2004 - 2005


P.V. DAMODHIRAN Minister for Animal Husbandry

Government of Tamilnadu 2004

POLICY NOTE 2004-2005




Our country is predominantly an agrarian economy with more than 75% of the population in villages depending on agriculture, animal husbandry and allied activities for their livelihood. In fact Indian agriculture is an economic symbiosis of crop and livestock production and cattle is the foundation of Indian agriculture. It provides livelihood to 65% of the State's population and contributes 62% of employment generated in the State. Bullocks provide draught power and organic manure, which augments the crop production. Animal husbandry contributes significantly in supplementing the income of small, marginal farmers and landless labourers and in generating gainful employment opportunities especially self-employment to a substantial number of rural and urban population many of whom are women who play a major role in the care and management of livestock. It serves as a vital source for providing nutritious protein rich balanced food in the form of milk, egg, meat and value added products. Moreover, they are also intricately associated with the social, cultural and traditional values of the region.

Livestock sector contributes value-added products significantly to the Gross Domestic Product at 5.51% of the total Gross Domestic Product and 22.17% of the total Gross Domestic Product from agriculture sector. The percentage share of livestock to Gross Domestic Product has increased from 4.82% in 1980-81 to 5.51% in 1999-2000, which reflects the importance of livestock sector's contribution to the national economy and augmenting the household food security. Milk is now the largest agricultural commodity contributing to the Gross Domestic Product.

Animal Husbandry Department plays a major role in providing veterinary health care and improving the genetic production potentialities of livestock and poultry reared in the State. Apart from this, various beneficiary oriented schemes are also being implemented for the economic upliftment and welfare of the poor, downtrodden and weaker sections of the society. Various veterinary institutions spread throughout the State provide the above services. With the dedicated and sustained efforts of the department in implementation of various beneficiary oriented programmes and judicious utilization of animals and the natural resources in an eco- balanced way, the livestock sector of the State has been elevated to a prominent position.

ESTIMATED MILK PRODUCTION (Lakh MetricTonnes) 47.53 42.73 46.22 35.24 25.62

1983-84 1993-94 1998-99 2002-03 2003-04

The estimated milk production, which was 25.62 lakh metric tonnes during 1983-84, has increased to 42.73 lakh metric tonnes during 1998-99 and further to 47.53 lakh metric tonnes during 2003-04. The per capita availability of milk per day has increased from 145 grams during 1983-84 to 191 grams during 1998-99 and further to 209 grams during 2003-04.


3588 3622 3784 2919


1983-84 1993-94 1998-99 2002-03 2003-04

During the same period the estimated egg production, which was 996 million numbers in 1983-84 has increased to 3,588 million numbers during 1998-99 and further to 3,784 million numbers during 2003-04. Likewise the per capita availability of eggs per annum has gone up from 21 numbers to 59 numbers and further to 61 numbers during the above period. With the implementation of cross breeding programme and disease control, the Indian Council for Medical Research recommended level of 220 grams of milk per day and 183 numbers of eggs per annum per person will be reached.

During 2003-04, the total number of animals slaughtered and meat produced in the registered slaughterhouses are 24.05 lakh and 46.67 million Kgs respectively. The value of leather and leather products exported from the ports of Tamilnadu has increased from Rs. 22,115.54 millions during 1997-98 to Rs.37,183.80 millions during 2002-03 showing an appreciable increase of 59.48%.

Phenomenal growth in human population, urbanization, shrinking arable land, increase in waste lands, poor returns, rapid fragmentation of land and adverse economic pressure on seasonal crop production, rise in income and change in lifestyles all demands a nutritious and protein rich diet (milk, egg and meat) from the animal origin in terms of volume, kind and quality. With the participation of private, cooperative sector and continued patronage of the Government for various beneficiary oriented programmes for the poor and downtrodden, the unexplored potentials of this sector can be effectively tapped. Animal Husbandry thus will not only be capable of meeting basic demands of the rapidly growing population, but it can also act as a powerful instrument for a comprehensive socio-economic transformation of the rural people by eliminating poverty and unemployment. Animal Husbandry thus can act as an engine for growth and trigger the economy besides improving the quality of life of every individual.


The Animal Husbandry Department is under the overall control of the Director of Veterinary Services and Director of Animal Husbandry with allocation of different subjects. The State is divided into 25 regions and each is under the control of one Regional Joint Director of Animal Husbandry, who is responsible for all the activities of the department in that region. The 25 regions are divided into 65 administrative divisions each headed by one Assistant Director of Animal Husbandry who is responsible for all the activities of the department in that division.

One Director in the cadre of Additional Director is in-charge of the Institute of Veterinary Preventive Medicine located at Ranipet, which is engaged in the production of various kinds of livestock and poultry vaccines and other biologicals. One Central Referral Laboratory for disease diagnosis, confirmation and monitoring is functioning at Chennai. Moreover the Referral Lab coordinates the work of the Animal Disease Intelligence Units headed by Assistant Directors functioning in various parts of the State engaged in disease surveillance and monitoring.

In the Department, 8 Livestock Farms, 3 Sheep Farms, 20 Cattle Breeding and Fodder Development units and 2 Poultry Disease Diagnostic Laboratories are managed each by one Deputy Director. The budget estimate for 2003-04 was Rs. 176.99 crores, which includes a plan of Rs. 27.72 crores and non-plan outlay of Rs. 149.27 crores while the revised estimate was Rs. 155.11 crores, which includes a plan expenditure of Rs. 26.20 crores and non-plan expenditure of Rs. 128.91 crores.


Veterinary Services & Tribal Hill Area Animal Health Development Development Piggery 53.54% 0.00% 0.63% Development Secretariat 0.16% Extension & 1.03% Training Sheep 0.04% Public Works Development 0.61% 1.30% Other Poultry 4.48% Development Special Central 0.85% Assistance Schemes Danida Cattle Agricultural 0.33% Development Research 1.89% 10.13% Fodder Direction & Education Development Supervision Training 0.83% 9.42% 19.24%


The total livestock population of the State is 259.39 lakhs accounting to 5.40% of the country and 0.60% of the world livestock population. Of the total country's population, the State accounts for 4.58% of cattle, 3.08 % of buffaloes, 9.27% of sheep and 5.32% of goats. According to the 16th Livestock and Poultry (1997) census, the species wise distribution of livestock and poultry, their percentage to the total livestock and poultry population and density in the State are as follows: SPECIESWISE - LIVESTOCK

Goats 24.74% Dogs Rabbits Sheep 6.92% 0.07% 20.27% Equines Other 0.20% 2.62% Buffalo 10.57% Cattle Pigs 34.88% 2.35%

Species Population Density

Cattle 90,46,542 70 Buffalo 27,41,263 21

Sheep 52,58,884 40

Goats 64,16,204 49 Dogs 17,96,216 14 Pigs 6,09,176 5

Donkeys 43,197

Horses and Ponies 11,003 1 Rabbits 16,909 Total Livestock 2,59,39,394 200


Fowls Ducks (Commercial) 1.96% 49.20%

Other 1.97%

Fowls Turkey, (Backyard) Gine, Etc., 48.83% 0.01%

Species Population Density Fowls 3,57,92,376 276 Ducks 7,15,153 5 Others (Turkey, Gine etc.,) 3,546 - Total Poultry 3,65,11,075 281

Considering the shorter lifespan of livestock, the livestock census is taken once in five years. The department has now been entrusted to carryout the 17th Quinquennial Livestock Census as per the guidelines of Government of .


Galloping human population and awareness on better standards of living and also due to the expanding industry, commerce and transport have created an increased demand for land, thereby affecting the feed, fodder production and grazing facility for livestock.

In our country fodder production is still deemed ancillary to agricultural production. The green fodder resources for livestock are mainly derived from grazing in grasslands and pastures, fodder crops from cropped lands, weeds, bund grasses tree leaves and mixed forages. Crop residues mainly sorghum and paddy straws which are poor in nutritive value constitute the major fodder for livestock. Green fodder is normally fed only for animals yielding milk. The availability of green fodder is extremely restricted to selected area and seasons. Green fodder should be fed throughout the year not only to maintain milk production but also for improving the conception rate. Feed and fodder are the major limiting factors in enhancing farm animal productivity. The economic viability of livestock husbandry depends on sources of feed and fodder as feeding cost constitutes 65-70% of the total cost of livestock farming.

The total requirement of dry fodder and green fodder for the bovine population of the state for a year is 172.10 lakh M.T and 645.38 lakh M.T respectively. A total of 16.99 lakh hectares of common property resources (CPR) and 16.20 lakh hectares of open forest are available for grazing. The gap between the availability and requirement of dry fodder and green fodder is 27% and 79.60% respectively.

