Gateway Initiative ASSESSMENT REPORT for and November 2000

Utah-Arizona Four Corners Tourism Assessment Report l 1 GATEWAY INITIATIVE STUDY AREA



2 l Utah-Arizona Four Corners Touris Assessment Report Acknowledgements The Four Corners Tourism Assessment was administered through the Com- munity- Partnership, Office of Community Services at Fort Lewis College. The Four Corners Heritage Council coordinated the Utah and Arizona portion of the assessment, while the Office of Comunity Services conducted the Colorado and New portion. Research and project coordination staff members in Utah and Arizona include: Cleal Bradford, of the Four Corners Heritage Council; Harold Lyman, San Juan Foundation; Susan and Peggy Humphreys, San Juan Economic Develop- ment; Lyman Grover, private consultant; and Merlin Berg, Little Colorado RC&D. This Arizona-Utah Report is a compilation of texts prepared by Peggy Humphreys, Susan Taylor, Lyman Grover, and Harold Lyman, then compiled and edited by Tim Richard (Office of Community Services) who also wrote portions of the report. The Four Corners Tourism Assessment was funded by grants from the USDA Forest Service Region 2, the Bureau of Land Management, the , and the Intermountain Region of the Service.

For copies of this report, contact:

Office of Community Services Fort Lewis College 1000 Rim Drive , CO 81301 (970) 247-7066 http://ocs.fortlewis.edu

Utah-Arizona Four Corners Tourism Assessment Report l 3 Preface This Utah-Arizona Report is the second of two reports produced in conjunction with the Four Corners Gateway Tourism Assessment. It follows one previously prepared for Colorado and , published July 2000. It details survey findings and project recommendations for the Utah and Arizona portions of the overall assessment, which includes southwest Colo- rado, northwest New Mexico, northeast Arizona, and southeast Utah— collectively known as the Four Corners region of the . Included also are overviews of surveys conducted on northeast portions of the Nation in southeast Utah and northeast Arizona, and the Little Colorado Region of east-central Arizona. The Utah-Arizona Report focuses on the findings, community and public survey summaries, and project recommendations for future funding and development assistance that resulted from assessment interviews and analysis on the part of researchers, funding agencies, and key participants in commu- nity and economic development in the Four Corners region of Utah and Arizona. More detail on a Four Corners-wide scope is contained in the first assess- ment report, which covered Colorado and New Mexico in its descriptions of community and public land interviews with communitiy and public land key informants (Office of Community Services, July 2000). That publication contains information that can help in understanding sustainable tourism development issues, needs, and concerns in the Arizona and Utah portions of the Four Corners. It contains: an Executive Summary; historical backgrounds of the region, of tourism development, and of the Four Corners Tourism Assessment project; an overview of findings for public land agencies and communities; and an overall strategy for funding and assisting in projects, as well as recommendations to consider for making tourism development in rural Four Corners communities a long-term success.

4 l Utah-Arizona Four Corners Touris Assessment Report Four Corners Gateway Tourism UTAH-ARIZONA REPORT

Introduction • Clarification of community, tribal, and agency tourism development objectives. n 1997, interest was expressed by represen- tatives of the Department of Interior to • Determining desired levels of tribal tourism development needs of rural involvement in tourism. communitiesI in the Four Corners, particularly • Identifying cultural and ecological values those that had not benefited from increased that would guide development. visitation and recreation at public and tribal land • Inventorying stewardship needs of the attractions. After several meetings around the cultural landscapes, and the historical and Southwest, a working group was assembled, made ecological resources of the region. up of tribal, business, college, and land manage- The intent throughout the assessment has ment representatives. This group proposed doing been to maintain a balanced perspective about an assessment of community and public land tourism, recreation, and related developments. capacity, attitudes, then identifying tourism- The inquiry was guided by a principle of sustain- related development projects, both existing and ability of both communities and ecological potential. The group also proposed to seek ways resources. The benefits from potential develop- for communities, tourism businesses, and public ment were viewed as needing to fit within land managers can work better together to community histories and traditions and con- answer questions of sustainability in the Four straints of land and management resources. Corners. Determining the parameters of these resources, The Four Corners Tourism Assessment, along with the possibility of strengthening conducted from summer through winter of sustainability are central tasks of the assessment. 1999-2000, was comprised of field interviews The traditional model of tourism develop- with community members and leaders, and of ment that focuses almost exclusively on market- representatives of the USDA Forest Service, ing continues to be the norm in most areas Bureau of Land Management, four tribes, state within the region with mixed, and often unsatis- parks, and . A questionnaire factory, results. There is a growing awareness was designed to address the following issues: among both tourism and community leaders that • Forming a regional vision, based on the the development model needs to be adjusted to community perspectives. address visitor experiences, the host community, • Developing communication linkages and regional product development if the industry among all the parties (business, tribes, is going to be sustainable, both from a commu- public lands et al.). nity support and resource protection perspective.

Utah-Arizona Four Corners Tourism Assessment Report l 5 Background and Context tions into the well-being of their communities. In The Four Corners of the United States— 1990, about one of every five Colorado northwestern New Mexico, southwestern Colo- residents was Native American, a number that is 1 rado, southeastern Utah, and northeastern gradually increasing. Arizona—lie at the center of the Colorado Many residents descended from Plateau, a visually stunning geologic array of pioneers who built communities out of ranching color and formation. and farming economies. Community leaders and Its arid deserts, river-carved and wind-etched economic development professionals are strug- , sagebrush and -forest highlands, gling with mixed results to address declining and alpine peaks are so unique that national traditional economies by exploring the opportu- parks, such as , Canyonlands, and the nities afforded by tourism. Progress is slow due Grand serve as monuments to, and to a number of factors identified by the assess- storehouses for safekeeping nature’s work. ment survey and this report. National forests, such as the San Juan, Communities and Chapter Houses in Utah Uncompahgre, Manti-La Sal, Coconino, Santa Fe and Arizona are not experiencing the degree of and Carson, encompass much of the Four growth and tourism-related demands as are Corners region, from its deserts to its summits. Colorado and New Mexico communities. Many Lands cared for by the Bureau of Land Manage- communities have grown substantially during the ment are also common in the region’s lower, arid 1990s. For example, Archuleta County, Colorado, elevations that bridge national forests, national where Pagosa Springs is the seat, set the pace by parks, and tribal lands. doubling in population from 1990 to 1997. The Four Corners/ ecology Durango and surrounding rural areas grew about is diverse, in its extremes and unique ecosystems. 4 percent per year during that time. Many of the earth’s life zones are found within In contrast, San Juan County, Utah grew one relatively small distances. The region is home to half of one percent. Still, residents there ex- what is described as one of the largest living pressed similar concerns expressed by community organisms on earth—an aspen forest that grows interviewees in other parts of the Four Corners. from a single, continuous root system. It is the One concern was for the perceived loss of headwaters of the Rio Grande and San Juan community identity in the onslaught of tourism Rivers. It cradles the great and invasions. Similarly, many in Utah and Arizona parallels the breadth of the Continental Divide. already worried about retaining community The Utah-Arizona portion of the Four identity, are concerned about being forced to Corners bears the marks of cultural histories compete with tourism growth once the door has spanning millenia, including innumerable rem- been opened. While economic growth is desired, nants of early human settlement of Ancestral unmanaged population growth is seen as a threat. who left the some 800 years ago. In spite of these perceptions, others still feel , Navajo, Ute, , and Zuni tribes that tourism is the answer to the area’s lack of continue to live and work in traditional ways, but economic stability and development. In another increasingly are seeing educated tribal members twist in the issue, it has been difficult to attract and in the investing their knowledge and aspira- tourism in the area as a whole except for a few

6 l Utah-Arizona Four Corners Touris Assessment Report major attractions. Seasonal visitation in some Some change in tourism activity has occurred areas shows a close relation between, and a since studies were last done in the region. Over- reliance upon, communities and public land all, tourism revenues have increased slightly in attractions. For example, visitation to San Juan Utah. Monument and Canyon de Chelly County and coincide, yet continue to be major destination attractions along information drawn from surveys suggests that with the , Recreation some communities seem not to be aware of the Area, and . opportunities to be gained from closer relation- There probably is more interest on the part ships with nearby Gateway attractions. of travelers from and Canada than was reported by Evans in 1995, who estimated that those visitors made “upwards of A Brief Description of the Utah- 15 percent of total visitors.” Arizona Survey Area Although the picture of sustainable tourism on the is sketchy, the assessment Surveys of key community and public officials shows efforts to capitalize on its benefits where were conducted in three Utah-Arizona areas: opportunities exist. Infrastructure either exists or 1. Communities in southeastern Utah, such can feasibly be constructed, there is local business as Monticello, Blanding, and Bluff; interest, community accepts the idea 2. The Navajo Nation in Arizona and of tourism development, and there is potential overlapping into New Mexico and Utah, for partnership relationships among tourism including chapter houses and businesses, local leaders, and public land agencies. communities of Kayenta, Chinle, and Tuba City; 3. The region just The Survey Process south of the Navajo Nation, including In order to get a comprehensive picture of several , state parks, and Petrified tourism desires, capacities, projects, and relation- Forest National Park and the Painted ships in small towns in the Four Corners, the Desert. Office of Community Services staff conducted interviews in Colorado and New Mexico. The The Four Corners Tourism Assessment Four Corners Heritage Council coordinated survey represents some of the latest information interviews in Utah and Arizona in conjunction gathered to date on tourism in the Four Corners with San Juan County, Utah Community Devel- portions of Utah and Arizona. However, neither opment, the Little Colorado Resource, Conserva- it, nor existing data, which dates back to mid-and tion & Development Office (RC&D), and the early-1990s, present detailed, accurate pictures of Navajo Nation Tourism Department. trends in tourism (Evans, Laura. 1995. Tourists on Two questionnaires were developed; one for the Navajo Nation: A profile of visitors to the nation, communities and another for public land agency with focus on Monument Valley and Canyon de Chelly. staff. Personal interviews were conducted with Produced for the Navajo Nation Division of key informants and opinion leaders, individually Economic Development through the School of and occasionally with groups of two to five Public Policy Studies, University of ).

