A DESCRIPTION OF THE MAIN CHARACTER OF FRANKENSTEIN IN MARY SHELLEY’S NOVEL “FRANKENSTEIN”
RAHMA KESUMA ANJANI
REG. NO: 152202056
DIPLOMA III ENGLISH STUDY PROGRAM FACULTY OF CULTURE STUDY UNIVERSITY OF NORTH SUMATERA MEDAN 2018
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA It has been Approved by
Dra. Diah Rahayu Pratama. M.Pd
Submitted to Faculty of Culture Study. University of North Sumatera in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Diploma III in English Study Program.
Head of Diploma III English Study Program,
Dra. Swesana Mardia Lubis. M.Hum
NIP. 19571002 198601 2 003
Approved by the Diploma III of English Study Program Faculty of Culture Study,
University of North Sumatera.
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA As a Paper for the Diploma III Examination
Accepted by the Board of Examiners in partial of the requirements for the D-III
Examination of the Diploma III English Study Program, Faculty of Culture Study,
University of North Sumatera.
The examination is held 10th January 2018
Faculty of Culture Study University of North Sumatera
Board of Examination :
1. Dra. Swesana Mardia Lubis. M.Hum
2. Dra. Diah Rahayu Pratama. M.Pd
3. Riko Andika Rahmat Pohan. S.S. M.Hum
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA AUTHOR’S DECLARATION
I am, RAHMA KESUMA ANJANI, declare that I am the sole author of this paper. Except where reference is made in the text of this paper, this paper contains no material published elsewhere or extracted in whole or in part from a paper by which I have qualified for or awarded another degree.
No other person‟s work has been used without due acknowledgement in the main text of this paper. This paper has not been submitted for the award of another degree in any tertiary education.
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA COPYRIGHT DECLARATION
Name : RAHMA KESUMA ANJANI
Title of Paper : A DESCRIPTION OF THE MAIN CHARACTER OF
FRANKENSTEIN IN MARY SHELLEY’S NOVEL
Qualification : D-III/ Ahli Madya
Study Program: English
1. I am willing that my paper should be available for reproduction at the
discretion of the Liberation of the Diploma III English Study Program
Faculty of Cultural Studies, USU on the understanding that users are made
aware of their obligation under law of the Republic of Indonesia.
2. I am not willing that my papers be made available for reproduction.
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA ABSTRACT
Literature is a form of art that depict human life. The novel is one of the artworks. In the novel, the author can tell something different and others. At this time, the author will discuss matters relating to the characters. Character is the most interest in a novel. The uniqueness of the characters in a novel are always eager to make people want to know what the actual figure. Characters in the novel provide another view point on anything related to human life, namely the standpoint of literature to something. Therefore, the authors decided to chose the title "A DESCRIPTION OF THE MAIN CHARACTER OF FRANKENSTEIN
IN MARY SHELLEY’S NOVEL “FRANKENSTEIN”. The author will describe the disposition of the main characters in literary works. Thus, the authors accept criticism and feedback on this paper for more leverage.
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA ABSTRAK
Sastra merupakan suatu bentuk karya seni yang menggambarkan kehidupan manusia. Novel adalah salah satu dari karya seni tersebut. Di dalam novel penulis dapat menceritakan sesuatu yang berbeda dan lain. Pada kali ini penulis akan membahas hal yang berkaitan dengan karakter. Karakter merupakan unsur yang paling menarik perhatian dalam sebuah novel. Keunikan karakter dalam sebuah novel selalu membuat masyarakat berhasrat ingin mengetahui seperti apa sosoknya yang sebenarnya. Karakter dalam novel memberikan sudut pandang yang lain terhadap sesuatu yang berkaitan dengan kehidupan manusia, yaitu sudut pandang sastra terhadap sesuatu. Oleh karena itu, penulis memutuskan untuk memilih judul “A DESCRIPTION OF THE MAIN CHARACTER OF FRANKENSTEIN IN MARY SHELLY’S NOVEL “FRANKENSTEIN”. Penulis akan mendeskripsikan perwatakan dari para karakter utama dalam karya sastra tersebut. Maka dari itu penulis menerima kritikan dan masukan terhadap karya tulis ini agar lebih maksimal.
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First of all, I want to thank my God, Allah SWT and the prophet
Muhmmad SAW, for all the blessing and gives me health, strength, wisdom, and inspiration to finish this paper as one the requirements to get Diploma III certificate from English Diploma Study Program, University of North Sumatera.
The second, i want to thank and gratitude to Dr. Budi Agustono, M.Si. as the Dean of faculty of cultural studies, University of North Sumatera and
Dra.Swesana Mardia Lubis M.Hum, as the Head of Diploma III English Study
Programs, who give me chance to prove my qualified for finishing this paper.
Third, i want to thank and great gratitude to Dra. Diah Rahayu Pratama,
M.pd. as the supervisor for the precious time and knowledge with many advices that she gaves me.
Fourth, i would like to thank to my big family for their support, care and great love to me for finishing this paper, and big thank for supporting me till here i am. To my sister who always help me, and also the teacher who taught me many things to learn. Thank you very much.
The last, i want to thank to my best friends at campus, Putri Nova
Syuhada, Yusnaini Yusda Lubis, Maghfira Syahbandia, who fill my days and support me until this paper has finished. I want to thank to peoples around me that always support me, i am sorry i can’t mention all of you, but thanks for your axsistence and you kindness.
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA Finally, i will accept the suggestion and critics that build me up from the readers because i know this paper is far from being perfect. That’s why your critics will fix my fault in the future. Thanks to all readers who read this paper and appreciate it.