The area of permanent pastures and other grazing lands when compared to the total geographical area is very low and decreasing year after year. The total grazing land available in the State is 1.18 lakh hectares, which include culturable waste and permanent pastures. Over exploitation of available grazing land has led to its depletion. To avoid degradation and depletion of grazing land by using it indiscriminately for other purposes, the Government have ordered not to transfer the grazing land for other purposes unless alternate land of the same extent is developed as grazing land in the same district. For the above purpose development charge at the rate of Rs.6,000/- per acre or Rs.15,000/- per hectare should be deposited in the Local Fund Account.

This department is involving itself to increase the grazing facilities under the Wasteland Development Programme being implemented in Salem, Namakkal, Vellore, Theni, Thanjavur, Dindigul, , Thiruvannamalai, Ramanathapuram and Tiruchirappalli districts, along with other line departments.

For increasing the fodder production, this department has taken up many schemes and established fodder seed production units at the following places:

1. Padappai (Kancheepuram district) 2. Eachenkottai (Thanjavur district) 3. Chettinad (Sivagangai district) 4. Hosur (Krishnagiri district) 5. Chinnasalem (Villupuram district) 6. Abisekapatti () 7. Pudukottai (Pudukottai district)

The following fodder development activities are also being taken up:

To enable the landless families and poor farmers to take up animal husbandry activities, establishment of community feed and fodder banks with the help of self-help groups is being encouraged. Cultivation of perennial high yielding fodder grass varieties like Napier, hybrid Co1, Co3, Para grass and Guinea grass is being encouraged. Cultivation of cowpea, stylosanthus, Co3 grass in , and mango grooves as inter crop is being encouraged. Distribution of fodder seed minikits free of cost. Distribution of Agathi seedlings, which is rich source of Iron and protein. Distribution of Subabul seedlings and cultivation of Subabul seedlings, which are highly drought resistant and rich in protein. Cultivation and distribution of alous in veterinary institution is being encouraged. Under the drought relief measures, to meet out the shortage of green fodder, cultivation of green fodder was taken up in 8 livestock farms and in village grazing lands. The total area covered and fodder to be produced in the livestock farms is 560 acres and 35,980 M.T. respectively. To improve the existing grazing lands in villages 2,725 acres were developed and 25,500 M.T. of fodder was produced.

LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT: CATTLE AND BUFFALO - BREEDING: Cattle and buffalo comprise 77% and 33% respectively of the total bovine population in the State. The density of cattle and buffalo in the State is 70 and 21 respectively. The category wise cattle and buffalo breedable age female population and their percentage to the total breedable age female population are as follows:

CATEGORYWISE BREEDABLE FEMALE BOVINES Exotic 0.33% Indigenous Crossbred (Buffaloes) 20.00% 22.00%

Graded 5.53% Native Pure 10.27% Murrah 0.50% Indigenous (Cattle) 41.37%

Percen- tage to Percen total -tage Breedable Total breed- Category to total age female population able age Popula Population female -tion Popula- tion


Exotic 37,053 0.31 20,230 0.33 Crossbred 21,41,483 18.17 12,40,306 20.00 Native Pure 13,27,117 11.26 6,37,100 10.27 Indigenous 55,40,889 47.01 25,64,884 41.37 Total 90,46,542 76.75 44,62,520 71.97 II. BUFFALOE Murrah 46,490 0.39 30,718 0.50 Graded 5,57,552 4.73 3,42,890 5.53 Indigenous 21,37,221 18.13 13,64,411 22.00 Total 27,41,263 23.25 17,38,019 28.03

III. BOVINES 1,17,87,805 100.00 62,00,539 100.00

Nondescript animals have a higher age at first calving, low lactation period, low milk yield, lengthy dry and intercalving periods, but they are highly disease resistant and heat tolerant. The exotic breeds have early maturity, lengthy lactation period, high milk yield, short dry and intercalving periods but they are less disease resistant and heat tolerant. To improve these economic traits and also to preserve the desirable traits like disease resistance and heat tolerance of indigenous animals in a short time at an affordable cost, cross breeding was the only alternative. Native breeds are hardy, resistant to diseases, can withstand harsh ecological conditions and subsist on a low level of nutrition. Native breeds like Kangayam and Umblachery are preserved in their home tracts.

The policy followed for breeding of cattle and buffaloes in our State is as follows:

Cross breeding the local nondescript breedable female cattle by using the semen of dairy breeds like Jersey and Friesian. Grading local buffaloes by using the semen of Murrah bulls. Breeding crossbred cows with crossbred bull semen. Selective breeding of native pure breeds of cattle such as Kangayam and Umblachery in their respective breeding tracts.

With the above policy followed for breeding, the crossbred cattle population has increased from 11.24 lakhs as per 1989 census to 21.41 lakhs as per 1997 census with an increase of 90%. During the same period, the indigenous cattle has decreased from 69.51 lakhs to 55.41 lakhs, the decrease being 20%, which is mainly due to the reduction in less productive male indigenous cattle by 32%. The native pure breed, which is mainly used as work animals, has increased from 12.57 lakhs to 13.27 lakhs with an increase of 6%. The buffalo population has decreased from 31.28 lakhs as per 1989 census to 27.41 lakhs as per 1997 census with a decrease of 12%. This is mainly due to decrease in the less productive indigenous buffaloes by 18%. But during the same period the graded buffalo population has increased from 4.72 lakhs to 5.58 lakhs with a percentage increase of 18.

To bring all breeding activities of cattle and buffalo under one roof, the Government have formed the TAMILNADU LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT AGENCY under the National Project on Cattle and Buffalo Breeding.


Artificial insemination horizontally disseminates superior genetic resources in a population within a short period and at low cost. With this in mind, to improve the genetic potentiality of cattle and buffalo, the department during 1948 introduced artificial insemination with liquid semen of exotic and graded breeds. Artificial insemination with frozen semen was introduced during 1975 and from the year 1993 all the Artificial Insemination Centers use only frozen semen. To cater to the needs of 3,569 Artificial Insemination Centers, 4 Frozen Semen Production Stations are functioning in the following places:

Eachenkottai, Thanjavur District;

Abishekapatti, Tirunelveli District;

Hosur, Krishnagiri District

Udagamandalam, The Nilgiris District.

A total number of 286.breeding bulls of Jersey, Holstein Friesian, Crossbred, Kangayam, Umblachery and Murrah are located in these stations. Medium straws are produced in all the Frozen Semen Production Stations.

Ten Liquid Nitrogen Plants are functioning, 3 at Eachenkottai, 2 each at Abishekapatti and Hosur, 1 each at Udhagamandalam (The Nilgiris), Saidapet (Chennai) and Thiruparankundram (Madurai) producing Liquid Nitrogen, which is used to freeze and store the frozen semen straws. In the State, 12 Frozen Semen Banks are functioning at Vellore, Coimbatore, Madurai, Tiruchirapalli, , Tirunelveli, Thanjavur, Cuddalore, Sivagangai, Chennai, Dindigul and Salem. The main function of these banks is to store and distribute the liquid nitrogen and frozen semen straws to various veterinary institutions and subcentres for carrying out Artificial Insemination.


16.00 14.29 14.00 12.00 10.00 7.16 8.00 4.92 6.00 3.51 (In lakhs) 4.00 2.50 0.72 0.69 2.00 0.03 0.00

s ry h isian e eyam Jersey Sindhi g Murra . Fr .F. Cross blache H H Kan m U Jersey Cros

During 2003-04, 33.82 lakh doses of frozen semen and 1.93 lakh litres of liquid nitrogen were produced in the Frozen Semen Production Stations and Liquid Nitrogen Plants. Government have ordered transfer of the above four Frozen Semen Production Stations to the Tamilnadu Livestock Development Agency with the aim to bring all artificial insemination activities under one roof.


Sheep comprises 45% of the total ovine population in which crossbred and native pure accounts for 5% and 95% respectively. More than acting as an important subsidiary animal husbandry activity in the State, they serve as source of sustenance, livelihood and productive employment to majority of landless agricultural labourers. Besides meat and skin, a small income is also derived through penning which is a very common practice followed to fertilize the fields. Out of all the rural poverty alleviation programmes implemented, sheep rearing is giving the best results.

The sheep breeds maintained in the departmental farms are as follows:

S.No Farms Breed 1 District Livestock Farm, Abishekapatti Kilakarisal 2 District Livestock Farm, Chettinad Kilakarisal 3 District Livestock Farm, Pudukottai Ramnad White Mandya, 4 District Livestock Farm, Hosur Corridale Cross 5 Sheep Farm, Sathur Vembur 6 Sheep Farm, Chinnasalem Mecheri 7 Sheep Farm, Mukundarayapuram Chennai Red

Quality rams and ewes produced in these farms are sold to local farmers to improve the progeny of local sheep and sheep are also sold for breeding purpose.

