WOLFThe UK Conservation Trust PRINTIssue 62 | Autum/Winter 2017

Africa’s Out in Golden Wolf The Cold Encounter A shimmering new ’s and Meeting a wild wolf species emerges struggle for survival

NEWS n EVENTS n RESEARCH n MEDIA AND ARTS Issue 62 | Autumn/Winter 2017

Published by The UK Wolf Conservation Trust, Butlers , Beenham, Reading, RG7 5NT. Tel: 0118 971 3330, email: [email protected], website: www.ukwct.org Editor’s Letter Julia and Nuka Editor Julia Bohanna. Tel: 0118 971 3330 Email: [email protected] olf Print is blowing hot and from the Conservation Assistant Editor Francesca Macilroy cold this issue, or at least Programme’s (EWCP) report on the profiling the ever-adaptable beautiful Ethiopian wolf. As species Editorial Team W Wendy Brooker, Mike Collins, Nikki Davies, Sue Fine, wolf across the , from lupines are lost every single day, it’s reassuring Pete Haswell, Jessica Jacobs, Cammie Kavanagh, Lynn in shimmering to those who to see the determination of the EWCP Kent, Pete Morgan-Lucas, Rachel Mortimer, Lara Palmer, Johnny Palmer, Tsa Palmer, Denise Taylor survive in bone freezing chill. The to ensure that this little flame-haired extremes of climate that facilitated African marvel never fades away. Patrons Martin ‘Wolfie’ Adams, David Clement-Davies, hurricanes and earthquakes this We would urge you to read the Cornelia ‘Neil’ Hutt, Desmond Morris, Marco Musiani, should always be a reminder report online in its entirety. One of Michelle Paver that however sophisticated and the problems facing the Ethiopian The UK Wolf Conservation Trust Directors technologically advanced the world wolf is sarcoptic but it’s also a Nigel Bulmer, Charles Hicks, Sue Hull, Tsa Palmer grows, we are still slaves to the problem for Yellowstone’s wolves. In Associate Directors mercurial nature of the weather this issue we have a fascinating article Lara Palmer, Johnny Palmer and longer term, the vagaries of discussing heat loss in grey wolves Specialist Advisors Alistair Bath, Garry Marvin, Kirsty Peake, Claudio climate. Wild are particularly suffering from the disease. Sillero, Denise Taylor vulnerable of course and the wolf The UK Wolf Conservation Trust is a company only has its body and intelligence We have also covered colder climes, limited by guarantee. Registered in England and for protection. From to their with articles on the wolf situation in Wales. Company No. 3686061. feet, a wolf’s biology adapts to the and Latvia, plus a short non- The opinions expressed in this magazine are not temperature and geography of their fiction story from Alaskan author Seth necessarily those of the publishers or The UK Wolf Conservation Trust. environment in a fascinating way. Kantner.

All rights reserved throughout the world. Reproduction in any manner, in whole or in part, in English or other , is One particular species is certainly ‘hot’ Closer to home, our update on the prohibited. The work may not be photocopied or otherwise reproduced within the terms of any licence granted by the right now and we are very pleased Trust’s Arctics is a really interesting Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd or the Publishers Licensing Society Ltd. to be able to support a new project read. Of course, our trio will never aimed at studying ’s golden have to cope with the of wolf. This is very significant news in temperatures that make the Arctic

AIMS OF THE UK WOLF CONSERVATION TRUST terms of conservation. Once thought so tough, but their bodies still have to be a , this appropriately named telltale signs of how this large and · To increase public awareness and knowledge of treasure has now been reclassified as hardy species is built to adapt the wild wolves and their place in the ecosystem. · To provide opportunities for ethological and other a wolf. The scientific project we are cold. There is also lots of news from research that may improve the lives of wolves both supporting aims to investigate any the Trust, which never stands still. Our in captivity and in the wild. · To provide wolf-related education programmes for threats or conflicts this ‘new’ wolf may volunteers and staff work incredibly young people and adults. face and invest in the education needed hard, with the love of lupines acting · To raise money to help fund wolf-related conservation projects around the world. throughout the local community – a as a powerfully motivating force for ‘golden’ opportunity to help it survive all of us. Download Wolf Print, including back issues, from and ultimately thrive. Exclusive to Wolf www.ukwolf.org Print, you can read more about this We at the Trust would like to wish you Design and artwork by BambooHouse Publishing: www.bamboohouse.co.uk exciting development in depth on pages a wonderful Christmas and sparkling Tel: 01225 331023 14-17. We will continue to update you New Year. Printed by: Pensord, NP12 2YA, www.pensord.co.uk as the project progresses. on FSC paper from sustainable sources.

This magazine is fully recyclable. By recycling magazines you We also have a little piece on another can help to reduce waste and add to the millions of tonnes of paper already recycled every year by the UK paper industry. species from a hot clime – an extract Julia Bohanna, Editor You can recycle paper through your home recycling collection scheme or at your local recycling centre. Visit www.recyclenow. com and enter your postcode to find your nearest site. 14 Contents


Editor’s Letter 2

Wolves of the World 26 Lupine news worldwide

Merchandise 36 New and exclusive gifts and souvenirs

Making Tracks 31 Book reviews and interviews 20 NEWS FROM THE TRUST

Trust News 6 News and Events

Director’s Letter 4

Update on the Trust’s Wolves 9


Wolves of The Atlas 14 Studying ’s hidden wolf in the Moroccan

Wolf Eyes 18 24 An extract taken from Seth Kanther’s Book ‘Swallowed by The Great Land’

Wolf and Lynx Situation in Latvia 20

Living on The Edge 23 Metapopulation Management to The Rescue

The Wolf Situation in Finland 24 Cold Country; Hot Topic!

“Rainbow” Wolves Show Heat Loss From Mange 30

Stuck For Christmas Gifts This Year? 38 Why not try one of our gift memberships?

30 EVENTS All the upcoming events and activities 39

Wolf Print Autum/Winter 2017 | 3 Conservation – For Richer for Poorer DIRECTOR’S LETTER Throughout the populations of wolf, , , grey seals, , and ibex are doing well, according to a recent report from the Zoological Society of London (ZSL). Together with the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), ZSL have assessed the state of the world’s , , , amphibians and in The Living Planet Report 2016.

he report also provides evidence have also increased in recent . In the that while wildlife populations are tropics, large wild animals are increasingly Tdoing badly in poor countries, they confined to national parks and nature are generally thriving in richer countries. reserves. In Europe and Populations of elephants, rhinos, giraffes, even big animals are starting to recolonise and many are falling, but areas heavily populated by people. lynx numbers in Europe have quadrupled have moved into British towns and a wolf over the past 50 years. In , has been filmed crossing a busy in , wolves, and even the Netherlands. Wolves are within 40 are growing in numbers and expanding miles of Paris. their range and edging into the suburbs. In terms of a similar contrast The impression that prosperity generally is seen. Rich countries are steadily helps wildlife is confirmed by the fact expanding their while poor that the welfare of wild animals in countries are still chopping them down. middle-income countries generally falls All of Europe is getting increasingly between ‘thriving’ and ‘doing badly’. thickly wooded from to Wildlife populations have in some cases the Mediterranean, as satellite images ceased falling and are beginning to show confirm. Britain has doubled its woodland signs of rising, such as with ’s giant cover in a century and is now as forested panda population. ’s numbers as it was in the 1750s.

4 | Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 Of course, poaching is a worldwide problem, whether for tusks, horns or meat. Although local people are Conservation – usually the poachers, it is often carried out to fuel a demanding overseas trade in medicine, skins and trophies. For Richer for Poorer Wealthy hunters will pay a great deal to participate in the very controversial ‘canned ’ trade, where ‘bagging a ’ is made easy for them. Social media has fuelled the outrage at the practice, sharing photographs of smiling trophy hunters in khaki, strapped up with weapons, posing with their kills. In Africa in particular, some local poachers have been re-educated and re-trained to help and conserve the animals they once killed. Their knowledge as ex- poachers can be extremely valuable when dealing with current poaching.

The transition from deforestation to reforestation generally seems to happen with wealth. Desperately poor people in the Congo rainforest, catching bushmeat for food, or for a sale for a pittance in a local market, pose a greater threat to monkeys and apes than tycoons on yachts in Monte Carlo. To make the point more fully why wealth and wildlife go hand in hand – we only have to go back to the Stone Age when a few hunter-gatherers armed with no more than bows and arrows wiped out the majority of the large species. In North America 45 of 61 large mammal groups went extinct coincidentally with the arrival of people.

