993 Dhaka - Chittagong departedon BG 611 to Chittagong.

14 January1993 Chittagongcity no activitiesdue to generalstrike.

15 January1993 Chittagong-Cox'sBazar visit to BFRI,hatchery; afternoon departureby bus to Cox's Bazar.

16 January1993 Cox's Bazar toured 2 fish processing plants; offices of tourism, district forestry.

17 January1993 Cox's Bazar-Chittagong earlymorning visitto fish markeq met O.l.C. at BFDC; returnedto Chittagong by bus in afternoon.

18 January1993 Chittagong no morningactivities due to strike; afternoonvisits to landingdocks, BFDCand A.K. Khan Co.

19 January1993 Chittagong- Dhaka travelledby all day (12 hrl train.

20 January1993 Dhaka-Jessore-Khulna departed on BG 461 0945 hrs; continuedto Khulnaby car; visited SundarbanTourist ComplexLtd.

21 January1993 Khulnaarea visited GOB/FAO Sundarbans projectoffice at Boyra; afternoon at Conservatorof Forest office.

22 January1993 Khulna-Bagarhat-Khulnaafternoon excursion to shrine of MahzarKhan Jahan Ali.

?s5 in AM; 23 JanuarY1993 Khulna fish market and bazar afternoonat SundarbansProject office, Boyra.

noon to 24 January1993 Khulna-Jessore-Dhakadeparted via bus at Jessore;evening flight BG468 to Dhaka.

to Nepal 25 JanuarY1993 Dhaka- Kathmandu late afternoonreturn flight

Mugger breeding facilities at Mirpur Zoo, Dhaka.

zfi Appendix 4. PersonsContacted Dr. Mir Md. Hassan Director Ahmed Jamil BangladeshForest Research Institute Manager G.P.O.Box 273 MeenharAgencies Ltd. Chittagong 4OOO, Bangladesh BSCIC Industrial Estate Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh Munshi Anwar Hussein Officer-in-Charge Harry Andrews Division Forest Office Deputy Director Khulna,Bangladesh Madras CrocodileBank PostBag No.4 A. K. Shamsuddin Khan Mamallapuram 603 104 Director Tamil Nadu, India A. K. Khan and Co. Ltd. G.P.O. Box 223 P.K. Barman Chittagong 4OOO, Bangtadesh Chief ProcessingTechnologist BangladeshFisheries Corporation Md. Golam Mortuza Chittagong,Bangladesh Project Manager BangladeshFisheries Dev. Corp. Songklod Chantarasri Chittagong, Bangladesh FisheriesBiologist project FAOiUNDP/GOB BGD/84/O56 Mr. Peter Myers G.P.O.Box 11 FAO Representative Khulna 9OOO, Bangladesh P.O. Box 5039 (New Market) Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh A.M. Choudary IUCN Country Representative Dr. Kirti M. Tamang The World ConservationUnion Wildlife Management Specialist 76 Satmasjid Road FAO/UNDP/GOBProject BGD/84/OS6 Dhaka 12O9, Bangladesh G.P.O.Box 11 Khulna9OOO, Bangladesh Jillur Rahim Chowdhury ManagingDirector Dr. Gusti M. Tantra PremierProducts Ltd. Officer-inCharge 5/8 BSCICIndustrial Estate FAO/UNDP/GOBProject BGD/84/O56 Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh G.P.O. Box 11 Khulna9OOO, Bangladesh Md. lssa Gazi ManagingDirector Md. MuklesurRahman SundarbanTourist Complex ResearchOfficer Gazi Fish CultureLtd. BangladeshForest Research Institute 40 B.K. Roy Road P.O. Box 273 Sheikhpara,Khulna, Bangladesh Chittagong4OOO, Bangladesh

257 RomulusWhitaker MustafizurRahman Sufi CSG Vice Chairmanfor West Asia Assistant Conservatorof Forests c/o MadrasCrocodile Bank CoastalAfforestation Division PostBag No.4 Cox's Bazar,Bangladesh Mamallapr.rram603 104 TamilNadi:, India

Breeding male mugger at shrine , Bagarhat




Sincethe initiation of the Indian CrocodileProject n 1975 studiesof crocodilianbiology, ecolory and conservationmanagement have been carried out through collaborationanlong FAO, Governmentof India, StateForest Deparftnentsand different Universitiesin the Country. This paper dealswith the progress that has been made with researchand managementof three species of crocodiles, Gavialis gangeticus, Crocodylus porosus and Crocodylus palustris. Recent developmentsin the field of crocodilian managementare described.

E9 1.w

In India many rivers, and marshesoffer a variety of habitatsfor three speciesof crocodiles.They are gharial(Gavialis gangetictts),mugger (Crocodyluspalustris) and saltwater crocodile (C. porosus). The early recordsreveal that these aquaticreptiles at one time, were.very abundant throughout their distributional range (Smith, 1933). However, due to commercial exploitation and habitat destruction populations of crocodile specieswere reducedto near extinctionGAO,1974). A timely action was taken during 1975when Govt. of India initiated a crocodileproject to saveall threespecies of crocodiles,by adoptinga numberof rehabilitationprograms @ustard,1980). Since then attemptshave been made to evaluatepopulation trendsand other ecological aspects of crocodilesin India. This paperhighlights the researchactivities carried out on the ecolory andconservation management of crocodilesin India.


With a view to conserveIndian crocodilespecies whose populations were depletedthroughout their distributionalrange, the Govt. of India started a crocodilebreeding and managementproject during 1975 in collaboration with FAO/LINDP(Bustard, 1980 b). The successof the project was mainly dueto the significantresearch activities carried out on biologyand ecology of crocodilesby variousscientists in the country.


Since 1975 a significantresearch effort into crocodiliansftrdies has beenmade in India.In the earlystages of crocodileresearch Gorrt. of India,in collaborationwith FAOruNDP, had promotedmanagement oriented studies. A major researchprogram on all three speciesof crocodileswas startedin Orissain collaborationbetween FAOAJNDP, Orissa State Forest Deparfinent and the Utkal University, Bhubanswar, Orissa (Bustard,1980).Other establishmentsinvolved in crocodile researchin the counS are Wildlife Institute of India (CrocodileResearch Cenfie, upto 1986),Dehradrn" Madras CrocodileBank (Tamil Nadu), Lucknow University (U.P.), Aligarh Muslim University (U.P.), BharatidasanUniversity (Tamil Nadu), Kurukshefra University (),Jiwaji University (M.P.) and SaurashtraUniversitv (Gujarat). Various doctoral and other studies carried out in different Universities and other establishmentsitre aimed broadly on the ecology, habitatselection and behaviors of all threespecies of crocodiles(Singh,1978; Choudhury,l98l; Shrivastav41981; Kr, 1981; Singh, 1985;Rao, 1988; Sharma, L9!_l; Hussain, l99l; Sharma.& 1991). The crocodile rearing stations where active researchwas carried out are Gharial Researchand ConservationUnit, NandanKanan Biological park, Orissa;Madras Crocodile Banlq Tamil Nadu; Kulcail Crocodile rehabilitation Centre, ; Nehm Zoological Padq Andhra Fradesh;Crocodile and RehabilitationCentre, .


Research studies have been undertaken to identiS the habitats occupied by saltrrater crocodiles in West Bengal (Bustard" 1982), Orissa (Kar, 1981), and Andamanand Nicobar Islands (Choudhuryand Bustard, 1980).Fairly good populationof saltrvatercrocodile occur in the habitats of Sunderbansand Bhitarkanika tidal rivers and Andamanislands. Reportsare also therefor strayanimals of saltwatercrocodile in Tamil Nadu (Whitaker, 1982)and AndhraPradesh (Bustard and Choudhury,1980; Rao, r9e1). The major habitatsof Gavialisgangeticzs were also identifiedin most of the North Indian rivers (Singh U., 1978; Whitaker, 1979; Choudhury, l98l; Shrivastava,1981; Whitaker and Basu" 1983; Singh, 1985; Rao, 1988; Basu,1991) and East India in Mahanadiriver system(Singh U., 1978)as also in neigbbouringcotmtries like Nepal, Bhutanand Bangladesh(Btstard, 1982 a,b). The mugger (C. palustris) inhabits in large and small rivers, lakes, marshesmd village in different Statesexcept Himachal Pradeshand Jarnmu and Kashmir (Whitaker and Whitaker, 1989). It is sympatric to gharialin latter'sdistributional range (Rao and Choudhury1990).


Large number of Crocodile habitats in different States have been snrveyedto determinethe statusof different species(FAO, 1974;Behrna and Singll 1979;Whitaker and Daniel, 1980;Sin$ and Choudhury,1982; Singh, etal.,1984)..



Theecology of gharialhas been studied in Indiain the lvlahanadiriver (Singh,1978,1993), (Choudhury,1981; Sineh"1985; Rao, 1988;|lu3snin, 1991) and Narayani river in Nepal(Bustard, 1982).


An extensivestudy on the ecolory of saltwder crocodile has been mdertakenin the BhitarkanikaSanctuary in Orissa(Kar, 1981).Choudhtrry and Bustard(1980) studiedthe ecologyof C. porosz.rin Andamanand Nicobarislands.


Researchstudies on ecolory of C. palustris havebeen undertaken in different Statesparticularly in Tamil Nadu (Choudhuryand Bustard, 1982; Whitaker and Whitaker, 1989), Andhra Pradesh(Choudhury and Bustard, 1982),Orissa (Singh, 1984) and Rajasthan (Choudhury and Rao, 1988). 2.4 LI]WNOLOGICAL STUDIES

Detailed studies on limnological characteristicsof different aquatic ecosystemswhere crocodilesinhabitat have been undertakenin the Jiwaji University,Gwalior (Sharma H. 1991,Rao, 1993). 2.5 SDX lrlr':r:nnnnntaTloIv

Sex ratio in nature particularly at the time of hatch is a major study developedin India (Singh,.lg84a). A studycarried out at MadrasCrocodile Bank revealed that incubation temperaturedetermines sex in the mugger crocodileC. palustns(Lang et al ,1989)"


Studiesbased on the relationshipsof micro-habitatin a nest to the developmentof embryowere initiated in the National ChambatSancflrary. ln collaborationwith Jiwaji University detailedanalysis of the Chemistryof ghadaleggs were turdertaken (Sharma 1991).


Snrdieson variousbehavioral aspects such as parentalcare of gharial (Singhand Bustard,1977, Bustard, 1980c) salt - water crocodile(Bustard and Choudhnry,1980)., Mugger (Lang et al. 1986)courtship behavior of mugger(Singh, 1984b), nesting behavior of gharial(Bustard, 1980 d; Rao and Singh, 1993), territorial behavior of saltwater crocodile (Bustard and Maharana,1982), mugger (Singh 1991)and gharial(Bustard and Maharana, l98l; Singhand Rao, 1990) and other general behaviors of crocodiles(Lang, 1987;Rao and Singh,1987) were carried out.


Significant research efforts have been undertaken by various establishmentsfor successful implementation of crocodile rehabilitation program in the Country. The crocodile rehabilitation progrzrm aims in establishmentof captivepopulations of crocodiles,which can be releasedin the wild in speciallyprotected areas or sanctuaries(Rao, 1985).The number of areasin which active protectionis given to crocodiliansis 34 and the numberof speciallycreated crocodilian sanctuaries is 13 (Singhet al, 1984). Sincethe initiation of &e project in 1975 sixteencrocodile rearing centres have been establishedas part of State rehabilitation schemesin different States throughout the Country @e Vos, 1982). Under the rehabilitation programmore than 5000 crocodilesof all three specieswere releasedin the wild (Sin* et al, 1984;Choudhury and Choudhury,. 1986; Rao, 1988,1992).


Periodic or annualsurveys have been carried out in different Statesby the respective State Forest Departnnentsto monitor the populations (Choudhuryand Choudhury1986; Rao and Sharma,1987; Kar and Bustard, 1991,Prusty and Singh,1994;Sagar and Singh,1990). The Wildlife Institute of India has carriedout crocodile surveysin the National ChambalSanctuary in collaboration with M.P. Forest Departnent while using radio fracking method(Singh, 1985).The StateForest Department of Madhya Pradeshis regrrlarly conductingmonitoring studies in the protected areas (Sharma, 1e93).


Researchstudies have been carried out to develop and improve techniquesfor breedingof crocodilesin captivity(Bustard, 1980a; Whitaker, 1984,Dani et al,199l). Successfrrlbreeding of muggerhas been taken place in lnore than 15 centres, of the gharial in three centres-Nandankanan Biologlcal Park, Bhubaneswar(Orissa), Kulaail Crocodile Rehabilitation Cente, Lucknow (U.P.) and Madras Crocodile Bank, Madras (Tamil Nadu) and of saltwater crocodile in two centres - Bhagabatpur Crocodile rehabilitationcenfie, (West Bengal)and the Madras Crocodile Bantq Madras (TamilNadu) (Singh et aL,1984,Anon, 1993).


Since the initiation of the crocodileproject n lglslarge numberof papers, thesis and rqorts on crocodile biology, ecology and conservation managementhave appeared.The proceedingsof the First Indian Crocodile Researchers'symposium prepared by Si"gh and Choudhury(1982) is a significant contributiontowards the Satus and conservationof crocodilesin India. Other significant reports on different aspects of crocodiles irre management(FAO, 1974and 1975;De Vos., 1982a,b; Singh.1984 a) and ecology and population monitoring (Singh, 1985; Rao, l98S). A comprehensivelist of Indian crocodile literattre tiil 1982 was preparedby Bustard and Singh (1982) hnd this bibliography was very much used by scientistsworking with Indian crocodiles.The major National Journalswhich publish researchwork on ecological studiesare Joumal of Bombay Natual History Society, Bombay; Hamadryad"Madras Crocodile Bank, Ma&as; Journal of Ecological Society,Pune; Cheetaland Indian Forester,Dehradun etc. Researchfindings were also presentedby Scientistswho participatedin the ruCN/SSC/Crocodile Specialist Group working meetings at Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe; Caracas.Venezuela; md Florida,.U.S.A(Singh, 1984; Singhet al. 1984;Choudhury, 1990; Rao, 1990;Rao and Choudhury1990). The resultsof crocodileresearch crried out at NationalCharnbal Sancflrary were incorporatedas significant contributionsin Life Sciencesof the Encyclopediaof Britannica,Book of the year 1990.A report on evaluationof crocodile project was preparedas a follow up of a workshop by the lndian CSE membersat Madrasduring March 1993(Anon; 1993).