To augment meat production through scientific breeding, feeding and management and to generate additional income to the farmers, 567 link worker couples were already trained in sheep rearing under Pudukottai Livestock Development Project. They were provided with 4 ram lambs of 4 months age at a total cost of Rs.18.14 lakhs. After one year the lambs will be sold to sheep breeders of that area for breeding purpose.


Goat is a versatile animal and comprises 55% of total sheep and goat reared in the State. This may mainly be attributed to their quick proliferation intervals, higher growth rates and the ease with which they can be marketed. Moreover it has the most profitable benefit : cost ratio among the different animal farming practices. The population as per 1997 census is 64.16 lakhs. The goat breeds maintained in the department farms are as follows:

S.No Farms Breed

District Livestock Farm, 1 Kodivalli Abishekapatti District Livestock Farm, 2 Jamunapari Chettinad District Livestock Farm, 3 Tellicherry,Jamunapari Pudukottai District Livestock Farm, 4 Kodivalli, Jamunapari Hosur

5 Livestock Farm, Korukkai Jamunapari

6 Sheep Farm, Chinnasalem Jamunapari Kanni Velladu, 7 Sheep Farm, Sathur Jamunapari.

The progeny of these goats are supplied to local farmers to improve the local goats.

To reduce the worm burden in small ruminants, which will be the predisposing factor for many health problems, the department since 1982-83 is implementing Intensive Health Cover Programme for sheep. Under this programme, the sheep maintained by farmers are dewormed periodically to overcome the problems due to parasites. During 2003-04, drugs worth of Rs. 40.00 lakhs were used to deworm the sheep.

With the aim of integrating farm management with goat rearing in dryland agricultural zones, a pilot scheme will be implemented in collaboration with the Tamilnadu Veterinary Animal Sciences University, Tamilnadu Agricultural University and the Agriculture Department in areas of Dharmapuri, Pennagaram, Nallampalli, Palacode, Morappur and in at a total cost of Rs.22.81 lakhs for a period of 3 years.


Even though pig farming was not practiced on scientific lines during the early years, it has picked up in recent years. It provides self-employment, improved nutrition and additional income. To satisfy the considerable urban demand that exists for pork and pork products, this department is encouraging pig rearing.

Large White Yorkshire pigs are bred in Saidapet Polyclinic complex, Chennai and in the District Livestock Farms at Hosur, Abishekapatti, Chettinad, Orthanad and Pudukottai. In addition Landrace breed is also bred at Chettinad farm. To avoid inbreeding, new stocks of pigs have been purchased from other States with central assistance and added to these units.

To revive the breeding and to conserve the equine species, one horse-breeding unit is functioning at District Livestock Farm, Hosur. There are 10 mares, 3 stallions and 11 young horses in the unit. It is proposed to sell the horses from this unit to public.

A Dog Breeding Unit was established at Saidapet, Chennai during 1980-81. This unit was rearing only native breeds like Rajapalayam, Kombai and Chippiparai. As there is a good demand for other breeds also, Labrador and Doberman were added to the existing unit during 1997-98. At present there are 10 males, 17 females and 9 puppies in this unit. The puppies are sold to the public.


Fowls constitute 98% of the total poultry population in the State. The development of poultry industry is spectacular in our State. Our State occupies 2nd position in egg production in the country. The process of transformation of poultry farming from mere backyard poultry to the present vibrant and dynamic commercial enterprise started from 1960 onwards with the introduction of deep litter system. In the seventies with the introduction of modern scientific techniques, new strains of poultry and California cage system of rearing have revolutionised the industry. The process was speeded up with the help of Poultry Extension Centres, which acted as demonstration farms and extension centres providing training to farmers to take up poultry farming. Moreover, the formation of Tamilnadu Poultry Development Corporation, Government support for establishing poultry units, widespread immunization against Ranikhet disease and easy availability of quality feeds, all contributed to development of poultry rearing as an industry. Poultry rearing which had been a cottage industry all along has now became a big industry by itself in many places in the districts of Namakkal, Salem, Erode and Coimbatore.

In the rural areas, eco-friendly backyard poultry rearing consists of 5 to 10 birds per household, is reared with little investment. The household gets meat and eggs from these birds. Birds are on free range and feed on worms, insects, waste grains, white ants etc. and they convert the farm and kitchen waste into egg and meat. These birds are very susceptible to the highly fatal Ranikhet disease. To protect the poultry from this disease, the department is providing vaccination against this disease on specified days at the veterinary Institutions every week and in the sub centres every fortnight. This department is conducting a statewide vaccination programme against Ranikhet disease during the month of February every year and also in the camps conducted under `Kalnadai Padukappu Thittam'.

There are 24 Poultry Extension Centres apart from the two chick hatcheries one at Kattupakkam in Kancheepuram district and other at Hosur in Krishnagiri district supplying chicks to farmers. A turkey-rearing unit has been established at the Poultry Farm, Kattupakkam to popularise turkey rearing among the farmers.

With the aim of creating awareness on turkey rearing as one of the profitable backyard business, one turkey unit has been established at the District Livestock Farm, Hosur at a total cost of Rs.4.24 lakhs. Steps are also being taken to add 4 more turkey units without any expenditure to the Government utilising the infrastructure already available in the department. The progeny will be sold to local farmers interested in turkey rearing.

To create additional avocations, employment opportunities and supplement the income of marginal farmers, landless labourers and other socially backward sector of the society and thereby improving their living standards, the Government of India have been approached for getting assistance under "Central assistance to poultry farmers of the State scheme" to rear Vanaraja and Giriraja birds.

During 2004, Avian influenza disease outbreaks have been reported in South Asian countries and in Pakistan. Though the disease was not reported in our country, all the field staff were activated to take necessary steps for prevention and control of the disease. Moreover, to create awareness among the farmers in the main poultry belt area about the disease; an awareness campaign was held in Namakkal in collaboration with the Namakkal Veterinary College. Apart from this, pamphlets about the disease were distributed to the public mainly during the Kalnadai Padhukappu Thittam camps. To prevent contamination in eggs and to produce eggs suitable for export, an awareness campaign was held at Namakkal with the poultry farmers and manufacturers of egg powder and egg products.


Livestock Farms are maintained for selective scientific breeding of specific species of livestock. They serve as demonstration farms and as a source for quality livestock to the farmers. There are 11 livestock farms, out of which 3 are sheep farms.

The categorywise bovines maintained in the livestock farms are as follows:

Sl.No. Name of the Farm Bovines maintained Jersey, Holstein Freisian, Exotic Cattle Breeding Jersey Cross, Umblachery, 1. Farm, Eachenkottai Holstein Freisian Cross, Murrah,

District Livestock Farm, Jersey, Crossbred, Sindhi, 2. Hosur Kangeyam District Livestock Farm, 3. Murrah, Jersey, Crossbred Abishekapatti District Livestock Farm, Jersey, Holstein Freisian, 4. Udagamandalam Crossbred District Livestock Farm, 5. Crossbred Pudukottai District Livestock Farm, 6. Crossbred, Tharparkar Chettinad District Livestock Farm, 7. Murrah Orathanad Livestock Farm, 8. Umblachery Korukkai

The department has been working on embryo transfer technology. Embryo transfer units have been established at Exotic Cattle Breeding Farm, Eachenkottai of Thanjavur district and at District Livestock Farm, Hosur, Krishnagiri district.


Livestock and livelihood are closely interconnected in rural households since time immemorial. The growth in human population, urbanization, shrinking arable land and poor returns from agriculture has all resulted in farmers to shift to some kind of livestock rearing to earn a living. Hence for their sustenance, livelihood, and employment and for the economic upliftment and welfare of the poor and down trodden, the department is implementing various beneficiary oriented schemes.

A. Hill Area Development Programme:

Under this programme, one Frozen Semen Production Station at District Livestock Farm, Uthagamandalam, one Animal Disease Intelligence Unit at Udhagamandalam and 2 Mobile Units, one at Kothagiri and another at Gudalur have been established.

During 2003-04, a sum of Rs.12.00 lakhs has been sanctioned to purchase various equipments in order to strengthen the production of frozen semen at District Livestock Farm, Udagamandalam. Apart from this, a sum of Rs.9.00 lakhs has been sanctioned to carryout repairs and renovation of Animal Disease Intelligence Unit and construction of sub-centers in the project area. Also a sum of Rs.2.50 lakhs has been sanctioned for meeting the staff cost of Animal Disease Intelligence Unit, Udagamandalam. Thus a total amount of Rs.23.50 lakhs has been provided for the above programme.