The reason rich people are now able to live alongside wildlife in a way that poor do not is, partly because, once liberated from mere subsistence they can afford to care. Wealth partly decouples the life of human beings from dependence on wild ecosystems. By eating farmed food and moving to , we reduce the need to exploit or compete with wildlife.

This is all good news for the wolf whose numbers are steadily increasing in Europe. If Africa had the wealth of Europe the wild population would be booming.

A Happy Christmas to you all.

Tsa Palmer

Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 | 5 Trust Staff & Volunteers TRUST NEWS Let Off Some Steam!

n Sunday September 24 the wolves at the Trust observed Otheir human friends getting up to all sorts of unusual behaviour. Every year, Tsa Palmer organises a fun day for the Trust’s volunteers as a thank you for all the amazing hard Photograph by Francesca Macilroy work that they do throughout the year. There was a large hog roast along with trimmings for all those Big Bug Bonanza to enjoy. The highlight of the event however, was the entertainment. There was the giant Jenga and August 7-13 Connect Four, along with a surf simulator and sumo suits! Lynn Kent, he BIAZA (British and Irish insects would use the hotel and the the Trust’s Office Manager, was the Association of Zoos and benefits to wildlife it would bring. first to jump on the surf simulator TAquariums) Big Bug Bonanza and held the record for the longest is held biennially and seeks to draw Everyone then came back to the attention to the world Education Room where I helped Mike in all its amazing diversity. Zoos and to explain about spiders, scorpions, Aquariums hold lots of fun activities to millipedes, stick insects and tiger snails raise awareness of the importance of etc. The children were fascinated by invertebrate life in ecosystems and to all the new information and asked lots elicit positive attitudes to of questions. by the general public and show people that bugs and creepy crawlies A short video was shown showing how are fascinating creatures. invertebrates benefited the ecosystem and that without them we wouldn’t UKWCT is a member of BIAZA and be able to survive. Then the visitors Photograph by Veda Kavanagh as such we were more than happy to were allowed to hold various reptiles run an event on August 8 to show and invertebrates - especially Legs, the to stay on with a score of just over our visitors a variety of bugs and also velvety tarantula. Sheila, the Australian two minutes until she was beaten by some reptiles which we had on site, stick insect with her leaf-like legs was a Louise, one of the work experience lent to us by Quirks Roadshow. big favourite with the children. students, with two minutes and 30 seconds. It was hilarious to watch The weather wasn’t very kind to us A bearded dragon, , geckos but also incredible fun. It seemed but the visitors had a fascinating time and a beautiful chameleon were that after Lynn, everyone wanted to despite that. They were given a tour just some of the reptiles handled by join in. There was also of the wolves and Pat Melton, a senior excited children and even adults. between brother and sister Scott and handler, gave interesting information The day ended with very tired but Fran Macilroy as they battled in the about our wolves and their cousins in happy children, leaving with some sumo suits. Getting into them was not the wild. fantastic memories of a day spent the problem, however trying to stand with the lesser known members of the up once you had been wrestled to The children, with the help of our animal kingdom. Hopefully all visitors the floor was another matter. It really wolfkeeper Mike, built a bug hotel will now have a greater respect for the was a great event filled with fun and under a hedge in the back field invertebrates on our planet. laughter and just a little bit of silliness. watched closely by pygmy and Madge. Mike explained which Wendy Brooker Francesca Macilroy


International Wolf Project – Gavin Bonsen £5,000 Balkani Wildlife Society – Elena Tzingarska £5,000 Chisty Les Biological Station – Vladimir Bologov Photograph by Tsa Palmer £4,000 Zagreb Veterinary Institute – Painted Dog Conservation UK Josip Kusak £5,000 he charity, Painted Dog support painted dog conservation Conservation UK (formerly (Zimbabwe) in the field by fund Ethiopian Wolf Project – Tknown as ‘War Paint’) has been and awareness raising in the UK, Claudio Sillero / Born Free Foundation in existence since 2006. They are a with particular relevance to PDC’S £8,000 small charity with six trustees. Their education initiative, ‘The Children’s patrons are Steve Leonard (Vet/TV Bush Camp’. Research Team – Presenter) and Brigadier Tom Ogilvie- José Vincente López-Bao Graham (former Head of the Army PDC is able to offer Powerpoint £3,000 Veterinary Corps). Their aim is to presentation talks about the painted dog ( pictus) and the charity’s Coalition – important work. Their website and Neil Hutt Facebook pages are very active and £3,000 provide regular updates on both local news/events and news from PDC. Project Grupo Lobo £2,000 The financial support the Trust gives to PDC is by the sale of beaded crafts Can- LGD Research (animals) and unique ‘snare art’ (made from actual snares recovered from the £3,000 bush) at various events throughout Photograph by the Painted Dog Conservation UK The Golden Wolf Project the year. The artisans involved are unemployed and attend PDC’s Iganyana £3,000 Art Centre, based in the town of Dete near Hwange National Park. They TOTAL receive numeration for each piece made, providing it passes quality control. £41,000

Mike Collins, our wolfkeeper, recently invited members of the charity to attend our Wednesday open day. ‘We would like to thank Teresa Palmer They commented on how meeting for continuing to champion the wolves was very special, as was lupus, which together with painted learning from Mike about the life , have been much maligned history of our Trust wolves. They also and unfairly persecuted over the enjoyed meeting both the staff and centuries.’ - Derek Fry, Chairman / visitors, who made them feel very Trustee, Painted Dog Conservation UK Photograph by Tsa Palmer much at home. www.painteddog.co.uk

Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 | 7 Switched on Volunteers From SSEN TRUST NEWS Return to the Trust

team from Scottish and Southern Electricity Networks’ (SSEN) strategic investment group have Aonce again swopped their plans, schedules, tools and maps for a day to carry out maintenance and DIY tasks at the Trust. The day was made possible due to parent company SSEN’s ‘Be The Difference’ initiative, which gives every employee a day off work to help a local charity, good cause or community group.

Photograph by SSEN Zsuzsa Suto-Somogyvari was one of the SSEN team who volunteered to help us, and was delighted with the amount of work they managed to do on the day: ‘I love animals breeds rather than paying for tradespeople to come in and and am always looking for ways to help charities who look do these tasks.’ after them. Wolves don’t get a lot of recognition and so when I heard about the UK Wolf Conservation Trust being Our wolfkeeper Mike Collins added: ‘We are so grateful to quite close to our offices, I asked some of my colleagues if the SSEN team that came, as they built shelves in our chair they’d like to join me in helping, and I was really pleased storage shed, painted doors and barrier fencing. It was that so many people said “yes”.’ amazing how much work the team achieved on this day and this all helped the site look a lot tidier, as during the ‘By helping the Trust with essential work around their site, summer months we get a lot of visitors.’ this meant that the more of the donations they receive from the public can be used to support and care for wolf Francesca Macilroy

Wolfe – so choosing a wolf was ideal. After Paul Hallam and sergeant Jemma Gee visited the Trust in July to meet the wolves, they both thought that Tala’s personality matches some of the cadets to a tee. During that visit Tala was presented with her honorary cadet rank and certificate.

Since this article was written the cadets of Beswick Detachment have Photograph by Paul Hallam adopted Massak as their mascot. She’s In The Army Now! Our Tala Joins The Military

hy did the Greater Manchester as bears, goats and dogs. More Army Cadets recently choose specifically, Number Six Quebec Wto adopt a wolf and Tala in Company Belle Vue Detachment is part particular as their detachment mascot? of the Number Six Quebec Company, named after the Battle Of Quebec Staff Sergeant Paul Hallam explained which was fought on 13 September that the armed forces have a long 1759. The British commander who Photograph by Francesca Macilroy history of animal mascots such led the victory was General James

8 | Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 Photograph by Pam Johns Updates on Mai and Motomo