265 [email protected]

As a result of the Wildlife (Protection)Act, 1972, and the subsequent crocodile project in 1975, crocodile populations in different States have recovered.Monitoring of crocodilesin different habitatsis under progressby various State Forest Deparffirents. New areas were identified for rehabilitationof gharial. So far a total of 3342 captive reared gharial have been releasedn L2 rivers. Eco-developmentprograms are initiated to help nral people dependenton nattnal water supplies especially in areas like National ChambalSanctuary. Effective measureshave been taken to control conflict betweencrocodiles and nral people. The Eco-tourismin crocodile areas has been identified as one approach for crocodile conservation.A workshop was orgrrized during March 1993 at Madras Crocodile Banh Tamil Nadu to evaluatecrocodile management programs to preparean Action plan for sustainableuse of the crocodileresources in India.


I am thanlftl to Dr. L A K Singh and Mr. B. C. Choudhuryfor commentson the manuscript.


Anon, 1993. Crocodile conservationand managementin lndia. Report of CSGworkshop. MCB Madras,1-3 March 1993.

Basu.D.1991. The gharialin the KatherniaghatSanctuarv. Vol.l l No. I

,Bustard. H.R.l98l. Maternalbehavior in the gharial(.Gavialis gangeticus)Cmelin. J. BombavNat. Hist. Soc.78(2);39A-392.

Behura,B.K. and Singh,L.A.K. 1979.Conservation of crocodilesin India. IndianForester 83-92.

Bustard.H.R. 1980a. Captivebreeding of crocodiles.Special publ. British HemetologicalSocietv'. 1-20.

1980b. The Governmentof India CrocodileProject. Cheetal22 (112):1l-16,

.1980 c Maternal crre in the gharial Gavialis gongeticus (Gmelin).British Journalof Hemetolos'r'.6:63-61,

,1980 d A note of nesting behavior in the Indian Gharial Gavial i s gangeticu.s (Gmelin). (Reptilia, ).J. Bornba.v-- Nat.Hist. Soc. 76 (3);51,9-521,

1982a The statusof the saltwatercrocodile n 1974.In:Indian CrocodilesConserv'ation and research.Ed. Singh& Choudhury PP.10.

.1982b . Statusof gharialin Nepal.Ibid pp" 9.

.1982c Statusof gharialin .Ibid. pp 9, .and Choudhury.B.C. 1980. Parental care in the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus poi'osus Scheider) and management implicationsJ. BombavNat. Hist. Soc.77(.1\.64'69.

.andMaharana. S. 1981.Fatal male-maleconflict in the ghatial, -ialisgangeticus (CenilinXRepiilia,Crocodilia). J. Bombav Nat.Hist. Soc. 78 (1):1-3.

.and Maharana S. 1982 Female territorialit-v in immatr:re saltw-atercrocodile Croca,iylus porosus Schneider.in captiviry- andits effecton growthand survival.J. BombavNat. Hist. Soc. 1Tr.A1ft^ AaA t 7.+L>nLa-

and Singh,L.A.K. 1982.An annotatedbibliogaphy on Indian crocodilians.Field Doc. 9, FO; IND/74l046,Dec.1982.

Choudhury.B.C. 1990.Indian crocodilian conservation : Situationreport and acdon plan fbr the i990s. i0ih working meeting of IUCN/SSC/CSGFlorida. USA.

.& Bustard. H.R. 1980. Predationon natural nests of the saltw'atercrocodile (Croco,iylusporous Scheni,ier)on nofrh Andaman island with notes on the crocodile population. J. BombavNat. Hist. Soc.76(2):311-323,

1982 Restocking (Crocodv"htspalustris. Lesson)in Andhra Pradesh:Evaluation of a pilot release.J. BombavNat. Hist. Soc. 79 (2):275-279.

,andChoudhury S. 1986.Lessons from crocodilereintroduction projectin India.Indian Forester 112 (10):881-8 90,

.andRao. R.J. 1988.Effect of droughton the muggercrocodile populationin theJawai lake, Paii Dist.Raj. in'iia. ivfimieoPP. 8.

28 ChoudhuryS. 1981 Somestudies on the biology and ecologvof Gavialis gangeticus , the Indian gharial (Crocodilia; Carialidae) Ph.D thesis.Univ. of Lucknow.U.P.

Dani C.S..Sagnr.S.R. and Singh.L.A.K. (1991):Mugger crocodile research at Ramatirtha. A review'.Indian Forester 117(10):881-891.

De Vos, A 1982a. An evaluationof the UNDP/FAO Crocodilebreeding and managementproject in India. FAO. Rome Field Doc. S.FOII}{D/7UA4

1982 b A manual of crocodile conservation& managementin lndia. Field Doc. 10.FO:INDi74IM6.

FAO. 1974. A preliminar-vilrvey of the prospects for crocodile fanning (Basedon the work of Dr. H.R, Bustard)FO:IND/TL1A33.

FAO, 1975.India.Gharial and Crocodile conservation management in Orissa (Basedon the work of Dr. H.R. Bustard)FO:IND/711033.

HussainS.A. 1991. The ecolory of gharial (Gavialis ganseticus) in the National Chambal Sanctuary-.iv{.Phil thesis. Aligarh iv{uslim University.Aliearh.

Kar, S. 1981. Studies on the saltwater crocodile. Crocodvlus porosus Scheider.Ph.D thesi*. Utkal Univ'ersity,Orissa.

,andBustard. H.R. 1991.Rehabilitation of saltrrratercrocodile, C.rocodylusporosus Scheider in the Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary,Orissa. J. Bombay.Nat. Hist. Soc.88(3):395 -399.

Lang J.W. 1987.Crocodilian behavior :Implication for management.pp 223- 294n Wildlife nunagement,Crocodiles and Alligators Ed. by G J.W. Webb, S.C. Manolis and P.J. Whitehead.Surrey Beatty and Sons:Sydney.

?s9 srJ and Whitaker.R. 1989. Sex determinationand ser< ratiosrn Crocodyluspalustris. Amer. Zool. 29:935:952.

Whitater, R. and Andrews. H. 1986. Male parental care in MuggerCrocodiles. Nat. Ceographic. 2$):519-525. hsqv. B.C. and Singh, LAK. 1994. Statusof mugger in Sirnilipal Tiger resera€, Mimeo paper presentedat symposiiim on Siatus of wildlife in OrissaZr,ol. Soc. Orissa.

Rao.R.J. 1985Mmagement of crocodilesand in Wet-landSanctuaries of India.Tiger paper i2 @):l-5.

1988. Nesting ecology of gharial in the National Chambal Sanctuary.WII, Mimeo pp. 105,

1990. Recoveredgharial population in the National Chanbal Sanctuary.Paper presented in 10th ruCN/SSC/CSC meeting Florida,USA

l99l Saltwater crocodile Crocodylus Dorosus in Andhra Pradesh.J. BombavNat. Hist. Soc.88(1): I 16-117,

1992. Impact of human activities on Wildlife in the National ChambalSanctuary, trndia. pp. 171-177n Tropicalecosystems : Ecology and Management.Ed. by K.P. Singh and J.S. Singh. Wiley EasternLtd. New Delhi,

1993 Studieson bioloeical restorationof GaneaRiver in Uttar Pradesh:An Indicator speciesapproach. Interim sfridy report GPD/ru. Mimeo pp:65.

landChoudhury. B.C. 1990.Sympatric distribution of gharialand mugger in India. Paper presentedin l0th IUCMSSC/CSC meetingFlorida, USA.

n0 and SharmaR.K. 1987. Annual ghanal censusin North National ChambalSanctuary', 1985. Tigerpaper 14(1):9-1 l,

and Singh, L.A.K. 1987. Notes on ecologicalrelationship in baskingand nestingsite utilization :rmongKachuea sp. (Reptilia, Chelohia) and Gavialis gangeticus (Reptilia, Crocidilia) in National Chambal Sanctuary'.J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 84(3):599-604,

1993 Cornmrmal nesting by gharial Gavialis gangeticus (Gmelin) in National ChambalSanctuary, J. Bombav Nat. Hist. Soc.90(l):17-22.

Sagar, S.R. and Singh. LAK 1990. Rehabilitationof mugger crocodile (Crocodyluspalustris) in Similipal Tiger Reserve,Orissa, India. 188-200pp.In crocodiles.Proc. 10th working meetingof the CSG. ruCN. The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland.Vol.2 ISBN 8327-XVi +345.

SharmaH.D 1991. Limnologicalstudies of aquaticecosystems in Gwalior region with referenceto Crocodile habitats. M.Phil thesis-, Jiwaji University,Gwalior. M.P.

ShannaR.K. 1991.Detailed chemicalstudy on the egg of gharialGavialis gangeticus (Gmelin) (ReptiliE Crocldilia) with reference to environment,Ph.D. thesis. Jiwaji University.Gwalior (M.p.)

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Guidelinesfor Developinga SustainableUse Program

Dennis N. David Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission 4005 South Main Street Gainesville,Florida 3260f-9099 U.S.A.

Submitted to the L2th Working Meeting of the Crocodile SpecialistGroup 2 - 6May 1994 Pattaya,Thailand

n4 Table of Contents

PREFACE i BASICCONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAMDEVELOPMENT I 1.1 SustainableUse I 1.2 CITES Criteria and Controls 1 1.3 llarvest Strategy 3 1.4 Economic Feasibilitv 4 BIOLOGICALINFORMATION 5 2.1 Population Assessment ) 2.ll Population Status Surveys 6 2.12 Effects of Harvest 6 2.13 Habitat Avaitability 6 2.2 Monitoring the Effects of llarvest 7 2.21 Monitoring Population Trends 7 2.22 Monitoring Harvest Levels I 2.23 Monitoring Habitat Change 8 INFRASTRUCTUREAND REGULATION NEEDS 9 Responsible 1.1 Government Agency 9 3.2 Harvest Regulations ...... 10 3.21 Harvest - Program Controls and Tagging Requirements 10 protected t0 3.22 llarvest and Zones L2 3.23 Seasoruand Methods of Take 13 FUNDINGSOURCES 13 4.1 programs Divcting From Other 13 42 InternationalAidOrganizations t4 43 Industry Funding t4 4.4 products Sale of Ilarvested or Confiscated l4 4.5 License and rag Framework Basedon Raw product varue 15 4.6 Severanceor Export Tax Basedon Export Value t5 ATTACHMENTS t7 CITES Controls l7 History of CITES Control l9 EstablishedCrocodilian Utilization programs Developmental ZJ Aid Expertise 29


There has beenconsiderable interest in the farming, ranchingand harvestingof crocodilians following both the economicand conservationsuccess of sustainableuse prog:uur in manyparts of the world. The CrocodileSpecialist Group (CSG) of the IUCN's SpeciesSurvival Commission is commonlyasked for guidancein the developmentof new crocodilianprograms. With the benefitof a greatdeal of experienceand expertisethe CSG, at the suggestionof the author, decidedto develop clear guidelinesfor a "modelnmanagement program appropriate in the majority of situationsthat are likely to be faced. Subsequently,a workshopwas held on the subjectat the 1990CSG meetingin Gainesville,Florida U.S.A. However, it was not until February 1992thatsufficient funding was available (from TRAFFIC (USA) and industry) to allow the author to travel to countries with successfulcrocodilian programs to documentapproaches that could be replicatedelsewhere.

Using attributesand elementsfrom most crocodilianmanagement programs around the world, nscore' the first draft of this documentw:rs detailed and establishedreview criteria that generateda to define acceptableprograms. In review, however,the consensuswas that this was too "idealistic" and therewas a dangerof the guidelinesbeing misinterpreted as minimum requirements.

This documentprimarily seeksto developpractical guidelines which are closeto the minimum necess:lryfor success.A secondaryobjective (in part a hold-overfrom the 'idealistic" first draft) is to identify practicalmeasures that can be takento enhancea programto improve is likelihood of successand enhanceits conservationmerits.

The trvo most importantelements of any sustainablewild crocodilianuse programiue effectivetrade control and technicallysound monitoring. However,there is no singleprescription for a programto utilize wild crocodilianresource; each and every region of the world has uniqueneeds requiring a different emphasis.Considerable effort has gone into attemptingto define minimum requirementsthat are flexible and relativelysimple, while ensuringhigh technicalstmdards are maintainedto safeguardagainst depletion of wild stocks. It is impossibleto prescribespecific criteria for the establishmentof every possiblecrocodilian use progr:rm. In the most uniqueand difficult cases,cofilmon sense, coupled with a conservationcommunity commitment to promotingwise resourcestewardship, will hopefully prevail. This documentshould prove useful in guiding and provoking innovativethinking for thoseconsidering developing a programaimed at the sustained commercialuse of a wild crocodilianre"source, and it will providea standardfor judgingthe adequacyof new andexisting commercial crocodilian use programs.


l.l SustainableUse

Man hasrelied on the naturalresources sharing his environmentfor millennia. Only in the last few hundredyears' with expanding humanpopulations and increasingconsumption rates, has a needto conserverenewable naturalresources been recognized. Casesof ovei-exploitition of naturalresources have left many people with the opinion that utilization and conservation are incompatible. On the contrary, sustainable_ule _canencourage conservation. Sustainableuse of naturalresources is use at a levelthat can be indefinitelyreplenished. Establishing systems that allow sustainableuse of commercially valuablenatural resources can provide economicinciniives for their conservation. Crocodilians have beencommercially utilized for their valuablehides for nearly two centuries. In recentyears' commercial use of the meai has further enhancedthe value of crocodiiians. The high economicvalue of .crocodilians,coupled with effective harvest and trade controls have resulted in successfuland sustainableprograms. Widespreadsuccess of well plannedand implementedcrocodilian use progralns senred,in part, as a stimulusfor broad acceptanceof ttre opportunitiesand consenration merits of sustainableutilization.