B. Western Ghat Development Programme:

Under this programme, the existing Frozen Semen Bank at District Livestock Farm, Abishekapatti has been strengthened and a building for training the farmers has been constructed. Mobile Veterinary Units, one at Vettaikaranpudur, Coimbatore district and another at Uthamapalayam, Theni district and one Animal Disease Intelligence Unit at Dindigul have been established.

During 2003-04, a sum of Rs.15.00 lakhs has been sanctioned to meet the staff cost and maintenance of the above-mentioned 2 Mobile Veterinary Units and one Animal Disease Intelligence Unit besides imparting training to 300 farmers in the project area. Apart from this, a sum of Rs.30.00 lakhs has been sanctioned for fodder production in the barren land of the project area. Also a sum of Rs.1.00 lakh has been sanctioned for the maintenance of vehicles already procured for the scheme. Thus a total amount of Rs.46.00 lakhs has been provided for the above programme.

C. Kalnadai Pathukappu Thittam:

This programme is being implemented since 1999-2000 with the aim of providing total health cover to livestock and poultry reared by farmers in remote villages where veterinary facilities are inadequate. Under this programme, special camps are conducted where various activities like health care, disease prevention, deworming, castration, artificial insemination, pregnancy verification, infertility treatment, etc. are carried out free of cost. An exhibition depicting various livestock diseases and preventive measures, fodder development measures, calf rally along with demonstration are also conducted for creating awareness among the farmers.

CAMPS CONDUCTED & ANIMALS BENEFITED 4850 56.20 56.14 4812 56.10 4800 4812 56.00 4750 55.90 4700 55.80 55.70 4650 55.60 4613 55.57 55.63 55.50 (In Lakhs)

No. of Camps 4600 55.40 4550 Animals Benefited 55.30 4500 55.20 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04

Camps Animals Benefited

During the last 3 years, a total of 14,237 camps have been conducted benefiting 167.34 lakh animals.

DANIDA ASSISTED LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT PROJECT: Danida assisted Livestock Development Project was implemented in 5 districts namely Pudukottai, Sivagangai, Ramanathapuram, Thoothukudi and Virudhunagar and replication of the project was implemented in the 12 districts of Thanjavur, Tiruchirapalli, Madurai, Theni, Tirunelveli, Kanyakumari, Karur, Dindigal, Perambalur, Nagapattinam, Thiruvarur and Namakkal with the main objective of training link worker couples and target farmers in the various animal husbandry practices for improving their income and providing informal veterinary health care. Under this programme link worker couple from each Panchayat are selected and trained in various animal husbandry, fodder development activities and in extension techniques. The trained link worker couples in turn trained the target farmers' who were selected through farmers' associations, Non-Governmental Organizations, women organizations and veterinary institutions. The project came to an end by 31.01.04.

The total number of Panchayat Unions, Panchayats covered and total number of link worker couples and target farmers trained are as follows:-

No.of No.of No.of No.of Pancha- Link Pancha- target Project yat worker yats farmers Unions couples Covered trained. Covered trained Phase I 3 123 157 7,526

Phase II 26 988 931 36,409 Replication in 5 201 161 3,220 project area Replication 2001-02 67 2,071 2,071 41,420

Replication 2002-03 68 1,278 1,255 25,100

Total 169 4,661 4,575 1,13,675

During 2003-04 Government have ordered replication of the above project in 1,835 Panchayats in the districts of Erode, Salem, Coimbatore, The Nilgiris, Villupuram, Dharmapuri and Krishnagiri at a total cost of Rs.91.10 lakhs.

The main impact of the project was, it not only benefited the livestock but also the farmers rearing the livestock. By implementation of the above project, one trained link worker couple had been made available in each Panchayat who could provide basic animal husbandry practices and informal Veterinary care round the clock.


Integrated Sample Survey Scheme covering all the districts is functioning in the State since 1977-78 providing timely and reliable statistical data on livestock products like milk, egg, meat, etc. It also studies livestock management practices annually and seasonally in a regular and continuous manner. Estimation of milk production and other livestock products is done by analysing the data collected from the field. It helps to assess and monitor the impact of various animal husbandry development activities initiated and implemented by the Department. Besides, the survey provides base level data, which helps in planning future programmes.

The estimated production of milk, egg, and meat during 2003-04 are as follows:

Item Summer Rainy Winter Total

Milk 15.34 16.42 15.77 47.53 (Lakh metric tonnes)

Egg 1,271.00 1,240.50 1,272.08 3,783.58 (Million Nos.)

Meat (Million Kgs) (Registered 16.83 15.98 13.86 46.67 Slaughter Houses only)

Livestock Census is carried out quinquennially. To study the changes in livestock population between two census periods, one Livestock Inter-census Cell is functioning in the Directorate since 1981.


Co-operative Societies for breeding sheep, poultry, pig, etc. are functioning in the Department since 1964. The Director of Veterinary Services is the functional Registrar of these societies. The objective of these societies is to improve the economic conditions of the weaker sections by making them members of the society. During 2003-04 the department had 848 societies out of which 277 were active. Due to the prevailing drought and non-assistance of banks for goat rearing, most of the dormant societies could not be revived. So far out of the 571 inactive societies, 40 societies have been liquidated.


Animal Husbandry Department provides the strong foundation of effective animal health network to the livestock and poultry thus augmenting animal production in the State. The services provided include health cover, disease diagnosis, disease prevention, disease eradication, breeding support and imparting training to farmers.


Veterinary health services are provided by 1,089 field veterinary institutions comprising of 6 Polyclinics manned by Assistant Directors, 22 Clinician Centres manned by Clinicians (Assistant Directors), 139 Veterinary Hospitals manned by Veterinary Surgeons (Assistant Directors) and 922 Veterinary Dispensaries manned by Veterinary Assistant Surgeons.

Polyclinics are functioning in the 6 corporations namely, Chennai (Saidapet), Madurai (Thallakulam), Coimbatore, Tirunelveli, Salem and Tiruchirapalli and are functioning round the clock. These provide specialized services in Gynaecology, Surgery and Medicine and have X-ray and inpatient facilities. Besides these 6 institutions, the institutions at Pollachi, Vellore, Dindigul, Erode, Kancheepuram, Thoothukudi are also equipped with X-ray facilities.

The treatment rendered by the Veterinary Institutions to the livestock and poultry is free of cost. Apart from regular treatment, these institutions are also conducting Artificial Insemination for improving the local cattle, buffaloes and also providing health care through vaccination and deworming. The problems of infertility are also taken care of by these institutions. above facilityduring2003-04. located atdistrictheadquarters wherenotelephonefa to allveterinaryinstitutions facility telephone doorsteps astelephonefacilities areavailableinalmo will goalongwayinproviding veterinaryhealth and ar disasters andnaturalcalamities,communication viz them. and otherequipmenttotheveterinarygraduates addition tocarryingoutthedailyactivities, the The financialrequirementsforthemwillbemet veterinary graduateshavebeense 101 areas remote National CommissiononAgricultureandtoprovide are 1,328VeterinariansandeachVeterinarianiscoveringabout10,163cattleunits. on Agriculture,73Subcentershavebeenupgradedas veterinary healthservicesasper the expand on Agriculture.During2003-04,to lakh cattleunits,whichrequire2,699Veterinarians 5,000 cattleunitsbytheyear2000toensureproper For efficientadministration,controlof To provideveterinary healthservicesat National CommissiononAgriculture(NCA)recommendedoneVeterinarianforevery

1983-84 0 18 Total Vety. Hospitals Polyclinics 1993-94 1 55 INSTITUTIONS VETERINARY OF GROWTH 23 1998-99 3 74 649 24 722 2002-03 3 141 783 25

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Vety. Dispensaries Clinician centres 1016

Clinician centres 922 Vety. Hospitals

Vety. Dispensaries Vety. 1089 Total

Under the Drought Relief Works, drinking water facility to Veterinary Institutions have been augmented by digging 939 borewells in 313 Panchayat Unions in drought affected districts at a cost of Rs.469.50 lakhs.

(a) Mobile Veterinary Units:

To provide veterinary health services like vaccination and deworming and breeding coverage like artificial insemination to livestock reared by farmers residing in remote areas who face difficulties to reach veterinary institutions 55 Mobile Veterinary Units manned by Veterinary Assistant Surgeons are functioning in the State.

The main objectives of these Mobile Units are:

To provide health cover and veterinary assistance to the livestock and poultry at their doorsteps.

To conduct preventive vaccination and control measures against outbreak of contagious diseases.

To conduct mass deworming of livestock in order to protect them from parasitic infestation and

To undertake Artificial Insemination on cows and she buffaloes.