Rahma Kesuma Anjani
Reg. No. 152202056
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS ...... i
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ...... 1
1.1 Background Of The Study...... 1 1.2 Problem Of Study ...... 3 1.3 Scope Of The Study ...... 3 1.4 Objective Of The Study...... 3 1.5 The Method Of The Study ...... 3 1.6 The Reason Choosing The Topic ...... 4
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ...... 5
2.1 Literture ...... 5 2.2 Novel ...... 5 2.3 Intrinsic Elements ...... 6 2.3.1 Character ...... 6 22.214.171.124 Types of The Character ...... 6 1. Round and Flat Character ...... 6 2.3.2 Character Traits ...... 7 1. The Way of Character Disclosed in Novel : ...... 8 1. Action ...... 8 2. Descriptions, both personal and Environmental ...... 9 3. Dramatic statement and thoughts ...... 9 4. Statements by other characters...... 9
CHAPTER III THE DESCRIPTION ...... 10
3.1 Physical Appearances ...... 10 3.2 Action ...... 11 3.3 What They Say About Themselves ...... 13 3.4 What The Other People Say About Them ...... 13
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION AND SUGESTION ...... 15
3.5 Conclusion ...... 15 3.6 Sugestion ...... 16
BIBLIOGRAPHY ...... 17
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA CHAPTER I
1.1 Background Of The Study
Literature is an art of written works. Literature is writing that is considered to be an art form or any single writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual value. Literature can be classified according to whether it is fiction or non fiction and wether it is poetry or prose.
Literature is a term used to describe written or spoken material. Broadly speaking, "literature" is used to describe anything from creative writing to more technical or scientific works. Literature refers to compotitions that tell stories, dramatize situations, express emotions, and analyze and advocate ideas. Literature helps us grow, both personally and intellectually. It provides an objective base for knowledge and understanding. In literature is known the kinds of literature as
Prose fiction, Poetry, Drama and Non Fiction Prose.
According to Wellek and Warren, the literature seems best if we limit it to the art of literature, that is, to imaginative literature. Literature is also produced by imagination of the author. Literature is not just a document of facts, it is not just the collection of real events thought it may happen in the real life. Literature can create its own world as a product of the unlimited imagination.
According to Roberts and Jacobs ,Literature refers to the composition that tell stories, dramatize situation, express emotions, and nonfiction.
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA According to Taylor “Literature, like other arts, is essentially an imaginative act, that is, and act of the writer’s imagination in selecting, ordering, and interpreting life-experience”. It means that literature is an interpretation of human’s mind that uses language as medium. It has a large scope and fantastic. In literature, there are three branches of literature such drama, poetry, and prose.
Literature have many works such as novel, poetry, prose, or movie script and many more. In this paper the writer use novel as the subject of the paper. A novel usually tells or describes human life that interacts with the environment and also with each other. But sometimes the novel tells about imagination and fiction.
Like the author's imagination of a novel that is fictional, the story doesn't make sense and doesn't exist in real life.
In this novel, character is a part of intrinsic elements. Characters are the figures in the book. Character is one important element in fiction, especially novel. This element is the center role in which the story will live, be understood, and enjoyed by the readers. Without character, readers will not understand why the action happens. According to Taylor, “the simplest way to describe characterization in the story is by giving a name of figure. Each appellation is a kind of animating individuation; the names are taken from Bible, characteristic of allegory”. Character is important part in build a story which has function to play the story and to convey the ideas, motive, plot, and themes and also key point of understanding the story and its conflict as a whole.
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA In this paper, the writer would like to study about the main characters of
Frankenstein in Mary Shelley’s Novel “Frankenstein”. The writer discussed about the character of the main character which are the Frankenstein and Victor
Frankenstein. The first character is the Frankenstein which is an fiction characters that created by Mary Shelley’s. He is the result of the failure of a scientist Victor
Frankenstein who made from pieces the death of the body. He is turned on by using electricity and lightning and his the pieces the death of the body are sewn together. The second character is Victor Frankenstein who is a scientist. Victor
Frankenstein was a scientist who wanted to create a human, but his creation became a monster. The crazy Victor begins to work to imitate God's greatest creation. Having succeeded in creating the creature, the creature turned into a monster and killed the beloved Victor Frankenstein people because of his body and seems very bad.
The writer choose this novel because the writer is very interested to the main characters in this novel. Characters are very important in a story. Characters make the story become real and interesting. The writer only focussed to the main characters in this novel.
1.2 Problem of study 1. How is the character of Frankenstein in Mary Shelley’s novel
2. How is the character of Vitor Frankenstein in Mary Shelley’s novel
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA 1.3 Scope of the Study
There are many important aspects that can be discussed in this novel. In writing this paper, the writer only foccusses about one of the intrinsict elements of the novel namely is about Main Character so it will be discuss in The Description of The Main Characters Of Frankenstein in Mary Shelley's Novel "Frankenstein".
1.4 Objective of the Study
Objective of the study to describe The Main Characters of Frankenstein in
Mary Shelley’s novel .
1.5 The Method of the Study
The writer uses descriptive qualitative method in doing this paper. Since there are many books must be read to complete this paper, the writer uses library research. Firstly, the writer reads the novel, and then selected each chapters.
Secondly, choosing the text to make it as the quotations. After that, the data has been found is interpreted by using some books about literature from the library, and also took source data from internet. And the last, the writer analyzes the data and make conclusion.