Development of a sustainablecrocodilian utilization program can result in the formation of a' constituencyof beneficiaries that may be comprisedof hunteis, iar.ers, landowners,processors, hide tanners'exporters' and product manufacturers.Such a diversegroup of constituentsthit all rely on the sustainedproduction of raw materials(i.e. wild crocodilians)from naturalareas can become a formidable proponentfor long term conservationof crocodilianhabitats. The protectionof wetlandhabitats benefits not only crocodilians,but all formsof wetlandwildlife.

1.2 CITES Criteria and Controls

Historically, , uncontrolledcommercial hunting led to declinesof manycrocodilian populations and endangermentof others. To slow the decline, intirnational trade controls in crocodiliansand their were qroduca imposedthrough an internationaltreaty convened in l975,The Conventionon International Trade in Endangered Speciesof Witd Faunaand Flora (CITES). CITES took the first stepsto establish international standardsto ensuretrade in crocodilian productsdoes not adverselyaffect crocodilian populations.To encourage sustainableharvests, CITES ianctions tradeonly from harvestprograms that are biologicallysound 'ihe andhave adequate controls to preventillegal trade. majority of cou-ntriesthat import raw materials and consumecrocodilian produis rt. partie, to the cITEs, ano all tradewith such countriesmust be in compliancewith the provisionsof CI'igS. Nationsthat are not partiesto CITES may trade with CITES parties, provided that they substantiallycomply with the provisions of the convention.

CITES controls are complex, having evolvedthrough a numberof "Resolutions',that outline criteriaunder which.crocodilian populationsmay be classiiredfor internationaltrade. A history and explanationof ClTEST'esolutions and Appendicescan be found in AnachmentsI andZ attheendof this document. Under CyEs.controls, all speciesof witd crocodiliansare listed as either AppendixI, for which no commercial trade is permitted,or on Appendix II where they may be traded, with certain

m restrictions. It is possiblefor a speciesto be listed as AppendixI in one country, and AppendixII in another.

The establishmentor expansionof a crocodilianmanagement program involving international trade often requiresa changein the CITES appendixclassification of the crocodilianpopulation in question. CITES meetsevery two yearsto considersuch changes. The timetablefor seekingaction by CITES is lengthy and strictly adheredto, often requiring submissionof documentsin excessof a year in advance. Becausetimetables are critical and subjectto revision, it is advisableto checkdirectly with CITES regardingcurrent deadlines and procedures for submittingproposals (fhe CITES Secretariatmay be contactedat: 15 chemindes Anemones, Case postal 456, CH-1219, Chatelaine-Geneva, Switzerland; Tel: 4122- 9799n91n; tex: 415391ctes ch; fax: 4t22 - 7973417).

For a CITES appendixclassification change to be consideredthe ManagementAuthority of the countryconcerned must submit a proposalto CITES, and this will usually includea managementplan describingand justifying the proposedprogram. The plan is critically reviewed by various CITES technicalcommittees and the internationalconservation community. CITES reliesheavily on the CSGfor recommendations.Reviewers evaluate the informationprovided in the managementplan to judge the likelihoodof whetherthe harvestis sustainable,and if adequatecontrols will be providedto guardagainst illegal harvest. Unfortunately,CITES controls do not identify clear standardsthat plnns must meet, which can result in inconsistenciesin the evaluations.This is particularlytrue of commentssought by CITES from technicalreview committeesand the internationalconservation community

Although CITES resolutionsare complex their implementationhas been important to the successfulconservation of crocodiliansthroughout the world. The lack of clarity in CITES regulations is, in part, necessitatedby the variety of circumstancesthat must be accommodated.The "riskn posed by different typesof harvestunder differing circumstancesrequires varying levelsof regulatorycontrol andsupporting biological information. Individualcountries often havediffering goalsand motivation for institutinga program.Hence, it is impossibleto write a singleprescription for a crocodilianmanagement program. Fundamentally,however, crocodilian management plans need only addressthe principlesof CITES; to ensurethat harvestprograms are not detrimentalto the survival of crocodilians,and that effectivecontrols are in placethat assurethat crocodilianproducts are legally obtainedand traded.

One of the principal purposesof this documentis to outline the CSG positionon the regulatory and biological information standardsthat should be provided in a Crocodilianmanagement plan to accommodatethe fundamentalprincipals of CITES. The guidelinesattempt to explain the varying biological and regulatory "risksn associatedwith different types of harvestof different speciesand differentcultural and political constraints; provide insight on thebiological information needed to support different types of harvestprograms; identify regulatoryapproaches, resource needs, and funding mechanismsthat shouldbe considered;suggest scientit'ic methodologies that are generallyaccepted as effectiveand technically sound; and provide examples of successfullyestablished commercial utilization programsin differingregions. Countries proposing programs that satisfy these guidelines can be assured of receivingthe supportof the CSG.

Judgementof a managementplan will be basedon how well the plan can: (l) identiff the type andextent of harvest;(2) demonstratethe plannal harvestis biologicallysound, feasible and sustainable; (3) identify the biological monitoring and regulatorycontrols intendedto limit over harvestand illegal trade; and (4) show that adequateinfrastructure will be providedto overseethe program.

n8 1.3 Harvest Strategr

The harveststrategy selected (type and extentof wild crocodilianharvest) depends on the life history of the species,its populationstatus, traditional economic value andthe ability of Or management authorityto control wildlife use. The harveststrategy and intensityof harvestwill dictatethe amountof resourcesrequired to implementa program.

The Ranching and hunting of wild crocodiliansare the two most widely practicedforms of commercialcrocodilian utilization. Ranchingrelies on the collectionof eggsand/or juveniles from the wild for rearing in captivity until the animalsare large enoughto producJcommerciallyvaluabte hides andmeat. Hunting involvesthe killing of free rangingcrocodilians from the wild for the immediatesale of the hides and meat. There are varying levels of biological and regulatory "risk" involved with allowing either type of harvest. When iOentifyingthe type ind extentof Oe harvestin a management plan there mustbe a cleardeclaration of the type of harvestand the anticipatednumber of animali to be taken(usually on an annualbasis).

Adult crocodiliansP_roduge many eggs and young to compensatefor high juvenile mortatity. Under somecircumstances, the offspringfrom only one in a hundredeggs are neeOeOiosustain. **od generation. Consequently,it is possibleto remove substantialnumbers of eggs and juveniles in a ranchingprogram without adverselyaffecting the numberof animalsreaching UieeOing-size. In these programs regulatorycontrols are generallyfocused on the rearingfacilities ffarmsl ttrat canbe inspected andmonitored relatively easily. The "regulatoryrisk" of a ranchingprogram .an-be minimized through implementationof stringentharvest quotas, stock inventory,and skin taggingrequirements. 'biological The risk" increaseswith the propoftionand the ageof animalsremoved from the wild. Thus, the hunting of sub-adultand adult crocodiliansis muchharder to managefor a sustainableyield. The risk of hunting can be greatly reducedif ways can be found to avoid-taking breedingfemales. Breeding-sizefemales can be protectedby (1) allowing huntingof only thoseanimals that areimaller or largerthan breeding size females or by (2) restrictinghunting to specificseasons when males and females occupydifferent habitatand permit huntingonly in thoseareas piefened by males. predominantlymale harvestspose little or no biological risk to a crocodilianpopulation provided harvestrestrictions are effectively enforced. Hunting programsgenerally require a great degreeof control and enforcement, particularly in the field. This may entail enforcingquotas on the number,size and areaswhere animals are taken, and requiring a systemof hide taggingand'inspection to monitor compliance.

The amountof "evidence"required for a proposalto obtain the approvalof the parties 'risk" CITES follows a gradientthat is directlytied to the of a proposedharvest. Gainingthe supportof the conservationcommunity requires reasonable assurance that the proposed utilization scheme isiustainable. Adult harvestsrequire extensivemonitoring and control while harveststhat target low risk agesand/or harvestat very conservativelevels require lesscontrols. For example,ranchirig progran* that rely on the collectionof eggs lom only a small proportionof the nestsof i widely oistiiouteospecies ,u.h ,, (Cai{nan the commoncaiman crocodytussp.) would be consideredlow iisk, and t"ouid requireless biological informationand require less regulatorycontrols than a programthat soughtto harvist eggs, juveniles and breedingadults of a more narrowly distributed-speciessuch as the (tvtelanosucM--qief). Becausethe "risk" posedby harvestprograms varies for different crocodilian speciesand for differentpopulations, it is not possibleto establishi singleset of criteria. Eachproposed program will ultimately be judged on the circumstancesaffecting the crocodilian resourceand the informationprovided in a country's managementplan. Risk factors are graphically depictedin Figure l. The relativebiological risk increasesas the size or age of the crocodilian hanrested increases. These are comparedwith additional relative economicrisk discussedin section 1.4, E'GNII. and the trade control risk and the number of lr, participants(i.e. potentialbenefactors) discussed in 3.21.

1.4 EconomicFeasibility

Although it may be possibleto provide ample evidence that a harvest strategy is biologicallysound and can be carefullyregulated, it is usuallypointless to implementa programthat Figure 1 is not economically feasible. After all, the objective of commercialutilization is aimed at providing economicbenefis. Therefore, economic feasibility shouldbe consideredin selectinga hanest srrategy.

It is commonlyassumed that there are enormousprofits for those involved in the production, processingor saleof crocodilianproducts. Although crocodilianproducts, particularly finished luxury goods, have a high value, commercialutilization is not always profitable. Indeed, recent history demonstratesthat the marketfor crocodilianproducts is volatile in responseto typical supplyand demand factors,changes in global economyand luxury fashiontrends. Additionally, regionaloi ipecies*pecific factorscan influencethe commercialvalue of a crocodilianresource, which, in turn, may influencethe program typeof implemented.Some of theseare: (1) thetraditional value of a species;12) the suitability of a particular speciesfor captive rearing; (3) capital and operating costs of rearing facilities; (4) operatingcosts (collecting eggs or hunting, processing,and transportingproducts) in difficult-to-access regions; and (5) agency costs incurred from inventory, monitoring, and administeringa program (generallyoffset by industryuser fees).

Severalfactors should be examinedwhen evaluatingthe economicfeasibility of a program, potentialoperating procedures, and regulations. Traditionally,"classic' skins (e.g. crocodilesand alligatorswhich have very few bony platesor osteodermsin the skin) are more valuablethan 'non- classic"(e.g. caiman)skins. Programsdealing with classicskins, therefore,can absorbhigher harvest and/orrearing costs. Behavioraldifferences among species make some species more suitable for breeding and/orgrowing under intensive culture that requiresmore crowdedconditions than animalsexperience in thewild. Constantwarm temperatures are necessary to achieveoptimal growth in captivecrocodilians, and fluctuatingor suboptimaltemperatures can often lead to decreasedgrowth ratesand high mortality. Establishingand operatingcaptive ranching facilities with high capital investmentand energydemands is costly. The cosi and feasibility of collectingand transportingeggs or juveniles from remote areas differs considerablyamong regions. Moreover,many species of crocodiliansnest during the wet season makingaccess to the eggsdifficult and expensive.The developmentof sanitaryprocessing facilities to suitablyprocess meat for humanconsumption, particularly for export, coupledwith the logisticsof obtainingfreshly killed carcassescan be extremelycostly. Marketsfor crocodilianmeat are small and difficult to developor expand.The manpowerand operating funds necessary to providea soundtechnical basisfor supportingharvests and to effectivelyadminister a programmay require substantialuser fees.

2N Generally, ranching involves gf,eater economicrisk than hunting prograru, Figure 2. However, the economicand conservationbenefits of a successfulranching program can be geat. A high capital inveshent is neededto build and operate ranching facilities. In poor market roqrrc conditions,ranchers are usuallyforced to harvest lt[ the annual crop to pay the bills. Anempts to "hold" animalsuntil marketsimprove results in lossesform overcrowding. Alternatively,hunting program participants are not forced to take animals from the wild if it is not profitable. Whenprices aredepressed, participants can forgo qAcr orcrc the opportunity (and income) that year. Historically, crocodilianhunters have turned to Figrurc 2 some other form of natural resource use to supplementtheir incomeuntil marketconditions become more favorable.

Economicfeasibility assessmentsare rarely given adequateattention. However, it is necessary to carefullyconsider the economicfeasibility of a programprior to actualimplementation. An objectivl assessmentof the economicsof a managementprogram, preferablyby a qualified economist,can help precludeinvestment losses by ranchers,hunters, and processors. When confrontedwith economiclosses the industry will typically seek relaxed regulations, operationalprocedures, and fees, which may ultimatelyjeopardize conservation of the resource.


2.1 PopulationAssessment

Somesectors of the wildlife managementand conservationcommunity strongly believethat, in an idealworld, crocodilianutilization progr:uns would 'evidence' be startedor expandedonfy wfrin thereis a strong biological that the effectsof suchuse will not be detrimentaito the populationbeing exploitedl In fact, with the exceptionof programsin developedcountries (such as Australiaand the Un-itedstates) progrimrs no stafted with this concept. Managementhas generally involved an adaptiveapproach in which crocodilianswere harvested,the effectswere monitoieO,and subsequentharvests were modified accordingly.However, success is hightyunlikely when the managementauthority has little ideaof the basicstatus of the targetpopulation and wherethere is no monitoringof populationtrends through direct or indirect means- In addition,although many well establishedprog.atni were developedthroulh "trail anderrorn, under the requirementsof CITES, this approachis more difficult today. As a result,new programsgenerally with Tart surveysof ttre wild resourceand often rely on harvestprogram results in otherregions as models,though this approachrequires some mcchanism for local "validation".