(b) Sub-Centres:

2,043 sub centres each headed by Livestock Inspectors provide first aid to ailing animals besides carrying out artificial insemination for cow and she buffaloes. They also conduct pregnancy verification and annual livestock and poultry census enumeration work of the sub centre areas. Their services are also utilized for vaccination and deworming with the technical guidance of Veterinary Assistant Surgeon and Assistant Directors of Animal Husbandry.

During 2003-04, a total of 164.46 lakhs livestock were treated, 5.88 lakh animals were castrated, 238.22 lakhs livestock and poultry were vaccinated, 168.64 lakhs of livestock were dewormed and 31.02 artificial inseminations were carried out.


Years Cases Artificial Treated Castration Vaccination Deworming Insemination

1983-84 88.48 3.84 49.02 82.31 17.02

1993-94 150.45 6.11 126.98 193.18 25.24

1998-99 146.40 7.66 100.14 189.30 29.66 2002-03 167.21 6.23 154.44 225.78 32.28

2003-04 164.46 5.88 168.64 238.22 31.02


"Animal Health is Nation's Wealth". Outbreak of diseases cause huge economic losses to the farming community by way of livestock mortality and decreased productivity. Outbreaks tend to affect the socio-economically under privileged more than the well to do. Control and eradication of many animal diseases is must not only for profitable livestock production but also essential to make our livestock and livestock products globally acceptable. As farmers generally show interest only in curative veterinary practice and not in prevention and control of diseases, the department plays a major role in disease prevention and eradication. Systematic control of diseases will progressively lead to its containment first and eradication ultimately.

(a) Diseases Prevention:

"Prevention is better than cure". Institute of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Ranipet that was initially called Serum Institute was established during the year 1932. The main objective of this institute is production of vaccines and biological products required for protection of livestock and poultry in the State. At present, 8 types of bacterial vaccines, 9 types of viral vaccines, 8 types of biological products and 9 pharmaceutical products are produced in this institute.

(b) Disease Surveillance and Epidemiology:

A Disease Surveillance System is essential to provide 'early warning signals' of outbreaks while epidemiology helps in systematic study of the distribution and determinants of health problems. For this purpose 15 Animal Disease Intelligence Units are functioning in the State. They map out the disease prone areas by collecting epidemiological information and data. This in turn helps in advising the field veterinarians to take adequate protective and prophylactic measures well in advance. An Animal Disease Surveillance Cell is functioning in the Directorate, collecting valuable data on the incidence of livestock and poultry diseases.

(c) Disease Diagnosis:

Accurate disease diagnosis plays a key role in strict monitoring and prevention of specific diseases. To help the farmers of poultry belt, 2 Poultry Disease Diagnostic Laboratories have been established one at Andagalurgate, Namakkal district and the other at Erode. In addition to providing early diagnosis, they conduct feed and water analysis and give timely advice to farmers. During 2003-04, a total number of 1,270 Poultry farms and 1,144 villages have been visited and 8,512 samples examined. To provide disease diagnosis at farmers' doorsteps, 4 mobile laboratories, attached to Animal Diseases Intelligence Units are functioning at Madurai, Vellore, Tirunelveli and Coimbatore.

To co-ordinate the work of Animal Disease Intelligence Units and to help the field staff in diagnosis and allied activities, one Central Referral Laboratory is functioning at Polyclinic Complex, Saidapet, Chennai. For early, quick and accurate diagnosis of Blue Tongue disease, the 'Blue Tongue Diagnostic Wing' is attached to this laboratory.

(d) Disease Control:

Indian Livestock and Livestock products can freely enter and compete in the world markets only when they confirm to the zoo-sanitary specification and standards prescribed by the Office International Epizootics (OIE). In the international context, these specifications mean freedom from Foot and Mouth Disease, Rinderpest and Contagious Bovine Pleuro Pneumonia.

(i) Foot and Mouth Disease:

Foot and Mouth Disease is a highly contagious viral disease affecting cattle, buffaloe, sheep and goats causing a high mortality rate resulting in lowered milk production, infertility and death of young calves. In fact, as per a recent estimate, the annual loss due to Foot and Mouth Disease alone was about Rs.1,650 crores in terms of milk and another Rs.1,800 crores through permanent disability and death. In order to protect the animals against Foot and Mouth Disease, the department is implementing a scheme to vaccinate the animals against this disease. During 2003-04, a total of 6.38 lakh animals have been vaccinated with Foot and Mouth Disease vaccine. In addition, 27.20 lakh animals have been vaccinated under the drought relief works. Under Foot and Mouth Disease Control Programme, which is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme, all susceptible livestock are vaccinated against this disease in Kanyakumari district. For this 97,000 doses were supplied by the Government of India.

One regional centre of All India Co-ordinated Research Project (AICRP) for epidemiological studies on Foot and Mouth disease and virus typing at the Institute of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Ranipet is functioning to type the Foot and Mouth disease.

(e) Disease Eradication:

The department had made notable achievements in the control of various contagious diseases like Haemorrhagic Septicemia, Black Quarter, Anthrax, Enterotoxaemia and Ranikhet. The most important landmark and the major breakthrough is the stamping out of Rinderpest disease, which has been the greatest killer of bovines and sheep. This was achieved through implementation of National Project on Rinderpest Eradication since 1993-94. The State being declared "Rinderpest Free" from May 2004 onwards remains the most important milestone in the successful disease control activities of the department. At present there are 16 Rinderpest Squads, 10 Rinderpest Vigilance Units and 10 Rinderpest Checkposts functioning in the State. From 1998-99, the department is engaged in carrying out clinical surveillance and sero- surveillance activity to find out the presence of any hidden foci of Rinderpest infection and presence of Rinderpest antibodies.

Schemes like Animal Disease Surveillance, Systemic Control of Livestock Diseases of national importance and related aspects and Foot and Mouth disease control programme of 9th Plan period have been discontinued and grouped into a modified programme of 'Assistance to states for control of animal disease' (ASCAD), a component of 10th plan Centrally Sponsored Macro Management Scheme 'Livestock Health and Disease Control'. The Government have released a sum of Rs.209.36 lakhs for implementation of the above scheme during 2003-04. This includes Rs.63.60 lakhs for implementation of ASCAD scheme during 2003-04 and Rs.145.76 lakhs revalidated out of the earlier schemes to be utilised under the scheme.


Without proper extension and propaganda, all the new techniques and scientific know- how will not be fully utilized. With efficient extension activities, people can be made aware of the latest development in animal husbandry practices and also can make the schemes and programmes of the department more transparent to the public.

With the motto of 'Seeing is Learning', the Department is conducting exhibitions at various places during local festivals, fairs and other occasions to educate the public on the latest developments in animal husbandry activities and on veterinary public health. Every year the Department also participates in the All India Tourist and Trade Fair conducted at Chennai and also in the Co-operative week celebration. Latest information to farmers is carried through mass media like Television, All India Radio and the Press. In addition, leaflets, folders, pamphlets, newsletters and bulletins on the latest animal husbandry activities and emerging diseases are distributed to the public during the Kalnadai Padukappu Thittam camps, fairs, festivals and local shandies conducted in various parts of the State to create an awareness among the farmers. Regular weekly broadcasts on animal husbandry are made through All India Radio. During 2003- 04, 28 broadcasts were made.

The department is maintaining one Propaganda and Publicity Unit with a printing press at Saidapet, Chennai for printing publicity and extension materials like leaflets, pamphlets, posters, booklets and registers required for the department.

Nearly 4/5 of all communicable diseases are shared by man and animals, which are called Zoonotic diseases. With animal husbandry forming the core livelihood of millions of rural population, veterinary public health plays a vital role in controlling the Zoonotic diseases. Surveillance and detection of Zoonotic diseases helps to implement preventive measures to control and possibly eradicate them. Some of the services related to these aspects are detailed below:

Canine Rabies Control Programme:

Tamilnadu has a dog population of 17.96 lakhs of which domestic dog accounts for 85%. Dogs continue to be the main source for rabies infection to man. Nearly 96% of people seeking antirabies treatment are exposed to dogs. Moreover they play a major role in transmission of the disease to livestock. Thus elimination of canine rabies constitutes the most effective means of controlling transmission to human beings and other livestock. With this aim, Canine Rabies Control Programme Unit is functioning at Chennai, Madurai, Coimbatore, Tirunelveli and Tiruchirapalli.

The main work of these units is: Systematic, periodical door-to-door prophylactic vaccination of pet dogs against rabies after collecting the cost of vaccine;

Post exposure vaccination of all livestock including dogs free of cost and

Creation of awareness among the public through publicity and propaganda by distributing pamphlets and handbills and by conducting dog shows.

This programme has been well received by the public and the incidence of rabies in human beings and dogs living around these centres have come down significantly. During 2003- 04, a total number of 10,949 vaccinations have been carried out under this programme.