Utah-Arizona Four Corners Tourism Assessment Report l 7 individuals. Our choice of face-to-face interac- brainstormed projects that could mutually benefit tion was based on the assumption that the the community and the nearby public land interview venue allowed interviewers to explain attraction. contexts and meanings of questions and to We also asked community and public land obtain incidental information about the towns interviewees for thoughts on relationships with and issues indirectly related to tourism. the tourism industry and to state what they could The survey and questionnaire was intended contribute to help each other to accommodate to be a qualitative assessment of people’s tourism, while protecting public lands. thoughts on their towns in general and on In all four states, we interviewed city, county, tourism specifically. As such, the information has and tribal government leaders and departmental been provided by key opinion leaders within the staff, such as mayors, chairmen, planners and communities, and staff members of public land Chapter House presidents. Occasionally, we agencies. The assessment realistically reflects a talked to local business owners who are active in current picture of community, industry and community development. We also talked with public land capacity, willingness and readiness to chamber of commerce directors and presidents. work with each other on potential projects to For the public land survey, we interviewed develop for tourism sustainability. staffs from national forest ranger districts and the The qualitative approach has two advantages: supervisor’s office, national park and monument 1) its ease of building narratives over the staffs and superintendents, and managers from long-term that register changes over time BLM resource areas. in community perspectives, needs, Utah-Arizona Study Area capacities, and resources; and Attractions 2) it creates an immediate relationship with • Monument Valley Tribal Park (Navajo) individuals, which begins to build a • Tribal Park (Navajo, foundation for implementing projects. Ute Mt. Ute) • Canyon de Chelly National Monument Questions were grouped by categories with • Navajo National Monument • & surrounding scenic area the intention of obtaining correlating informa- • Rainbow Bridge National Monument tion. Community and public land capacity for • Navajo Nation Tribal Museum • Window Rock Tribal Park (Navajo) increased tourism activities was identified in • Wupatki National Monument • Grand Canyon Tribal Recreation Area social, cultural, economic, and physical infrastruc- • Kinlichee Ruins Tribal Park ture terms from community views and, from the • Manti- • Canyonlands National Park view of agencies, in ecological, social, and • managerial, and administrative terms. • Natural Bridges National Monument • -Escalante National Both the community and the public lands Monument survey questionnaires contained a section in • Powell • Glen Canyon which interviewees were asked to list projects and • Grand Canyon National Park programs that they would like to see developed. • Little Colorado River Gorge Tribal Park • The Painted Desert In some cases, projects were underway already • Petrified Forest National Park and respondents wanted them to gain more • Walnut Canyon National Monument • El Morro National Monument momentum. In other cases, interviewees • Several small state parks

8 l Utah-Arizona Four Corners Touris Assessment Report Overview of Findings UTAH

Introduction become an important attraction in the future. he Utah portion of the Four Corners Plus, tourism-related growth is expected to Tourism Assessment was conducted in increase substantially beginning in 2002. Eco- San Juan County in southest Utah. This tourism and heritage tourism are other areas of 1 Tcounty includes the northern-most part of the potential for Utah. Navajo Reservation. How statewide developments filter down to Tourism in San Juan County, Utah has San Juan County is unclear, but being at the traditionally not been a strong influence in the crossroads should put it in an advantageous economy, but its location near Canyonlands position. “Tourism may be the single largest National Park, Manti-La Sal National Forest, factor affecting the future of rural Utah. This is , and other natural attractions puts it especially true of the areas within the Colorado at the crossroads of tourism activity. Plateau in the eastern and southeastern parts of Statewide, Utah experienced banner years in the state, and southwestern Utah where the tourism during 1995-96, due to it being the stretches in,” says one report statehood centennial year and to several large entitled Tourism Potential in Garfield and Emery 2 conventions. By 1998, downturns occurred Counties, Utah: An Economic Adjustment Strategy similar to those that Colorado and New Mexico experienced during the mid-1990s. However, there is optimism for the future. Recently, interest in capturing tourism dollars has been generated References 1 State of Utah ’s Office of Planning and Budget. (1999). by the anticipation of the Demographic and Economic Analysis: Tourism Economic Report to the in . It may help to generate interna- Governor. Available at the Internet website http:// tional tourism and aid the expected increase in www.governor.state.ut.us/dea/publication/erg99/tourism.pdf. international tourism and interest in Utah national parks, western heritage and other 2 State of Utah Governor’s Office of Planning and Budget (1999). http:// recreation opportunities. www.governor.state.ut.us/dea/publications/sustainable_tourism/ title_pg.htm Also, the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in south-central Utah is expected to

Utah-Arizona Four Corners Tourism Assessment Report l 9 Overview of Findings UTAH PUBLIC LANDS

ederal lands comprise 61 percent of San County are managed by the state of Utah. Of Juan County. The Forest Service and these lands l,333 acres are included within the Bureau of Land Management manage boundaries of the Goosenecks of the San Juan Fabout 50 percent of these lands. This acreage and Edge of the Cedars state parks. The remain- includes vast rangeland, riparian, and ing state lands are in scattered parcels, many of environments; hundreds of miles of trails which are trust lands, managed to produce and roads; several campgrounds; and a few picnic revenue for education. Most of these trust lands sites. are leased for livestock grazing. The Forest Service manages the Dark Canyon , while the BLM manages many wilderness study areas, Grand Gulch Capacity Primitive Area, Dark Canyon Primitive Area and There is concern in some areas about the overuse Canyon Rims Recreation Area. The of the public lands. More abuse is being docu- focus of both agencies is the multiple use of mented with the increased use of off-road public lands and resources. These two agencies vehicles. Between August 1998 and August 1999 thereby influence local economies through in Utah alone, over 5,000 new ATV licenses were regulations affecting timber, grazing, recreation, issued. Some areas of the public lands are archaeology and history, minerals, and water overused and understaffed and some are very shed. lightly visited. The National Park Service administers 11 Cedar and Grand Gulch are among the percent of the federal lands in San Juan County, best known and have the potential to become one including Hovenweep National Monument, of the most important archaeological areas in the Natural Bridges National Monument, Glen United States. There are over l0,000 documented Canyon National Recreation Area (Lake Powell) , archaeological sites used by the Anasazi, who Rainbow Bridge National Monument and lived in the area prior to l200 AD. Some better- Canyonlands National Park. Visitors to these known sites include Edge of the Cedars, attractions affect local economies. There are no Hovenweep National Monument (scheduled to accommodations or few services offered at the have a new visitor center in 2001), Westwater attractions, so visitors utilize the towns nearby. Ruin, and Cave Towers. Many visitors are un- The National Park Service spends an estimated aware of the resources outside of the parks. With $733,000 annually in San Juan County to maintain limited rangers and staff available visitation is not park and monument facilities. encouraged. Eight percent of the lands in San Juan Many remaining sites have development

10 l Utah-Arizona Four Corners Touris Assessment Report potential. Unfortunately, the high prices paid for road turn off (9 miles) was recently built. It is a prehistoric artifacts continues to entice illegal paved two-lane with paved shoulders and a multi- excavation and sale of these precious resources. users lane. The new visitor center at Hovenweep will be completed in 2001. Projects In the of l99l, government and education representatives developed a vision for heritage Other Concerns resources, all of which are completed projects or • Too many OHVs not staying on the nearly completed: designated roads (over 100,000 registered • Signing the Hole-in-the-Rock-Trail in Utah alone). • Consolidating management at Newspaper • More tour operators are needed in the Rock backcountry to lead visitors to out-of-the- way places. • Archaeology technician training program at the San Juan Campus of the College of • More San Juan County-based, resident- Eastern Utah owned tour businesses are needed to operate in the Manti-La Sal National • Expanding the Edge of the Cedars Forest. Most are from outside and don’t Museum contribute to the county’s economy like a • Consolidating ownership of an locally based business would. archaeological site in Bluff • Need to develop more opportunities for • Revamping and enlarging of Island visitors to recreate in order to disperse Campground on the San Juan. the same number throughout the county. • The San Juan County Multi-Agency New restroom facilities at all BLM sites are a Visitor Center has outgrown the present major concern and some will be in place by the location. Partners (USFS, NPS, BLM, end of this year. Development of businesses CNHA, and SJCO) are diligently looking for a new location. New partners that may which make legal use of sites (for example be added: UDOT, and the City of interpretive visits and participation in profession- Monticello. ally-guided excavations), is viewed as contributing to tourist-based income, as well as safeguarding the resource. The Southern Utah Land Users association is working in conjunction with San Juan County and public land managers to publish a map for off-highway vehicle use. The map is available at the San Juan County Courthouse. Education is under way by SULU to promote stewardship on public lands. The road from Monticello to Hart’s Draw

Utah-Arizona Four Corners Tourism Assessment Report l 11 Overview of Findings UTAH COMMUNITIES

an Juan County, Utah is located in the resorts. Lake Powell on the western border is a southeastern comer of Utah. Major destination shared with Kane and Garfield communities are Monticello, Blanding, Counties, and Arizona to the south. Monument Bluff.S Half of the residents are Native American. Valley to the south is shared with Arizona. These One third of the county is reservation land. San two resorts are immensely popular with visitors Juan is within 400 miles from Salt Lake City, and residents alike. Unfortunately, the center or Phoenix, , Albuquerque, and . core of the county is less popular and is some- Residents in San Juan, the largest county in times left with vacancies. Utah, spanning a vast territory, travel to major Participants easily identified why visitors shopping centers of Cortez, Provo, Flagstaff, and vacation to San Juan County—the natural beauty Farmington depending on where in the county of the landscape, national parks and monuments, they live. state parks, vast open spaces, and being in the San Juan is the poorest county in Utah with a Four Comers area. They come here to recreate on per capita income near $13,700. The unemploy- public lands. Hiking, four-wheel driving, biking, ment rate is highest in the state. , oil and , fishing, and auto touring (still the most gas production, and agriculture historically have popular) are the main activities. Cultural and been sustainable economic elements. historical experiences are also reasons to come to The value of tourism development is increas- San Juan County, Utah. ingly viewed as a strong economic factor. Visita- tion to the county is increasing. Utah Department of Transportation road counts and visitation to Community Attitudes Towards area attractions and the local visitor centers Tourism Development indicate an increase of visitors. Transient room An important factor concerning tourism develop- tax collections have increased yearly, from $264.4 ment in San Juan County is the fear of losing million in 1998 to $284.0 million in 1999. Traveler current lifestyles. The small- atmosphere, spending increased two percent between 1998 knowing everyone, and low crime rate are some and 1999, from $44.8 million to $45.7 million. of the items identified as very important. Some The majority of the travelers who come call for imposing lower speed limits in all towns. through the county are on their way to another The desire to control growth and not be like destination. San Juan is an overnight stop for Moab is a comment over half of the respondents visitors on their way to the Grand Canyon, mentioned. All want growth, but at a controlled Mesa Verde, Bryce, or National Parks. The rate. Some new businesses would not be as county however, has two major destination welcome as others. A comment from a motel