Autumn weather was confusing for Mai and Motomo; his way, Motomo will leap straight over her without breaking stride. Mai and at of September it was cold and wet, with Motomo are adept at being passive- an overnight ground frost on a couple of days. The end aggressive; they will both carry food of September was warm, sunny and in the mid-20s, and either parade up and down the overnight dipping to a balmy 14! fence, or carry it to a suitable spot where the Arctics can see it being eaten. Mai will often bury food in the grass tussocks a few feet in from the fence. oth wolves have their favourite She retained a fine, bushy tail (unlike Food-focused Pukak always falls for this spots for lying-in: Motomo likes the her sister Mosi whose tail moulted neighbourly wind-up. It all helps provide Btop of the mound or an area just unevenly). Motomo’s tail is also good- mental stimulation and enrichment, as beside the rear row of trees. Mai likes the looking, the last few inches of his tail do the Halloween stuffed pumpkins sunny south facing side of the mound or have grown lighter with each moult made by our weekday work experience the open grass just behind the mound, and with a platinum-blonde tip. He’s students. Though initially nervous of the where she can observe the Arctics. retained the ‘silverback’ stripe from his pumpkins being thrown over the fence ears along his back and down to his into their enclosure, Mai and Motomo In excessively sunny weather the denser tail, most prominent if he is curled up can’t resist tasty sausages, black vegetation such as nettles and grass with his back to you. pudding or hard-boiled eggs, although around and to the right of the mound less impressed by the biodegradable grow rapidly, even when strimmed by Mai has once again lost her howl – pumpkin flesh. Mike and his groundworks contractors. which happened some years back. The Nettles love nitrogen-rich provided precise cause isn’t known, but when she Towards winter, we supply both wolves by wolf urine. Overgrown areas are opens her mouth all that comes out is with increased amounts of food and great places of concealment for the a high-pitched squeak or a dull croak. increase the content to provide wolves; some days you can’t see Mai or She doesn’t appear to be experiencing extra warmth. We feed them separately Motomo, until either of them hear you any discomfort while trying to howl, and Mike monitors their daily food – then there’s a swaying in the grass or difficulty in swallowing. We are all intake with a spreadsheet. They are and a face appears only a few feet from hoping, as before, it will clear up in time. both willing to supplement their diet where you’ve been standing for the last with any pigeon or that ten minutes. Both Mai and Motomo continue to makes the mistake of landing in the enjoy harrassing the Arctics. Motomo enclosure. Little piles of feathers are With winter coats now fully regrown, often charges backwards and forwards quite common. Though strangely, we there have been the usual colour at maximum speed along the full length never seem to find the bodies! changes. Mai is even whiter than of the fence while Massak does the before – particularly her face and ears. same on the other side. If Mai obstructs Pete Morgan-Lucas

Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 | 9 UPDATE ON THE TRUST’S WOLVES

Update on The Beenhams

Summer has long sped away already here in Beenham and autumn is fully here. As leaves on the surrounding trees turned, the wolves’ summer coats took on a decidedly fuzzy look. It only seems like a few days since they shed their old winter coats!

he shortening days and cooler Discovery Day, which involves a small Wednesday visit days and our specialist nights prompt the new coat group of people learning how to look photo days are also a great way to Tgrowth and the wolves will soon after the wolves and also learning how observe the interactions and behaviour nearly double in size as the thick soft the Trust works to support its projects of the Beenhams, particularly as the undercoat comes through. It’s amazing around the world. Participants get to autumn temperature drops and they stuff as it provides complete insulation, go into the wolves’ enclosure to see are less inclined to around sleeping. keeping the wolves toasty warm as the how they live, food for enrichment Nuka in particular seems to know what temperature plummets over winter. and tidy where necessary. Some of his job is - to look stunning and provide Being the adaptable creatures they the wolves have dug quite complex ample photo opportunities! Tala too, is are, their coats will protect them from den structures in their mounds which quite the poseur, often stretching out the worst cold, down to -500c in some are fascinating to see. Of course, the and looking glamorous in her gorgeous parts of the world. Luckily it doesn’t get wolves aren’t in there - they are moved silver and black coat. reverts to that cold here in Berkshire! to a side holding area and are always her shy self but can be glimpsed slinking very interested in what is going on in amongst the trees, which gives the The Beenham are now six and a their home. Nuka, in particular, follows impression of a wolf in its wild . half and fully adult wolves. In the wild everything closely. The day includes a She can be enticed out with enrichment they would probably be coming to the howling session, talks on behaviour treats, such as frozen meaty ice lollies (a end of their lives but here at the Trust and projects and a demonstration of delicious mixture of raw eggs, hot dogs they are in their prime. A great way to telemetry or wolf by our keeper and blood) but will always be wary of learn about them is to come on a Wolf Mike. Fun for wolves and people alike! anything unfamiliar, so staying still and

10 | Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 quiet is the best way to see her. Recent will suddenly become very alert although rain over several visit days meant there they don’t waste energy like Nuka. were a lot of umbrellas on site which the wolves weren’t keen on. An umbrella On a recent Wednesday, Nuka was changes the silhouette of a person so working himself into a frenzy, anticipating the wolves weren’t too sure what these his lunch when he was presented with a strange, enormous headed creatures haunch of . Now the wolves are were. Even a bold wolf like Nuka was particularly fond of deer but red is last startled and it goes to show how much on their list of favourites, after muntjac self-preservation is hardwired into these and roe. Nuka’s face when he realised animals. It’s easier to run away than he’d been given his least favoured cut of confront something so frightening! venison was a picture - like a child who has been promised pizza and presented The Wednesday visit days have also with broccoli. He was not impressed shown how quickly the wolves solve and took himself off to sulk, much to complex issues. It didn’t take long for the amusement of our visitors. He tried them to figure out that on a certain day to see what his sisters were tucking into of the week, a bunch of strangers would but got short shrift from them. So it was descend, which meant extra treats and back to his own piece of meat which he feeding at a particular time. Usually reluctantly ate. Needless to say, he was our wolves are fed at different times to very popular with mums and kids that prevent them becoming institutionalised day, as they could all relate to what was and to keep their minds active but on going on! Wednesdays, they are fed regularly at 2pm. Nuka in particular, cottoned onto The Beenhams remain very popular as this very quickly and from 1pm onwards, proven by the number of adoptions starts to get very excited, running up they receive and the people who come and down in the bottom corner of the to visit them. May they continue to enclosure from where he can see the be the fascinating and affectionate door of the food shed and anything characters that they are. interesting that might come out of it. You Nuka, Tala and Tundra by Lee Baker can set your watch by him! The girls too Nikki Davies

Tundra, Nuka and Tala by Paul Price

Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 | 11 the grass is long. No-one can walk along the public footpath in the woods Updates on without him dashing to the fence to investigate. Dog walkers are used to seeing a wolf watching them. Torak is Torak and Mosi mellowing in maturity and allows Mosi to nuzzle and lick him very occasionally, although he sometimes gets annoyed, Torak and Mosi look stunning in their thick winter coats. snarls and lopes off. He prefers to relax Torak‘s has autumnal shades and long bushy tail alone, watching everything that goes on, especially Mosi burying things. She is so resplendent with toning shades of browns and a brick predictable with her cache sites! He bides red tip; a stunningly handsome male. Mosi has retained his time, then digs it up and eats it. her mature silvery grey look, with echoes of her old black colouring in places. Her tail is long and thick with Mosi favourite game is to empty her newly filled water bucket with her . silver highlights, appearing to shimmer in the sun. After three times the handler stops UPDATE ON THE TRUST’S WOLVES filling it. Game over she trots away and the bucket is filled later on. (There is a t seems impossible that Torak and far this winter. When it does, he will be water trough too, so they always have Mosi are nearly 12 years old, especially given painkillers to keep him active. water.) The enrichment walks continue Iwhen they are racing around their to be greatly enjoyed by both wolves enclosure or chasing one another up Mosi has spent the year decimating and their favourite handlers. Other and down the mound. One afternoon the wild population; we often forms of enrichment include melons and they perpetuated a comedy farce: Mosi see piles of feathers scattered around. coconuts stuffed with tasty treats and in stole some of Torak’s deer and was are favourites, with pigeons a warmer months, ice lollies made from about to bury it, when Torak appeared close second. A chilled out Torak in front of her. She turned and ran the watches from his favourite place other way but Torak trotted around at the back of the enclosure with some bushes to get in front. She ran to an almost indulgent look. the mound, to see Torak coming over the top. Everywhere she went, with the Torak takes his security meat dangling from her mouth, Torak responsibilities very seriously and got there first. In the end he got bored does frequent daily perimeter and sloped off to his favourite tree, checks of his , making leaving her to bury the meat. Luckily, paths in all directions and loping Torak’s hasn’t bothered him so along these to save energy when

Torak by Nikki Davies

raw eggs, meat, ears and cheese. Torak will crunch his up whilst Mosi urinates on hers and waits until it has defrosted - if Torak doesn’t steal it first! Torak and Mosi roll on the hessian sacks smothered in citronella and eucalyptus oil, to cover themselves in the smells. Straw-filled sacks soaked in perfumes are also favourites - Mosi particularly loves Brut. Meat trails test their tracking skills. It is very important to give intelligent captive animals like wolves a variety of enrichment.

It is a joy to watch how Torak and Mosi interact and to get to know their patterns of behaviour.