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA 1.6 The Reason Choosing The Topic
The writer decides to choose The Main Character of Frankenstein in Mary
Shelley's novel as the subject of this paper because the story of this novel is very interesting. The story talks about the Victor Frankenstein that want to created human from pieces the dead of the body. He want created human like God, but he created the monster. Pieces of the body were put together by being sewn together, and turned on again using electricity from lightning. Needless to say, despite everything he did, the experiment got out of hand. After successfully creating the creature, the creature turns into a monster and kill beloved Victor Frankenstein people because of the body and seems was very bad.
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Literature is one of literary works in which generally refer to the work that tells something in fiction and imaginary. According to Wellek and Warren (1985:
4) says ”Literature as one of the imaginary works, literature performs various problem of human and humanity, and the life”. According to Taylor (1981:1) says
“that literature reflects or comments on actual experience; social, philosophical, psychological and moral concerns are inescapable”. Literature refers to compotitions that tell stories, dramatize situations, express emotions, and analyze and advocate ideas. Literature helps us grow, both personally and intellectually. It provides an objective base for knowledge and understanding. In literature is known the kinds of literature as Prose fiction, Poetry, Drama and Non Fiction
Novel is a long narrative, normally in prose, which describes fictional characters and events, usually in the form of a sequential story. According to
Abrams (Via Nurgiyantoro 2002: 9) says “The novel term is derived from the
Italian novella that contains the literal meaning of a new, small items, which are then interpreted as a short story in prose”.
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA Novel is a story in prose that is quite long, which is described in a fairly complex plot. Prose novel, the disclosure of the story in a straight forward manner, without meter or rhyme and without a regular rhythm. Novel narrative, telling and explaining things in detail, from a description of the figure of a person, scenery, home and so forth. The explanation that can make the reader visualize clearly the object in their minds. A novel usually tells human life in its interactions with the environment and each other. In a novel, the writer tries hard to direct with the reader for pictures of the reality of life through stories contained in novel. Novel rises something which describes the human life, although for something fictious, but it becomes as something that people may understand with the same principle in daily life, such as psychological truth or holding the mirror up to nature, a consciousnes of moral values and many more
2.3 Intrinsic Elements
According to Nurgiyantoro (2002:95) says “Unsur intrinsik adalah unsur pembangun sastra yang berasal dari dalam karya itu sendiri”. According to
Nurgiyantoro (2002:95) says ‘The Intrinsic element is an element of literary builder that comes from within the work itself’.
According to Robert and Jacobs (1995:4) says “that the character may be defined as a verbal representation of human being through action. Character is a person who is responsible for the thoughts and action within a story, poem, or
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA other literature. Character in a novel is not as puzzling as character in real life.”
Character is depicted through both narrative and dialogue. Every character has his or her own personality, which creating by mood.
According to Wellek and Waren (1962:219), says “the simplest way to describe characterization in the story is by giving a name of figure. Each appellation is a kind of animating individuation; the names are taken from Bible, characteristic of allegory”. Characters are the figures in the book. Character is one important element in fiction, especially novel. This element is the center role in which the story will live, be understood, and enjoyed by the readers. Without character, readers will not understand why the action happens. Characters have conversations with each other to enable parts the reader to learn about whom they are, what role they are playing and about the events of the novel.
Characters are the persons in a narrative of dramatic work of at such as novel, play, or film. A novel can, but doesn’t need to, has many characters. In novel, character can be differentiated into several kinds based on point of view of the appellation to be done. Character in a novel is not as puzzling as character in real life. Character is depicted through both narrative and dialogue.
Every character has his or her own Universitas Sumatera Utara 11 personality, which creating by mood. The different attitudes, mannerisms, and even appearances of characters can greatly influence the other major elements in literary work such as theme, setting, and tone. With this understanding of the
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA character, the reader can become more aware of other aspects of literature, such as symbolism, giving the reader a more complete understanding of the work.
126.96.36.199 Types of The Character
1. Protagonist and Antagonist
There are two order important terms to keep in mind of description people: protagonist and antagonist. A protagonist is considered to be the main character or lead figure in a novel, play, story, or poem. It is referred to as the “hero” of a work with whom we generally sympathize. According to Nurgiyantoro (2005:178) says
“Tokoh protagonist adalah tokoh yang kita kagumi- yang salah satu jenisnya secara popular disebut hero-tokoh yang merupakan pengejawantahan norma- norma, nilai-nilai yang ideal bagi kita”. According to Nurgiyantoro (2005:178) says “The protagonist is a character we admire — one of the popular types called hero-figure which is an embodiment of norms, ideal values for us”. ” It means that protagonist reflected a good moral value in his/her action.
The protagonist usually affects the main characters' circumstances as well, as they are often the primary actor propelling the story forward. If a story contains a subplot, or is a narrative made up of several stories, then there may be a character who is interpreted as the protagonist of each subplot or individual story.
The antagonist is the character with who the protagonist is in conflict, generally not a sympathetic character. This is the character driving the story forward; the one leading the charge towards the Story Goal. According to
Nurgiyantoro (2005:180) says “Tokoh antagonis adalah karakter yang membuka
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA cerita. Biasanya ada satu, dua atau lebih tokoh yang menentang cerita. Karakter seperti ini jelas jahat dan dibenci oleh pembaca dan pendengar.” According to
Nurgiyantoro (2005:180) “The antagonist is a character who opens the story.