Mass Vaccination and Deworming:

Regular vaccination and periodical deworming of livestock and poultry are done by the Department free of cost. By this, the chances of spreading of zoonotic diseases like Anthrax, Brucellosis, Taeniasis, Strongylosis, Amphistomiasis etc. are minimized. Also the life cycle of parasites for which the human beings act as permanent or intermediate host is broken.

During the year 2003-04, 56.93 lakhs livestock and 181.29 lakhs poultry have been vaccinated. Also 21.25 lakhs cattle, 6.15 lakhs buffalo, 86.49 lakhs sheep, 49.69 lakhs goat and 2.39 lakhs poultry have been dewormed.

Meat Inspection:

Regular meat inspection work is conducted by the Department in the 119 registered slaughterhouses functioning under the control of the local bodies located throughout the State. By this, the chance of getting meat borne diseases like taeniasis, trichinosis hydatidosis by the meat consuming public is almost eliminated.

During 2003-04, 1.66 lakh bovines, 22.26 lakh ovines and 0.13 lakh pigs have been slaughtered in the above registered slaughter houses and 194.64 lakh kgs of beef, 265.33 lakh kgs of mutton and 6.73 lakh kgs of pork have been produced.


To prevent cruelty to animals and treat them ethically in a humane manner, the Tamilnadu Government is addressing the problems of unethical treatment to animals in a three- pronged approach.

At the Market Place During Transport In the Slaughter Houses

At the Market Place

Among the 263 Livestock Shandies in Tamilnadu, the following 10 shandies have been selected for upgradation:-

S. No. Place District

1. Pollachi Coimbatore 2. Pallavaram Kancheepuram 3. Thirukazhukundram Kancheepuram 4. Poigai Sathyamangalam Vellore 5. Melapalayam Tirunelveli 6. Monday Market Kanyakumari 7. Chekkavoorani Madurai 8. Nallampalli Dharmapuri 9. Aruppukkottai Virdhunagar 10. Perundurai Erode

These shandies will be provided with basic infrastructural facilities like, concrete ramps for loading and unloading animals to and from lorries, bore wells and water troughs, Veterinary First Aid Centres and bill boards depicting Do's and Don'ts regarding humane handling of animals, at the rate of Rs.2.64 lakhs per shandy totaling Rs.26.40 lakhs. The Government of India have been addressed for sanction of the above funds.

During transport:

Lorry owners, drivers, workers and Lorry Owners' Federation who are engaged regularly in the animal transport business were instructed regarding the rules, and regulations and ethical treatment of animals during transport to which they have agreed to comply with.

The animal transport vehicles are checked by the Police, Revenue officials and by the staff on the Commercial Checkposts with the help of officials from the Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Animals seized from offending lorries are handed over to Animal Welfare Organizations and Goshalas for upkeep.

Modernisation of Slaughter Houses (Abattoirs):

Among the 119 registered slaughter houses in the State, slaughter houses in the following cities have been selected for modernisation;-

Name of Location of S.No the city slaughter house 1. Chennai Perambur 2. Tiruchirapalli Gandhi market 3. Madurai Vethilaipettai 4. Salem Salem 5. Coimbatore Ukkadam

For production of hygienic meat, these slaughter houses will be provided with facilities for ramps, lairages, water supply, impervious flooring and walls, electric lights, separate enclosures (to avoid viewing of animals by each other when slaughtered) and cold storages. Proposals for modernising the above 5 slaughter houses at Rs.10.00 lakhs per slaughter house, totaling Rs.50.00 lakhs have been sent to the Government of India for sanction of funds.

The Government have constituted a State Level Coordination Committee and District Level Coordination Committees to oversee the enforcement of Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Rules.

Goshalas:- Goshalas are run by registered public charitable institutions, recognised by the State Government, for the protection, preservation and improvement of cattle.

The main objectives of the Goshalas are:

✏ To preserve the Indian cow and progeny and to breed and upgrade them. ✏ To prepare best pedigree Indian bulls and supply to villagers for breeding and upgrading local cows. ✏ Production of healthy and best bullocks for draught work.

The cattle maintained in Goshalas also included those uncared, orphaned and rescued from cruelty and slaughter by the officials of Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals and Animal Welfare Organisation.

Animal Birth Control Programme for stray dogs:

To prevent the indiscriminate catching and killing of stray dogs to control their population by the municipals and local body authorities, the Government of India has formulated the Animal Birth Control (Dogs) Rules.

The main objectives of this programme are:

Effectively controls and reduces their population Incidence of Rabies are reduced Killing of healthy stray dogs are prevented.

Under this programme, the stray dogs are caught in a humane method, sterilized, vaccinated against rabies, and let back in the same original place from where they were caught.


1. It is proposed to upgrade 75 Veterinary Subcentres to Veterinary Dispensaries at a cost of Rs.336.75 lakhs.

2. It is proposed to provide communication facilities (telephone) to 50 Veterinary Institutions located at taluk headquarters at a cost of Rs.2.50 lakhs.

3. It is proposed to control Canine Rabies disease by protecting 18,180 dogs living in urban areas by involving Non-Governmental Organisations at a cost of Rs.10.00 lakhs.

4. It is proposed to construct Veterinary First Aid Centres in 10 Livestock shandies at a cost of Rs.20.00 lakhs, in consultation with the local bodies.


Tamilnadu Livestock Development Agency (TNLDA) is an autonomous body designated to reinforce breeding activities in Cattle and Buffalo at the State level under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme, National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding (NPCBB).

Some of the important objectives of this project are :

Promotion of private mobile Artificial Insemination Service at the door steps of the farmers. Conservation of indigenous breeds. Imparting training and retraining of professionals and Artificial Insemination workers in an integrated manner. Strengthening the quality of frozen semen production.

NPCBB envisages 100% grant–in-aid to the State implementing agencies. A sum of Rs.20.28 crore has been sanctioned for 3 years period from 2002-03 to 2004-05 to the TNLDA.

A sum of Rs.5.42 crore has been ear marked for the first year, which is being utilized under various components to achieve the desired goal.

The salient features of this programme are widely publicized to the farming community through 385 mass contact programmes conducted in all the panchayat unions, which were widely appreciated. 675 field veterinarians have been imparted ‘Refresher training’, and 130 unemployed veterinary graduates were given Basic training to carry out doorstep Artificial Insemination service. Under native breed conservation, Umblachery cattle has been chosen for conservation. One national level Seminar was conducted for evolving strategies in Cattle & Buffalo breeding and recommendations were made for implementation at national level.

For the financial year 2004-05, micro plan to the tune of Rs.8.56 crore has been submitted to the Government of India for approval.



In agricultural country like India, livestock, poultry and fisheries sectors play a predominant role in solving the food problem. The livestock sector provides avocation for poor rural women in generation of income which leads to their economic independence. While the agricultural sector is facing a crisis due to water scarcity, animal husbandry and fodder production needs to be encouraged to stabilize the income generation among the poor. The non-farming sector is the key to success and needs to be given a push, which will provide impetus to reduce poverty and benefit the individuals in the lowest 10 per cent. In the changing global scenario of World Trade Organisation (WTO) regime, we need to improve the efficiency of our domestic production, processing and marketing system, coupled with quality control and intellectual property protection to challenge the international market. Hence there is a need for multi sectoral approach to the development process rather than singular focus on enterprise creation.

TANUVAS was established on 20.09.1989 with the following objectives :

To impart education to undergraduate, post-graduate and doctoral students in different fields of Veterinary and Animal Sciences and Fisheries Sciences

To carry out research in Animal and Fish production, protection and products

To disseminate knowledge on important technologies to line Departments and farming community for the sustenance and growth of livestock, poultry and fisheries in the State.

In the past 14 years, TANUVAS has made remarkable strides in different ambits of livestock, poultry and fisheries development with farmers participation such as breed improvement programmes, cross breeding with exotic germplasm, production system research, technology refinement and farming system development to increase the productivity per unit. In the academic sphere, revision of course curricula, common entrance test pattern, external examination system, reservation of seats on all India basis and evaluation of teachers by students are some of the progressive policy changes that had taken place in the yester years. In order to strengthen TANUVAS fiscal resources, additional viable units have been started to serve farming community and public. Leptospira diagnostic laboratory, Animal Feed Analytical and Quality Control Laboratory and Shrimp Disease Diagnostic Laboratory are successfully functioning as self financed units apart from serving the needs of target population. The Leptospirosis unit of this University has received an ISO 9001 certification, which is an important milestone achievement of this year towards quality service assurance. The need for creating new centres was assessed and Avian Disease Laboratory at Thalaivasal and Veterinary University Training and Research Centre at Melmaruvathur have been started during the year.