Mosi by Bob Breach Wendy Brooker

12 | Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 is nearly always concrete hard and this helps to file down their . However, in captivity, Massak, Sikko and Pukak need a ‘helping hand’. To avoid a potentially stressful situation such as trimming their claws, as you would a domestic animal (which incidentally would not provide long lasting results), a new enrichment device has been created. In using one of their natural behaviours as a source, their use of scent, two bucket-sized holes were excavated in various locations within their enclosure. These were filled with concrete and a 50cm chrome tube placed in the centre. This allows for strong scented items to be carefully poured/placed into the tube, whilst ensuring there is not any spillage so that the wolves do not to have any Updates on physical contact with the item. This then encourages their natural scent-based behaviour when exploring their habitat. the Arctics Massak by Mike Collins As previously tested last year, the new enrichment proved to be very As we enter the transition from summer to winter, autumn successful. Conversely, Mike our keeper has made a few enhanced moderations brings the duration of daylight noticeably shorter and this time, by increasing the depth of temperatures start to become considerably cooler. The the tube and the excavated hole it red and golds from the leaves changing colour sets a maximises their scent ability, along with picturesque background to illuminate the glorious white giving a rough surface to the top layer of concrete for scratching purposes. coats of our three Arctic wolves. These enhancements are much to the approval of our Arctic pack. All three particularly relish the scent of he change in temperature means physiological adaptations. Compared to diesel, predominantly Sikko. This scent that our wolves’ coats have now any other grey wolf sub species, Arctic indulgence is also seen when out on Tstarted to change to withstand wolves have proportionally smaller enrichment walks, where a tractor the winter months to come. Towards ears, this adaptation reduces the has been previously parked in one of the end of September, beginning surface area that loses heat. The darker the nearby fields, diesel has leaked of October, their thick camouflaged markings around their eyes giving an and you will observe all three happily seasonal undercoat started regrowing. ‘eyeliner’ effect that helps to protect nose diving into the scent and rolling Their condensed grey and white soft from the glare of the white of the without a care. fur produces a warm ‘fleece’ to prevent . A countercurrent heat exchanger their body temperature dropping to mechanism in the paws allows them Massak our dominant a fatally low level. Wild arctic wolves to remain at a lower temperature continues to keep the cheeky Pukak, have been known to survive recorded than their body’s core, as the blood our lower ranking male, in line with temperatures as low as -68°c. Of enters their paws it heats up, therefore Sikko, keeping herself out of the way course, here in balmy Beenham, avoiding heat loss from the extremities. of the two brothers. Massak, Sikko and Massak, Sikko and Pukak would never By reducing the heat loss, their paws Pukak remain popular with visitors with experience even close to such low will never ‘stick’ to the icy tundra. This their huge demeanour. People love to temperatures. physiological adaptation is also seen in watch them being hand fed through bird species such as . the fence on our Visit Wednesdays at As suggested by their name, Arctic the Trust as they literally do show the wolves survive in the coldest places The Arctics also have the fastest true meaning of ‘wolfing’ their food on earth, however for them to do growing claws, having evolved to deal down, especially Pukak. this successfully they have evolved with their niche environment. Arctic several anatomical behavioural and permafrost, a hard layer of substrate, Rachel Mortimer

Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 | 13 Wolves of the Atlas Studying Africa’s hidden wolf in the Moroccan Atlas Mountains

Centuries of mystery, confusion and debate have surrounded the . First described in the 1800’s, it was later misidentified for nearly one hundred years as the Eurasian .

he recent use of genetic dog. They were first misclassified as of Africa in 2002. With incredibly techniques has been piecing the golden jackal, a species found large ears and a long, thin tail, it Ttogether the puzzle on the in Europe and with a similar looked unlike any of the species identity of these enigmatic canids, appearance, in 1926. The adoption known to inhabit the area, though culminating with the discovery in of this misclassification in a 1939 locals referred to it as “wolf.” The 2015 of a new species of wolf that publication of African Mammals identity of this strange animal is still had been hiding in plain sight on the resulted in it becoming widely unknown, but it was suggested to African . Our work focuses accepted, and their classification as perhaps be an “Egyptian jackal,” on understanding and conserving golden remained generally thought to be the largest golden African golden wolves in the unique unquestioned for the next 70 years. jackal . environment of the Atlas Mountains, Golden jackals were seen as a highly where wolves are threatened by adaptable species with one of the Genetic research was conducted on human actions. largest distributions of any Egyptian jackals shortly after, but spanning across three , the results were unexpected and A forgotten species while the African wolf was largely confusing: Egyptian golden jackals The recent discovery of the African forgotten. were more closely related to grey golden wolf may be more accurately wolves than golden jackals from described as the rediscovery of a Revealing the misidentification of . The study was later expanded forgotten species. Early literature “African golden jackals” to include genetic investigations of as far back as described a The resurrection of the African wolf “large golden jackals” from , wolf-like animal in North and West begins with the sighting of a strange published in 2011, and from , Africa, and scientific descriptions of wolf-like animal in in the and in 2012. the species were first published in 1820 (Canis anthus, the “Senegalese jackal”) and in 1832 (Canis lupaster, the “Egyptian wolf”).

Taxonomy in early years, however, was an imprecise science. Over the next hundred years they went by many names from many authors, variably described as a wolf, jackal, or

14 | Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 Both confirmed these animals were in , including most closely related to grey wolves, lions, , and rather than golden jackals in Europe , may have caused golden and Asia. It was suggested that wolves to become smaller to adapt, a cryptic subspecies of grey wolf eventually overlapping in size with existed in Africa, distinct and perhaps side-striped jackals and black- coexisting with golden jackals, being backed jackals that also inhabit East referred to as Canis lupus lupaster, the Africa. The size similarity to African African wolf. jackals and resemblance to Eurasian golden jackals contributed to their Subsequent research, published in misidentification. This resemblance 2015, intended to verify these results is a case of parallel evolution, where with a larger sample of animals and distantly-related species facing similar genetic markers. Surprisingly, however, conditions develop similar adaptations: it revealed that not only are these the hot, dry environment of golden animals distinct from Eurasian golden jackals and East African golden wolves jackals, but also from grey wolves. both favour a slender body and light The authors proposed to name this colouration to reduce sun and heat new species the African golden wolf, absorption. This parallelism attests Canis anthus, based on the first name to the success of wolves in adapting believed to have been given to them. to new environments and ecological Furthermore, rather than an elusive challenges. wolf hiding among jackals, they found no evidence of true golden jackals in The Atlas Wolves Africa; all “golden jackals” sampled Our work on African golden wolves across North, East and focuses on the Atlas Mountains of were actually golden wolves. Morocco, concentrating over the next year in the . African golden wolves split from their The Atlas Mountains are biodiversity half the fresh water in Morocco comes closest relatives, grey wolves and hotspots, home to an extraordinary from this region. coyotes, an estimated 1.3 million years variety of plants and animals, including ago during the early . The many that are unique to the region. Here the wolves range in colour from ancestor of golden jackals diverged The Middle Atlas landscape is a rich brown to nearly grey, with earlier, approximately 1.9 million years covered in a mosaic of towering a grey or grey-black back, a white ago. At some point they radiated into Atlas cedars and evergreen oak trees mouth, neck and , and a Africa, with the earliest fossil evidence where stunning mountain views black-tipped tail. They overlap in size in Africa from the mid-Pleistocene in can be glimpsed through the trees, with local shepherds’ herding dogs Morocco. Their range now includes transitioning into rocky cliff sides and and are known locally as dyb () the north of Africa down to Senegal in interspersed with lakes and . or ušen (Tamazight berber). the west and in the East. The Middle Atlas is sometimes referred to as the “Castle of Water,” as nearly The focus of this issue of Wolf Print on The existence of distinct subspecies has not yet been evaluated, though six subspecies of “African golden jackal” had been described. However, there seems to be at least two main morphotypes of the African golden wolf: a larger northern wolf-like variant and a smaller southern jackal- like variant. The wolf-like northern variant is probably closer to the ancestral form of the species, based on geography, fossil records, and their relation to grey wolves and coyotes.