NL 2.ll Population Status Surveys

Surveydata give the wildlife managerthe informationneeded to plan, implementand monitor harvests. Populationstahls surveys are designedfor manyreasons, from determiningminimum number of animalspresent to the establishmentof populationindices for monitoringpurposes. Crocodiliansare difficult to countbecause of their cryptic habis and becausethey often inhabit inaccessibleareas. The mostcourmon techniques to estimatepopulation densities and/or establish population indices include direct methodssuch as night spotlight countsand daytimebasking counts, and indirect methodssuch as the countingnests. Eachtechnique is suitedfor differenthabitat characteristics. To detail surveytechniques is well beyondthe scopeof this paper,but it is importantthat surveysare conductedby trainedpersonnel to ensuretheir accuracy,repeatability, and credibility.

2.12 Effects of Harvest

During the past two decadesa numberof excellentstudies have evaluated the effectsof hanrest on crocodilian populations. The findings from these studiescan provide a basis for justifying the sustainabilityof harvestsin other regions. This is particularlytrue when studieswere conductedon the sameor closelyrelated species. Informationfrom Nile crocodileranching in Zimbabwehas beenused to designsimilar ranchingprogranu in neighboringAfrican countries,while experienceof hunting and ranchingin Louisianaand Florida, U.S.A. hasbeen used in programsin severalother states. However, suchan approachshould be takenwith care- there is considerableevidence demonstrating that different crocodilianspecies, and evenindividual populations within the samespecies, respond very differentlyto harvest.

Experimentalharvests can evaluatedifferent proceduresand regulationson a small scale,prior to implementingan operationalprogram. They also allow limited utilization of the resourcewhile a balancedharvest scheme is beingdeveloped. Because crocodilians have long generationtimes, long-term monitoring is usually necessary. The simplest approachis to monitor population trends through systematicsurveys, measuring changesin population abundance,population size strucntre, and reproductiveeffort. The experimentalharvest approach has beenused to develophunting programsin Venezuelaand Florida, and ranchingprograms in Florida and the NorthernTerritory, Australia,though in the latter, there has beena strongelement of adaptivemanagement.

In some cases,the effect of proposedharvests can also be evaluatedfrom the outcome of computer simulations. There are a few population models available that can, through computer simulations,estimate the effect various egg, juvenile, or large crocodilianharvest strategies have on populations.Accuracy of a populationmodel, however, is dependenton the availabilityof regional informationon survival,growth rates, and fecundity. Where such regional information is lacking,models shouldbe usedto providegeneral approximations of sustainableharvest rates and to determinepopulation sensitivityto changesin selectedp:uameters. A balanceof existingand regionalbiologicat information shouldbe usedin simulatingharvess through population models. Too muchreliance on studiesfrom otherregions can provide misleading results when modelling populations.

2.13 HabitatAvailability

The quantityand the quality of habitatavailable to crocodiliansis obviouslyan importantfactor in conservationand the evaluationof sustainableuse strategies. However, it shouldnot be assumedthat becausehabitats (and by implication,crocodilian populations) are small or decliningthat there should be

a2 no harvestingprogram. An economicincentive for conservationis often essentialwhere habitat is being convertedand lost becauseof land usepressures. Crocodilian harvests can often providesuch economic incentivesfor conservation.

It is often assumedthat the measurementof differenthabitat t)?es, when coupledwith population inventories,will provide a meansof estimatingthe total crocodilianiesource. However, careshould be usedin extrapolation. Populationestimates should be obtainedsystematically (i.e., randomly)to ensure all habitatt)?es are represented.Where extrapolationis unavoiiable, it is usualfor the fo*ert O.nrity estimatesfor eachhabitat type to be used.

2.2 Monitoring the Effects of Ilarvest

Crocodilianpopulations most commonly decline as a resultof over-harvestingand/or habitat loss. Any crocodilian harvestprogram must employ a monitoringscheme capable of deteciingadverse declines in populations beforethe populationis badly harmed. ThJability to sustaina harvestanO Oe credibility of a managementprogrirm dependon the ability to detectchanges in populationlevels, identify the cause of change,and adjustharvest levels accordingly.

Monitoring techniquesfall into threecategories. These include: (1) monitoringpopulation trends through on-sitesurveys; (2) monitoringthe harvesttrends (e.g., numberand size ofiiocodilians taken annually); and (3) monitoring habitat cfrange.A managementplan should identify the operationat procedures and the manpower neededfor monitoring. It is timpting to avoid the added cost of monitoring when there are many other pressingeconomic or social neOs. However, a well designed populationmonitoring systemis an obligationthat comeswith the harvestof any species,regardlJs of its statusor the level of harvest" It is certain, however, that populationleveis will changewhether harvested or not, and monitoring is the only vehiclethat will ptouiOea quantitativerrasure of changes that can be usedto ensurecredible and sustainableharvests.

2.21 Monitoring PopulationTrends

Sustainableutilization requires limiting the harvestof crocodiliansto a level that canbe replaced through natural reproduction. In an adaptivemanagement approach, monitoring of populationLends providesthe basis for the setting of annualharvest quotas and for the restricti6n o, liberalizationof harvests,provided the monitoringtechnique is capabteof measuringchanges in the population.

If monitoring is to providecredible population trend information, particular attention should be givento technicaldesign for appropriatestatistical analysis. The type of monitoringsystem selected and the associated costs in manpowerand equipmentdepend on halbltataccessibiliti, speciesstatus and distribution, andthe risk of the harvestimposed (i.e. ianchingor hunting). physicalcharacteristics of thehabitat impose obviouslimitations on thetypes of surveysthat can be considered.For example,aerial surveysare of no value in an area where the ctosedforest canopyobstructs potential observationof animals or theirnests. Similarly,nighttime spotlight surveys from iboat ." noipru.tical on impassable water bodies. Survey techniquesand associatedstatistical analyses should be designedto accountfor variationdue to habitatand environmental variables.

Basking surveys have been used to monitor crocodile populationsthrough aerial surveys of representative rivers in Australia and Tanzania,and from ground observationsoriprivate lands in the llanos of venezuela. Aerial nestingsurveys are usedas an inde* of alligator populationtrends in the relativelyopen and homogenouscoastal brackish and freshwatermarsh in Louisianaand the portionsof the BrazilianPantanal and remote of PNG. However,in manyareas such surveys are ineffective becausenests are obscuredby vegetation. Annual night-spotlightsurveys have been useful as a populationmonitoring tool in Zimbabwe,Tarzania, Venezuela, Guyana, Florida, Georgiaand Louisiana U.S.A., andthe NorthernTerritory in Australia,and to a lesserextent in PapuaNew Guinea,Irian Jaya, and Indonesia. Night-light surveysallow technicalpersonnel to obsenrechanges that otherwisewould be unobservablefrom the air (suchas habitat degradation, changes in reproductivesuccess, behavior, and physicalcondition of juvenile and adult animals).

2.22 Monitoring Harvest Levels

Where speciesare enteringinternational trade, CITES requiresthat a record of the numberand size of animalsharvested is compiled annually. This sameharvest record can provide, to a limited degree,biological information about ttre size of animalstaken under hunting progranx. In hunting prograns, hanrestlevels can be monitoredthrough inspectionof hides (which shouldbe taggedat time of offtake). Under a ranchingprogram harvest levels are mostoften monitoredthrough stock counts on farms, but it is also commonto inspectat the time of collectionand slaughter.

Trendsin the numberor sizeof animalstaken (or hide size)have limited utility in evaluatingthe impactsof hunting. This is becausea decline in the size of hides can be a sign of a real decline in populationsor only reflect changesin "availability' of animalsto hunters. Changesin availability of crocodiliansto hunterscan occur becauseof numerouscauses; examples include 1) increasedwariness of animalsas a resultof harassmentassociated with huntingactivities or otheru/aterbody uses, 2) changes in environmentalconditions, such as increasesin waterlevels that allow animalsto accessextensive areas of inaccessibleflooded marsh, 3) changesin demandfor different size hides, which gives hunters economicincentives to "target" specificsize animals. Informationon the numberand sizeof hidesfrom huntingprograms is relatively inexpensiveto collect, but becauseof its potentialbias is bestutilized in conjunctionwith someform of on-sitesurvey technique.

Programsin Indonesiaand PapuaNew Guinearely heavily on information derived from the numberand size of hidesproduced. Much of the crocodilianresource in thesecountries occurs in remote areas,where traditional on-site surveys are simply not feasible. There are dangers,however, in suchan approach.False impressions of the statusof the populationcan result from fraudulentor delayedreports.

2.23 Monitoring Habitat Change

Degradationor loss of habitatcan have muchgreater long term adverseimpacts on crocodilian populationsthan harvest programs. If a harvestprogram is to be sustainedand remain credible, managers must be capableof adjustingharvest quotas in responseto changesin habitat. Habitat alteration(such asimpoundments for hydroelectricprojects, drainage projects that change natural water level fluctuations, eutrophicationfrom agriculturaland urbanization)can have adverseaffects on crocodilianpopulations. Increasedhuman activity, suchas residential development, fishing practices and industrial activities, often accompanieshabitat changes that can displacecrocodilians or causeinadvertent mortality.

Monitoringhabitat change is usuallymore costlyand lessprecise than populationsurveys for tracking populationstatus. However, it is presentedhere as an alternativeapproach where no other systemof monitoringpopulation changes is adequate.Additiondly, thereis considerablemerit in the inclusionof habitatmonitoring as part of an overallmonitoring scheme. zu The monitoring of habitatchangry cg be accomplishedat individual sitesor over broad areas, or both' A habitat inventory compiled ,hu initial program P developmentphase can provide a vital baselinefor assessingfuture changes in hirbiu,t_quaity-o q-u-tity.- wtrere monitoring surveysare conducted.annually, changesin habitatcan be measuredat little "ili;;;p"tationadditiona cost. meiNuresshould provide a record euantitative of habitatchanges that are mostlikely to affectcrocodilian populations. Theseshould include changes in available waterJurface area; proportion of the shorelineor areaaffected by humanencroachment such as villages, agriculture,mining o-rother industry; and naturalchanges in river coursesor water levels as a result ofdroughs'and fl;ods. where potintia adverseaffects are documented,quick remedialactions can be proposed $.i. If a habitat changewill generatefewer economicbenefits than the sustainedharvest of crocodilianpojulations, thenthe sensiblecourse of action may be to leavethe habitatin a naturalstate.

INTRASTRUCTURE AI{D REGTJLATIONNEEDS Illegal harvestsusually have a deleteriousaffect on crocodilianpopulations and damage markets for legal productsby undercuttingprices and damagingthe imageof crocodilianproducts in the eyesof retail consumers' Therefore, both the conservationcommunity and the legal crocodilianproduction industry demand assurancesthat the infrastructureis in ptaceto adequatelycontrol program. and administera-

Implementationof an operationalprggram requires(l) an agencywhich hasthe responsibilityfor establishingprogrampolic.v a1d enacting legiJtation; 1); regutationsto defineoperational procedures, and (3) a methodof indefinitelyfunding thJprogram.

3.1 ResponsibleGovernment Agency

one governrnentagency shouldhave authority and responsibilityfor the crocodilianutilization progr:rm' Where the program results in internationaitrade, this requirementis enshrinedthrough the articlesand resolutionsof CITES.

under the provisionsof cITES, the nationalgovemment must appoint a "ManagementAuthority' anda "scientific Authority" to administer the clTEfsystem. The scientific Authority is responsiblefor monitoring the effects of harvestand ,,detrimental for ensuringthat harvestprogr:rms are not to the survival of the species". This is generally accoirptishedthrough monitoring. In many casesit is beneficialto write into legislation thai monitoringinformation be provided or funled by thoseundertaking the exploitation' The ManagementAuthority is responsiblefor administrationof the program(from the cITEs perspective).This inclirdes the deveiopmeniand enforcement of regulations,issuance of permis and harvesttags, compilationof harvest reports,authorization of exportsand reportingof trade figures. where the crocodilianshave limited nationaldistribution, central governmentis generally an effectivemanagement authority, but wherehabitat and crocodilianpopulations are dispersedover wide geographicalregions with social and cultural differences,management authority may be most effective when delegatedto a regionallevel. when regio.nalauttrority is granted,the centralgovemment usually continuesto providea supervisoryand coordiiatingrole. negionarmanagement programs typically meet

285 somereasonable minimum criteria establishedby the centralgovemment. Where diversecultural and socialpractices exist, regionallymanaged programs may enhancelocal involvement,tailor programsto the specific needsof communitiesand encouragethe developmentof technical expertisewithin the immediateregion. The distributionof responsibilitiesover severaldifferent governmentalagencies is usually problematic. The benefits of a single wildlife managementagency include improved accountability,efficiency, specializationand, most importantly, resourcestewardship. The proper authority and supportfor a wildlife managementagency comes from a commitmentat the highestlevel of government. The consolidationof wildlife and naturalresource conservation responsibilities under a singlecabinet or ministrylevel office hasbeen advocated by the IUCN, in "Caringfor the Earth'.

All programsshould aim for a minimumof bureaucracy.In relativelysmall programslittle additionalgovemment bureaucracy is necessary;it is possibleto assignduties to.only one individualthat may be responsiblefor authorizingannual harvest quotas, and monitoring and compilingannual reports. However, in caseswhere a program is large and/or expectedto generatea significant industry, considerableburdens may be placedon the responsibleagency. Under somecircumstances, it is possible to minimize "government'costs of a programby relianceon industryor outsidetechnical consultants to undertakecritical tasks. Many programs utilize this approachto one extent or another, though considerablecare must be taken to ensurethat sound biological information is obtained. In both Venezuelaand Florida, USA, govemmentrelies on qualified consultingbiologists to provide survey informationused to establishannual hanrest quotas on private property. In Zimbabweand Australia's NorthernTerritory, programsrely on consultantsto providebiological research and monitoring to support their programs. PapuaNew Guinearelies on the industryto contributeaircraft for annualsurveys used for monitoring and to establishannual egg collectionquotas.