12 l Utah-Arizona Four Corners Touris Assessment Report owner was very revealing of a prevailing attitude Community Capacity “why don’t they have more four-day events,” or Spring and fall continue to be the busiest seasons “why doesn’t the travel council promote more.” for visitors in the county, with fall being the most The use of “they” instead of “we” would seem popular. French and German visitors, as well as a to indicate no buy-in to the local community few Coloradans and Utahns, make up the bulk of effort. A chamber of commerce member said “it the visitors in most communities. is not that we don’t have the traffic coming Survey respondents named late fall, early through here (increasing yearly) it is that we do winter, and early spring the seasons to extend the not stop them. We have to develop things to shoulder season. The Canyonlands Travel Region draw them in and be fun or interesting enough (Grand and San Juan Counties) awarded grants in for them to stay longer and spend their vacation 1999 to communities who were interested in dollar with us and not in another community.” sponsoring events during the off season. The Tourism supportive infrastructure for the months of the year identified were November, type of visitor currently coming into the area December, January, and February. Activities to is adequate in most communities. The golf pursue included anything related to snow or ice, course in Monticello is being expanded from nine Native American and Anglo storytelling, expand- to 18 holes, bike trails are being improved, and ing activities related to education. off-road vehicle access is being increased. Events in San Juan are not well-attended, Tourism expansion would bring more variety except for Frontier Days in Blanding (July 4) and in business for locals and tourists. More money Days in Monticello (July 24). School and would be available. More interesting events and family reunions are held at that time. Events are people. The economic base of the county would not well-attended in general. Some events are at improve and more jobs would be available and capacity with 80 people. Some do not have a not so many part time jobs.(When asked to proper venue to hold the event. identify the term “tourism expansion” it was hard One event, held in the fall, is so popular that to pin down. Some seemed to envision an it is not advertised outside of the community. overnight transformation to a busy eight-to-nine Five hundred people attended the event in 1999. month season, but no idea as how to get there. The town ran out of food. Visitation could The term was used several times). double in San Juan County with little or no Growth in the tourism economy would mean impact. Restaurants, motels, and most attractions loss of the lifestyle San Juan County values and could handle it. The majority of business owners insists they want to maintain. Some socioeco- would like more business. One business owner nomic changes would happen. Recently, at a reported that 1999 was the best year ever. Just community meeting sponsored by Utah Travel down the street another reported it was the worst Council, some county residents identified, as a business year. Lodging properties are well-cared priority, finding consensus on community values for, although some are aged. Enough business is and vision before outside influence enters. generated to justify spending money on upkeep. Overall, the 80-plus county residents inter- Motel occupancy rates are on the decline viewed support tourism and would like to see statewide. More properties are being built and growth on a year-round basis. some areas are over built. Accommodations in

Utah-Arizona Four Corners Tourism Assessment Report l 13 San Juan County at the present time for the the northern part of the county. amount of visitors are adequate, with the excep- The attractiveness of downtown, and the tion of Monument Valley. entry points to the cities were considered a joke Campground and RV Parks are adequate for by most interviewees. Everyone seems to think the demand. They range from having most something needs to be done, but no one knows amenities desired by what. One comment: campers today to just “Every small town and providing the basics. Every large city seem to have Restaurants do not community a problem with the have the customer base mentioned the outskirts and how bad that results in high desire to have a they look so why volume and low prices. visitor center or should we be any Specials or specialty visitor station of different.” items are lacking in some sort. The supportive most. The county does infrastructure through- boast of several good out the county is restaurants. adequate for demands from visitors While San Juan County has many self-service and residents. filling stations, there is only one full-service Groundbreaking for Monticello’s new station that fills tanks, does lube jobs, changes oil, expanded 18-hole golf course took place in washes cars, and so on. Every community has November 2000. one or more convenience store where shopping Bicycle Utah is helping with the development occurs for groceries, local handmade gifts, or of bike trails. Public swimming pools in Native American arts and crafts. Montezuma Creek, Blanding, and Monticello are San Juan County visitor center is located in in operation. They are not year-round pools. Monticello’s old courthouse. Local opinion is Lack of support for tourism industry that it should be more visible. Some visitors have development from local government leaders said they have had difficulty locating the center. seemed to be a concern. Many of those surveyed Every community mentioned the desire to admitted they did not know what was available, have a visitor center or visitor station of some such as hospitality training, business entrepre- sort. Currently, visitor centers are under develop- neurial leadership, and the type of tourism ment in Monument Valley and at the Four marketing being offered. The perception was that Corners Monument. leadership and support for any type of develop- Availability of public restrooms for visitors ment for tourist activity is just not available. does not seem to concern local residents. It was However, most areas in San Juan County would not an issue on the survey. like to see a five-percent increase in tourism. Monument Valley is a center of commercial There are few impacted areas that could not tour activity in the county, however, there are stand such an increase. tours available elsewhere in the county. Tour The communities and business organizations operators out of Moab generally conduct tours in surveyed expressed great respect for public land

14 l Utah-Arizona Four Corners Touris Assessment Report agency employees in the county and the numer- in the county, better services available for every- ous times they have worked together toward a one, population increase which would result in a common goal, in spite of political agendas out of variety of business opportunities, more visitors their control. The agencies have assisted in event would broaden our viewpoints. preparation, in planning for new trails, and in When addressing the downside to increased discussion of long-term tourism the following event development. The points were made: general concept is that Education and more traffic, have to when an agency’s help respect for local view stand in line, share was needed, such as points were areas favorite spots with permits, or rights-of- identified that may visitors, higher prices, way they were happy to need some public land agencies assist. Education and improvement. would have to deal respect for local view with more impacts points were areas identified that may need some from higher use. The cultural attributes that San improvement. Juan County would like to retain or develop, The San Juan County portion of the Navajo including the current lifestyle, develop the rich Nation would like some tourism development. heritage in this area, preserve the past for others The residents surveyed are not exactly sure how to enjoy as well as look to the future (most to accomplish their goals. There is also mixed participants mentioned this). Bluff area does not feelings on how much tourism or where the want fast food or chains, such as MacDonalds, tourists should be concentrated. They would like Taco Bell, etc. to see a resort complex, such as Gouldings, developed near, or in, Monument Valley. The vendors would like to be located in the Valley Community Vision where a majority of visitors stop. Meetings have It is important to possess a vision that conveys to been held with both the vendors and the tour visitors that we are a friendly, welcoming, and operators in the Valley to discuss locating them in accepting people, and that we are anxious to the new Welcome Center proposed in the Valley share with them our heritage, the scenic attrac- at the intersection of 163 and the Navajo Tribal tions, public lands, and adventures in San Juan Park Visitor Center road. County. It is important that we partner with other A feasibility study has been completed on the communities in the Four Comers. They only Montezuma Creek area in relation to having a become our competition when they go the extra shopping center located there. In that study, the mile for the visitor and we make no effort. If we possibility of a growing tourism industry, such as both make the effort, visitors will stay in both tour operators, lodging, hiking trails, and so on towns, or make it a point to come back to was not addressed. experience what they missed. It is important to The benefits from increased tourism activity attract visitors to a general area. Then it is up to outweigh the drawbacks. Some of the benefits the communities to provide the reason for include: increased tax base, more money flowing visitors to stay or pass through.

Utah-Arizona Four Corners Tourism Assessment Report l 15 Suggested Projects Listed Monument Valley • Welcome Center in Southeast Utah Surveys • Relocation of Tour Operators and The following bulleted lists are desired projects Vendors brainstormed by survey respondents. The section • Development following these lists detail those projects that are • Four Comers Monument Development in better positions to take advantage of available oppportunities. La Sal • Heritage Fair Monticello • Christmas Events Countywide • Trails (ATV, Bike, Hike) • Reprint Four Comers Brochure • Event • Community Center • Theater • Heritage Tourism Development Descriptions of Selected Projects • Blue Mountain Bike Trails— Bicycle Utah, San Juan County, • 18-Hole Golf Course and Utah Travel Council are cooperating on • Airport improvements finalizing bicycle trails throughout the county. • Visitor Center Bicycle Utah will print a guide. Estimated cost will • Wind Festival Monticello be $4,000. Completion date—2000. • Lilac Festival Monticello • Finish museum in Monticello ATV Trails —Southern Utah Land Users • Web site Association has worked to prepare ATV maps for use on the designated trails in San Juan Blanding County. Red Rock Four-Wheelers from Moab, • Arts and Events Center San Juan County, Canyonlands Natural History • Use of Armory in Blanding Association, and SULU are the partners identified • ATV Trail System • County-wide Spring Endurance Race on this project. • El Canon Trail and Development (picnic areas) Superfund Cleanup/Facility Develop- • Annual Dinosaur Seminar ment—With the completion of the Superfund • Edge of the Cedars State Park Excavation clean up, Monticello City will be deeded the old • Annual Anasazi Culture Seminar Vanadium Mill site and will receive $7 million to • Visitor Welcome Center administer restoration of the remaining property for possible uses such as a softball complex and a Bluff motocross track (for winter multi-use activities). • Arts Center A multi-use facility will be built, which will • Leadership development include a golf pro shop. Completion date—2002. • Countywide development of existing events • Navajo Twins Theater 16 l Utah-Arizona Four Corners Touris Assessment Report Conference and Visitor Center—The and visitor center. Completion date — 2002. county visitor center has outgrown its present location. The proposal is to move to the library Bluff Arts Center—Bluff needs a venue for on city park property. The partners are the events. The newly remodeled community center county, Monticello City, National Parks Service, is being used now but the long-term plan in- USFS, Canyonlands Natural History Association, cludes an art center in Bluff with artists in BLM. The city is planning to renovate a residence. Performing arts will be housed there pavillion/meeting space near the library if this also. Partners are San Juan County, State of Utah, move takes place. This will be a conference/ Bluff, and Navajo Nation. meeting facility. The entire block would be restored. Completion date—2001. Frontier Museum—Monticello Museum will open summer 2001. Once housed in the library, it Monticello Theater—Original partners were was moved to a renovated barn on South Main Monticello City, Rural Development, Monticello Street where artifacts from pre-Puebloan, early Foundation, San Juan County. The Theater pioneer, and more current history are displayed. project is on hold. The money was transferred to Partners are San Juan County, Monticello Foun- the Frontier Museum project. Completion date— dation, and State of Utah. undetermined. Monument Valley Welcome Center— Arts and Events Center—The Blanding Arts Department of Transportation of Utah and and Events Center is funded by USDA, San Juan Arizona, San Juan County, Utah Travel Council, County, and City of Blanding. Now completed, it Navajo Nation and others are participating is booking conferences. The Small Business in building a welcome center off Highway 163 in Development Center Offices will be located in Monument Valley. There will be a vendor village, the building. A business incubator is positioned tour operators, a rest stop, and a welcome center in the front part of the building. The Edge of the at the site. Construction should begin in 2001. Seaters theater group will be housed in the center also. Trail of the Ancients—The Trail of the Ancients brochure that includes the trail in Utah Golf Course—Monticello is constructing an and Colorado and the in 18-hole golf course with Superfund reclamation Colorado is available. The Trail program also will dollars for landscaping and a recreation complex include signing for the trails and video descrip- for completion in 2002 tions of the journey. Discover America has planned to film the Utah portion. Old Grayson Visitor Center and Mu- seum—The City of Blanding, UDOT, and San Four Corners Interpretive Center— Juan County have been identified as partners in Congress will fund a center at the current this project. The plan is to prepare the land, monument location if the Four Corners states restore a historic home to be used as a museum match its offer of $2.25 million with $500,000 from each state. Partners are UDOT, ADOT,