As golden wolves moved farther south into the African continent, intense competition with large

Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 | 15 “The Middle Atlas Mountains are one of the only places where African golden wolves cope with cold, snowy winters.”

temperature is a fitting introduction and savannahs, desert margins, rocky behaviour of golden wolves when for the Atlas wolves, as the Atlas massifs, agricultural areas, woodlands not restricted by larger competitors is Mountains are the only place where and coastal , from sea level interesting from an ecological point African golden wolves experience to altitudes above 3,000m. However, of view, but of greater importance cold, snowy winters, which lie in stark research so far conducted on golden is understanding the role wolves contrast to the hot, dry summers. wolves has been in open habitats. The therefore in the Atlas community. While summer days can reach above Atlas forests pose different ecological Predators are necessary to maintain 40oC, winter often sees several feet of challenges for golden wolves (and healthy ecosystems, so as the only snow that can last for months, often different challenges for us, trying to large predator, Atlas wolves are likely even blocking the winding mountain observe these elusive wolves!). crucial for maintaining ecosystem up to our study areas for several stability and diversity. Conserving days at a time. This dramatic climate Elsewhere in their range, golden and understanding Atlas wolves is is unlike anywhere else African golden wolves compete with larger thus critical for not only their benefit, wolves live. Part of our research carnivores: lions, hyenas and but for this biodiversity hotspot as a focuses on how golden wolves adapt Ethiopian wolves, to name a few. In whole. their diet, behaviour and ecology to the Atlas, however, wolves face little cope with these extreme seasonal competition. The Barbary lions and Under Threat variations. Barbary leopards that recently roamed As a new species, the conservation these mountains are now extinct, status of the African golden wolf Golden wolves are flexible in their leaving golden wolves as the sole has not yet been assessed. However, habitat use, found in a variety of remaining large predator throughout golden wolves appear to be declining environments including the Middle Atlas. Understanding the across their entire range, and within

16 | Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 A golden wolf carrying what appears to be a . Conflict with shepherds over is the greatest threat to the survival of Atlas golden wolves.

sheep, goats and poultry is an It is a very exciting time to be involved economic disaster for families that rely in the study of golden wolves, as on them. Shepherds therefore actively much remains to be understood about hunt golden wolves by shooting, the evolution and ecology of this new and poisoning as preventative species. However, conservation efforts or retaliatory measures, and golden are urgently needed to assess the wolves receive no protection. Sadly, status of golden wolves and address not only are golden wolves killed, but areas where they are known to be I have seen videos of them being first under threat, as in the Atlas. With the abused “as punishment for eating generous support of the Trust we are livestock”. about to begin a new field season to address this need. I look forward to A large part of our work will therefore updating the Trust on the outcomes of focus on reducing human-wolf our work and the discoveries we make conflict, using a multi-pronged on the mysterious, beautiful Atlas approach of scientific research, wolves. community involvement and outreach and education. By studying factors Liz AD Campbell Morocco dramatic declines predict influencing livestock depredation Campbell is leading the project on African their extinction within decades. we hope to develop strategies golden wolves in the Moroccan Atlas to alleviate the problem, and by Mountains. The research is a collaboration The main cause for their decline in involving the local community in the between WildCRU, University of Oxford, Morocco, like so many wolves, is work and educating on the value of England and BioDEcos, Cadi Ayyad persecution from humans. Conflict these animals we hope to increase University, Morocco, with David Macdonald over livestock in a society that is heavily tolerance, thereby preventing the (WildCRU) and Mohammed Znari pastoral, no doubt exaggerated by death, abuse and even extinction (BioDEcos). Liz is also Programme Director a general fear and dislike of wild of wolves in Morocco. We will also of the Moroccan Primate Conservation predators, continues to cause the investigate other factors that may be Foundation and works for the International death of many Moroccan wolves. There contributing the decline of golden Fund for , Morocco. is currently no compensation scheme wolves and establish baselines for the loss of livestock from predators for long-term monitoring and Photographs: Liz AD Campbell/Moroccan Primate so the occasional depredation of conservation efforts. Conservation Foundation

References/Further Reading Tiwari J & Sillero-Zubiri C (2004) Unidentified canid in the of Eritrea, . Canid News 7:5. Rueness EK et al. (2011) The cryptic African wolf: Canis aureus lupaster is not a golden jackal and is not endemic to . PLoS One 6:e16385. Gaubert P et al. (2012) Reviving the African wolf Canis lupus lupaster in North and West Africa: a mitochondrial ranging more than 6,000 km wide. PLoS One 7:e42740. Koepfli KP et al (2015) -wide evidence reveals that African and Eurasian golden jackals are distinct species. Current Biology 25:2158-2165. Viranta S et al. (2017) Rediscovering a forgotten canid species. BMC Zoology 2:6.

Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 | 17 wolf eyes An extract taken from Seth Kanther’s Book ‘Swallowed by The Great Land’

he land is greening up. Out on a red plastic step counter, Mickey the country, everything is busy big-eared and grinning on the Tmaking leaves and and front. She dropped her spoon and ran babies. I’ve seen wolves this spring, out barefoot to the food cache, dug and there’s one out there along the in the second box and, sure enough, river in the mosquitoes that I keep found a blue one to give to Kituq thinking about, wondering how he’s when he woke up. doing. It was a hot sunny day with lots to do, Here at my old igloo, the bugs but no real time when it needed to be started getting bad early. We got out done. The kids played, checking sap mosquito bed-nets to sleep under. buckets, climbing trees, and circling After the river ice went out, we porcupine on the hill. I was surprised boated up to Ambler. Kituq Williams, how many steps they took in an hour Afterward we walked over to the my friend Alvin’s ten-year-old son, – thousands. (Shucks, I’m probably pond to try to sneak on geese. We returned with us. That first evening, worse.) They kept bumping the reset took the wrong trail, a caribou trail, after midnight, after the sun finally to zero, so I taped pistachio shells over and somewhere, China lost her step slid behind a peak for an hour or so the buttons. counter. – after we made ice cream and got a caribou because we were out of They were already back up over two We got home all sweaty and hot and meat – we strung up netting for him, thousand when we spotted caribou bug-bitten, but carried on with our too. The kids were happy about their crossing. The animals came ashore original plan, to pack a picnic and personal screen tents and looked like above our little boat and hit our trail. motor up the Nuna River. Before we a little prince and princess sleeping They appreciated the easy walking left, I spotted more caribou downriver under them. and marched up under the windows, and a black bear on the willow island. then split into two groups and flowed China crawled out early, at noon, by on both sides of the house. The Up the Nuna, we climbed out on a and opened a box of Rice Krispies dog and kids ran after them – the dog huge dripping snowdrift. The sky that Stacey had bought for her at the using his legs lots, too, but minus a was brilliant blue, the tundra turning Native Store. Inside was a surprise, step counter. green. We continued on. In a side-

18 | Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 slough a rose up just On the main river, to lengthen the across the tundra for the pond. In the yards beside us and disappeared journey by a few hundred yards, I cut tussocks we walked slow, searching. I into a thicket. In the brush was a behind the willow island and motored was sweaty and sun-cooked. drowned the bear had recently up the south shore, staying out of discovered, and we were glad he had the current, heading for home. In the After a hot day of hiding in the shade, jumped away instead of into our tiny mounds of dirt, something began the mosquitoes were coming back boat. running right beside us. I thought out, hungry. Kituq moved off ahead. it was a bear, but no, it was a black Where the caribou trail hit the shore, A few bends farther, we stopped on wolf! We passed him immediately he found the red plastic toy. He read a rock bar and built a fire. It was hot – unusual for a slow boat against a the digits. “Almost five thousand,” he – seventy or so – and ice still along running wolf. It all happened fast; said. the eddies. The kids jumped into the just twenty feet away, we saw that freezing water and seemed to bounce something was terribly wrong with “That was just this morning,” I right back out. “Come on, try it!” his left front leg. It was flopping, and marveled. “Long day for you kids after they shouted. “It’s warm!” I waded up then he turned and stared at us. that.” to my knees, shivering and grinning at the ice floating just beyond them. I don’t know if I’ll forget that wolf’s I was thinking about the longer days “Yeah,” I said. “I see that.” gaze. He was big, dark, and rangy, ahead for that wolf. Surely he was with a long powerful face and aware of each step, with that mangled Afternoon stretched into evening, piercing pale eyes. In his eyes was the foreleg. No store-bought step counter still bright and relentless sun, and most haggard look. That’s the part for him. I thought about hospitals and we headed downstream, drifting that cooked into my memory. health care, and his world, where he occasionally, surprising beaver that didn’t have any of that. leaped off the bank as we passed He turned into the willows, then and moose that faded into willows. came back out and ran on three legs Recently, a few boats had passed; Near a beaver lodge we found a level the other way. I howled. He stopped, maybe someone had shot at him. bench packed with baby spruce like looked at us – silent now, in the boat A bear might have bitten his wrist. a Christmas tree farm, then more – and ran again. Moose were having babies – he might beaver, one big dry one letting us float have gotten stomped by a mom a few feet away from it while it stayed When we got home China was still protecting her young. Wolves live on the cutbank. worried about her step counter. It was tough lives. They kill things and get 9 p.m., still warm and sunny. I was killed. The kids were having a great time. It tired but didn’t take off my hot hip was still warm, though I’d finally put a boots, just slung the shotgun over my It was the look on his face that I’m left shirt on. No one wanted to get home, shoulder; Kituq, China, and I started with. He knew things had changed; though of course China still expected he knew he was big and tough, me to find her step counter that night, capable and ruined. somewhere on the tundra. Seth Kanther

Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 | 19 wolves (27%) were killed along the Estonian border, 20 wolves (7%) along Wolf and Lynx the Russian border and ten wolves (3%) along the border.