Centenary Celebration

The Madras Veterinary College, which is the root of TANUVAS has completed 100 years of its eventful academic existence during 2003. Centenary celebration was organised by TANUVAS under the Chairmanship of Hon’ble Chief Minister of Tamilnadu on 06.07.2003. The Hon’ble Chief Minister of Tamilnadu inaugurated the interactive touch screen terminal on livestock and pet animals at Madras Veterinary College. His Excellency, the Vice-President of India inaugurated the Madras Veterinary College Centenary Celebrations by opening the centenary Museum. He also has released the Centenary Souvenir and the Hon’ble Chief Minister of Tamilnadu received the first copy. His Excellency, the Governor of Tamilnadu unveiled the Madras Veterinary College centenary commemoration pillar. The centenary year 2003 was celebrated in a grand manner with various events like inter vet sports, inter collegiate cultural programmes, livestock show, professional exhibition, National and International Seminars / workshops etc.


The details of students admitted for the year 2003-04 to the various academic programmes of the University are given below:

M.V.C., VC & RI., FC & RI., Courses Total Chennai Namakkal Thoothukudi

B.V.Sc., 134 72 - 206 B.F.Sc., - - 29 29

M.V.Sc., 59 17 - 76

M.F.Sc., - - 19 19

Ph.D. 26 - - 26 (Veterinary) Ph.D. - - 2 2 (Fisheries)

Total 219 89 50 358

Students are provided with scholarship / fellowship / assistantship from the funds of State, ICAR, Government of India and other agencies.

Introduction of New PG / PG Diploma courses

Two new courses viz. M.Phil course in Biotechnology and PG diploma in Bioinformatics will be commenced during the current year 2004-05. The duration of the course is one year and the annual intake capacity is 6. To acquaint post graduate of pure science faculty in the latest biotechnology methods, M.Phil course in Biotechnology has been introduced. The aim of introduction of new PG diploma course in Bioinformatics is to provide students with high quality post graduate training in bioinformatics which meets the need of biotechnology, pharmaceutical, genetics, biochemical and diary industries for Research and Development. A graduate with any of the minimum qualification for professional courses or equivalent postgraduate degree with science based courses are eligible for this course.


Under University Plan, 88 Plan Schemes funded by Government of Tamilnadu are in operation for strengthening the infrastructure facilities for higher studies, innovations, research infrastructure and dissemination of knowledge. Of these, 5 schemes for University Administration, 50 schemes for strengthening and creation of departments, 20 research schemes based on field problems faced by farmers, 13 fisheries schemes are in operation. Apart from this, during 2003-04, the following two new schemes have been sanctioned by the State Government to the tune of Rs.33.00 Lakhs.

1. Economics of integrating goats in Dry land farming system in Dharmapuri District

2. Women empowerment through homestead turkey farming by self help groups in Theni District of Tamilnadu

76 external funded sponsored research programmes worth Rs.1,448.08 lakhs are in operation currently in this University.

SALIENT RESEARCH ACHIEVEMENTS IN ANIMAL SCIENCES Production Technologies Developed for transfer A Zona free hamster egg penetration bioassay for invitro fertility assessment of spermatozoa has been developed which can be used to assess the fertilising capacity of spermatozoa of human, bull and buffalo. This is a reliable technique to identify superior sires based on the fertility status. This test can form an important component for quality control in semen production and selection of sire for cross breeding programme. Research in frontier technologies Assisted Reproductive technologies In vitro maturation and fertilization of goat oocytes and in vitro culturing of goat embryos have been achieved. Molecular Genetics and Genetic Engineering Recombinant (LipL 32 protein) antigen based latex agglutination test for diagnosis of leptospirosis has been developed for the first time in India Milk protein genes namely b-lacto globulin and K-casein genes in cattle and buffaloe were sequenced, which revealed breed differentiation Characterization and conservation of native breeds Survey on evaluation and characterization of Mecheri sheep breed was carried out. High dressing percent, good quality skin, adaptability to poor nutrition and hot climate are the special characteristics of this breed. Study of economic traits of Kanni goat and establishing them as a breed was undertaken. Twinning is observed in 60% of Kanni goats and one-year body weight was found to be 22 kg even in drought conditions and hence it could be recommended to farmers in the drought prone areas. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of south Indian breeds of cattle namely Kangayam, Umblachery, Ongole, Amrithmahal are being carried out with specific DNA satellite markers. Integrated Farming System Developed In duck-cum-fish culture fish production is found to be 1.5 tonne more than that of composite fish culture. It is also determined that introduction of 500 ducks per ha. of composite fish culture will fetch an additional income of Rs.12,000/- per year. Technology for cost effective feeding The utility of non-conventional feed resources such as sugarcane tops, banana stems, tamarind seeds, mango peal and tapioca thipi with urea blend has been suggested as alternate source to conventional grain and concentrate feeding in ruminants after extensive experimentation and on-farm trials. Animal Health The University has developed a number of precise diagnostic technologies and biologicals for detection and control of various bacterial and viral infections affecting livestock and poultry. Epidemiology Epidemiology of Blue tongue in sheep revealed that the culicoides species is widely distributed in the state and are probably the potential vectors for blue tongue. Blue tongue antibodies were found to be prevalent in sheep and goat indicating the prevalence of blue tongue virus in the field. Diagnostics The gama interferon assay for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis has been standardised and was found to be 100% sensitive. Monoclonal antibody based diagnostic kit for rapid detection of blue tongue antigen has been developed with sensitivity and specificity of 88.24 to 87.5 % respectively. An IgM ELISA has been developed by producing four monoclonal antibodies against chicken immuno globulin sub classes, which will be useful in monitoring the disease and immune status of the chicken at farmers field level. An indirect Elisa for screening aflotoxin B1 toxicity has been developed. An ELISA based kit to quantify EDS-76 antibody has been developed. EDS 76 a qualitative antibody detection kit based on flow through technology has been developed for rapid detection of EDS 76 antibody at field level for the first time in India Immune ‘o’ check kit for detecting colostral antibody in buffalo calves was developed and will be helpful to detect failure of colostrum absorption in young calves. One tube nested PCR protocol was standardized for first time to detect E.canis. Nested PCR assay is most reliable and sensitive diagnostic test in detecting E.canis infection in dogs. Prophylactics / Vaccines To control tick infestation an experimental vaccine using crude midgut antigens was developed. Significant protection and cross protection has been accorded by the antigen in immunized animals. Oral pellet vaccine for Ranikhet Disease was developed mainly for rural backyard chickens Inactivated oil emulsion Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Vaccine (TC origin) was developed which will give protection up to 10 weeks of age. Blue Tongue bivalent vaccine developed by TANUVAS was validated by Institute of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Ranipet and found to be safe and potent to sheep Ethno Veterinary medicine This University also made significant studies in Ethno Veterinary medicine by exploring the active principles in herbal extracts for some specific ailment of livestock. These include study on the clinical trials on the Kumuti fruit pulp and neam oil mixture in healing maggot wounds, suppota and Jackfruit leaves in diarrhoea, neam leaves as antihelminthic drug and antifertility role of acalpha indica and Sesbania sesban. Products Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) models for slaughter of various animals for food like cattle, buffaloes, sheep, pig and chicken were developed. In order to produce and develop diet / designer eggs for health conscious consumers, functional feeds containing organic selenium, vitamin-E, fish oil and spirulina were fed to layers which has resulted in significant increase in beneficial omega-3 fatty acid in egg yolk and reduced the harmful very low density lipo protein (VLDLP) in serum of birds. Value added meat products like chicken patties, chicken sausage, smoke cured chicken have been standardised utilizing the culled birds Value added fish products like tamarind flavoured fish pickle, chank meat wafer, fish wafers and fish soup powder have been standardised which are rich in protein and minerals Patency filed Patent application for Recombinant (LipL 32 protein) antigen based latex agglutination test for diagnosis of Leptospirosis has been filed for patenting during this year. This is the first work that reports the diagnosis of pathogenic leptospire using recombinant LipL 32 protein by latex agglutination test. By this test, it is possible to screen both the human and animal suspected serum samples. Secondly, as the recombinant protein is conserved in all the pathogenic serovars of leptospira, the coated beads could detect minute amount of anti-leptospiral antibodies against non-pathogenic serovars. The antibodies to non-pathogenic serovars do not cross react with LipL 32 antigen and hence this test is helpful to differentiate the pathogenic serovars from that of non-pathogenic serovars. Patent application for information retrieval package has been filed for patenting this year, which is used to create a database and to retrieve information from the created database.