There are usually one, two or more figures opposing the story. This kind of character is definitely evil and hated by readers and listeners.” This character may or may not be the main character of the story. Either way, the main function of the protagonist is to pursue. The antagonist doesn’t necessarily have to be a person
(antagonistic force). It could be death, the devil, an illness, or any challenge that prevents the main character of virtue in a literary work where the protagonist represents evil.
2.3.2 Character Traits
According to Roberts and Jacobs (1993:132) says "A trait is a quality of mind or habitual mode of behavior, such as never repaying borrowed money, or avoiding eye contact, or always thinking oneself, the center of attention". the trait may be a person’s primary characteristic (not only in fiction but also in real life) characters may be ambitious or lazy, serene or anxious, aggressive or fearful, thoughtful or inconsiderate, open or secretive, confident or self-doubting, kind or cruel, quite or noisy, visionary or practical, careful or careless, impartial or biased, straightforward or underhanded, and humorous, stubborn, caring, carefree, selfish, unselfish, generous, self-confident, respectful, inventive, creative, intelligent, honest, mischievous, friendly, hard-working, shy, dainty, busy, patriotic, fun- loving, successful, responsible, helpful, dreamer, happy, disagreeable, conceited,
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA leader, demanding, bossy, gentle, loving, proud, wild, messy, neat, joyful, cooperative, loveable, winner or loser, and so on.
The Way of Character Disclosed in Novel :
According to Roberts and Jacobs (1993:132) says “that an author use five ways to present their characters in the novel. As the readers, we must use our knowledge and experience to make judgments about the qualities of characters being revealed”.
What characters do is our best way to understand what or who they are. As the ordinary human beings, fictional characters do not necessarily understand how they may be changing or why they do things they do nevertheless, their actions express their characters. Action may also signal qualities such as naivete, weakness, deceit, a scheming personality, strong inner conflicts, or a realization or growth of some sort.
2. Descriptions, both personal and Environmental
Appearance and environment reveal much about character’s social and economic status, of course, but they also tell us more about character traits.
3. Dramatic statement and thoughts
Characters use speech to hide their motivates, though we as readers should see through such a ploy.
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA 4. Statements by other characters
The characters doing the talking often indicate something other than what they intend perhaps because of prejudice, stupidity, or foolishness.
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA CHAPTER III
In studying and describing main characters begin, by determining the characters outstanding traits. A trait is quality of mind or habitual made of behavior. According to Robert and Jacobs of the main characters is analyzed based on action, descriptions, both personal and environmental, dramatic statement and thoughts, statements by other characters
3.1 Descriptions, Both personal and environmental
Frankenstein is the main character in Mary Shelley’s 1818 novel
Frankenstein. Frankenstein has a physical appearance like a monster because his body is made of pieces the dead of the bodies. Everyone who saw it must run away because of fear.
“Beautiful! Great God! His yellow skin scarcerly covered the work of muscles and arteries beneath; his hair was of a lustrous black, and flowing; his teeth of a pearly whiteness; but these luxuriances only formed a more horrid contrast with his watery eyes, that seemed almost of the same colour as the dun white sockets in which they were set, his shrivelled complexion and straight black lips”. (Mary Shelley’s:45)
He had yellow skin, large muscles, black hair, pale white teeth, wrinkled skin and black lips.
“Oh! No mortal could support the horror of that countenance. A mummy again endude with animation could not be so hideous as that wretch. I had gazed on him while unfinished; he was ugly then; but when those muscles and joints were rendered capable of motion, it became a thing such as even Dante could not have conceived”. (Mary Shelley’s:46)
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA He has a very mummy face. He is evil and very ugly.
Victor is white, with defined features and brown or blonde hair. He is most certainly not physically unrefined, given Walton fails to define him.
“A young man stranded on ice has white skin, brown or blonde hair, is not
self aware! Oh God ! Go saved him! Before he dies because it's almost
frozen!”. (Marry Shelley’s:23) (Letter for Margaret Saville)
Frankenstein, who has been living in the forest, went looking for food and found a village. Frankenstein was very amazed to see the houses and buildings there. Frankenstein saw his gardens full of vegetable plants. The milk and cheese he saw placed on the windows of several houses greatly stimulated the taste.
“The whole village was roushed; some fled, some attack me, until, grievoulsy bruised by stone and many other kinds of missile weapons, i escaped to the open country, and fearfully took refuge in a low hovel, quite bare, and making a wretched appearance after the place i had beheld in the village”. (Marry Shelley’s:82)
The villagers ran scared and attacked Frankenstein because of his monster- like appearance.
“This trait of kindness moved me sensibly. I had been accustomed, during the night, to steal a part of their store for my own consumption; but when i
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA found that in doing this i inficted pain on the cottages, i abstained, and satisfied myself with berries, nuts, and roots, which i gathered from a neighbouring wood”. (Marry Shelley’s:86)
Frankenstein felt moved to help the poor family by collecting berries, beans and roots.
“By great application, however, and after having remained during the space of several revolutions of the moon in my hovel, i discovered the names that that were given to some of the most familiar objects of dicourse; i learned and applied the words, fire, milk, bread, and wood. I learned also the name of cottagers themselfs. The youth and his companion had each of them several names, but the old man had only one which was father . the girl was called sister, or Agatha; and the youth Felix, brother, and son “. (Marry Shelley’s:87)
Frankenstein learned a lot of nouns, namely fire, milk, bread, roots. and also learn about the names of people, Felix, Agatha, Father, brother and son.
Frankenstein killed Victor Frankenstein's younger brother William.
Because he hates Victor Frankenstein who created it. Frankenstein strangled his brother's neck William until he died.