Utah-Arizona Four Corners Tourism Assessment Report l 17 states of Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona and the Visitor Center at that location. The partners Utah, San Juan County, Navajo Nation, Ute Mt. are all committed to the project. Ute Tribal Park, and others. The San Juan County Community Develop- ment/Visitor Services Department is preparing a Heritage Fair in La Sal—The business grant to UDOT for rest area funds to initiate the community of La Sal will sponsor a Heritage Fair project. At the present time, the center sees about during September. San Juan County heritage 20,000 visitors a year. Relocation should improve businesses will be asked to participate. Partners the visitation to at least 50,000. Funding from are Resource, Conservation and Development Gateway would be used for matching funds for (RC&D), San Juan County, USDA Forest Service, planning and implementation. and La Sal businesses. The Frontier Museum in Monticello received a grant for $25,000 to move an existing building Four Corners Brochure—The Four Comers (old barn) onto a lot on South Main. The build- brochure, in print for 18 years, promotes the ing has been partially renovated. The project has Four Comers area to visitors. San Juan County need of a bathroom. This is scheduled to be Community Development/Visitor Services installed in the spring of 2001. The museum is (Utah), Mesa Verde Country, (Montezuma operated by a volunteer museum board. The City County, Colorado) and Farmington Visitor and owns the property. Gateway funding would be Convention Bureau (New Mexico) are looking used to pay a contractor to install a bathroom. for partners to help fund the reprinting. Approximately $6,000 for the project. The Bluff Navajo Twins Theater will provide a unique venue for small musical performances, Utah Projects With Greatest solo vocalists and musicians, poets, and writers, Potential for Gateway Funding and other artists. Currently, sites for holding events are limited, although they sponsor the The San Juan County Multi-Agency Visitor most events of any community in the county. Center has outgrown the space in the Old Court They have secured $15,000 of a needed $40,410. House downtown Monticello. Bureau of Land This could be a great Gateway project. Management, US Forest Service, National Park The Four Comers Interpretative Center at Service, San Juan County, and Canyonlands the Four Comers would be a great benefit to the Natural History Association are the partners four Four Corners states. We could start with the presently in the center. The City of Monticello is interpretative center and the stewardship confer- coming in as a partner. The plan is to remodel or ence as our first and second choices. raze the existing pavilion in the City Park and put

18 l Utah-Arizona Four Corners Touris Assessment Report Overview of Findings NAVAJO NATION

Overview he Navajo Nation is the largest in the United States, with a population of 232,723 members and a Tland area of 26,897 square miles—roughly the size of West and twice the size of Israel. Located for the most part in the northeast corner of Arizona, the nation also stretches into portions of New Mexico and Utah, as well. It encompasses a diverse landscape of desert, high sage flats, piñon and juniper forests and highland forests of ponderosa pine. The Navajo Nation’s most-visited tourist attractions are Monument Valley Tribal Park and Canyon de Chelly National Monument. Monu- ment Valley, north of Kayenta, straddles the Utah/Arizona state line. The monotony of its red-dirt desert plain is enlivened by spectacular monolithic , spires, and other geologic MONUMENT VALLEY IS THE NAVAJO formations rising high above the stark desert NATION’S most visited attractions. However, the floor. This striking landscape has long been a Nation contains many other tribal parks and monuments that are in need of resources in order favorite with Hollywood moviemakers where it to respond to growing visitor demand and reduce has served as a setting in many films, photo- overuse of the most well-known attractions. graphs, and even music videos. Canyon de Chelly National Monument is overlooks and drives along its northern and located in Central Navajoland, just east of Chinle, southern rims. Arizona. The park contains Anasazi ruins and The Navajo Nation contains several other historical sites dating from the ’ struggle tribal parks and monuments less visited, offering against in the 1860s. Its nature- potential for increased tourism development sculpted canyon walls and spires are major visual associated with those attractions. Some of those experiences for visitors. The canyon can be attractions, as well as events, are listed below. enjoyed from trips up its two branches, Canyon • Mystery Valley de Chelly and Canyon del Muerta, or from • Narrow Canyon

Utah-Arizona Four Corners Tourism Assessment Report l 19 • Piute Farms While there was a great deal of interest on • Navajo National Monument the part of many public and community inter- viewees in participating in the assessment survey, • Goulding’s Trading Post the size of the Navajo Nation and the difficulty • Tuba City Trading Post in communicating and reaching more diverse • Dinosaur Tracks near Tuba City representation limited survey results--especially • Blue Canyon and historic buildings information related to attitudes, capacity, and projects in local areas on the reservation. Survey • Western Navajo Fair results suggest that opportunities and desires for • Hopi increaed tourism development decline as one • Grand Canyon travels outward from specific attractions, associ- The many natural attractions located on the ated businesses, and communities. Yet, despite Navajo Nation provide great opportunities for barriers to gathering a diverse and comprehen- natural resource experiences, but it is the Navajo sive understanding of Navajo Nation desires, people themselves who are often of interest to attitudes and capacities related to sustainable travelers. Many visitors are from tourism, some opportunities are emerging as a and Canada, making international tourism on the result of documenting that information. They are Navajo Nation potentially a major economic and discussed futher on in this report. cultural exchange. Events were also listed by interviewees as important tourism opportunities for both visitors and local communities. This is Challenges of Tourism especially important as an opportunity for local Development on the Navajo Nation chapters to share their distinct culture and Infrastructure for tourism is lacking on the Navajo worldview with visitors in multi-cultural interac- Nation. tion. • Entrepreneurism is difficult for cultural Local interest in tourism, however sustain- and bureaucratic reasons. (It takes two able and beneficial it might be, has not evolved years of red tape to start a business, court among the people. Reasons given include: of the Navajo Nation • traditional Navajos resist the presence of discourages outside investors, the socio- foreigners, economics of poverty are supported by government funds.) • both Navajo and visitors don’t speak each others’ languages, or even English for that • Jurisdictional disagreement between matter. This, as well as lack of cultural chapters and the tribal government knowledge and sensitivity, makes prevents cooperation. Chapters want local communication difficult. control of tourism projects, yet lack the expertise and funding to implement them. • Beyond social willingness and capacity, the region lacks infrastructure to support • Navajos practicing the traditional way of potential development for tourism. life, who hold grazing rights on individual land holdings, say tourists invade their privacy. All Navajo Nation land outside

20 l Utah-Arizona Four Corners Touris Assessment Report the towns is so allotted, including Canyon The nature of Navajo culture causes people to be close- de Chelly and the tribal parks where mouthed with strangers, hence tourists who are interested tourism is encouraged. in the culture are given short answers, which is perceived as unfriendly. • The general population has a mind set expecting government money to meet • There is a need for training of employees specific needs, such as a new roof, and others who come into contact with windows, etc., rather than for economic tourists. development projects that will increase • There is a need for public education of employment and self sufficiency. the Navajo population about how tourism • The border towns have 99% of the can be encouraged without sacrificing motels, restaurants and shopping their culture. accommodations that tourist use when visiting the Navajo Nation, thereby The issue of sacredness of some sites appears to be diverting tourism revenue that could be individual, rather than government-agency policy. Only one used for infrastructure needs and the of the interviewed officials brought up the subject, but all resultant Navajo employment and self commented on its cultural importance. sufficiency.

Utah-Arizona Four Corners Tourism Assessment Report l 21 Summary of Findings NAVAJO NATION COMMUNITIES

Overview of additional jobs for area residents was Interviews were held with key representatives the number one positive impact of such from the Navajo Nation’s natural attractions, an increase. Additional income for local including the Navajo Nation Department of businesses, the Chapter, and the Navajo Tourism, Parks and Recreation, and the Division Nation was also listed as a positive of Economic Development, and Monument outcome. Valley’s superintendent. 4. A need for highway improvements. Most Interviews were conducted with chapter highways in the area are narrow two-lanes, house officials and business owners and opera- following the path of least resistance. tors from the communities of Monument Valley, Wider highways with adequate passing Kayenta, Tuba City, and Chinle. lanes and pull outs would improve the The acting superintendent of Monument visitor experience and the safety factor. Valley Tribal Park, Shirley Cloud-Lane, was also 5. A need to have improved relations and interviewed. Several others declined to complete communications with the Bureau of the survey form, but provided verbal input. Indian Affairs. It is recognized that the There are many similarities among the four Bureau has had staff , which communities, as well as some major differences. has had a negative impact on the ability to Similarities include the following: provide service and to have adequate contact and communication. Distance is 1. A desire that tourism development be also a factor, with chapter officials being undertaken only in the context of respect required to work with BIA staff in for Navajo culture and land use traditions. Window Rock and/or . It is desired that all curricula in schools on or near the reservation include these 6. High expectations of the Navajo topics. A program of education is also Department of Tourism. Since most proposed for tourists, both before they advertising and promotion of the area is arrive and while they are here. It was done by individual business owners/ mentioned that many foreign tourists operators, there is a need for area-wide arrive expecting to see “John Wayne promotion. The Discover Navajo Visitor movie” Indians. Guide is a fine publication and a good example of what is wanted. The Tourist 2. A concern for the land base and a desire News publication is also well received. A to protect and improve, where possible, desire has been expressed for a water and air quality. Monument Valley Web site. 3. Support for a moderate to strong increase in the tourism economy. The availability

22 l Utah-Arizona Four Corners Touris Assessment Report 7. A need for ongoing hospitality and Relationships with Public Land customer service training for all visitor- Agencies contact employees. There are a few Many interviewees expressed concern with exceptions, where individual employers agency-to-agency working relationships and the have good programs, such as Gouldings. distrust many Navajo tribal members have 8. A desire for an increase in winter season towards government agencies. The difficulty of visitation. Ideas expressed for promoting working with the Bureau of Indian Affairs was additional winter business include the expressed in both contexts. In spite of this, there following: is an attitude for becoming more cooperative in Ö Internet web sites. order to “become more open-minded to local needs and conditions,” as one respondent said. In Ö More promotion/advertising by the this respect, it was noted that needs for chapter Department of Tourism and/or houses and newly established townships are Department of Parks and distinctively different and this must be accounted Recreation. for in any development decisions. Ö Sponsor conferences/workshops. Much of the need to improve cooperation Ö Advertise weather information in can be based on making effort to communicate surrounding population center more, to improve communications systems, and to network more throughout the year, and be Ö Asian market promotions. more responsive (act more quickly) to local Ö Explore additional European business needs. markets Ö Seek film industry business. Ö Offer mini-vacation packages. Summary of Chapter and Township Surveys Ö Advertise winter specials. Each Chapter has unique problems, concerns, and situations which are outlined below. Other suggestions include: • Tie into state tourism conferences and establish linkages with personnel from other organizations and agencies. Oljato Chapter Oljato Chapter includes Monument Valley, which • Work with National park Service on is the number one tourist attraction in policies, procedures, etc. the Navajo Nation. The businesses associated • Define a plan of operations for Navajo with Monument Valley visitation provide a Division of Parks and Recreation. significant number of jobs. • Educate business people on better The Gouldings Resort includes a motel (62 business practices; training in customer rooms), restaurant, grocery store, Good SAM service, etc. R.V. park, gift store, museum, video production, vehicle tours, laundromat, and car wash. Peak employment at Gouldings is 275. During the off- season, this drops to 150. The Monument Valley Tribal Park includes a