In the 2014-2015 season 88% Situation in Latvia of wolves were killed in a 50-60 kilometer-wide border zone. This accounted for 236 out of the total harvest of 267 wolves. One hundred Joint complaint letter to the European Commission and twenty-two wolves (46%) were about wolf and lynx hunting in Latvia. It was supported killed along the Lithuanian border, 55 by nine environmental organisations from , wolves (21%) were killed along the and France/ . Estonian border, 48 wolves (18%) along the Russian border and 11 wolves (4%) along the Belarus border.

urrently 300 wolves (including six pups would result in 120 pups 200-300 wolves can be easily secured the whole pack), half of the (without compensating for the with 15-30 incoming/breeding pairs Clupine population, and 50% of average pup losses of new litters). from Lithuania, Estonia, and the the lynx population is killed annually Pups from new litters are used to Pskov region in after the nine in Latvia. When the Estonian lynx compensate for the excess to Latvia’s month season closes population was at the carrying harvest quotas, and Latvia’s officials on 31st March. On average, packs capacity (until 2011) some 50 are then able to claim from the have 3-5 dispersing wolves; those breeding females lived in a 50km European Commission that they 15-30 breeding pairs can be recruited wide area - subadults who couldn’t have a sustainable wolf policy and from 12-20 packs along the border in establish their own territories - moved adequate management. neighbouring countries. down to Latvia. Estonian subadults/ adults who were breeding/killed in In the 2013-2014 hunting season The wolf killing quota in Latvia Latvia were later branded as ‘Latvian 70% of wolves were killed in a 50-60 increased only when populations in lynx’. One third were kittens. kilometer-wide border zone: 204 Estonia, Lithuania and Russia’s Pskov from the total harvest of 292 wolves. region increased. Prior to that, Latvia’s For 17 consecutive years 43% of the Ninety-five wolves (33%) were killed hunters were unable to kill 150 wolves wolf population was killed annually. along the Lithuanian border, 79 in nine months. Now they kill 250-290 Latvia possibly retains a population in nine months, but that increase of of 200-300 wolves post-hunting an additional 100-140 wolves can be season, due to migration from the ‘compensated’ by the additional 30 neighbouring countries of Estonia, Lithuania, and the Pskov region of Russia. In the last two seasons the wolf quota was set at 300 and this did not account for wolves killed by poachers.

The total length of Latvia’s shared border with Estonia, Lithuania and Russia is 1200km. To ensure a population of 200-300 wolves after the hunting season harvest of 300, Latvia needs 60-95 breeding pairs. Assuming that half of the territory is covered with forests and the average wolf dispersal distance is approximately 100km, Latvia will regularly receive migrating wolves from 120,000km2 of bordering countries. 20 breeding pairs may migrate into Latvia from neighbouring countries; an average litter size of

20 | Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 breeding pairs (if three pups per litter survive then 30 x 3 = 90; if five pups survive then 30 x 5 = 150).

Dr. Janis Ozolins, who is monitoring wolf population in Latvia, cannot scientifically prove that there are no migrating wolves from Estonia, Lithuania and Russia. Dr Ozolins was a key negotiator with the European Commission’s officials in 2001 and persuaded them to allow to hunt wolves for nine months and lynx for four months. The large predator monitoring is based on cohort analysis of the killed wolves and lynx. Laboratory and travel costs to collect killed specimens is financed by the hunter fund. His sample of 80-100 wolves is too small to be scientifically robust, particularly in regard to the breeding females subset. His sample size of ten females is too small to be statistically significant. wolves per 1000km2, amounting to at In public, officials with the Hunting least 480-640 wolves throughout the Department of State Forest Service Public input on wolf management whole year. say that all depredations are caused was not allowed when Latvia was by wolves so that they can justify admitted to the in To put the whole thing in perspective: the increase in the wolf quota. An 2004. No alternatives to extreme important criticism of the existing wolf killing were considered. A few hunting pressure is the number of officials, including Dr. Ozolins, made a) In , wolf range is animals injured — enough for the the decision unilaterally, and now 61,500km2 and there are 1276 proportion (ratio) to be 1:1, that wolves are hunted with old Soviet- wolves (2014) or 20.75 wolves every wolf is either injured or killed style ferocity. There is no change per 1000km2 by hunters, or both, because 43% of whatsoever, because during April b) In Germany, wolf range is 12 wolves are killed annually. Therefore through mid-July, when hunting is -13,000km2 and there are 250 one killed and one injured animal not occurring, pup mortality is at its wolves or 19.2 – 20.8 wolves makes 90% of population. highest at approximately 50% of the per 1000km2 litters. c) In (USA), wolf range Furthermore, one should weigh up is 70,000km2 and there are 2221 the issue of the few sheep taken by The European Commission should wolves (2015) or 32 wolves per wolves against the damage to the crops demand that Latvia’s authorities 1000km2 while in Latvia, wolf and forestry done by wild . scientifically validate that 200-300 range is 30,000 km2 and there It is estimated that 5% of total crops wolves are being maintained only due are 300 wolves or ten wolves and 10% of new trees are destroyed to the migratory population of wolves per 1000km2. by abundant (Sus scrofa), from Estonia, Lithuania and Russia. red deer (Cervus elaphus), moose If they cannot provide supporting (Alces alces), and ( research that wolf populations Regarding sheep depredation and capreolus) populations. In 2015 moose are maintained for reasons other wolf hunting in Latvia – a regional have destroyed 7,000 hectares of than migration, then the European press surveyed revealed: coniferous stands. Costs of regeneration Commission should deny ‘favourable and repellents amount to 8.5 million status’ to Latvia’s wolf population. euros annually. -vehicle The burden of proof is on Latvia’s a ) In 2012 out of 170 depredated collisions amount to approximately 700 authorities. sheep, at least 143 were killed annually with several people killed. by feral dogs; It should be noted that 200-300 b) In 2013 out of 174 depredated Lynx hunting wolves are not enough to fulfil sheep, at least 129 were killed The harvest bag of shot 1 2 ecological functions in a forest by dogs. consisted of /3 of kittens + /3 adult ecosystem. The minimal number is 16 lynx. So if the harvest bag is 180,

Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 | 21 Lynx harvest bag in Estonia: 2008/2009 - 150 lynx 2009/2010 - 184 2010/2011 - 181 2011/2012 - 100 2012/2013 - 87 2013/2014 - 16 2014/2015 - 2 2015/2016 - 18

Lynx harvest bag in Latvia: 2008/2009 - 117 2009/2010 - 141 2010/2011 - 133 2011/2012 - 149 2012/2013 - 150 2013/2014 - 147 2014/2015 - 172 then on average 60 kittens and 120 was permitted in Latvia, but only 114 2015/2016 - 114 adults were killed. If the number of lynxes have been killed after four 2016/2017 - 125 lynx who reach one year of age is 54, months of the hunting season (4/5 then the number of shot adult lynx of all lynx are shot in an area which The number of breeding is almost two times bigger (~120). has a shared border with Estonia and females in Estonia: Therefore the lynx population should this winter snow has been present 2008/2009 - 128 be decreasing (not increasing). for at least three months - snow is a 2009/2010 - 126 necessary precondition for successful 2010/2011 - 111 Until 2012 Estonia had lynx density lynx hunting as lynx are solitary 2011/2012 - 103 at carrying capacity and it is very animals who do not make sounds the 2012/2013 - 72 likely that young subadults could not way wolves do). 2013/2014 - 46 establish their own territory there - so 2014/2015 - 61 they moved south to Latvia where As monitoring is lagging two years 2015/2016 - 64 they compensated Latvia’s excessive behind the actual situation on the killing rate of lynxes. However, Estonia’s ground, and if Latvia will not reduce roe deer population was severely the hunting bag/quota, then it seems This information was sent to Wolf Print reduced due to harsh winters in 2009 that Latvia will go Estonia’s way when by Mick Vilkins from NGO Latvijas Vilki and 2010. Roe deer is the main prey lynx numbers dropped from 103 (Latvian wolves) which tries to reduce species for lynx. As a consequence, females with kittens in 2011 to 46 extreme wolf and lynx hunting in Latvia. We lynx numbers in Estonia dropped from females with kittens in 2013 — as are hoping to get some more information 103 females with kittens in 2011 to there are no more incoming subadults from Samantha Howlett, a member of 46 females with kittens in 2013. As from Estonia in significant numbers. research institute in Latvia who participates a result, fewer lynx now arrive from No sheep were killed by lynx in Latvia. in wolf and lynx monitoring in Latvia. The Estonia and if Latvia’s hunters continue monitoring team’s action/conservation plans to shoot 20-25% of lynx population ‘The Baltic lynx population’ is will be available in English at the end of annually, they will reduce adult lynx reality only on a paper (for the EC this year, so it will be interesting to have an numbers in a short time period. bureaucrats) as there is no and update in our next issue. therefore genetic connectivity among In 2015/2016, a quota of 150 lynxes Estonia’s and Lithuania’s lynxes. Photographs by Velga Vitola

22 | Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 The National Action Plan for Ethiopian Photograph by Lorenz Foscher Wolf Conservation, with backing from governments, experts and international organisations including IUCN, also identified the need for metapopulation management for the species in 2011. When last year wolves in Delanta were reduced to just two or three , there is a sense of urgency to move forward along this conservation road.