“You, my creator, abhore me; what hope can i gather from your fellow- creatures, who owe me nothing? They spurn and hate me. The desert mountains and dreary glaciers are my refuge. I have wandered here many days; the caves of ice; which i only do not fear, are a dwelling to me, and the only one which man does not grudge. The bleak skies i hail, for they are kinder to me than your fellow-beings. Shall i not then hate them who abhor me? I will keep no terms with my enemies. ”. (Mary Shelley’s:78)
Frankenstein says he will kill all of Victor Frankenstein's loved ones.
Frankenstein really hates the creator.
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA “I am misarable, and they shall share my wretchedness. Yet it is in your
power to recompense me, and deliver them from an evil which it only
remains for you to make so great that not only you and your family, but
thousand of others, shall be swallowed up in the whirwinds of its rage. Let
your compassion be moved, and do not disdain me“ (Mary Shelley’s:78)
Victor Frankenstein is the main character in Mary Shelley's 1818 novel
Frankenstein. He is an Swiss scientist who after studying chemical processes and the decay of living beings, gains an insight into the creation of life and gives life to his own creature, often referred to as Frankenstein's monster, or often colloquially referred to as simply "Frankenstein". Victor Frankenstein is compassionate, full of ambition, crazy in science and genius.
“In this house i chanced to find a volume of the works of Cornelius Agrippa. I opened it with apathy; the theory which he attemps to demonstret, and the wonderfull facts with he relates, soon changed this feeling into enthusiasm. A new light seemed to dawn upon my mind”. (Mary Shelley’s:31)
Victor first discovered Cornelius Agrippa's book and he was interested in this book because he discovered extraordinary facts in the book.
“When i turned home, my first care was to procure the whole works of this author, and afterwards of Paracelsus and Albertus Magnus. I read and studied the wild fancies of these writers with delight; they appeared to me treasure known to few beside my self”. (Marry Shelley’s:32)
“I have described myself as always having been embued with a fervent longing to penetrate the secrets of nature”. (Marry Shelley’s:32)
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA Victor is increasingly curious about natural science after reading the book
Parascelsus and Albertus Magnus. He wanted to read all about nature and explore nature.
“They consulted their village priest, and the results was that Elizabeth Lavenza became the inmate of my parents’ house – my more than sister – the beautiful and adored companion of all my occupations and my pleasures. Everyone loved Elizabeth. The passionate and almost reverential attachment with which all regarded her became, while i shared it, my pride and my delight”. (Mary Shelley’s:30)
Victor was very fond of his adopted sister Elizabeth Lavenza and deeply respected her. Because everyone likes and loves Elizabeth.
3.3 Dramatic statement and thoughts
Frankenstein felt that he had suffered enough because it had been created by Victor Frankenstein in an ugly form. And he felt that the creator was disgusted with him.
“Everywhere i see bliss, from which i alone am irrevocably excluded. I was benevolent and good; misery made me a friend. Make me happy, and i shall again be virtuos”. (Mary Shelley’s:76)
Frankenstein is always lonely and full of misery. He wants Victor to get happy.
“Have i not suffered enough that you seek to increase my misery? Life, although it may only be an accumulation of anguish, is dear to me, and i will defend it”. (Mary Shelley’s:77)
Frankenstein just wants to live without hatred and misery in passing.
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA “All men hate the wretched; how, then, must i hated, who am miserable beyond all living things! Yet you, my creator, detest and spurn me, thy creature, to whom thou art bound by ties only dissoluble by the annihilation of one of us”. (Marry Shelley’s:77)
Everyone hates the bad and frankenstein is very miserable.
“And what was i? Of my creation and creator i was absolutely ignorant; but i knew that i possesed no money, no friends, no kind of property. I was, besides, endued with a figure hideously deformed and loathsome; i was not even of the same nature as man. I was more agile than they, and could subsist upon coarser diet; i bore the extremes of heat and cold with less injury to my frame; my statute far exceeded theirs”. (Marry Shelleys:93)
Frankenstein doesn't know who exactly, he doesn't even have money, friends and things and a disgusting figure.
“When i found so astonishing a power placed whitvin my hands, i hestitated a long time concerning the manner in which i should employ it. Althought i possesed the capacity of bestowing animation, yet to prepare a frame for the reception of it, whit all its intricaties of fibres, muscles, and veins, still remained a work of inconceivable difficulty and labour. I doubted at first whether i should attempt the creation of a being like myself, or one of simpler organisation; but my imagination was too much exalted by my first success to permit me to doubt of my ability to give life to an animal as complex and wonderful as man”. (Marry Shelley’s: 42)
Victor began to feel like making something that humans cannot do in any way like making other living things.
Victor Frankenstein regrets having created creatures that are like monsters and changed his world that used to be full of happiness, is now full of sadness.
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA “At these moments i wept bitterly, and wished that peace would revisit my mind only that i might afford them consolation and happiness. But that could not be. Remorse extinguished every hope. I had been the author of unalterable evils; and i lived in daily fear, lest the monster whom i had created should perpetrate some new wickedness”. (Mary Shelley’s:71)
Victor regrets and hopes to return to his peace because he has made monsters that have evil.
3.4 Statements by other characters
“Abhorred monster! Fiend that thou art! The rortures of hell are too mild a vengeance for thy crimes. Wretched devil ! you reproach me with your creation; come on then, that i may extinguish the spark which i so negligently bestowed”. (Mary Shelley’s:77)
Victor really hates Frankenstein for being destroyed.