EXTENSION IN ANIMAL SCIENCES Rural Information Technology initiative This University has established three-village information centres at Vellore, Thiruchirapalli and Madurai. These centres were equipped with print, audio, video and electronic information tools for accessing information on Animal Husbandry and allied activities. These centres are located in the community buildings for public access and are being managed successfully by village Committees. Empowering women through Information and Commercial Technology Under UNESCO funding, the University has established six Information Centres in the households of SHG women in Chennai, Kancheepuram and Cuddalore Districts. The main objective is to motivate the women self help groups to use the information tools for empowering their knowledge and developing their own skill on different income generation activity including Animal Husbandry activities. Kisan Call Centre Department of Agriculture and Cooperation has launched Kisan Call Centres with a view to leverage the extensive telecom infrastructure to deliver extension services to farmers on toll free number. Kisan Call Centre was established at the Directorate of Extension Education on 21.01.2004. A telephone line was installed and so far 58 queries on various animal husbandry practices have been answered. Distance Education This University has taken up a pilot study on post qualification skill enhancement of Veterinarian and livestock production specialists through Distance Education mode in collaboration with Common Wealth of Learning, Canada. Further TANUVAS is offering a certificate course on Animal Welfare through print media under distance education mode. Other outreach activities Indigenous Technical Knowledge: Validation of Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITK) for the four ITKs viz. Treatment of FMD in cattle with camphor and brinjal, coconut and ghee; use of Bhangariya to cure blain in animals; treatment of FMD in cattle by using Harida and Bahada and use of Blantulsi leaf paste for treatment of FMD in cattle and buffalo are taken up for validation at Madras Veterinary College during this year. Training Programmes Various on campus and off campus training programmes on Dairy and mix farming, Sheep & Goat farming, Pig farming, Poultry, turkey, Broiler, Rabbit and Quail farming, Fish farming. Fresh water / Ornamental fish culture, Mushroom cultivation, Integrated farming, fodder cultivation were given through the extension outlets like Krishi Vigyan Kendras, Veterinary University Training and Research Centres of TANUVAS. Through these training programmes, 31,282 farmers were benefited, out of which 12,296 were men and 18,986 were women. Through these extension services rendered by this University, Scheduled caste and scheduled tribe people totaling to 6,756 were benefited.

SALIENT RESEARCH ACHIEVEMENTS IN FISHERIES SCIENCES In Fisheries sciences, TANUVAS mainly focus on optimising fish production system and development of new value added products. The beneficiaries of the Research and Development efforts are marginal farmers and small entrepreneurs. Fish Production Accelerated maturation of fresh water prawn in 45 days was achieved through feeding Lactobacillus culture. Successful mass breeding of ornamental fish such as silver molly, black molly, swordtail, gold fish, koicarp, gourami, and fighter fish in hard water was achieved. The Ornamental fish culture technology was transferred to women self help groups for adoption to enhance their family income. Fish Health Shrimp disease diagnosis laboratory is extending diagnostic services to the shrimp farmers. This laboratory has screened a total number of 1,244 shrimp samples for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and also monodon baculo virus (MBV) by microscopical examination. WSSV and MBV were prevalent at 40.50% and 6.00% respectively. Fish Products Development of value added products like fish noodles, quality improvement of Surimi are some of the interesting findings worth mentioning. Among these the technology of fish noodles was transferred to self help groups for adoption and commercial exploitation. Fisheries Extension and Economics During the report period some aspect of Human resource profile of different fish folk was studied. Employment, borrowing and repayment patterns of catamaran and mechanized boat operators revealed that catamaran operations borrowed 40.80% for fishing operations whereas mechanized craft category borrowed 63.43%. Their crew share pattern also yielded interesting results. Catamaran operators get 18.87% returns, which is a relatively better share compared to mechanized craft (8.44%) (returns).

A total of 10 different training programmes were conducted during the year 2003-04 covering ornamental fish, value added products development and disease diagnosis. These programmes were conducted involving industries, selfhelp groups and fisher women. As the ornamental fish farming captured attention of the fishery entrepreneurs, more number of training programmes on ornamental fish culture had been organised for the benefit of the fisher women, selfhelp groups, rural youths and interested entrepreneurs.

To help the polio disabled students for generating income through self employment, a four days training programme on Ornamental fish culture was given at M/s. Redlin Aquarium, Swayerpuram, Thoothukudi. As the value added fishery products has become more popular among suburban entrepreneurs, the preparation techniques of value added fishery products have been disseminated through different training programmes benefiting 39 beneficiaries.

Current Education, Research and Extension Policies for the year 2004-05

Starting of New PG / PG diploma courses

Two new courses viz. M.Phil course in Biotechnology and PG diploma in Bioinformatics will be commenced during the current year 2004-05 for getting better employment opportunity.

Upliftment of economic status of rural women through biotechnology

A pilot project on “Upliftment of economic status of rural women through adoption of estrus synchronization and fixed time breeding in Dairy animals” is implemented in the Farmers Training Centre, Tiruvarur. Through this scheme the beneficiaries are identified from the selected villages and given training on scientific breeding management of dairy animal. So far 205, women beneficiaries have been trained.

Empowerment of resource poor women in ICT

A scheme on “Empowering Resource poor women to use information and communication technologies”, funded by the UNESCO is implemented in the Directorate of Extension. Through this scheme, three districts viz Chennai, Kancheepuram and Cuddalore were identified and the Information Centres with full fledged computer accessories launched in order to give ICT exposure to the rural downtrodden people.

Pilot study on Economics of Integrating goats in Dry land farming system in Dharmapuri district

During 2003-04, for better utilization of drylands in Tamilnadu and augment meat production through goats, Government of Tamilnadu have sanctioned a scheme entitled “Economics of Integrating goats in Dry land farming system in Dharmapuri district – A pilot study” with a total budget outlay of Rs.22.814 lakhs for duration of three years. This scheme mainly focused on to improve the fertility of dry lands and to improve the net return from dry land farming by integrating goats. Through this pilot study, successful and suited technologies would be disseminated to the farmers through motivation programme and rural seminars. Selected farmers in whose field the project is to be implemented would be provided with inputs, like seedlings of fodder trees, seeds etc. 50% cost of the goats that are to be integrated in the dry lands demonstration trials would be borne by the project.

Women Empowerment through homestead turkey farming by the Self Help groups in Theni District

Having in mind the economic status of the rural women, the Government of Tamilnadu has sanctioned, a scheme on “Women Empowerment through homestead turkey farming by the Self Help groups in Theni District” at a cost of Rs.10.195 lakhs to increase their income substantially. Through this scheme, 20 SHGs are to be selected from each taluk of Theni district with the help of DRDA and the project implementation unit of Tamilnadu Women Development Corporation. Each group will be provided with one unit of turkey comprising of 50 poults and 250 kgs of feed at subsidised rates. The total cost of turkey poults and feed will be Rs.11,000/- out of which the SHG has to pay Rs.5,500 (50% subsidy) The farm implements and medicines will be supplied at free of cost. The training and technical back up will also be given.

Organising Refresher training on Bovine Breeding

During 2003-04, 675 Field Veterinary Asst. Surgeons of Animal Husbandry Department have been given refresher training on Bovine breeding for a period of five days in order to impart the latest breeding technologies. A scheme on “Post qualification education in Veterinary and animal sciences in India”, sponsored by the Common Wealth of Learning, to the tune of Rs.6.25 lakhs is being implemented in order to launch two distance learning courses on “Managing infertility in Bovines” and “Recent trends in disease diagnosis and treatment of Ruminants” for the field veterinarians in Tamilnadu.

Organising Awareness programme on Ornamental Fish culture Technology in Dharmapuri district

Awareness programme on Ornamental Fish culture Technology was conducted to 40 farmers comprising of 15 members of women self help group from taluk and 25 from Hosur of Krishnagiri region. Based on the guidance of TANUVAS beneficiaries viz. Tvl. Ganesan, Pappireddipatti started Ornamental fish farm and N. Vadivel Murugan, Dharmapuri started backyard Ornamental fish farm. This scheme will be helpful for self employment and to improve their family income.

PLAN The Plan outlay envisages strengthening of infrastructure facilities for the benefit of higher education, innovative research and dissemination of knowledge. For the Tenth Five Year Development Plan, a sum of Rs. 22,908.16 lakhs has been proposed out of which Rs.17,232.28 lakhs is earmarked for continuation of on-going schemes and Rs.5,675.88 lakhs is apportioned for New Schemes.


1. It is proposed to develop cell culture based vaccine for sheep pox at a cost of Rs.10.00 lakhs.

2. It is proposed to biologically control flies in poultry farms using eco-friendly B. thuringiensis at a cost of Rs.12.00 lakhs.

3. It is proposed to establish an Emu Research Unit at a cost of Rs.26.82 lakhs.

4. It is proposed to establish a Cryopreservation Unit to enhance seed production of Indian major carps at Fisheries College and Research Institute, Thoothukudi at a cost of Rs.17.51 lakhs.

P.V. DAMODHIRAN Minister for Animal Husbandry