3.2 llarvestRegulations

Regulationsare neededto provide controlsthat will restrict a harvestto sustainablelevels and ensurethat productsfor export are legally acquired. A managementplan should identify regulatory controlsthat will be imposed,and also show how proposedregulations will work. Euly enactmentof regulationsensures that regulatoryissues do not delaythe start of a programand is often consideredan administrativedemonstration that regulationscan and will be enforced.

There are a numberof functioningregulations in ranchingand hunting programs throughout tlte world (Attachment3). Most of these programs have developedeffective controls that have been practicallytested. Prior to developingnew regulations,functioning regulations used in other programs shouldbe reviewedas possiblemodels.

3.21 Harvest Program - Controls and Tagging Requirements

Biological informationcoupled with an assessmentof economicfeasibility provide the basisfor electingto establisha harvestprogram that focuseson ranchingor hunting,or somecombination of the two.

In a crocodilianprogram relying on export,the ManagementAuthority is responsiblefor issuing CITES exporttags andpermits for eachexport shipment as a measureto guardagainst illegal trade. To be an effectivecontrol, all tags mustbe self-lockingand bear informationon the countryof origin, year of production,and a uniqueserial number. Different taggingsystems may be necessaryfor controlling huntingprogrami and ranchingprograms. Huwing - Regulatorycontrols for huntingprograms should be aimedat ensuringanimals are taken in the corect number and sizes from design.t.a ti..litio. control and monitoring of harvestlevels un{e1hunting programs i. b-* accomplished thpus! hide taggingrequirements uro requirementsfor hide validation(i.e.' the inspection,measuring, ano marting otlioes prio, to saleor export). Under someprogrems, huntets or landownersare t'?ically issuedharvest permits and serially numberedharvest tags that authorizethe takingof a specificnumberbtcrocodilians po,n oolg.iil;; during a specifiedtime period. To preventstockpiling of hidesprior to the designatedharvest period, a commonpractice is to require adherenceto'skinning instructions'that are rrurird immeoiatetyprior to the beginningof the harvestperiod. Skinninginstnictions denote a uniquestinning patternthat is not typically followed in the normal courseof skinningan animal(i.e. flaps of dorsalscutes or specifiedfoot padsanached to the hide). Tagging animalsimrieoiately upon taking reducesthe oppornrnityto take animalsfrom improper-localities. Inspectionand measuring of nioesat-central "validation', sites provides the oppornrnityto cleck for compliance with skinninginstiuctions, collect biological informationon the size of harvestedanimals, collect any h_g. fel that rnay be charged, and attachtlTES export tags and return unusedharvest tags. Hide validation requiiementsoften provide a reasonabletime-frame following the closeof the designated harvestperiod to allow for logisticaltransport of hidesfrom remote harvestiueas to centralvalidation sites.

A hunting program is usually adequatelycontrolled through a system of permits and accompanyinghanrest tags, tagging of carcasses,written harvest records doiumenting the size and transportof animalstalto, followed by a physicalinspection and validationof individujhides prior tJ export authorization- Regulations shouldbe adoptedttrat identiff proceduresfor: permit requirements; issuingand possessionof tags; carcassand/or hide taggingrequiiements; the specific informationabout the carcassand hide to be reported; restrictionson thipJssasion and processingof the carcass,meat, or hide; and requirements and time frame for meetingp'hysical inspeaion and viioation of hides. Manpowerrequirements for hide validationcan be considerable- particuladyfor programsthat producethousands of annually. ljg* However,a physicalinspection is the mosteffective means to limit illegal activities. validation is best accomplishedthrough the auachmentof a separatenumerically numberedcITEs export tag. when the attachmentof ttrJcrrgs export t"g i, riro to the collectionof a hide tag fee then revenuescan be generated (seesection 4.5) andthe incentiveto provide adequatestaff and accuratelyaccount for each trioe is enhanced. Additionally, regulationscan be formulatedthat require the industry manpower -suppty and facilities to assist with validation of hides and off-set manpowerdemands of the agency. This arrangementcan often be mutuallyadvantagmus to the exporter becausethey are able to solicit a validation it ttrrir hide storagefacility and avoid the addedcost of transportinghides to an agencyfacility.

- Regulatorycontrols layhirys for a ranchingprogram are primarily neededto ensurethat all stock is legally acquiredand that no illegally takenwift hidl, dlegeoly rearedin captivity, are ,,laundered,' throughranches. Harvestpermits, on-iite inventoriesof reariig ficilities, and maintenanceof inventory recordsby ranchersare an effective meansof monitoring r*chrd production. negutationsshould exist that ensurethe collectionof eggs juveniles or doesnot oeitete wild stocks. under iow intensityharvests (wherethere is little impacton the resource) regulationson the numberof animalstaken by ranchersare unnecessaryor minimal.

where harvest rates approach the maximum sustainablelevel, more stringent controls are necessary'Regulations may require crocoditianranchers to obtainharvest authorization for a specified ?a7 numberof eggsor juvenilesfrom designatedareas during a specifiedtime period. Somemechanism that verifiesthe numberof captivecrocodilians legitimately reared in captivity are neededto ensureillegally huntedwild hides are not launderedthrough ranches. This may includeregulations requiring physical countsof the young immediatelyfollowing completionof hatching(in the caseof egg collection)and immediatelyfollowing the specified collection period (for juvenile harvests). A suitable inventory approachwill establishthe minimum numberof eggs/juvenilesremoved from the wild andthe maximum number of hides eligible for tagging at slaughter. Additional controls may include requirementsfor ranchersto maintaininventory records and periodically report any changesin stockresulting from natural mortality or transfersto other rearing facilities. Often, it is not feasible to conduct a complete inventoryof largeanimals in captivitybecause the handlingof such animalsis often dangerousand stressful. Under suchcircumstances, the issuance of harvest tags up to the limit of the ranch inventoryis often the most effectivecontrol.

Regulations requiring period ic spot-checks of stock and a review of farm records iue generallyadequate to avoidabuse by ranchers. A trained inspection team may be necessaryto UGIB{G ensurethe propertreatment of eggsand stock. It may be necessaryto regulatefor the design of facilities and for minimum rearing performance Figurc 3 standardsto promote good husbandrypractices and minimizethe wasteof the resourcethrough mismanagementand poor husbandrycare.

Generally,there are a greaternumber of participantsinvolved in huntingprograms than in ranchingprograms, Figure 3. Hunting programs can benefit a greater number of individuals; a larger constituencycan increasethe incentivesto conservecrocodilians and their habitat. However, hunting can be more difficult to control because it typically involves large numbersof hunters taking animals in remote iueas. This is in contrastto ranchingoperations that are usually IATGIINE much more limited in number and are easilv subjectto inspection,Figure 4. Figiure 4

3.22 Harvest and Protected Zones

Regulationsshould identify protectedareas. The establishmentof protectedareas, such as selectednational parks or preserves,that representa crosssection of suitablecrocodilian habitat in the regionis often importantto serveaesthetic, ecological and scientific needs. This is particularlyimportant

288 in areaswhere tourism may be an important componentof the econgTy, and in uniquecircumstances may provide the greatesteconomic return from crocodilians. Although the ecologicalrote of crocodiliansis not fully understood,the establishment of preserveswhere ctocodiliur popuiationsare totally protected from any harvestor molestation ensuresthat "natural' populationsexist for future study. Therefore, provisionsshould call for the periodic 're-establishmenti of t a*.*t areasbased on a technicalreview of the effectsof harveston the wild population"

3.23 Seasonsand Methods of Take

All crocodiliansfollow an annualbehavioral cycle in which somemembers, such as breeding females,iue morevulnerable to hanrest. It is particutartyimportant to considerthe breedingseason when developingregulations governing harvests. SeasonsanO metfroOs of take should be establishedafter consideringtheir biological,logistical andeconomic costs. Regulationsshould clearly define the calendar datesthat harvestmal occur' any specificrecords or permits-required,and clearly identifi the methods that are permitted. Regulationsshould prohibit harvestduring any period or by any mea^ other than thosedefined in the rules.


In spite of what seemsto be a constantlack of funding,for new progranN, the relatively high economic value of crocodilians provide an ideal means of financing'ruri.i*ule-use management progriuns'In the developmentalstages program of a it is not unusualfor-the private sector,interested in establishinga crocodilianindustry, to provide significantcontributions to fu;d studiesthat will provide the biologicatbasis that supporta harvest programthat will providea sustainablesource of product. The potential rural employmentand foreign currency earningi also commontymoiiuate govemmentand internationalaid organizationsto fund programs. Supportior sustainableprograms makes wise economic sensewhen industry hT T."9t high capital investmentsin the establisirmJntand building of captive rearing and processingfacilities.

Somefunding sources are more appropriatefor supportingthe initial stagesof a program,others the oPerationalphase- The most important considerationshould bi to settleon airnding sourcethat will provide a stable frrndingbase. Agencies that are responsiblefor the stewardrhip;i the resourcecannot remain credible if they fail to carry{ut monitoring and regulatory functions as a result of wide fluctuationsin a funding base. we iecommend using severaldifferent funding sourcesto spreadout programcost amongall participantsin the utilizationprogram and provideaiushion againit loss of revenuefrom any one funding source.

4.1 Diverting From Other programs

Diverting or reassigningtechnical personnel from other programswithin an agencyis often a meansof initiatinga crocodilianutilization programwhere a very cursoryreview of the populationstatus andthe feasibility of initiatinga program mustbe assessed.Such personnel can often serve as the ,,seed,, necessaryto germinate funding -other sources (such as those discussedbelow) and formulate a comprehensivepackage that will allow developmentof a program. Agenciesmay find that adequate

28 manpoweror funds can be providedby the eliminationof existingoutdated or lessimportant progrilnu. However,the diversioncan affect other conservationprograms or may be inadequateto meetthe needs of a credibleand biologically soundprogram.

4.2 InternationalAidOrganizations

Funding from internationalaid organizationsis often designed!o promotethe developmentof sustainable-useprograms. The greatestobstacles to suchfunding is often the bureaucracyinvolved and the long lead time berweenapplication and grantingof support. Internationalaid is most useful as one componentof a comprehensivepackage that alsoincludes the diversionof resourcesfrom otherprograms and industryfunding for pilot projecs (seesection 4.3).

43 Industry Funding

The crocodilianindustry has demonstratedthe ability and desireto work with governmentsto developnew programs. Often entrepreneursfrom the private sector are willing to provide financial support for experimentalharvests or ranching pro$iuns in the hope of encouragingan industry. Landownerswho are custodiansof crocodilianhabitat are often potentialsupporters, :ls are agriculturd associatiorn(such as cattleranchers). Governmentsseeking to developfunding shouldinitiate an eady dialoguewith the private sector. However,govemments and the private sectorgenerally have different objectives. Governmentsare primarily interestedin wildlife conservationand the well-beingof citizens; businesses,on the other hand, are generally interestedin realizing a profit from utilization of crocodilians. Private industry is often willing to take some risks that governmentscannot afford. However, in exchangefor their risk, the private sectoroften seeksexclusive access to the crocodilian resource. This may or may not be advantageousto the govemment,local inhabitants,and, most importantly, conservationof the crocodilians. Although the vast majority of those in the crocodilian industrydeal honorably,an uninformedgovemment can be at a disadvantageat the bargainingtable.

4.4 Sale of Ilarvested or ConfiscatedProducts

The saleof hidesproduced under an experimentalharvest, or thosetaken illegally andconfiscated can be used to generate substantialrevenues during the early stages of program development. Experimentalhunting prograrx generallyinvolve the removalof a proportionof the animals. The cost of huntingand properly processing the hidesand meat can be relativelyhigh. Howeverif adequatelabor is available,or canbe temporarilycontracted, the saleof the productscan be usedto fund research.Any studiesthat arefunded in sucha mannershould be of the highesttechnical caliber to avoid any perception that scienceis being usedto cloak an ill-conceivedharvest program.

In someparts of the world, thousandsof crocodilianskins are seized by governmentenforcement agenciesand customsofficials eachyear. Generallythese hides are destroyedunder the provisionsof nationallaw. However, under somecircumstances, the hidesmay be legally sold or auctionedon the internationalmarket with the approvalof CITES. Generallythis will requirethat the speciesis already listedon AppendixII.

2X 4.5 uccnse and rag Frameryork Based on Raw product varue

A license and tag framework for funding is generally enactedthrough legislation in the operationalstage of a program. By this stage,oe narvest (hunting and/or ranchingschemes) aswell as the anticipated $ategy annualharvest levei, manpowerand funJing oreos-arewell defined. provided moniesare not availableelsewhere (as invariably ii the case)license-fees and tag fees must u. .a.q".r. to operatethe programon a self-sustainingbasii.

Tagfees are a chargeor tax imposed on eachindividual product (e.g., hides), a license is a chargeor til( imposedon a participant fee involvedin the taking or possessionoi crocodilians(e.g., rancher or hunter). often, the costs program of a increasewith th-enumber of animalsharvested. Therefore, it is preferableto tie the bulk of program revenuesto tag fees rather than licensefees, which are less likely to track program expansionand costs.

Although there are commonlyinequities in the costsof producb from ranchingand hunting, a tag fee systembased on the average valueof hidesis often adopted. Each individualprogram is and many 'taxn unique factorsmust be consideredwhen establishingequitable rates.