Utah-Arizona Four Corners Tourism Assessment Report l 23 restaurant, which is operated by the Navajo to bring water from Narrow Canyon. Water Nation Hospitality Enterprise, a gift shop, a which is in use today comes from wells, and there museum, and a primitive campground. In addi- are only certain areas where underground water tion to Gouldings Tours, there are 17 vehicle tour can be found. operators and four horse operators servicing the There is good support for the construction Monument Valley area. In the past, some of the of a Welcome Center at the junction of Highway tour operators have not had liability insurance, 163 and the Tribal Park entrance. Some, hopefully licensed drivers, or required permits. Tribal Park minor, disputes are still in place. One community Superintendent Cloud-Lane is making an effort family reportedly is using the project site for to bring all tour businesses into compliance with grazing and expects compensation for moving. BIA and tribal laws, rules, and regulations. The other conflict involves facility manage- The run down shopping area located at the ment. The Chapter wants management authority, entrance to the Tribal Park and known as the but the Tribal Park Superintendent has been Monument Valley Mall provides an opportunity asked to submit a management plan. There is for many arts and crafts producers and retailers some expectation that the Chapter will be given to sell their goods. The mall facility is very sub- management authority after it is certified under standard and unattractive. In other areas of the the Local Governance Act (LGA). reservation, it is referred to as “Little Tijuana” or “Little Havana.” Projects In spite of the employment opportunities Other projects which were listed as desirable for and retail business ventures which are associated Monument Valley include: with Monument Valley and the Tribal Park, there • Increased community involvement in are Chapter members who are not happy. At a planning. recent Chapter meeting, a vote was taken and passed to shut down the Tribal Park. Among the • A development plan which is approved by reasons for this action is a decision to expand the Chapter members. Park boundaries without community input and • Pool and related facilities at Park because housing upgrades are not approved for headquarters. those who live in the Park. • Cultural center to provide programs of Some folks expressed a need for additional education and entertainment for visitors. lodging infrastructure in the area. The Chapter officials prepared a land use plan which included • New airport. a hotel and related developments. However, • Water development. Chapter members did not approve the land use • Additional hotel/motel. plan because it involved the loss of grazing rights to accommodate the commercial developments. • Competitive gasoline sales business. In recent times, the Navajo Nation Tourism • Trash transfer stations. Development Plan included a resort in Monu- ment Valley. There is uncertainty about the status • Small business training for tour and mall of this part of the current plan. vendors. Water is a limiting factor in any new develop- • Land use plan. ment in Monument Valley. There has been talk • Increased involvement of Park and about a pipeline from the treatment plant near Chapter officials in area organizations, Mexican Hat. There was also mention of a plan conferences, and meetings.

24 l Utah-Arizona Four Corners Touris Assessment Report Kayenta Chapter • Chamber of Commerce organization. Kayenta area is a special case due to the issue of • Recreation vehicle park. governance whereby the Kayenta community has • Community parks. a township charter from the Navajo Nation which provides for taxing authority and other • Airport improvements/expansion. self-determination rights. The land area inside Kayenta Township boundaries has received development clearance as part of the charter process. This simplifies Tuba City Chapter project approval in a major way. When the Tuba City community members began an exten- Navajo Nation President approves a project, sive economic development master planning prompt BIA sign-off is assured. process in September 1997. After many meetings, Among the projects already approved the process was completed in June 1999 and through the Township are the following: published in January 2000. The plan includes an all-inclusive vision statement that covers nine • Business site lease approved for focus areas, including focus area #3, Tourism construction of a CITGO Truck Stop/7- Development. The stated goal is to maximize the 11. area’s resources to attract culturally sensitive • ABC Motel. tourism that will result in longer stays and • 250 unit housing development—60 units increased revenues. already under construction. The Tourism Development strategies are divided into short-term, mid-term, and long-term The Township Plan of Operation lists seven as follows: priorities: airport, fire protection, water drainage, • Identify and recommend a local revenue solid waste, streets, utility infrastructure, and source (e.g. ) supported by the recreation. tourist trade that will fund community The Township collects a 2.5% retail business and economic development projects. tax and a 3% construction tax. It also collects $7 • Work closely with the Dine Bi’Keya per cubic yard for solid waste handling. There is a Tourism Association. desire for a strong increase in tourism business • Prepare the community to accept visitors and infrastructure to support such an increase. by providing comprehensive benefits of A Kayenta hotel manager illustrated the tourism development. regional impact and regional dependence by indicating that business was down because of the • Develop and conduct customer service fire at Mesa Verde during the summer of 2000. training to local businesses. • Establish a centralized location for Projects displaying arts and crafts. Projects desired for Kayenta include: • Work with local artisans to develop and market their product more effectively • Navajo history/culture museum. • Work to develop more services in • IMAX theater to tell the story of the Tohnaneesdizi (Tuba City) that are Navajo people/Monument Valley.

Utah-Arizona Four Corners Tourism Assessment Report l 25 attractive to visitors. completed in the Local Government Act • Develop new “Welcome to process. Tohnaneesdizi” monument signs. • Establish a Tohnaneesdizi (Tuba City) Area Welcome Center to explain the Chinle Chapter culture and provide visitor information. Chinle is located at the boundary of Canyon De • Recommend to the Chapter to establish a Chelly National Monument. This proximity is the Western Navajo Fair Committee to work principal reason for tourism traffic, which is toward establishing a non-profit substantial. Tourists visit Canyon De Chelly who organization to develop a marketable have already visited or are on the way to Monu- event for economic development ment Valley, Window Rock, the Hopi Mesas, purposes. Grand Canyon, and Mesa Verde. Chinle is different in the pattern of visitation • Develop an international tourism for an unknown reason. Spring is the busy time promotional campaign. of year, with summer #2, fall #3, and winter #4. Mid-term (2-5 years) ideas include: Promot- There are 382 lodging rooms available, and ing the dinosaur tracks with better signage, this was felt to be adequate. Eating establish- improved parking facilities, and visitor services; ments are also meeting the current need with two collaborating with the Navajo Historic Preserva- full-service restaurants and several fast food tion Office to obtain Historic District status; outlets. Good health care service is available. Need was expressed for additional recre- expanding the rodeo grounds; maximizing ational vehicle park spaces. There is no full- Tusayan development; encouraging establishment service auto service station in the area. While of a jeep tours business. retail needs are pretty well met, a hardware store Long-term (5+ years) ideas include: Redevel- is wanted. The only visitor center is located at the oping historic buildings on Main Street for mixed national monument, and this meets existing use; renting or building a bus tour staging area at needs. the Grand Canyon to capture tourists interested Commercial tours are plentiful with 12-15 in one- or two-day excursions to the Navajo and operators. Reports indicate that not all of the Hopi reservations; supporting the bus staging tour operators are providing good service, due to area option at Cameron; establishing a visitor inexperience. Desired projects or programs to advance center at the new Tusayan development; estab- tourism development in Chinle area include: lishing a film commission. Other information which came from the • Business owners/operators organization survey follows: (Chamber of Commerce). • Tourism infrastructure is adequate to • Community recreation facility with a support a moderate increase in business swimming pool, tennis courts, picnic activity park, ball fields, etc. • A business site lease for a motel and • Major upgrade in the road to the airport. related developments has been approved for the junction of Highways 89 and 163. • Golf course. The Tuba City Chapter is 30-40 percent • Tour operator training.

26 l Utah-Arizona Four Corners Touris Assessment Report Summary of Findings NAVAJO NATION PUBLIC LANDS

he official departments that are more be addressed too quickly, according to at least one directly related to tourism on the Navajo interviewee, until means for passing those ways Nation are generally supportive of on to future generations are in place in order to recreation and heritage tourism on the reserva- T avoid succumbing to the bad influences of tion. Tourism revenues are particularly men- tourism. tioned, along with opportunities for cultural The issue of sacredness of some sites is one awareness and exchange, and employment that has arisen over time, but appears to be an opportunities for Navajo residents on the individual choice rather than government agency reservation. Concerns were expressed for the policy. Only one of the interviewed officials long-term economic development of Chapter brought up the subject, but all commented on its Houses on the reservation and for the sustain- cultural importance. Use by tourists showing ability of grazing on the arid reservation lands. appropriate respect is not officially discouraged. Many of those involved in tourism or Visitation to Rainbow Bridge, Gobernador, recreation-related departments are encouraged by and the four sacred is not openly the increasing interest in Navajo culture and encouraged by the governmental agencies. Other attractions, but they acknowledge the difficulty of than these, there appears to be no consensus those with traditional perspectives to accept about sites that may be considered sacred by outside interests. One interviewee said that 75 other Navajos. percent of the local population of Monument Valley oppose tourism and 25 percent want the tourism revenues. Navajos who practice traditional ways of life Capacity often say tourists invade their privacy and trespass on individual land holdings, called Social grazing allotments. All Navajo Nation land In terms of social capacity, while as much as outside towns is allotted, including Canyon de three-fourths of the local residential population Chelly and the tribal parks where tourism is reject tourism, interviewees suggested that an encouraged. The nature of Navajo culture causes educational approach be taken to help local people to be close-mouthed with strangers, hence populations appreciate tourism benefits and to tourists who are interested in the culture are given build greater social and cultural capacity. Inter- short answers, which are perceived as unfriendly. viewees suggest the practice of grazing on Ironically, it is the traditional ways of life that allotments hinders recreation development. attract so many visitors to the Navajo Nation, but “Navajos with livestock need to be more in tune support for such cultural exchanges should not with modern economic developments needs,”

Utah-Arizona Four Corners Tourism Assessment Report l 27 one person said. Visitor Use Capacity It is not clear how Monument Valley and Canyon Economic de Chelly stand in terms of capacity, because In terms of business capacity, entrepreneurism is there were some differing points of view on the difficult for cultural and bureaucratic reasons. It subject among key interviewees. This may be takes two years of red tape to start a business and partly due to the lack of systematic ways of court jurisdiction of the Navajo Nation discour- measuring capacity and sustainability. Although ages outside investors. Jurisdictional disagreement interviewees gave a sense of how sustainability between chapters and the tribal government was measured, from simple observation to prevents greater cooperation. analysis of permits, there were no reliable methods. However, it is clear that Monument The land’s capacity Valley capacity is being affected. For example, Speaking of physical capacity, there are several one interviewee said that facilities for tourists are ways in which attractions are being affected by lacking. Rest stops, an adequate air strip with tourism. Hunting, fishing, camping are popular fueling, recreational vehicle parks and workers activities, each with a set of impact-related issues. were listed as limiting factors. Complaints that Hunters create roads that cause visual and visitors do not respect residents’ privacy are erosion problems, however there is funding to common, as well. mitigate impacts. Campgrounds suffer from The Four Corners Monument has no visitor inadequate litter control and off-road use. And facilities, but efforts have long been underway to lack of supervision on results in abuses by find the funding to build them. It needs water, fishers and campers. electricity, telephones, and interpretation. Devel- opment there depends on cooperation from Infrastructure many tribal, federal, state and local entities, as Most infrastructure capacity exists in the “border well. towns” located just outside reservation bound- Wheatfields and Tsaile fishing lakes are at aries. These include: Farmington, and Page. capacity. Campgrounds are often overloaded Border towns have 99 percent of the motels, there. On the other hand, the Navajo Museum restaurants and shopping accommodations that and lake recreation near Window Rock and into tourists use when visiting the Navajo Nation. New Mexico are under utilized. Scenic byways are This diverts tourism revenue from Navajoland also underutilized. Many areas on the Navajo that could be used for infrastructure needs, Nation are capable of accepting increased Navajo employment, and self sufficiency. visitation, depending on the social, infrastructure Tuba City and Shiprock, located within and other obstacles discussed in this report. reservation boundaries are gateway communities in some respect, while Kayenta and Chinle are Sacred Sites gateway communities to Monument Valley Tribal There are many sacred sites that should not be Park and Canyon de Chelly National Monument. advertised and visited, including the four sacred There is a need for training of employees and mountains, Anasazi sites, shrines, Gobernador, others who come into contact with tourists. and the top of Monument Valley buttes. Al-