As wolf numbers and their habitats continue to shrink, and in the absence of captive populations either in-country or abroad, conservation translocations provide a promising opportunity to rescue small populations following disease outbreaks and to increase the range and number of populations. This can be achieved without resorting to captive breeding, and with the advantage of bringing extra protection Living on The Edge to Afroalpine enclaves where Metapopulation Management to The Rescue translocations will occur. EWCP is taking the lead to implement the first necessary steps stated in the The loss and fragmentation of habitat for wildlife is National Action Plan. We are seeking to raise awareness, institutional threatening biodiversity worldwide, as species that support and funding to achieve three once roamed widely are now restricted to small and main objectives: increasingly isolated fragments. a) a long-term vision for wolf survival through conservation translocations b) readiness to rescue confiscated or his is the case of the Ethiopian The last remaining Ethiopian wolves injured wolves wolf, a canid specialised to life are restricted to six small populations, c) agreed plan to recover the range Tin the highlands of Ethiopia, isolated from each other in terms of the Bale wolf population in now trapped in islands of Afroalpine of dispersal. As a result, areas from Gaysay grasslands via translocation. habitats in a sea of agriculture fields. where wolves went extinct are not By adding to current conservation being naturally recolonised, and all efforts a metapopulation remnant populations remain small and management approach we can at high risk of extinction. increase demographic resilience and move a step or two away from the To ensure the long-term survival of perilous edge of extinction. threatened carnivores, conservation agencies adapt to these challenges ‘The last Ethiopian wolves survive in six by managing animals as part of isolated mountain ranges, with no captive a metapopulation, implementing wolves anywhere on earth. Conservation translocations and reintroductions translocations might be the only way to within the species historical range, ensure their long-term survival.’ Jorgelina aiming to boost numbers, establish Marino new populations and/or ensure genetic viability. African carnivores To read more and/or support this beautiful populations actively managed include endangered creature, please visit www. Photograph by Lorenz Foscher those of lions and African wild dogs. ethiopianwolf.org

(An extract from the Ethiopian Wolf Conservation Programme. The full report can be read here: http://www.ethiopianwolf.org/resources/EWCP%20Annual%20Report%20%20April%202017.pdf)

Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 | 23 My presentation was titled ‘wolves seen from Photograph by Laetitia Becker researcher’s eyes’. I played with the words and started with this picture where I’m seen in a wolf’s eyes!

The Wolf Situation in Finland Cold Country; Hot Topic!

March 5, Lieksa, a region of North Karelia, Finland. -5o with a clear and sunny sky. I’ve been asked to come and speak about wolves, as a scientific specialist. But here, in the Finnish countryside, the wolf is a hot topic!

he Finnish wolf population throughout the country, with the I can already feel the tension in the was important until the 1880s, highest densities in central east and room. It’s winter outside, but I’m Tafter which it was hunted until south west. boiling. What will happen? Do they it almost became extinct. In recent have tomatoes and eggs to throw at decades, the population is more or In Finland there are three other large me? I asked a Finnish friend. He said: less stable at around 150 individuals predators. According to Luke, the ‘Don’t worry! In Finland when a lady is (estimation for winter 2017: 150-180 estimations for 2016 are about 2500 speaking no one can be really nasty.’ from the National Resources Institute lynxes, 1800 bears and 250-300 Finland (Luke). Wolves are established . Still, I’m nervous…

24 | Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017

Negative attitudes towards wolves are It’s almost impossible to see a wolf in the Karelian forest. You have more created for different reasons: chance waiting in hides baited for photo- tourism, although they are controversial.

• Wolves cause damage on domestic animals: in the northern regions (351 in 2013), sheep in the south (68 in 2014, 155 in 2015). However, the figures are extremely low compared to other European countries. 32 dogs were killed in Photograph by Vladimir Bologov 2016 but the media spotlights the attacks on hunting dogs so repeatedly, it falsely appears to from a Russian study (Korablev, the too small, and they couldn’t hunt be a HUGE problem in Finland. craniological laboratory of the Central wolves as in previous years. Dogs are usually attacked when Forest Reserve) showing that hunters they run freely in the forest while and wolves do not kill the same I finish with my own personal view hunting. categories of individuals in moose of the wolf. There is a saying that • Wolves coming close to human population. I give the conclusion of says you’re a lucky person if you see settlements cause fear and Linnell & al’s (2002) study that ‘…the a wolf. I saw one this year, and I’m feelings of insecurity in local wolves are among the least dangerous very happy about that! I also heard people. They consider that species’. them howling, twice. Every time, feeding wolves for photo I had goosebumps from emotion. tourism, the protection status I assure the audience that I understand That’s something everyone should of the species and the possible how local people feel, that I am one experience in their life! hybridisation with dogs, results of them. I remind them about all in wolves no longer fearing the work done by the authorities to Humans are not born to hate wolves. humans. involve local people, as it is the best It is all about information and • Finally, in this strong traditional way to cohabitate. Communication education. My 6-year-old son had a hunting country, wolves are about the wolf population is really wolf as an imaginary friend for years. seen as competition for human good in Finland. The authorities trust And my 4-year-old favourite fluffy toy resources, especially moose. their people (for example, showing is… a wolf! the average position of collared wolves so that hunters avoid the Laetitia Becker I knew what to expect and prepared place with their dogs). The last wolf Laetitia Becker completed a PhD on the my speech appropriately, beginning management plan of 2015 really tried experimental release of wolves in Russia my presentation with general to take the needs of the locals into in 2011. Since then,she has conducted figures and facts about wolf biology consideration. various studies on ecology and behaviour and behaviour. These are realistic of wolves and bears in Russia and since figures, because all too often you Close to the end of my presentation, 2015, in Finland too. www.lupuslaetus.org can read exaggerated facts, even on I can see that not everyone is educational websites. Misinformation convinced. Hunters can be stubborn. just generates fear. This year, they are doubly frustrated, as they couldn’t hunt moose in the I use scientific facts to support each region because the population was point I make. I present a graph

Moose in swamp. Moose are the main prey of wolves in Finland, and the main hunting resource of humans.

Photograph by Vladimir Bologov

Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 | 25 Hunting Quota Increased on Prince of Wales Island,

On Prince of Wales Island in Ketchikan in Alaska, a growing wolf population has prompted a larger allowance for hunting wolves on the island this year. It is estimated that there are 231 WOLVES OF THE WORLD wolves on the island and surrounding islands. Last year the hunting quota When in Rome… was 11 wolves but this year, beginning Cubs Spotted in Close Proximity to The Italian Capital on December 1, it will be 46, 20% of the population.