Ranchersgenerally are permitted to takefar greaternumber of animalsthan hunters and, although their net profit per animal may be lower than wild h-untedanimals, their overall net can be considerably greater' The time ft: *g fee is imposed can alsohave a bearingon the real costto a rancher. A fee thar is paid at the time of egg collectionand must be carriedas debt for the I to 3 yearsduring rearing is a muchgreater burden on the rancherthan a 3g !* that is paid at the time of slaughter. However, under this system,ranchers that exercisepoor husbandryand looseconsiderable numbei of animalspay no fee for the resource removedfrom the wild (andno ienarty for a wastedresource). on the other hand, hides produced hunting progranu are, almost invariably, cheaperto producethan those from ranched _from animals. However,rruriting costs also canvary, and in remoteregions can be substantial.

The most equitablemethod of determiningtag fees is to considerthe costsof production and calculatethe averagehide value (the net vaue itreie possible)for each ,)rp" or animal taken and determine the percentagetar( neces.*y lo_fund the program. tn a program tirat permits hunting and ranching,a fee of approximately r% tD 15.% of the aviage raw product value can generateadequate revenueto make the program self-sustaining. Generally,when legislationis neededto enacttag and licensefees it is advisableto establish 'up . tag tre of io" a giuen fee amount. This will provide the flexibility to increaseor decrease fees in inirements*ithout needto revisestate or nationallegislation. Thoseseeking to develop a licenseand tag frameworkshould investigate the systemsemployed in other programsto draw on thl experienceand mistakesof other progr.*.-1rr" an".hrent 3).

4.6 Severanceor Export Tax Based on Export Value

In many casesvalue is added to crocodilian hides prior to export (e.g., through partial or completetanning). In these casesan alternativeto forcing the entiretax burdenon'tire primary producer is to placea til( on produgts at export. This canbe an adiitional tax that paysa portion of the program,s operatingcosts, or which functions as the sole supportmechanism. ii, sotu supportmechanism, however,a loss in revenuecould result if the internalmarket for productsstrengthens or marketforces

8t causeextended slumps in exports. In creatinga tax structurefor exportsa minimum fee per piece, regardlessof size, should be consideredto circumvent possible low export value declarationsby unscrupulousexporters.

The revenuefrom expoft ta(es canbe erraticbecause the saleof crocodilianhides and products follows the demandof fashion. Producersoften reduceproduction or exportswhen prices and profia are low, awaitingimproved market conditions. This cancause agency revenue shortfalls in somey."tr, followed by surplus in good market years. Thereforeit is wise to considerreliance on this revenue sourcein combinationwith someother form.




Excerptfrom: Luxmoore,R.A. 1992"A Direaory of Crocodiliut Farming operatons. SecondEdition. IUCN, Gland Switzerland g3Opp., and Cambridge,UK. PART l: AN tNrnOpuCTION TO FARMING THE oF cRocoDILIANs, Editedby J.M" nution andG.J.w. webb (pp.5-7).

l. Regulations

The term ffocdilians is usedto refer to the 23 differentspecies of crocodile-likeanimals around the world: alligators and (E species),true crocodiles(13 ipecies),*o gn.ri.rr andfalse gharits (2 species).Within most countries, crocodilianscarnot just be kepi andt .O.Oiik. do*otic animalsand ' They are 'wildlifen, ild therewill usuallybe laws restrictingwhat private individualscan do with them' For example,wild crocodiles may ue totattyprotected, or tbey ray u. managedthrough a system requiring licensesand permits for catching,teeping, selling, trading, killing, etc. As oesJ tarnsuary from country to country, and enforcementof our-.*go?or-hportance strict to lax, we make no attemptto summarizethem here. However, they are of critical to anyone consideringcrocodilian farming.

At the international level, trade in crocodiliansand productsderived from them is controlled throughCITES - the Convention on InternationalTrade in End-angeredSpecies of Witd Faunaand Flora. The mechanismsby which CITES exertscontrol are more compl& with crocodiliansthan with any other grouPof living organisms. There are two basiclevels of control. Most crocodilianspecies are listed in Apperdix / of CITES, for which no commercialtrade betweennations is allowed, unlessthe animals beingtraded have been bred-incaptivity. The remainderare in AppendixII, forwhich trade is permitted if expoft permitsare issuedby the relevantauthority. Sincethe inceptionor Crrpi in 1975,all species of crocodilianshave beenlisted on AppendicesI or II.

Since 1975, a number of local populationshave beentransferred from AppendixI to Appendix a variety of reasons,and ll.'^lot usinga variety of mechanisms.Consequently, nrie ar" now at leastfive different levelsof control accordedio crocoditansunder GITES:

1.1. AppendixI

AppendixI contains'all speciesthreatened with extinctionwhich are or maybe affectedby trade. Tradein specimens of thesespecies ... mustonly be authorizedin exceptionalcircumstances,' (GITES, Article II, para. l). The export of wild animalsto be usedas breedingstock for establishingfarms or zoosis not permitted,unless the aim is to instigatea breedingprogramme intended to ensurethe survival of the species. Hunting trophies intendedfor lersonal uru litot resale)may be exported,although some nations(e.g. the USA)prohibit their importationunless a specificexemption is prornioeain theirdomestic importregulations.

E3 1.2. Appendix I (Bred in captivity for commercial purposes)

AppendixI animalsare controlledas thoughthey were AppendixII animalsif they are "bred in 'born captivity for commercialpurposes". This has been defined as: or otherwiseproduced in a controlledenvironment, ... of parentsthat mated... in a controlledenvironmentn. For crocodilians,this means that the offspring must hatch from eggs laid in a farm, and that the breeding stock must be "establishedin a manner not detrimentalto the survival of the speciesin the wild" and must be "maintainedwithout augmentationfrom the wild, exceptfor the occasionaladdition of animals.." from wild populationsto preventdeleterious inbreeding'. ResolutionConf. E.22 forbids the removalof breedingstock from a depletedwild populationunless it "is justified in a national managementplan demonstratingconservation value'. The breedingstock must alsobe managedin a mannerdesigned to 'has maintain it indefinitely, and that been demonstratedto be capableof reliably producingsecond- generationoffspring" (ResolutionConf. 2.12). This doesnot meanthat the farm cannottrade until it has achievedsecond-generation breeding, but rather that it must be using suitableand reliable husbandry techniques. Farms must also be registeredwith the CITES Secretariat(via the local Management Authority) and approvalmay be withdrawn if they fail to comply with the requiredconditions.

13. Appendix II (trarnfened from Appendix I for ranching)

Under CITES ResolutionConf. 3.15, AppendixI animals"which are deemedby the Partiesto be no longer endangeredand to benefit by ranching" may be transferredto Appendix II, if strict 'the managementcriteria are adheredto. Ranchingis definedas rearing in a controlledenvironment of 'primarily specimenstaken from the wild'. The operationmust be beneficialto the conservationof the local population(i.e. whereapplicable contribute to its increasein the wild)". In order for a countryto transfera populationfrom AppendixI to AppendixII for ranching,it shouldhave carriedout research 'that on the wild populationand be able to ensure the taking from the wild shall have no significant detrimentalimpact on wild populations". With crocodilians,the harvestingof eggsand hatchlings(for ranching)appears to havea minimal impacton the wild populationsrelative to the harvestingof adults. ResolutionConf. 8.22 recognizedthat the removalof eggsand hatchlingscarries less threat to the wild populationthan the harvestingof adults,and it recommendedthat proposedranching operations based 'accepted on such offtake should be as a matter of routine', provided that sufficient safeguardsare establishedin the proposal.

1.4. Appendix II (an interim trarufer from Appendix I on the basis of a quota)

CITESResolution Conf. 5.21, now replaced'by7.14, wasadopted as an interimmeasure in 1985 to allow limited quotasof skinsof AppendixI animalsto be exported,pending transfer of the population to AppendixII by other means(e.g. for ranching). Quotasare set by internationalagreement and must be basedon surveyspredicting the likely impact of the harvest. Quotasmay be set separatelyfor the expoft of wild-caughtand ranch-rearedanimals or their skins. The systemis intendedto operatefor a maximumof four years,after which a country is expectedto haveaccumulated suffrcient information to show either that the populationhas recoveredand merits retentionon AppendixII, or that a ranching schemecan operate.

84 1.5. Appendix II

Populationson Appendix II, or which have ben transferredback to Appendix II after having recovered,may be oqud. internationallyprovided that the ManagementAuttrorityirruo * exportpermit. This, in turn, may only be done when scientific adviceindicates that the trade "will not be detrimental to the survival' of the species.

In order to export skins under any of the systemsdescribed under Sectionsl.z-1.4 above,the skins must be marked*ift I tag bearingi uniquenumber. In practice,several countries also tag skins from AppendixII animals(1.5 above),and there iue now few ciocodileskins in legalinternational trade thal are not tagged. Resolution conf. 8.14 was adoptedin t992 recommendingthai all crocodilianskins in internationaltrade be tagged.


History of CITES Controls

Excerptfrom: Luxmoore, R.A. 1992. A Directory of CrocodilianFarming operaions. secondEdition. IUCN, Gland switzerlandand cambridge,uK. 350pp.,PART 2: DIRECTORY oF cRocoDILAN. FARMING OPERATIONS,Edited by R.A. Luxmoori (pp 55-57).

History of crrRS contror of rrade in crocodile products

The mechanisms by which CITES exertscontrol over the trade in crocodilianproducts :ue more complexthan for any group other of organisms.They aresurnmarized in Table4. All Crocodyliawere includedin either Appendix I or II in 1975,with the majority in AppendixI. The only taxa left in AppendixII were the two freshwatercrocodiles from Oceania, Crocodylusjohnsoniand C. novaeguincae novaeguineae,two saltwater species,C, porosusand C. acutus,twodwarf caimansfrom SouthAlerica, Paleosuchusspp., and three subspeciesof Caiman crocodilus(all exceptC. crocodilusapaporiensis). ln 1979' a reassessment of the statusof the AmericanAlligator led to its transferto AppendixII, while certaingeographically defined populations of the trvo widespreadsaltrvater species were transferredto AppendjxI: all populations of C. porosusoutside Papua New Guineaand the populationof C. acutus in the USA. Later, in 1981,the remainingpopulations of C. acuruswere transferred to AppendixI. Many countries, havingexperienced heavy exploitation of crocodilesin the past,had introduced protectivelegislation which had resultedin scatteredpopulation increases. These, together with the growingrealisation thatsome other populations *ere noi sufficientlyrare to justify inclusionin Appendix I, wereto bring callsfor mechanisms to allow a resumptionof tradein crocodilianproducts from some sources.

Article VII, para. 4 ,,bred of CITES allowsspecimens of AppendixI specieswhich were in captivity" for commercialpurposes to be treatedas if they ,"eri AppendixiI specimens. A Resolution adoptedin 1979in CostaRica (Conf.2.12) narrowedoe oeRnition'of"bred in captivity".

85 At that time there were very few crocodilianfarms which fulfilled this definition. One of the oldest, and largest, was in Thailand, which was not then a Party to CITES. The growing crocodile farming industryin Zimbabwerelied on the collectionof eggsfrom the wild and thereforedid not fulfil 'bred the new definition of in captivity". Recognisingthat it neverthelessdid not threatenthe wild populationand, indeed,benefitted it, the third meetingof the Conferenceof the Partiessought to arrive at a formula which would allow trade. As the only exemptionallowed by the Conventionto permit trade in AppendixI species(specimens bred in captivity)had beendenied by the adoptionof ResolutionConf. 2.I2, the remainingoption was to transferthe populationto Appendixtr. The normal mechanismfor transferringspecies from AppendixI to AppendixII, as definedtin ResolutionConf. 1.2, requiresthat the populationshould be shown to have recoveredsufficiently to justify its transfer. As this was not always possible,a new procedurewas [email protected] Conf.3.15) under which "ranched" populationscould be trensferredto AppendixII. This was first used in 1983, when the Zimbabwean population of C. niloticrJ was transferredto Appendix II and, later, in 1985, for the Australian populationof C. porosus.

The criteria for ranching, defined in Resolution Conf. 3.15, although not requiring the demonstrationthat the populationhas recovered,demand such strict controlson the managementof the wild populationand the conductof the ranchingoperation that many countrieswithout a long history of crocodilemanagement would havegreat difficulty in fulfilling them. Furthermore,it was realisedthat as most crocodilianshad beenincluded in AppendixI in 1975,before the BerneCriteria for the addition of speciesto the appendices(Resolution Conf. 1.1) were adopted,their was, for the most part, no informationon the size of the wild populationat the time of inclusionin AppendixI, and thereforeno e:uy way of demonsuatinga populationrecovery since then. Theseconsiderations led to the adoption, in 1985,of some "specialcriteria for the transferof taxa from AppendixI to AppendixIl"(Resolution Conf.5.21, laterreplaced by ResolutionConf. 7.14). Thesewere intended as a temporarymeasure, until some other mechanismfor allowing trade could be complied with, which would allow countriesto transfertheir populationsof the speciesto AppendixII andexport only limited quotasof certainproducs. Under this system,ttre populationsof C. niloticus in Cameroon,Congo, Kenya, Madagascar,Malawi, Mozambique,Sudan, Tanzania and Zambia,and C. porosusin Indonesia,were transferredto Appendix II in 1985, followed in 19E7 by those of C. niloticzs in Botswana,and of C. cataphracrusand Osteolaemustetraspis in Congo. To thesewere added, in 1989, the populationsof C. niloticus in Ethiopia and Somalia,and in 1992,those of SouthAfrica and Uganda. Populationsof C. niloticus in Botswana,Malawi, Mozambiqueand Zambia were retained in AppendixII underthe termsof Resolution Conf. 3.15, andtherefore no longerrestricted by exportquotas, followed by the populationsof Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzaniain 1992. A further complicationto the quota systemis addedby the practice adoptedof specifyingthe sourceof the specimenswhich go to makeup the quota. Thus the Ethiopian quotafor 1991comprised 2300 ranch-reared, live hatchlings,6500 ranch-reared skins, 20 skinsobtained from the wild and50 wild huntingtrophies. The Quotasadopted are shown in Table5.