B. Victor Frankenstein
Alphonse Frankenstein (Victor’s Father)
Victor tells his father that he found a natural science book by Conelius
“Ah! Cornelius Agrippa ! my dear Victor, do not waste your time upon this; it is sad trash”. (Marry Shelley’s:31)
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA Elizabeth Lavenza
Elizabeth is Victor's half brother. as a child Elizabeth was adopted by her
father and mother.
“I looked upon Victor as mine- mine to protect, love, and cherish. All praises bestowed on her, i received as made to a possesion of my own. We called each other familiarly by the name cousin. (Marry Shelley’s:29)
Victor went to college in Ingolstad and met first with the professor of natural sciences, M. Krempee. Then M. Krempee said that books studied by
Victor were useless.
“Every instant that you have wasted on those books is utterly and entirely lost. You have burdened your memory with exploded systems and useless names. Good God! In what desert land have you lived, where no one was kind enough to inform you that these fancies, which you have so greedily imbibed, are a thousand years old, and as must as they are ancient? I little expected, in this enlightened and scientific age, to find a disciple of Albertus Magnus and Paracelsus. My dear sir, you must begin your studies entirely anew”. (Marry Shelley’s:37)
Vicor said, i scarcely observed this; rage and hatred had at first deprived me of utterance and i recovered only to ovrwhelm him with words expressive of furious detestation and contempt.
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA M. Waldman
M. Waldman is a professor of alchemy. M. Waldaman is very different
from his colleague M. Krempee. He wanted to teach me, not even
insulting about what I learned.
“The ancient teachers of this scene, he said ‘promised imposiblilities, and performed nothing. The modern masters promise very little; they know that metals cannot be transmuted, and that the exilir of life is a chimera. But these philosophers, whose hands seem only made to dabble in dirt, and their eyes to pore over the microscope or crucible, have indeed performed miracles. They penetrarte into the recesses of nature, and show how she works in hiding place. They ascend into the heavens; they have discovered how the blood circulates, and the nature of the air we breathe. They have acquired new and almost unlimited powers; they can command the thunders of heaven, mimic the earthquake, and even mock the invisible world with its own shadows”. (Marry Shelley’s:38)
By studying natural science Victor can know how blood flows from the human body, investigates everything in the human body, studies the air that is inhaled, and earthquakes.
“These were men to whose indefatigable zeal modern philosophers were indebted for most of the foundation of their knowledge. They had left to us as an easier task, to give new names, and arramge in connected classification the facts which they in a great degree had been the instruments of bringing the light. The labours of man of genius, however erroneously directed, scarcely ever fail in ultimately turning to the solid advantage of mindkind.” (Marry Shelley’s:39)
He book that Victor reads is a scientist who has services that make other scientists make their assignments easier.
“Oh, Frankenstein, be not equitable to every other, and trample upon me alone, to whom thy justice and thy creature; i ought to be thy Adam; but i
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA am rather the fallen angel, whom thou drives from joy for no misdeed. Everywhere i see bliss, from which i alone am irrevocably excluded. I was benevolent and good; misery made me a fiend. Make me happy and i shall again be virtuous.” (Mary Shelley’s:77-78)
Misery makes Frankenstein turn evil because he never sees happiness.
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA CHAPTER IV
CONCLUSION AND SUGESTION
The protagonists are Victor Frankenstein. Because he loved his family, father and mother, his younger brother William, his adopted sister Elizabeth
Lavenza, his best friend Henry Clerval and he also loved Elizabeth Lavenza.
When his mother fell ill, Victor was very concerned about his mother's condition and did not want to leave his mother alone. when Elizabeth Lavenza fell ill because of fever, Victor also took care of her properly.
According to Henry Clerval, Victor's best friend, Victor is a genius and good person. But unfortunately, he was very crazy about science. He is a loyal friend and not someone who is easy to get along with anyone. According to
Elizabeth Lavenza, her sister, Victor, was a loving person, he loved her sister even though only her half sister, younger brother, and everyone he knew. And Victor also loved his parents
Victor is a genius, he is very infatuated with natural science and is eager to deepen it. The first book he found in Cornelius Agrippa, then Albertus Magnus.
He studied all the books of science and began to want to create something that humans could not create. he wants to be like god. finally, Victor wants to make a living creature, that is, from pieces of dead bodies. sewn and brought together. turned on with electricity and lightning.
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA The Antagonist charcter is Frankenstein. Actually, Frankenstein is not entirely evil, there is also a good side but is more dominant with evil because it has killed humans. Frankenstein turned evil because of the nature and treatment of people who never considered themselves to exist. Everyone thinks it's a monster because it looks bad and disgusting.
Frankenstein is a creature created by Victor Frankenstein. According to
Victor, Frankenstein is a monster whose creation is very terrible because of its poor appearance. At first Victor thought that the creature of his creation would be perfect, but none of that happened. Victor hates Frankenstein for killing his wife
Elizabeth Lavenza and her younger brother William. According to Victor,
Frankenstein is a creature that is very terrible and has the nature of a demon.
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA 3.6 Sugestion
The writer hopes that this paper will make you understand more about characters in the Frankwnstein and the readers will be interested in reading this novel.
This paper also can be used as guidance to the other students in analyzing novel, especially the main characters. The writer hopes that the reader or other students can read the novel, understand the story then analyze other elements of literary work. I hope to readers will be motivated to read and study about the characters in a novel and know that sometimes having eccentric traits is also can be acceptable to society as long as it provides positive benefits.