28 l Utah-Arizona Four Corners Touris Assessment Report though Rainbow Bridge is heavily visited, some education needs to occur is in helping to make say it is a sacred site that should be off limits. tourism a socially, economically and environmen- Many Hopi ceremonies are off limits, as well. tally sustainable endeavor for Navajo people. Hospitality training for Navajo people was Addressing capacity and sustainability suggested by one interviewee as a way to do this. A number of ideas were expressed for addressing “Train Native to accurately represent capacity issues, including social, infrastructure, their culture,” one person said. and organizational among agencies and the Education of visitors was also high on the tourism industry. Planning has been mentioned as list of needs. It is important that visitors also an acceptable step towards dealing with the issue realize the cultural difference and learn more of sustainability and capacity. Public education of about the Navajo people. One method suggested the Navajo population about how tourism can be to improve cultural sensitivity on all sides was to accepted without sacrificing their culture is one have Native Americans serve as guides and idea, as well. writers of tourist information, and employing Native Americans wherever and whenever possible. Another was to give presentations in Relationships and Partnerships local schools to tell young people about the need to be culturally sensitive, to learn about areas of The greatest opportunity for relationship building interest to visitors, and to communicate that is between those who manage attractions and information in their communities. neighboring towns that can supply tourists while Education of potential visitors should occur leaving the attraction free of commercial devel- in their own communities before they reach the opment—Kayenta and Monument Valley, and Navajo Nation’s communities, one person said. Chinle and Canyon de Chelly, for example. “Encourage visitors to prepare themselves for the There is interest in interagency and govern- experience and inquire locally before violating the ment cooperation and some effort is occurring culture,” was suggested by one interviewee. towards communicating to improve tourism More communication and cooperation was benefits, at least one interviewee mentioned. advocated regularly among interviewees, espe- However, more said jurisdictional issues exist cially in partnership relationships. These could be across tribal and non-tribal public land agencies. employed in doing good market analysis to It was commonly suggested to address the determine needs, then packaging a program to jurisdictional boundaries and work more closely improve visitor options and experiences. Educa- together. In addition, local residents in at least tion of Navajo tribal members could be associ- one chapter house want local control of tourism ated with this program, in addition to being a projects. It was noted that they probably lack the separate program addressed through partnership expertise and funding. means. Building food and lodging facilities on the More education is highly encouraged at the reservation was advocated by at least one inter- Chapter House level to improve cooperation. In viewee, but this is not a unanimously agreed- fact, public education was the number-one upon idea. advocated tool for improving many things, from There seems to be some shared interest on attitudes to relationships to projects. Where much

Utah-Arizona Four Corners Tourism Assessment Report l 29 the part of public land agencies and tourism Projects businesses in cooperative ventures, and report- • Develop an efficient Web site for edly some partnerships “are in the conceptual international use and increase use of stage.” Communities, if they are involved in international media. tourism development, tend to compete more • Locate Monument Valley economic than act as partners, it was noted, but this could development activities at the border of be improved through better communication and the tribal park, not within it. planning. • Improve the local economy at Antelope Some ideas expressed to enhance relation- Point Marina, which will improve local ships between agency and businesses, include: attitudes towards tourism. • Develop some sort of project on the • Share revenues between tourism industry, New Mexico side of the reservation. local tribal entities to increase cooperation. • Help communities near Tsaile and Wheatfields lakes develop infrastructure, • The tourism industry provides tourism facilities, pave the airstrip, build development dollars and agencies help visitor centers and boat docks. them to find money for development. Address the restrictions that the Navajo • Provide water and infrastructure at Nation government places on business where trails and some development. tourist facilities are being developed. • Grow better connections among border • Assist the community of Cameron in towns and national and international community development planning, which tourism agencies. the town as a whole views favorably. Possibly make it a gateway with tourist • While there is communication on the part facilities. of stewardship organizations, community stewardship groups should go beyond • Enhance opportunities to develop the talking about tourism and work Espal , currently being turned by cooperatively with tribal entities. They the Navajo Nation, the Forest Service, should help fund projects and provide and BLM into dude ranch. consulting expertise. • Address the Four Corners Enterprise • The Department of Tourism should find Community and funding resources from ways to encourage the Navajo public to more sources. become tourism conscious, as funds are • Build Four Corners Monument, which available. has no visitor facilities, including water, • One interviewee advocated the idea the electricity, telephones and interpretation. Native American tribes should work Build cooperation among tribal, federal, together to promote scenic attractions state and local entities to do so. and share cultural information and • Provide training for commercial tour promote arts and crafts industries. operators and park staffs. • Develop a master plan for Antelope Tribal Park.

30 l Utah-Arizona Four Corners Touris Assessment Report Summary • “Preserve and protect our natural • Increase public education of Navajos of resources and ensure that all our visitors tourism benefits. are served well through effective communications in all phases of contact • Break down the barriers created by and that our visitors have enjoyable and . safe learning experiences.” • Improve the Four Corners regional consciousness of the benefits and problems of tourism. Vision • Improve camping area signage, walkways, parking, other facilities and supervision. Land of spectacular vistas and outdoor recreation opportunities in a sparsely populated area blessed • Work together in partnerships and share with rich cultural traditions. resources. • Manage resources cooperatively and share ideas for the benefit of all. • Preserve Navajo culture, while strengthening partnerships with outside entities. • Provide more visitor services. • Respect the Navajo people and their culture. • Decisions made through partnership relationships between tourism businesses and public land agencies are mutually beneficial when arrived at together.

Utah-Arizona Four Corners Tourism Assessment Report l 31 Overview of Findings ARIZONA COMMUNITIES (LITTLE COLORADO REGION)

ttitudes towards tourism vary across the For least desired, six overarching categories Arizona communities in which surveys were outlined by survey respondents: were conducted by the Little Colorado ARC & D in Holbrook. Of the 44 people who • Increased cost of living. answered the question, “Which level of tourism • Pollution. activities do you believe would be best for your commu- • Crime. nity?” 25 indicated strong (57%), 12 said moderate • Traffic noise and congestion. (27%), six said very limited (14%), and one said “none.” • Loss of rural lifestyle. Within communities, survey respondents • Growth. differed in their opinions and support for tourism. This difference shows up particularly For most desired, there were at least 10 well in the response interviewees gave to the categories: questions asked about what consequences the • Increased economic and tax revenues was community least desires and most desires to see the number one mentioned desire. as a result of increased tourism. Traffic noise and • Increase in socially and culturally related congestion were the most-feared consequences, activities. while money and jobs were perceived to be the • Increased trade among businesses and more desired consequences. attraction of new businesses. There were many more responses to the question about what the community most desires • More educational experiences where compared to the number of answers to what the tourists learn about Hopi culture. community least desires. Responses to what the • Better attractions and advertising. community most desires were also much more • More jobs, the second most commonly diverse and varied than the least-desired conse- mentioned desire. quences that were listed. It is important to note • Increase in infrastructure related that most survey respondents answered both amenities. questions, covering most- and least-desired • More diversity in business. consequences. But the fact that they had more to say about the most-desired consequences sug- • More services. gests a correlation with the support for strong • Better looking community and more pride tourism development indicated above. in the community.

32 l Utah-Arizona Four Corners Touris Assessment Report Related to desired degree of tourism develop- Their comments fell under eight broad ment and most- and least-desired consequences categories. They are listed below, accompanied by were the categories listed when survey respon- a brief description. dents said what were the “social or cultural attributes that your community wants to preserve or enhance?” Cooperation Preservation of small atmospheres and history The group of statements in this category related and heritage were by far the most cherished to needing to cooperate more among different qualities for the majority of respondents. These organizations, such as community government included both social/cultural and physical and local colleges, to plan and strategize pro- preservation. Relations among cultures were grammatic-scale approaches to tourism. important, as was preservation of historical buildings and architecture. The natural environ- Promotion and Advertising ment, education of tourists of local cultures, and Communities and associated attractions currently arts and crafts were also mentioned. available are attributes that should be promoted Many respondents added more information more, some survey respondents said. Promotion to the answers discussed so far with the com- and advertising should be cooperative endeavors ments they made to what the limitations are to among the tourism industry and chambers of development of tourism in their communities. commerce, especially in the production of The greatest limitations expressed fall within the printed materials and in tourism packages offered category of natural environment. The notion that to visitors. it is fragile seems to sum up the majority senti- ment. Steps need to be taken to reduce impacts. Leadership Development and Training It is important to note that these comments Leadership development relates closely to originate from community-based respondents, training, which was mentioned more than not public land managers. The responses from leadership. Where training is needed is the managers are in the next secton of this report. significant characteristic of this category. Em- Another topic that seemed to be crucial to ployees and the communities on the whole need some repondents was the fact that their commu- training for contacts with visitors, most of the nities lack the kind of funding it takes to develop responses said. One person said that “Training tourism. Lack of training was mentioned by a on ‘How To Treat a Tourist’ ” was needed. few, as was the need to “orient” residents to the benefits of tourism and to be “service-oriented” Events towards tourists. Although ideas for specific events were listed, there was less attention to this category than to others. There seemed to be more support for Projects culturally related events, such as a symphony The most information gathered through the orchestra, than any other. More brainstorming community surveys was in the section where may be needed to bring out people’s ideas about respondents were asked: “What projects or programs event-related attractions. could help your community advance tourism development?

Utah-Arizona Four Corners Tourism Assessment Report l 33 Downtown Revitalization Relationships with Public Land Restoration to revive historic districts and Agencies and Attractions beautify downtown areas was an important The role of public lands in the development of concern for many respondents in several commu- tourism in communities was not an issue on the nities. The sense emerging from the surveys is minds of community survey respondents, that more visually appealing structures would according to the lack of response to survey make life more pleasant for residents, as well as questions aimed at recording community ideas about that relationship. However, potential was visitors. expressed by a few individuals for building relationships between public attractions and Facility Construction communities. For example, individual surveys This category and the next two are related in show that there is strong interest and desire to many aspects, but they each seem to merit their build closer relations between Holbrook and the own special attention. Facility construction Petrified Forest National Park. focused on building visitor centers, a convention Relationships, although characterized by center, or some other facility that provided common actions such as attending chamber of commerce meetings by National Park Service amenities to either or both the community and representatives, are described generally as visitors. satisfying. Ideas were shared to improve the actions taken to strengthen interaction. The Infrastructure tourism industry for example could “learn more Improved highways, signage, airport and airline about public land agencies’ attractions in order to services and community roadways fell under this help provide accurate information about them to often-mentioned category. the public and to help educate the public about how to use public land in such a manner as to Recreation Opportunities and Facilities save them from our children,” one respondent wrote. Statements reflecting the need for projects in this Public land agencies, on the other hand, can category referred mostly to developing not only offer expertise in planning in areas such as facilities, such as building and maintaining parks heritage tourism and greenway planning, one in town, but to providing opportunities for such person said, adding that, “They can also help activities as birdwatching or motorized-vehicle provide workshops and training for workers in trails. the tourism/hospitality industry. Many agencies have visitor centers where the public seeks information on things to see and do in the area, special events, lodging, food, etc. This is a benefit to local community tourism promotion.”