Further refinementswere addedin 1987 and 1992 to the mechanismsfor allowing trade in captive-bredAppendix I species, to allay concernsthat there was insuffrcient control over the establishmentof breedingoperations. Resolution Conf. 6.21 recommended"that, exceptingspecies for which oneconrmercial captive-breeding operation is includedin the Secretariat'sRegister on24luly 1987 [i.e. C. niloticus, C. porosus, C. siatnensis],the first commercialcaptive-breeding operation for an AppendixI speciesbe includedin the Secretariat'sRegister only by approvalof two-thirdsmajority vote of the Parties".Alligator sinensiswas added to the registerby this processin L992. Resolution8. 15 set

86 controls over the acquisitionof breedingstock to ensurethat farms were not establishedto the detriment of depletedwild populations.

The year l9E7 also saw the introductionof mechanismsomitted from the early resolutionsto terminate the trade ftom captivebreeding (Resolution Conf. 6.21) or ranching(Resolutlon Conf. 6.22) operatiorurwhich fell short of the requirements.

procedure The for transferringranched populations to AppendixII as it was originally envisaged allowed the export both of the productsof animali rearedon ranchesand thoseof wild--caugit*i'nitr. The rationale for this is that there is a continuousinterchange between the wild populationand the stock held on the ranches and so they are both part of the samepolulation. However,'it was later realizedthat this might result in the extractionof large numbersof skins from wild populations. ResolutionConf. 8.22 ttrereforeimposed clear restrictions by requiringParties "to limit the mannerof exploitationof wild populations to thosetechniques described in the proposaland not, for example,later to initiatenew short- tenn programmes for takingwild animalswithout notifying the Secretariat;. It further recommendsthat "any wild hanest componentof a ranching proposal normally be limited to a reasonablenumber commensuratewith the control of nuisanceanimals and sport hunting'.

The resultof this convolutedhistory is that therehave been at leastseven different mechanisms for exerting control over trade on crocodiliansunder cITEs, ranging from Appendix I listing and a complete tradeban, throughvarious limited trade regimes, involvingl"ptiur UreeOing,quota systems and ranching, to simple inclusionin AppendixII. Different populatiois oi.ny speciesmiy be includedin different categories,the current record being held by C. niloticrrs,whicir is subjectto five different control categoriesthroughout its range(fable 4). The controlsin force are so*.arized in part I of this book.

Impact on Conservation

Crocodilian populationshave declined in manyparts of the world, andthis has beenlinked to the unconuolled tradein their skinswhich took placebefore the implementationof CITES. Crocodilianskins are a luxury product and, with the exceptionof alligaor misiissipprznslsand Crocodytusacutus in the southern USA, most major wild populationsare remotefrom the main markets. As they are seldom huntedfor meat, the majority of trade is internationaland thereforesusceptible to control by CITES. The ban on cornmercialtrade imposedby inclusionin AppendixI varied in effectiveness: in somecountries, suchas the USA andAustralia, the tradewas broughtunder control with the aid of strict domesticprotection measures.In others,commercial contributed to a declinein trade, as with Melanosuchus niger in South America and C. porosusin the Indian sub-continent. Elsewhere,where largepopulations of AppendixI speciesremained, such as C. porosusin SoutheastAsia and C. niloticus, trade continued, mostly to non-Partiesand Partiesholding reservations,especially Italy, Franc, *d Japan. From 1984onwards, these routes became progressively restricted, *d th"r, ir uui.i.n.. tt.t ti* volume of trade in Appendix I skins beganto fall as a resuti of CITES controls @ixon and Barzdo, 1988). It is perhaps no coincidencethat this was accompaniedby widespreadmoves from aroundthe world to find legitimatealternative methods to continuetrlde in the morelbundant populaqionsand this providesevidence that CITES may havebegun to work as it was intended. In the foliowing sections,the implicationsfor the conservationfor crocodiliansof the variousdifferent trade control regimeswill be discussed.

a7 Appendix I listing

Althoughtheoretically providing the greatestlevel of protection,a completetrade ban has several drawbacks. It requiressubstantial investment in local protectionmeasures by the rangestates if it is to be effective in the absenceof unanimousefforts by all potentialmarkes to control imports. More importantly,it providesno immediatecommercial incentive to counterthe conflicting demandsfor the eradicationof crocodilians. If sometimesill-informed, theseare numerousbecause, even if crocodilians are not perceivedto posea threatto humansor livestock,they are often consideredto damagefishing gear or competefor fish stocks. There is thereforethe double cost of policing protectionmeasures amongsta potentiallyalien public who would wish crocodiliansremoved even in the absenceof commercialskin hunting.

In compensation,a completetrade ban is more simpleto police and legislatefor than a partial ban and, if it is successfulin reducingthe demandfor the final product, may result in a drop in price which could reducethe incentivesfor illegal trade. Both of theseadvantages are offset by the existence of severalpopulations of crocodiliansin AppendixII, the skins of which are scarcelydistinguished by the final consumerand only with difficulty by the enforcementagencies.

Captive brceding

The breedingof crocodiliansin captivity in accordancewith ResolutionConf. 2.12 needhavE minimal direct impact on wild populations. Theoretically,once the founder breedingstock has been obtained,the breedingoperation can be entirely self-containedand placeno further drains on the wild. In practice,captive'breeding operations are often only setup afterthe local wild populationshave become seriouslydepleted, and obtaining breeding stock depletes them further. Crocodilefarming is an expensive business,and the needto hastena positivecash flow may encourageeven successful farmers to obtain further stock from the wild. It was in responseto concemssuch as thesethat a resolutionwas adopted at the CITES conferencein 1992controlling the permissiblemeans for establishingthe breedingstock.

Furthermore,although captive breeding need have no direct negativeimpact on wild populations, it also has no direct positive impact. A captive-breedingoperation, once independentof the wild, providesno incentivefor conservingwild populations.

One final problemassociated with the commercialcaptive breeding of crocodiliansconcerns the deliberaterelease or accidentalescape ofexotic (non-native)species. Although the breedingand release into their former habitatof severelyendangered crocodilians, such as the Gharial, can and doesbenefit their conservationenormously, the releaseof crocodiliansinto areasoutside their naturalrange has caused problems. If the habitatis suitablethey may breedand establishferal populationswhich may have seriouseffects on the local ecosystems.Feral populationsof Caimancrocodilus have built up in Florida, Cuba and PuertoRico wherethey haveproved impossibleto eradicate. The Caimanintroduced to Isla de Juventud,Cuba, have been blamed for the disappearanceof the native Crocodylusrhombifer from the islandas a result of ecologicalcompetition. Thesereleases are thought to have resultedfrom animals originally imported as pets and none has yet occurredas a result of farming activities. However the industryis still youngand, if not checked,releases are boundto occur eventually. The experienceof the fur farming industry has many examplesof such escapesand it is responsiblefor the introductionof Mink, , RaccoonDog and Musk Rat well outsidetheir naturalrange. In &e early stagesof an industry, the livestock commandhigh prices and great care is usually taken with their security, but as time goes by and profitability declineg,maintenance of the facilities tends to be neglected. These

298 concenN ledthe ruCN/SSC Crocodile Specialist Group to recommendagainst the use of crocodilians farming for operatiotlttoutside their natural range especially within the rangJof other species of crocodilian.

ATTACHMENT 3 EstablishedCrocodilian Utilization programs

An alphabetical list of CITES Managementand Scientific Authoritiesfor countrieshaving established crocodilian utilization programsrecognized by CITES, and examplesof selectedprovincial institutions that have developedharvest progranx with innovativeapproaches and regulationsthat are suitablefor replicationin other regions.

* Australia

AustralianNature Conservation Agency (ANCA) G.P.O.Box 636 Canberra,ACT 2601, Australia tel: (6162) 5c[270 500200 tex: anpwsaa6297I fax: (6162)500303;500399; SO0Z74 Provencialinstitutions: ConservationCommission of the NorthernTerritory, p.O. Box 496, palmerson, N'T' 0831, AUSTRALIA, tel. 6189894533; contrachral crocodilian.or.t.it providedby G.Webbp3y. Ltd., P.O" Box 3851,Winnellie, N.T. 0821AUSTRALIA, tel 6tgg 22135.5,'fax6lEg 47M7g. * Botswana

Fauna: Departrnentof Wildlife and Nationalparks P.O.Box 131 Gaborone,Botswana tel: (267) 37t405 tex: 2674 trade bd cbl: GAME CABORONE fax: (267) 312354

* Colombia ManaeementAuthority: ScientificAuthority: InstitutoNacional de los Recursos Unidadde InvestigacionesFederico Medem Naturalesy Renovablesy del Instituto Nacionalde los Recursos Ambiente(INDERENA) Naturalesy Renovablesy del GerenteGeneral Ambiente(INDERENA) Carrera l0o Carrera 10o Numero20-30 Numero 20-30 ApartadoAereo 13458 Apartadoaereo 13458 Bogota,Colombia Bogota,Colombia

29 tel: (571)2$ffi 1; 2431850 tel: (571)243n7\ 2431850 1sa: 4442$inde co lsal 444/$ inde co fax: (571)2833458 fa:r: (571)285987

* Ethiopia ManagementAuthority and ScientificAuthority: Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protectionand Development EnvironmentalProtection Main Department Wildl ife ConservationOrganization P.O. Box 386 Addis Ababa,Ethiopia tel: (251l) 514411;514418 tex: 21460gtzfu et (At. Wildlife ConservationOrganization) cbl: WILDGAME ADDIS ABABA fax: (2511)518977

* Guvana ManasementAuthority: ScientificAuthority: The PermanentSecretary The NationalScience Research Council Ministry of Agriculture Instituteof Applied Scienceand Technology Attn: Head,Wildlife ServicesDivision Universityof GuyanaCampus P.O. Box 1001 Turkeven.Guvana Georsetown.Guvana tel: (5922)75527 fax: (5922)73638

* Indonesia ManasementAuthority: ScientificAuthority: DirectorateGeneral of ForestProtection IndonesianInstitr,rte of Science and Nature Consenration JalanGatot Subroto 10 DepartemenKehutanan Tromol Pos 1250 DirektoratJenderal Perlindungan Hutan Jakarta10012, Indonesia dan PelestarianAlam ManggalaWanabakti VIIIth floor JalanGatot Subroto Jakarta,Indonesia tel: (6221)58a818; 5803312; 5803313 tel: (6221)511542 'PHPA-BOGOR') tex: 45996dephut ia (for tex: 67554ia cbl: DITPALAM BOGOR cbl: LIPI JKT fax: (6221)584818; (6225r) 32367 fax: (6221) 5207226

* Kenya ManasementAuthority and Scientifi c Authority: KenyaWildlife Senrice P.O. Box 44241 Nairobi.Kenva

300 tel: Q542)501081-7 tex: 25016utalii ke cbl: MLDLIFE NAIROBI fax: QsA) 505866; 505752

* Madagascar ManasementAuthority: ScientificAuthority: Direction des eauxet forets Ministerede I'enseignementsuperieur Foiben'nyRano sy Ala MpAEF Antananarivo,Madagascar 8.P.243 Antananarivo 101, Madagascar Ministerede la recherchescientifique tel: Q6L2)408il;40610 et technologiquepour le developpement tex: 22520 mpaef mg Antananarivo,Madagascar cbl: DIRFORET ANTANANARIVO fax: Q6l2) 40230

* Malawi ManaeementAuthority: ScientificAuthority: The Chief Parksand Wildlife Offiicer The SeniorParks and Wildlife Department parks of National and Wildlife ResearchOfficer P.O.Box 30131 Departmentof NationalParks and Wildlife Lilonewe3, Malawi P.O.Box 30131 tel: Q65) 72356;723676 Lilongwe 3, Malawi 1sal 44465 forenar (to/at. mi Dept. of tel: Q65)72356;723676 NationalParks and Wildtife) tex: 44465forenar mi (to/at. Dept. of fax: (265) 723059 NationalParks and Wildlife) fax: Q65) 723089 * Mozambique

DireccaoNacional de Florestase FaunaBravia Ministerio da Agricultura Cx. P. 14O6 Maputo, Mozambique tel: (2581)460036; 460129:4ffi96 tex: 62W sogmamo; 6195monap mo; 6596 mademomo fax: (2581)460060

* PapuaNew Guinea ManagementAuthority: ScientificAuthority: Secretary First AssistantSecretary The Conservatorof Fauna Divisionof Wildlife Department of Environment Departmentof Environment and Conservation and Conservation P.O. Box 6601 P.O. Box 5266 Boroko, PapuaNew Guinea Boroko,Papua New Guinea

301 tel: (675)271793 tel: (675)271793 fax: (675)2719ffi;271044- fax: (675)27190f;271W

* Somalia ManasementAuthoriw urd ScientificAuthoriw: WakaaladdaDaaqa Qaranka (NationalRange Agency) P.O. Box 1759 Muqdisho,Somalia tel: 80710 tex: 715 SPC cbl: SOMALRANGEMUQDISHO

* SouthAfrica. Reoublicof ManasementAuthori8: ScientificAuthoriw: Departmentof EnvironmentAffairs The Director of Natureand EnvironmentalConservation Branch EnvironmentalConservation PrivateBagX 447 OrangeFree State Pretoria0001 P.O.Box 517 Republicof SouthAfrica Bloemfontein9300 tel: Q7I2) 3r0E742;310391 1 Republicof SouthAfrica tex: 320142enom sa tel: Q75L) a055245:4n54262 cbl: OMGEWING PRETORIA fax: (2751) 4054873 fax: Q7l2) 3222682

* Sudan ManaeementAuthority and Scientific Authority: Wildlife Conservationand NationalParks Forces CentralAdministration P.O. Box 336 Khartoum,Sudan tel: 70458; 74573:72593 tex: 22203 siaha sd cbl: SAYADIN KHARTOUM

* Tanzania-United Republic of ManagementAuthority: ScientificAuthority: The Directorof Wildlife The Coordinator Wildlife Division TanzaniaWildlife Conservation Ministry of Tourism, NaturalResources Monitoring Program and Environment P.O. Box 1994 Ardhi House Dar es Salaam KivukoniFront UnitedRepublic of Tanzania P.O. Box 1994 Dar es Salaam United Republicof Tanzania tel: (25551)21241-9 tel: (25551)21241; 21246

N2 tex: 41725nareto tz tex: 41725nareto tz cbl: MALHSILI DAR ES SALAAM cbl: MALIASILI DAR ES SALAAM fax: (25551)23230 fax: (25551)23230 * Thailand

Wildl ife ConservationDivision Royal ForestDepartment PaholyothinRoad, Jatujak Bangkok10900, Thailand tel: (ffiz) 5791565;5792776: 5794847 fax: (662) 5798611

* United Sgtes of America ManagementAuthority: ScientificAuthority: Chief, Office of ManagementAuthority Chief, Office of ScientificAuthoritv U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish andWildlife Service 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Room 4ZOC 725 Arlington SquareBuilding Arlington, Virginia 22203 Washineton.D.C. 2AZ4A United Statesof America United Statesof America tel: (1703)3582W3: 3582095 tel: (1703)3581708 cbl: 4900005150WASHINGTON cbl: 4900005150WASHINCTON (1703) fax: 3582280(Chief and Operations fax: (1703) 3582276 Branch); [email protected] of permits)

Provencialinstitutions: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Alligator Management 4005 Section, southMain street, Gainesville, FL. 32ffi1,u.s.A., tel. g04 336223},fax.g04 376535g;Louisiana wildlifeand FisheriesCommission, Route 1, Box20-6, Grand Chenier, LA.7o&3 U.s.A., tel.3lg 5382165,fax 318 491 2595.