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA BIBLIOGRAPHY
Afuddin dan Saebani. 2009, Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif, Pustaka Setia,
Mary Shelley’s. 1993. Frankenstein.Wordsworth Editions Limited
Nurgiantoro, Burhan. 1995. Teori Pengkajian Fiksi. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada
Perriene, Laurence and Thomas, R. ARP .1993. Literature structure, sound and
sense. United States Of America
Roberts, Edgar. V and Jacobs, Hendry E. 1995. Literature: An Introduction to
Reading and Writing. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.
Taylor, Richard. 1981. Understanding the Element of Literature. London: The
Macmillan Press Ltd.
Wellek and Warren. 1994. Literary Scholarship. Harcourt. Brace, and Company
X. J. Kennedy. 1977. Literature an Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama.
United States Of America. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frankenstein https://www.scribd.com/document/344963930/Intrinsic-Element-of-Literature https://litlab.stanford.edu/LiteraryLabPamphlet2.pdf https://www.sparknotes.com/lit/frankenstein/
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA APPENDICES
Background of Mary Shelley
Mary Shelley was born on August 30, 1797, in London, England. Her father William Godwin wrote the famous An Enquiry Concerning Political Justice
(1793) and her mother, Mary Wollstonecraft was famous for writing A
Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792). Mary Wollstonecraft died only ten years after the birth of Mary Shelley.
The family dynamics soon changed with Godwin's marriage to Mary Jane
Clairmont in 1801. Clairmont brought her own two children into the union, and she and Godwin later had a son together. Shelley never got along with her stepmother. While she didn't have a formal education, she did make great use of her father's extensive library. Shelley could often be found reading, sometimes by her mother's grave. She published her first poem, "Mounseer Nongtongpaw," in
1807, through her father's company.
During the summer of 1812, Shelley went to Scotland to stay with an acquaintance of her father William Baxter and his family. There she experienced a
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA type of domestic tranquility she had never known. Shelley returned to the Baxters' home the following year. In 1814, Mary began a relationship with poet Percy
Bysshe Shelley. Percy Shelley was a devoted student of her father, but he soon focused his attentions on Maria. He was still married to his first wife when he and the teenaged Mary fled England together that same year.
Mary and Percy Shelley traveled about Europe for a time. They struggled financially and faced the loss of their first child in 1815. Mary delivered a baby girl who only lived for a few days. The following summer, the Shelleys were in
Switzerland with Jane Clairmont, Lord Byron and John Polidori. The group entertained themselves one rainy day by reading a book of ghost stories. Lord
Byron suggested that they all should try their hand at writing their own horror story. It was at this time that Mary Shelley began work on what would become her most famous novel, Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus.
Mary and Percy Shelley were finally able to wed in December 1816. She published a travelogue of their escape to Europe, History of a Six Weeks' Tour
(1817), while continuing to work on her soon-to-famous monster tale. In 1818,
Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus debuted as a new novel from an anonymous author. Many thought that Percy Bysshe Shelley had written it since he penned its introduction. The book proved to be a huge success. That same year, the Shelleys moved to Italy.
Mary's life was rocked by another tragedy in 1822 when her husband drowned. He had been out sailing with a friend in the Gulf of Spezia. Made a
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA widow at age 24, Mary Shelley worked hard to support herself and her son. She wrote several more novels, including Valperga and the science fiction tale The
Last Man (1826). She also devoted herself to promoting her husband's poetry and preserving his place in literary history. For several years, Shelley faced some opposition from her late husband's father who had always disapproved his son's bohemian lifestyle.
Mary Shelley died of brain cancer on February 1, 1851, at age 53, in
London, England. She was buried at St. Peter's Church in Bournemouth, laid to rest with the cremated remains of her late husband's heart. After her death, her son
Percy and daughter-in-law Jane had Mary Shelley’s parents exhumed from St.
Pancras Cemetery in London (which had fallen into neglect over time) and had them reinterred beside Mary at the family’s tomb in St. Peter’s in Bournemouth. It was roughly a century after her passing that one of her novels, Mathilde, was finally released in the 1950s. Her lasting legacy, however, remains the classic tale of Frankenstein. This struggle between a monster and its creator has been an enduring part of popular culture. In 1994, Kenneth Branagh directed and starred in a film adaptation of Shelley's novel. The film also starred Robert De Niro, Tom
Hulce and Helena Bonham Carter. Her work has also inspired some spoofs, such as Young Frankenstein starring Gene Wilder. Shelley's monster lives on in such modern thrillers as I, Frankenstein (2013) as well.
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA SUMMARY OF THE NOVEL
Frankenstein begins with a series of letters from English explorer Robert
Walton to his sister, Margaret Saville. Walton has traveled to Russia to fulfill his lifelong dream of embarking on a voyage to the Arctic, where he hopes to make important scientific discoveries. After sailing steadily north for a while, Walton and his crew find themselves surrounded by ice and witness a strange sight a huge man in a dogsled speeding across the frozen sea. The next day they rescue a different, emaciated man who is stranded on a sheet of ice with the remnants of a dogsled beside him. This man is later revealed to be Victor Frankenstein. Victor is near death and remains unable to speak for several days. Walton nurses him back to health in his cabin, and as the two men become acquainted, Walton grows to love and admire his mysterious, melancholy guest. Victor is clearly suffering from some terrible loss, and he reveals that he came to the Arctic to pursue the huge man Walton saw previously. After Walton tells him that he is willing to sacrifice anything to achieve his scientific ambitions, Victor decides to tell the captain the story of his life, which Walton records.