34 l Utah-Arizona Four Corners Touris Assessment Report Overview of Findings LITTLE COLORADO PUBLIC LAND AGENCIES

List of public land attractions that received Forest National Park estimated that capacity is surveys: about two million visitors per year if use was • Petrified Forest National Park spread out across all four seasons. • Homolovi Ruins State Park • Cholla Lake County Park Experiences sought • Showlow Lake State Park Opportunities for potential experiences vary • Lyman Lake State Park greatly across the region, from viewing archaeo- • Little Painted Desert logical sites and learning about Native American culture to water-based recreation. Many attrac- • Tall Timber Park tions provide outdoor experiences in a cool • Sitgreaves National Forest climate, pine trees, solitude for desert city dwell- • Alpine Ranger District, ers seeking escape from the heat and crowds. In state parks, picnicking is popular with local area • Clifton Ranger District residents. Unique scenic landscapes, such as the • Lakeside Ranger District painted desert, are popular attractions as well. • Chevelon-Heber Ranger District Fishing, water skiing, hiking, snow activities, camping, peace and quiet, solitude, developed and undeveloped experiences were listed. Note: Only items on surveys that were answered by respondents are included. The rest were left blank. Impacts In cultural sites, theft of potsherds by visitors at a Capacity number of attractions is common. Damage to walls and from people entering Surveys were distributed to 13 federal and state closed areas are of concern as well. At one public lands agencies. No face-to-face interviews Homolovi site, people continue to use an area were conducted. At many, particularly state parks, next to the old town dump as a shooting range in capacity was determined by a specific, finite spite of signage and patrols. number of parking spaces. The national forest At lake recreation areas, skis at boat docks had not established capacity limits due to the are conflicting with other users. difficulty of doing so across such a large land At some picnic areas, there is high traffic area. One district is 650,000 acres in size with impacts, such as damage to soil and vegetation, as numerous campgrounds, lakes, trails, roads, and well as trail erosion and accessibility problems. open space where people can recreate. Petrified At many sites, traffic congestion on high use

Utah-Arizona Four Corners Tourism Assessment Report l 35 days is causing safety concerns. Restroom and Determination of sustainable levels showers are over used, often causing maintenance HOMOLOVI RUINS STATE PARK—Available problems, such as septic system overload during parking, sensitivity of sites. maximum visitation. Campgrounds suffer from soil and plant CHOLLA LAKE CO. PARK—When numbers destruction. Dispersed camping around waters exceed safe use levels. and lakes and heavy camping pressure also cause litter and charcoal accumulation, soil loss and TALL TIMBER PARK—Facility capacity. vegetation damage. Improperly treated human waste has become an issue in some heavily used LITTLE PAINTED DESERT—Accessibility areas. Recreational use in riparian areas affects limitations. “potential” threatened, endangered and sensitive species habitat, one land manager reports. SHOWLOW LAKE—Safety and over capacity Dispersed camping in the national forest is a impacts. major source of litter, fire rings, human waste. Concern is considerable for a common disregard ALPINE RANGER DISTRICT, APACHE of closures by Off-road vehicle users, who create SITGREAVES NF—Has not been determined. new roads, cause erosion and disturb sensitive habitat. At one attraction at least, the rural-urban APACHE SITGREAVES NF—Campground interface is the point of impact where OHV use size limit. displaces wildlife, causes soil loss and vegetation damage. CHEVELON-HEBER RANGER DISTRICT— Petrified Forest National Park offered the Each area is examined for wildlife habitat needs, most extensive amount of information compared soil stability, and type of use. The areas ability to to most other agencies. This suggests that the withstand the use or recover vegetation damage issues of tourism and public land use is impor- in one growing season is estimated along with the tant in that public land agency staff. level of use. Survey respondents said the following regarding impacts: CLIFTON RANGER DISTRICT—Availability Sight-seeing at areas in south end 1. of sites, currently in dispersed areas, use self- of park : visitors illegally remove 12 tons regulating. of petrified wood each year, despite warnings and education interventions, LYMAN LAKE STATE PARK—We have done despite the fact that they can buy petrified a carrying capacity survey for the park. That wood in nearby shops. information is available from us. 2. Developed areas, such as trail through archaeological site: visitors depart paved PETRIFIED FOREST NATIONAL PARK trail impacting cultural and natural It has not really been determined. resources. 3. sites: visitors occasionally vandalize petroglyphs. More frequently, they touch them and oils from their skin and hands adversely affect petroglyphs.

36 l Utah-Arizona Four Corners Touris Assessment Report How impacts are addressed PETRIFIED FOREST NATIONAL PARK HOMOLOVI RUINS STATE PARK—Patrols, 1. Signing/educational materials, warning visitor education, community outreach, including messages (verbal and written), exhibits, newspaper articles. Received grant to assess fencing, patrols, educational programs conservation needs of panels. and media. 2. Fencing and signing. CHOLLA LAKE CO. PARK—Contain to 3. Some petroglyph sites are closed to public designated area, enforce rules and regulations. entry and/or can only be viewed form overlook )where we have telescopes TALL TIMBER PARK—Reserve large dining installed), another site is fenced. picnic ramada limit size and number of groups.

LITTLE PAINTED DESERT—Increase accessibility. Other actions needed to improve sustainability SHOWLOW LAKE—Limit to designated area HOMOLOVI RUINS STATE PARK on use. Enforce use rule and regulations. • Funding for rock area stabilization/ conservation. ALPINE RANGER DISTRICT, APACHE SITGREAVES NF • Funding for additional runs stabilization. • 1) Dispersed camping: clean up of sites, • Funding for sidewalk construction at public education. Homolovi I ( cannot be visited during we • 2) off-road vehicles: Law enforcement, weather due to clay). signing, public education. • Purchase of lands.

APACHE SITGREAVES NF—Stay limits, party CHOLLA LAKE CO. PARK—More facilities, size limits, low impact education. more staffing on high impact days. Plan for organized overflow parking area. CHEVELON-HEBER RANGER DISTRICT— Attempts to control OHV use have been only TALL TIMBER PARK—Build more facilities in marginally successful. They have included road current low use areas less concentrated activities. closures, the provision of trails, printed material with information on responsible use of public LITTLE PAINTED DESERT—Trail improve- lands. Dispersed camping has been controlled in ments. some areas by designation of sites, road closures, restriction on group sizes and vehicles. SHOWLOW LAKE • Road improvement, more staffing on high CLIFTON RANGER DISTRICT—Timing of impact days. Increase number of use and seasonal closures, proactive partnerships campsites increase designated parking. with OHV groups to “harden” crossing which limits adverse impacts and actually improves • Promote use of areas of less uses and habitats. new trails improvement.

Utah-Arizona Four Corners Tourism Assessment Report l 37 ALPINE RANGER DISTRICT, APACHE Attractions where opportunities SITGREAVES NF—More funds are needed to exist for increased tourism activity support field activities. Not all areas are suffering from adverse impacts. Survey respondents listed areas and activities in CHEVELON-HEBER RANGER DISTRICT— which they would like to encourage more interest. Additional facilities to provide for some uses would be needed (toilets, parking lot repair, trail • HOMOLOVI RUINS STATE PARK— and road maintenance, barrier construction) An improved trail system, which would making users more aware of the impacts associ- require access rights across some adjacent ated with their particular use is also of equal lands owned the Arizona State Land importance with dealing with the direct effects. Dept. or the Navajo Nation.

CLIFTON RANGER DISTRICT—Public • CHOLLA LAKE CO. PARK—New 200- advocacy of low impact camping techniques, acre for winter fun, hunting, and setting desirable use levels (sustainable) based on birdwatching, environmental Recreation Opportunity Spectrum criteria. interpretation. • TALL TIMBER PARK—Multi purpose LYMAN LAKE STATE PARK—Dredge lake, court and ball fields. more capacity of recreation. Conservation of • LITTLE PAINTED DESERT—More water that is available. use of trail and environmental interpretation. PETRIFIED FOREST NATIONAL PARK • In order to improve sustainable recreation • SHOWLOW LAKE—New, more and heritage activities we need: 1) better campsites with hook ups. info on where those public lands are, • ALPINE RANGER DISTRICT, including state trust lands; 2) much better APACHE SITGREAVES NF—Winter info on how one accesses those lands, sports activities, mountain bike rules for those lands, permit opportunities. Day use facilities and picnic requirements, etc.; 3) better maps; 4) more areas. info on land and resource ethics. • CHEVELON-HEBER RANGER • Attractions where opportunities exist. DISTRICT—Willow Springs Lake and • Not all areas are suffering from adverse Bear Canyon Lake. impacts and survey respondents did list • CLIFTON RANGER DISTRICT— areas and activities in which they would Developed sites are under utilized during like to encourage more interest. much of the year and middle of the week. • LYMAN LAKE STATE PARK—The whole park: ruins, lake, camping. • PETRIFIED FOREST NATIONAL PARK—The Petrified Forest National Wilderness Area, especially the northern unit (Painted Desert) is underutilized

38 l Utah-Arizona Four Corners Touris Assessment Report (1,000 visitor-use night annually). While Partnerships lack of water sources limits summer use, This section lists the willingness expressed by it is a great are the rest of the year for survey respondents and the opportunities to hikers and backpackers. build better relations among differnet indisutry, government and private interests. It also identifies partners, or potential partners, as they were identified by survey respondents. Where activity should not be increased HOMOLOVI RUINS STATE PARK • HOMOLOVI RUINS STATE PARK— • Winslow is the closest community. Birds (eagles) nesting areas and sacred • Very strong encouragement of recreation Hopi shrines. and visiting heritage areas. • CHOLLA LAKE STATE PARK— TALL TIMBER PARK Buffer area around park and lake. • County wide, H/O, PHX. Tucson. • TALL TIMBER PARK—Buffer areas of • Very supportive of recreation use, outside boundaries. supportive of heritage visitation. • LITTLE PAINTED DESERT—Certain LITTLE PAINTED DESERT areas of fragile landforms. • Winslow, AZ. State Parks. • SHOWLOW LAKE—Nature area on • Very supportive of recreation use, buffer USFS lands. No development, low supportive of heritage visitation. impact to protect. ALPINE RANGER DISTRICT, APACHE • ALPINE RANGER DISTRICT, SITGREAVES NF APACHE SITGREAVES NF— • Local White Mountain communities, Wilderness use should not be promoted Phoenix, Tucson, El Paso and Las Cruces. in order to maintain the existing quality Southern New Mexico, , of experience. We should be clear that the and western . lake on the Alpine Ranger District does not provide swimming opportunities. • Neutral support of recreation use, but depends on the use. Not supportive of • PETRIFIED FOREST NATIONAL heritage visitation, because there is very PARK—Sensitive resource sites (e.g., little presence of interpreted sites. archeological sites, petroglyph sites) in the backcountry of Petrified Forest should APACHE SITGREAVES NF not be utilized in order to ensure their • White Mt. Communities, Phoenix, protection. Tucson, El Paso, Las Cruces. Southern NM, southern AZ and western Texas. • Very supportive of both recreation and heritage use. CLIFTON RANGER DISTRICT • Clifton and Morenci. • Very supportive of recreation and supportive of heritage visitation.