* Vengzuela ManagementAuthority: ScientificAuthority: Ministro del Ambientey de los Recursos ConsejoNacional de la FaunaSilvestre NaturalesRenovables (coNAFASD Director General del Ministerio del Ministerio del Ambientey de los Recursos Ambientey de los Recursos NaturalesRenovables (MARNR) NaturalesRenovables CentroSimon Bolivar Ministeriodel Ambientey de los Edificio CamejoNorte RecursosNaturales Renovables (MARNR) (frente al PasajeZingg) Torre Sur, l9o piso EntradaOeste; Nivel Mezzanina CentroSimon Bolivar Caracas1010, Venezuela Caracas1010, Venezuela tel: (582)4081643 tel: (582)4833917; 411030 tex: 24434 manr vc fax: (582)4831 148 fax: (582) 5453912

303 * Zambia ManasementAutbority: ScientificAuthority: The Director The Wildlife ResearchDivision of the NationalParks ard Wildlife Senice - Deparunentof NationalParks CITES ManagementAuthority and Wildlife Service Attn: Chief Wildlife ResearchOfficer PrivateBag 1 Private Bag I Chilanga,Zambia Chilanea,Zanhia tel: Q6AD 278366;278524: 27824 tel: Q60l) 278366;278524; 27824 tex: gameza 70520 tex: gameza 70520 cbl: DIROCAM CHILANGA cbl: DIROCAM CHILANGA fax: (2601)278365 fax: (2601)278365

* Zimbabwe ManagementAuthority and Scientific Authority: Departnent of National Parks and Wild Life Management P.O. Box t365 Causeway Harare, Zimbabwe(WL) tel: Q634) 792786-9 tex:. 425412141zimgov zw (Io/At. Dept. of NationalParks and Wild Life Management) cbl: PARKLIFE HARARE fax: Q634) 79lLI4

Provencialinstitution: Contractualresearch and monitoringprovided by J.M. Hutton @vt) Ltd, 16 CambridgeAve, HighlandsHarare, Zimbabwe.

CITES Secretariat: CITES Secretariat 15, chemindes Anemones Casepostale 456 CH-l2l9 Chatel aine{eneva Switzerland tel: (4122)9799'391n tex: 415391ctes ch fax: (4122)7973417


Developmentsl Aid Expertise

Fund raising suggestionsfor crocodileprojects contributed by:

JamesPerran Ross, Executive Officer, CSG Florida Museumof Natural Historv GainesvilleFL 32611,USA

Funding supportfor crocodileprojects is potentiallyavailable from hundredsof sources. It is not practicalto try and list them all here, and directoriesditailing many of thesecan be found in most libraries. Insteadwe can offer an overview of the wide scopeof possiUititiesand sometips on how to approachthem. Fundingsources can be roughly classifiedas follows:

InternationalAid agencies NationalAid agencies InternationalConservation Organizations NationalConservation Organizations Businessgroups and CommercialAssociations Private Companies Private and non profit Foundations Private individuats

These are listed in inverseorder of the easeand speedin which they usuallyprovide assistance. In generalit is far easierand quicker to make-adirect ipproach to an individual or a company. A companypresident or a wealthyindividual can often just wiiie a check. In contrastthe higherup Oe tist you ask, the more complexthe processand the more committees,reviewers and specialconditions are required. A few of the more prominentsources are listed in Table l.

In most instancesa proposalmust be submittedto the sourceand the normal period between submission and receivingfunds is 1-3 years. Minimat informationyou needto know is the following:

1) The addressand nameto which to submit an apprication. 2) The format and contentrequired in the proposal. 3) The deadlinesfor submissionand the time whena decisionwilt be made. Most proposals requirethe following contentalthough the order andspecific details requested are very variable:

l) The name,address and descriptionof the submittingindividuals and organization. 2) A statementof the period of time and the amountoi supportrequested. 3) Backgroundinformation on the problem. 4) A descriptionof the scopeof the proposedproject. 5) A detailedaccount of the activitiesproposed and the scheduleof work. 6) A descriptionof the specificresults and outcomesthat are expected. 7) The namesand qualificationsof personnel.

305 8) A deraild budgetindicating major typesand amountsof expenditures.

In mrny casesthe succ€ssof an applicationis only partially relatedto the merit of the projectyou have in mhd. The key to successin soliciting financial support for a project is to correctly match the proposedactivities with the interestsof the funding source. You may think you have a terrific proposal but if the agencyyou approachdoesn't support that sort of project, you iue unlikely to succeed. In most caseseach source has specific guidelinesfor submittingproposals and specific intereststhat it will support. It is absolutelymandaory to submit a proposalin the format that the sourcerequires, if they want it in Swatrili, on pink paper with scallopededges, that's the way to do it. Rememberthat most sourcesreceive many more requestsfor assistancethan they can support. Thereforethey are always looking for a way to eliminateyour proposalquickly and minimizethe numberof proposalsthey have to spenda lot of effort to review. A great deal of your time and energycan be wastedpreparing and submittingproposals to inappropriatesources.

The most important activity you can undertake is researchingpotential sources. It is also instnrctiveto review the pastgiving history of a source. Public librariesmaintaiir reference material on manysources and most agencies,organizations and foundationswill provide written guidelineson their interestsand requirementsupon request. Universities often collate aid information for their faculty and embassiesand consulates can usually provide information on aid availablefrom official sourcesfromtheir country.

Anothercritical factor, independentof the merit of your project, is the re-iuisuraoceyou provide that you and your organizationare fully capableof compleing the work successfully. Agenciesdislike wutilS their money and usually have requirementsto qualify. They are often as interestedin your qualificationsrlour bookkeepingability, the membersof your boardof directorsand your track record of organizationalaccomplishments as they are interestedin the project itself.

Another importantconsideration is to matchthe requestto the amountthe sourcewants to give. It is obviouslyunproductive to request$100,000 from a small foundationthat usuallygives $500 ravel grants. It is equallyunrewarding to requesta small personalgrant from FAO who usuallyprovide very large grantsto nationalgovemments, they just can't be botheredwith small grants.

You can't beatthe personaltouch. Like everythingelse, who you know is just as importantas what you know. It is usuallybeneficial to makepersonal contact with a representativeof the sourceyou are considering. Most agenciesand organizationsand manycompanies and foundationshave paid staff dedicatedto managingthe gift program. Thesepeople get their professionalcredit and often their personalgtatification, from their successat picking goodprojects for their agencyto support. They will often provide detailedinformation and valuableadvice. Use them. Beginwith a phonecall, arrangea visit, follow up, keepthem informedof your activitieswhile your proposalis pendingand while your project proceeds. These people are the ones who usually present your proposal, with their recommendation,to the review board. A relationship of confidence and trust based on good communicationcan really help your project.

Reportsare very, very important. Most fundingsources require you to report during and at the terminationof a project. A disnrrbinglyhigh proportionof fund recipiens fail to fulfill their reporting requirements. As a result they do not get renewedsupport. Most successfulfund raising builds on success. A small proposalfor a pilot project can be the introductionfor a larger proposallater and ongoingsupport. Developinga relationshipof successwith a funding agencyis a very valuableactivity.

ffi Finally, it should be clear from the precedingmaterial that fund-raising is a serious, time consumingactivtty. It takes effort to succeedand successis usually proportional to your effort.

Having madethese dismal points, don't be discouraged.There is lots of assistancemoney out thereand most of thesesources are requiredby their chartersto give it away. It's just a caseof the best match betrveenwhat you want to do and what they want to fund, and presentinga convincin! proposalthat you can accomplishwhat they want to achieve.

Table1: Potential sources of funding for projeas on sustainobleuse of crocodilians.

A. Information about funding sourc€s.

The ConservationDirectory. National Wildlife Federation,1400 SixteenthSt. NW WashingtonDC 200362266 USA.

The FoundationDirectory. The FoundationCenter, 79 Fifth Ave., New york, t{y 10003-3026USA.

The National Directory of CorporateGiving. The FoundationCenter, 79 Fifth Ave., New york, Ny 10003-3076USA. ISBN 0-8795,+-485{.

World Directory of EnvironmentalOrganizations. California Inst. of hrblic Affairs, p.O. Box 10, ClaremontCA 9l7ll USA.

World EnvironmentalDirectory. BusinessPublishers Inc., 951 PershingDrive, Silver Spring,MD 20910 USA.

B. Internationsl Aid agencies.

Thesemaintain impossibly ponderous bureaucracies and fund multimillion dollar projeca. They usuallywork directly with nationalgovernments.

- UN FAO Food and Agricultural Organization,Rome , Italy. UN UNDP- United NationsDevelopment program uN UNEP- united NationsEnvironment Program. p.o. Box 30552,Nairobi, Kenya. The V/orld Bank, 1818H St. NW, WashingtonDC 20433USA.

C. National Aid Agencies

Most of thesefunction as anns of ttre foreign policy of their country and their aid allocationcan be very focussedand political. Most maintain offices in the countriesbf tneir interest and can be contactedthrough the embassyand scientificattache" us AID -Agencyfor InternationalDevelopment, washington Dc 20523,usA. NORAD- NorwegianAgency for Development AUSTRAD- AustralianAgency for Development

TI EC- EuropeanCommission JICA - JapanInternational C... Aid

D. Internationrl Conservation Agencics

IUCN-World ConservationUnion. Ave du Mont Blanc, Gland CH-l196, Switzerland. WWF- lnternational. World V/ide Fund for Nature,Ave du Mont Blanc, Gland CH-l196, Switzerland. WCI (NYZS)- Wildlife Conservationlnternational, 185th and So. Blvd., Bronx, NY 10460. CI- ConservationInternational, 1015 18th St. NlV Suite1000, Washington DC 20036USA. NationalGeographic Society.

E. National ConservationOrganizations

WWF- World Wide Fund for Nanrre- National organizations,function and provide grants independentlyof WWF-lnternational.Major WWF affiliatesin US, UK, France,Netherlands, Germany, Malaysia.

F. The commercial sector.

Corporations- Nearly every internationalcorporation gives away some funding in everycountry it operatesin. They do this for reasoffrof prestige,public relationsand sometimestax benefits. Oit companies,car companies,electronic companies, food companiesare all potentialsources. Contactthe nationaloffice and the director of public relationsand enquireabout the corporategiving pro$am. Of course if your boss fishes with the companyPresident, that should help. The obvious targets are companieswith a commercialinterest related to your project. For crocodilians,manufacturers, fashion houses,retail stores, tanners,traders and commercialfarms and ranchesare all possibilities. This publicationwas preparedwith financialassistance from conservationorganizations, tanners and traders.

Crocodilianrelated Trade groups

ACSUG- Asian Conservationand Sus&tinableUse Group. Y. Takehara,Pres. Horiuchi Trading Co. No 2-174 Tsukasacho,Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

JLLA- JapanLeather Industries.Association,CITES Promotion Committee,2F, Meiyu Bldg., 249 Kaminarimon,Taito-ku, Tokyo 111Japan.

NCFA- Nile CrocodileFarmers Association of SouthAfrica, C/) RiverbendCrocodile farm. P.O. Box 245, Ramsgate,4285,South Africa.

CFAZ- CrocodileFarmers Association of Zimbabwe,P.O. Box 2569,Harare, Zimbabwe.

FAFA- FloridaAlligator FarmersAssociation, C/O AshleyAssociates, P.O. Box 13679,Tallahassee, Fl 32317USA.

ICFA- IndonesianCrocodile Farmers Association. S. Tazir Pres.P.T. SentaniValley, JL CiputatRaya No 192, PasarJuma'at, Jakarta, Indonesia.

308 CMAT- CrocodileManagement Association of Thailand,Dr. P. Ratanakorn,Pres. Wildlife Lab. Dept. Zool. KasetartUniversity, Bangkhen, Thailand.

ACFA- AustralianCrocodile Farmers Association, CtO I. Bache,P.O. Box 3gT4l,WinnellieNT 0g21, Australia.

AZOOCOL-Associacion Zoocriaderos de Colombia,c/o M. Stambulie,Zoocriadero Bucaintu Ltda. Cartagenade ,Colombia.