Victor spends an idyllic childhood in Geneva, Switzerland, with his loving upper-class family. He enjoys particularly close relationships with his adopted sister, Elizabeth, and his best friend, Henry Clerval. At an early age he develops a passion for natural philosophy, and he spends his adolescence devouring the works of the medieval alchemists, dreaming of discovering the elixir of life. When he realizes how outdated the alchemists’ theories are in comparison to modern
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA theories, however, he becomes disillusioned and gives up his study of the sciences entirely.
When he is seventeen, Victor’s parents decide to send him to school at the
University of Ingolstadt. But just before he is scheduled to leave, his mother,
Caroline, dies of scarlet fever. After spending time mourning with his family,
Victor travels to Ingolstadt as planned. There he meets professor of biology M.
Krempe and professor of chemistry M. Waldman, who inspires him to resume his study of the sciences. For the next four years, Victor applies himself to his studies with a passion, driven by an ambition to reveal the mysteries of nature, life, and death, and winning acclaim for his achievements. He is particularly fascinated by the idea of discovering how to create life. Just as he is about to return home to
Geneva, his experiments finally succeed.
Victor spends the next two years assembling an eight-foot-tall man out of parts taken from cadavers. When he succeeds in bringing his creation to life, however, Victor is so horrified by the creature’s hideous appearance that he runs away. After wandering the streets of Ingolstadt all night, Victor runs into Henry
Clerval, who has arrived to begin his own course of study at the university. When the friends return to Victor’s apartment, Victor is relieved to find the creature gone, but he remains so agitated that he falls into a months-long state of fever and delirium.
Just as Victor is beginning to feel like his old self again, he receives word that his youngest brother, William, has been murdered. He returns to Geneva for
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA the first time in six years. While walking through Plainpalais, where William was killed, Victor sees the creature he brought to life scaling a steep mountain. He becomes convinced that his creature is responsible for the murder. When he arrives home, however, Victor’s family tells him their beloved servant, Justine
Moritz, has been accused of the crime. Victor expresses his disbelief but chooses to keep quiet about the creature, fearing he would be thought mad if he were to tell his story and believing that Justine will be acquitted. But Justine is found guilty, largely because a valuable necklace that Elizabeth lent to William to wear on the night of the murder and that was missing from William’s corpse was found in Justine’s clothes. Justine is hanged, and Victor is racked with guilt.
The creature tells Victor that on the night he was brought to life, he made his way into the forest near Ingolstadt, where he lived on roots and berries. After being chased out of a village he had wandered into in search of food and shelter, he hid in a hovel attached to a small cottage in the woods. The cottage was inhabited by a loving family consisting of two siblings, Felix and Agatha; their blind father, whom the creature calls by his and his children’s last name, De
Lacey; and, later, Felix’s fiancee, Safie.
In the woods on the way to Geneva, the creature saved a child from drowning in a river and was shot in the arm by the child’s guardian. This incident filled him with feelings of hatred and vengeance toward humanity. Then, in
Plainpalais, he encountered William and seized him with the intention of making him his companion. When the creature learned that the boy was a member of the
Frankenstein family, he strangled him to death in order to make Victor suffer. He
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA then took the necklace William was wearing, attracted by the beautiful miniature of Caroline Frankenstein. When he saw Justine Moritz asleep in a nearby barn, the creature planted the necklace on her so that she would be forced to pay for his crime.
After telling his story, the creature has one request for Victor: he wants
Victor to create him a female companion who, being as ugly as himself, will not reject him. If Victor consents, the creature and his mate will live a peaceful life far away from humanity in South America. If Victor refuses, however, the creature will continue to destroy Victor’s life and murder his loved ones. Victor reluctantly agrees to the creature’s terms and returns to Geneva. At home in Geneva, Victor puts off his promise to the creature. His father, Alphonse who, along with Victor’s mother, always hoped Victor and Elizabeth would one day marry suggests Victor marry Elizabeth now in order to raise everyone’s spirits. Victor loves Elizabeth but realizes he needs to fulfill his promise to the creature before marrying her.
He decides to travel to England to speak to scientists who have made new discoveries he believes will help him with his task. He also plans to find a remote place where he can assemble the female creature. Accompanied by Clerval, Victor sails to London, where he reluctantly begins to gather information and materials.
Clerval, meanwhile, enthusiastically sets about securing a career in England’s trade with India. When the two are invited to Scotland by a mutual acquaintance,
Victor accompanies Clerval on the journey north and leaves him with their acquaintance in Perth. He then travels to the Orkney Islands, where he rents a hut in an isolated corner of the archipelago and begins to assemble a female creature.
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA One night when the new creature is near completion, Victor begins to ponder the possible consequences of his current work: the two creatures might wreak havoc together or even begin a new race of monsters that would threaten humankind. When he suddenly sees the creature’s face at the window, Victor destroys the creature’s unfinished mate. Devastated and enraged, the creature confronts Victor and swears revenge. Ominously, he tells Victor to remember that he will be with him on his wedding night. Late that night he rows out to sea and throws the remains of the female creature overboard, then falls asleep in the boat.
When he wakes up the next day, he realizes he is lost at sea and can do nothing but let the wind carry him.
That night, Walton finds the creature standing over Victor's body. In spite of this terrible just like he feels he has been shown by human beings, the creature laments having destroyed Victor's life and says he is tormented by remorse and self-loathing. He tells Walton he plans to travel as far north as possible, where he will build himself a funeral pyre and finally die. Then the creature leaps out the window and onto a sheet of ice, eventually disappearing into the night.
UNIVERSITAS SUMATERA UTARA