Geology 331 : or -like reptiles. Note the sprawling posture. Mammal with Upright Posture From to , a well documented transition series

Carl Buell Prothero, 2007 Synapsid Teeth, less specialized

Mammal Teeth, more specialized Prothero, 2007 Yanoconodon, Lower of China Yanoconodon, Lower Cretaceous of China, retains ear bones attached to the inside lower



= articular of = quadrate of Ear Bones, or lower upper reptile Auditory jaw jaw

Cochlea Mammals have a bony secondary

Primary Palate Reptiles have a soft Secondary Palate secondary palate Reduction of digit bones from and Foot of Synapsid 2-3-4-5-3 in synapsid to 2-3-3-3-3 in mammals

Human Hand and Foot Mammalia - to Recent Superorder Tricodonta - Late Triassic to Superorder - Late to Early Oligocene Superorder Monotremata - to Recent Superorder () - Late Cretaceous to Recent Superorder (Placentals) - Late Cretaceous to Recent Evolution of Mammalian Superorders

Multituberculates  Metatheria Eutheria (Marsupials) (Placentals) Tricodonts 

. Live

Extinct:  . .. Mammary Glands?

Mammals in the Age of – a nocturnal style , a lower Jurassic mammal with a “large” (6 mm brain case in an 8 mm ) Were larger adaptive for a greater of smell?

Big Brains and Early Mammals July 14, 2011 The Academic Minute

http://www.insidehighered.com/audio/academic_pulse/big_brains_and_early_mammals Lower Cretaceous mammal from China Jawbones of a Cretaceous from Mongolia Mammal from the Cretaceous of Mongolia Reconstructed Cretaceous Mammal

Early Cretaceous mammal ate small dinosaurs

Repenomamus robustus fed on psittacosaurs. Image: Xu Xiaping, 2005 robustus Repenomamus robustus with small in the gut Modern – what is the long for? at night , such as this vampire , hunt at night

Monotremes: adult

The Platypus baby

Monotremes: The Echidna Typical Marsupial, a Poorly developed newborn kangaroo attached to a in the . Australian Marsupials

Koala – Victoria State, , March 2014 Australian Marsupials


Quokka The extinct Tasmanian “ between Marsupials and Placentals An extinct marsupial sabertooth “” from South America North American record of mammal orders


P E O M P-P K T Alroy, 1999 Prothero, 2007 Classification: (A) vs DNA (B)

Elephant Shrew From Lehmann (2010, Palaios, 25:141. Shrew Figure 1. Mammalian phylogeny for living taxa based on (A) Bats morphological evidence (after Shoshani and McKenna, 1998) and (B) nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data (after Springer and Murphy, 2007). For each , colors distinguish major Flying placental Tree recognized. Lightly shaded dashed lines indicate the orders that have been moved in the left-hand tree to correspond with the right- hand tree. This was done for the sake of readability. 8 February 2013