Utah-Arizona Four Corners Tourism Assessment Report l 39 LYMAN LAKE STATE PARK APACHE SITGREAVES NF • St. Johns. Very supportive of both • Local government: Conservation, multi- recreation and heritage visitation. use education and support. PETRIFIED FOREST NATIONAL PARK • Chambers: Conservation, multi-use • Neutral on encouraging recreation use education and support. and supportive of encouraging heritage • Stewardship Organizations: Conservation, visitation. multi-use education and support. CHEVELON-HEBER RANGER DISTRICT • Local government: Provide support for Relationship-building ideas locally developed policies designed to benefit resource need in common for all Survey respondents listed ideas for building people. closer relationships with others in various sectors of the community, including local government, • Chambers: Provide accurate information chambers of commerce, organizations, agencies. to forest users. Relationships were scarce in most areas, if the • Stewardship Organizations: Provide surveys were accurate indicators. Ideas for service on special areas; i.e., cleanup, sign increasing interaction focused on project level needs or repair. activities, such as developing a riparian/ birdwatching area at Homolovi Ruins State Park LYMAN LAKE STATE PARK in partnership with local community leaders. • Local government: Improve recreation Other ideas include the following listed items. through conservation of water. • Chambers: Springerville/Eagar more HOMOLOVI RUINS STATE involved in the park and activities there. • Chamber of Commerce: Include • Stewardship Organizations: Special events Homolovi in publicity. at park. • Groups: Volunteers for park. • Agencies: Lease fees are too high, now • Agencies: Assistance in fencing park charging for water use. boundary, we have a problem with PETRIFIED FOREST NATIONAL PARK trespass cows. • Local government: More support for CHOLLA LAKE CO. PARK park budget increases and development. • Local government: Partnership more. Foster partnerships. • Chamber of Commerce: Partnership • Chambers: Same as with local more. government. Help us educate visitors • Agencies: Partnership, grant funding. about their role in protecting natural and heritage resources for future generations. ALPINE RANGER DISTRICT, APACHE Help us disperse visitation. SITGREAVES NF • Local government: support grant requests • Stewardship Organizations: See above. that improve the recreation infrastructure. • Agencies: Foster partnerships

40 l Utah-Arizona Four Corners Touris Assessment Report What agencies can do to help possible to have live interpretation at the archaeo- tourism industry logical sites. HOMOLOVI RUINS STATE PARK CHOLLA LAKE CO. PARK • Homolovi holds people in the Winslow Encourage multiple use. Promote use of variety area so that they often will dine or use of recreation opportunities. lodging in town.

CHOLLA LAKE CO. PARK ALPINE RANGER DISTRICT (Apache • Offer facilities for special event. Sitgreaves NF) • Assist in planing event. Teaching outdoor ethics, public education. • Promote park and area to tourist/visitor. CHEVELON-HEBER RANGER DISTRICT ALPINE RANGER DISTRICT, APACHE As desired experiences are quite variable; so too SITGREAVES NF are the strategies for improving them. Fundamen- • It depends on the use. Winter sports tally, the provision of adequate facilities and/or activities and biking opportunities are necessary infrastructures, is necessary for quality currently under utilized. Winter activities experiences within terms of quality and resource particularly help the slow winter economy protection. in the local communities. APACHE SITGREAVES NF CLIFTON RANGER DISTRICT • Provide information support as needed. Better communicate with public to ensure they understand the available opportunities, then assist CHEVELON-HEBER RANGER DISTRICT in directing them to their chosen opportunity. • Provide information and recreation opportunity. LYMAN LAKE STATE PARK CLIFTON RANGER DISTRICT Lake level and turbidity. • Work with local business to show case nearby recreation opportunities. PETRIFIED FOREST NATIONAL PARK LYMAN LAKE STATE PARK We need a community and regional effort to • We already are. improve customer service and provide good information about heritage and recreation sites. PETRIFIED FOREST NATIONAL PARK • We can assist through programs such as our River, Trails, and Conservation Assistance program. Local staff can assist Stewardship Messages with developing and presenting customer Listed below are the messages that public land service training, interpretive training, etc. agency interviewees would like to convey to visitors to their attractions.

HOMOLOVI RUINS STATE PARK—More Strategies to improve visitor interaction between cultures and environment. experience Continuity of Native Americans from the pre- HOMOLOVI RUINS STATE PARK Columbian to modern day. Respect and protect Additional staff or volunteers would make it archaeological/cultural resources.

Utah-Arizona Four Corners Tourism Assessment Report l 41 ALPINE RANGER DISTRICT, APACHE archeological resources that lie outside the SITGREAVES NF—It is important to not park. We need congressional authority promote or market uses where increased visita- and appropriations to accomplish this tion will reduce the quality of experience. This is vision. especially true for wilderness use. Proper outdoor 2. Petrified Forest needs construction ethics. funding to restore the Painted Desert Inn National Historic Landmark for increased APACHE SITGREAVES NF—Conservation, visitor enjoyment. low impact use, multiple use are compatible. 3. In order to improve the sustainability of CHEVELON-HEBER RANGER DISTRICT— the area , we need a keystone education That your use has an impact on the resource and center for visitors. Funding is needed to that you must be sensitive to that impact in order remodel existing historic structures and for there to be a sustained flow of quality develop exhibits and educational media. recreation experiences. Regional needs for projects to enhance sustain- CLIFTON RANGER DISTRICT—Use and ability include: enjoy wisely to conserve for future generations. • A Four Corners/Little Colorado River (if not the entire Colorado Plateau) approach LYMAN LAKE STATE PARK—Our goal is to to heritage and recreation planning and manage and conserve Arizona’s natural, cultural, educational effort (e.g., a Four Corners and recreational resources for the benefit of the heritage sign and other media program people both in our parks and through our with a uniform design element that partners. visitors would come to recognize/ identify/associate with Four Corners) that PETRIFIED FOREST NATIONAL PARK— call attention to our resources and to Obviously, it we could convince more people of good land use/recreation use ethics; the need to practice appropriate behaviors (stay • To take a regional partnership approach on trails, not take petrified wood, not vandalize to addressing the impacts of ATV use on sites, not litter, etc.) we would all be better off in public land in the Four Corners Region. managing our heritage and recreation areas for sustainable visitation. HOMOLOVI RUINS STATE PARK • Purchase of inholdings/significant sites not presently controlled by Arizona State Parks, including the Hancock property Projects near Homolovi I, Arizona-New Mexico Land Company property in Hoe Valley PETRIFIED FOREST NATIONAL PARK near Homolovi II, Hahn property near 1. Petrified Forest National Park’s General Homolovi II, and Homolovi IV West Management Plan proposes an expansion (Arizona State Land Dept., Petroglyph of the park (doubling the size) to protect panels), Cottonwood Wash Ruin (AZ-NM globally significant paleontological Land Co.) resources and nationally significant • Purchase of land currently leased from

42 l Utah-Arizona Four Corners Touris Assessment Report the State Land Dept., which is required to make the most possible profit from the APACHE SITGREAVES NF land. Homolovi could, therefore, lose its • Woods Canyon Lake: Additional lease, or the lease rate could increase until campground. it was too expensive. Furthermore, the park is not eligible for many grants since CHEVELON-HEBER RANGER DISTRICT it is only a 10-year lease. • Willow Spring Lake and Bear Canyon • Construction of Pithouse Village Trail Lake campground construction. There is next to visitor center. This is an substantial demand for camping facilities interpretive trail through an archaeological at the location, the resources needed are site and would include a paved sidewalk, primarily monetary. interpretive signs, the opening and • OHV use in the rural-urban interface, stabilization/protection of a pithouse Heber . . . is growing rapidly. Demand for (including ramada). OHV, hiking and biking trails exceeds supply. The provision of trails and CHOLLA LAKE CO. PARK trailhead, signs, and enforcement • Increase beach development dredging. personnel would be a great benefit. Resources needed could be labor, TALL TIMBER PARK materials, and/or funding. • Build second large dining picnic ramada for group reservation use. CLIFTON RANGER DISTRICT • Construct more parking. • Improve trailhead access along Highway 191. • Expand park boundaries size (currently 54 acres). • Develop appropriate OHV opportunities. • Construction of second restroom. • Increase trail maintenance on trails receiving higher use levels.

LITTLE PAINTED DESERT • Trail development.

ALPINE RANGER DISTRICT, APACHE SITGREAVES NATIONAL FOREST • Develop a brochure for mountain bike users that highlights opportunities. • Publish and print the district recreation opportunity guide for sale to the public.

Utah-Arizona Four Corners Tourism Assessment Report l 43 Arizona-Utah Gateway Tourism SUMMARY

his Arizona-Utah Tourism report Needed funding currently depends on more outlines conditions, trends, and active participation from regional and national recommendations for projects defined offices of agencies located in the region, such as Tby key respondents to the Four Corners Tourism the Bureau of Land Management, Forest Service, Assessment survey in southeastern Utah, north- and National Park Service. eastern Arizona (Navajo Nation), and the Little Surveys identified many projects and pro- Colorado region of east-central Arizona. grams for possible implementation. To narrow Similarly to and north- this list down to a manageable number, the west New Mexico, many survey respondents, following criteria were used: supportive in general of increased tourism • The project was feasible and affordable. development, emphasized more interactive • The project proposal had good support relationships among community leaders, tourism within the communities, and in some businesses, and public land agencies. Where they cases was already underway, but needed are possible, cooperative relationships are neces- additional assistance. sary in order to accomplish projects and integrate • There was an identifiable partnership stewardship and sustainability messages into organization with the capability to tourism-related activities. undertake the project. One such area showing great potential is the • Gateway funding or development region-wide efforts to establish heritage site assistance for projects can be leveraged stewardship programs. Northwestern New with other funding and assistance. Mexico has a pilot site stewards program that is Currently, southeast Utah has selected projects quickly becoming successful. Southwestern (see page 17) using the above criteria as guides, Colorado has one just starting up. Individuals in narrowing potential projects down to a few. As southeast Utah are discussing establishing a yet, no clear projects have emerged from Arizona program. And Arizona has had a program in surveys that contain the most immediate poten- place for sometime. Many agree that a regional tial for action and success. However, projects for conference on site stewardship is needed in order both the Navajo Nation and the Little Colorado Region are listed this report for future reference. to explore building a region-wide coalition of site It is suggested that the reader look to that stewards. The Office of Community Services at information to learn more about where those Fort Lewis College supports site stewardship areas stand on the desire, potential, and opportu- efforts in the Four Corners as an important nity for realizable sustainable tourism develop- opportunity to build regional relationships that ment projects. cross community, public land, and tribal bound- In the meantime, work continues to build aries and that can serve as examples of sustain- stronger relationships, gather data for greater able tourism development. understanding of trends, seek funding for project support. 44 l Utah-Arizona Four Corners Touris Assessment Report Utah-Arizona Four Corners Tourism Assessment Report l 45