Two wolves have been recently spotted in a nature reserve close to Rome, their very distinct presence captured with hidden cameras.

hey are in fact fully grown cubs, wolves. This event is a memorable so there are likely to be more one, and we would like the whole Tin the pack, probably two more Roman community to understand and adults. Appropriately, the male adult appreciate its importance’. has been nicknamed Romulus by Red Wolf Cubs researchers. In the mythic Italian tale, Professor de Lorenzis believes that were saved from the pack probably travelled from In the last issue of Wolf Print, we a death sentence handed out by King the area around Lake Bracciano, reported on the of six red wolf Amulius. They were then suckled by north of Rome. Wolves have always cubs at the Museum of Life and Science a she-wolf and fed by a woodpecker, been in this area, even when they in North Carolina, the first for nearly later becoming the founders of Rome. were persecuted and hunted to near twenty years. Four of the six cubs extinction. The animals appear to be survived and the pack of two adults Alessia De Lorenzis, a professor of surviving well on wild boar, so should and four cubs will now be transferred natural sciences working for the Oasi not be a threat to livestock. to the Wolf Conservation Center in LIPU Castel di Guido nature reserve South Salem, New York. They will be at the of the story, (www.lipu. By the 1970s, there were only moving to a spacious one acre home, it), spoke to Wolf Print and told us: approximately 100 or so individual giving them more space to explore and ‘The birth of these pups represents wolves remaining in Italy. The species enjoy their new family. A new breeding an extraordinary event that makes us was given protected status in 1971 pair will come to the Museum of Life proud and that fills us with joy. We and there are now approximately and Science in their place and hopefully will do anything that we can to look 1,500-2,000 free-roaming wolves further increase the population of after them, and we will try our best in Italy. There has been a strong endangered red wolves still further. to pass on to the local communities population in the Alps and our same enthusiasm and love for the subsequently problems with wolves The red wolf is unique to the United travelling across the border into France States and not found anywhere and killing sheep. Wolves have also else in the world. After being listed moved north through the Jura and as endangered in 1973, 14 wolves Vosges mountains, even being seen in were removed from the wild in 1980 the countryside near Paris, which has and a captive breeding programme caused consternation and controversy established. The Red Wolf Species with farmers. Survival Plan is designed to oversee the management of the endangered Wolf Print will be watching with red wolves in captivity. We wish this great interest how this Roman story latest family a safe journey and a develops. bright new future.

Photograph of red wolf cubs by Museum of Life and Science https://www.lifeandscience.org 26 | Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 Member of The Diamond Pack Killed in New Mexico

In August this year, the US Department of Agriculture killed a female endangered in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

his was in response to complaints Ranchers were very positive about the livestock industry. Patrick Bray, about deaths near the the lethal outcome, stating that the executive vice president for the Arizona TArizona-Mexico border. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Cattle Growers’Association, said that wolf was a member of the Diamond were finally ‘making a good decision.’ no rancher needed to remove a cow’s Pack and her role in the killings was However, environmentalists say that carcass, which is beneficial for the indicated by GPS and telemetry a cow that died of natural causes environment. He added: ‘Wolves are tracking, although it is likely that other (possibly from eating twine) and whose natural predators – live or dead they are members of the pack also carried out carcass was not removed, was the going to prey on things. They didn’t kill attacks on livestock. reason why the Diamond Pack were a wolf because it was preying on dead originally attracted to the cattle. They animals, they killed it for preying on live Last year it was recorded that there believed that the original ‘attack’ was livestock.’ were only 113 wolves in Arizona and actually scavenging, a process that New Mexico as the numbers had at caused them to later prey on the live The courts have set a deadline for last been growing since the species cattle. Others have blamed the Trump the end of November for a new was placed on the endangered list in adminstration, ruthlessly killing an management plan to be finalised, so it 1998. while prioritising is yet to be seen how the situation can be settled to suit everyone.

Photograph of red wolf cubs by Museum of Life and Science https://www.lifeandscience.org Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 | 27 Every Wolf Must Have Its Day Why Canis Lupus May Be ‘Smarter’

WOLVES OF THE WORLD Than Canis Lupus Familaris

The Wolf Science Center in Vienna published a study in September demonstrating that wolves may be smarter than dogs in certain respects.

sing a dozen socialised wolves did not look at the animals… communicative cues, researchers say, and 14 dogs, a team of may have ‘facilitated .’ Uresearchers led by Holland’s However, the one thing the dogs and Radboud University’s Michelle Lampe, wolves had in common was that they Juliane Bräuer, one of the authors of offered the animals two containers, one both failed to respond or find the the study, questioned the assumption with food and one without. Wolves food if there was no eye contact. that dogs understood human signals showed that they understood cause better than wolves. ‘In nature, wolves and effect, successfully interpreting Interestingly, Michelle Lampe observed: have to rely on their own observations communicative signals such as pointing ‘It cannot be excluded however, that and ingenuity, and dogs fed by or the researchers looking at the the differences can be explained by the humans do not need it...At the same container with the food, for example. fact that wolves are more persistent time, the ability to communicate with The food was wrapped tightly in to explore objects than dogs. Dogs humans may be found in wolves and clingfilm – so smell was not a factor. are conditioned to receive food from dogs, and domestication did not play us, whereas wolves have to find food a big role in its development.’ As an example, in the first experiment themselves in nature.’ a researcher showed the box, looking More information on the work/ the animal in the eye, and tried to The wolves seemed able to research carried out by Wolf Science open it. In the second one, the man understand eye-to-eye contact and the Center in Vienna here: demonstrated interest in the box, but fact that they were so responsive to http://www.wolfscience.at

28 | Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 Reprieve For The Remaining Members of The Smackout Pack

Although the Department of Fish and Wildlife has already culled two members of the Smackout Pack living in northeastern Washington back in July, they have announced that they will leave the rest of the pack alone for now. There have been no attacks on livestock for two months. Both wolves and cattle will continue to be monitored and according to the official 2011 wolf plan, culling will only recommence if four or more cattle deaths occur in ten months, or three in a month.

The Return of The Tasmanian Wolf?

Three New Species It’s certainly a romantic idea, but three men in Added to India’s have recently claimed to have captured the long lost Tasmanian wolf or on Chhatbir Zoo camera, as it was walking through a forest.

Chhatbir Zoo in Zirakpur, India, has seven new members of their 1,250-strong zoological family, he last thylacine, often called a Tasmanian tiger because of the stripes which includes the , on its body, died in Hobart Zoo in 1936. The new footage has been Royal and . Treleased on the 81st anniversary of its death. Adrian Richardson, George The new animals were unveiled to Booth and his son Greg are adamant that the footage shows the animal, visitors in early October after three although conservationists say it is more likely to be a spotted quoll, a related wolves were swapped for swamp species native to Tasmania. The trio have refused to give the exact location deer with the zoo in Jaipar. The Indian of the animal, as they do not want it to be disturbed. They are not the first wolf (Canis lupus pallipes) is a sub to claim that the thylacine is still around but as yet, no absolute proof of its species of the grey wolf, found in the existence has been proven. Previous sightings in Northern Queensland have . The species is had a certain amount of credibility, but search for the creature has become shorthaired, smaller and slighter in somewhat of a mystical quest worthy of the X Files, with many followers build than the grey wolf. believing that it really is still ‘out there’.

Wolf Print Autumn/Winter | 29 “Rainbow” Wolves Show Heat Loss From Mange Unsurprisingly, wolves suffering Type This time, it’s temperature that can regulate wolves. II or III were twice as likely to die as their healthy companions; severe mange could cause a staggering heat loss of 1240-2850 calories at night, collaborative study by the stress, remote infrared cameras and up to 80% of a wolf’s average needs. U.S. Geological Survey using camera traps were seen as a less According to the lead author, USGS Athermal imaging cameras has intrusive way of studying them. ecologist Paul Cross, the wolves would tested how sarcoptic mange affects need an extra 2-4 pounds of elk meat heat loss in Yellowstone’s wolves. The For their control group, the authors per day to compensate. This is where results were as surprising as they were took four healthy adult wolves – two the size of the pack can make all the colourful. male and two female – from the difference. Grizzly & Wolf Discovery Center in Caused by the Sacroptes scabiei, and shaved patches of fur The mortality rate of mangy wolves sarcoptic mange is highly contagious most commonly affected by mange dropped if they belonged to a and causes severe itching, skin lesions such as the legs, shoulders and larger pack with only a few infected and hair loss. Another weapon in the hindquarters. With a combination members, as food would be more anti-wolf arsenal, it was introduced of photography, thermal imaging, accessible. At the same time, this to the Northern Rockies by state vets motion-triggered cameras and a could increase the spread of mange, in the early 1900s to eradicate the weather station, the team recorded because can be transmitted by local population. Although initially both captive and wild wolves during skin-to-skin contact or sharing food free of the disease, as of 2015 one the winter of 2012-2013 and sources. Recovering from mange once in ten of the known Yellowstone compared behaviour, hair and heat is no guarantee against re-infection, packs carries mange, which can loss. The severity of mange was and unfortunately, if there is enough lead to hypothermia, starvation and categorised by hair loss, so Type I humidity, sarcoptic mites can survive . Given that wolves indicated 1-5% loss, Type II 6-50% outside their hosts for a short time. suffering mange are already under loss, and Type III, more than 50% loss. Interestingly, the team found that wind speed, not temperature, had a greater effect on wolves’ heat loss, and younger animals seemed to be most commonly affected.

Ongoing treatment like dips or oral medication are needed to cure mange, but this is not practical for wild animals, particularly ones who live and travel in groups. However, with time and a healthy immune system, wolves can recover and re-grow their fur. Why some Yellowstone wolves are at higher risk, or have more severe or prolonged mange is not yet known and is still being investigated. Image: U.S. Geological Survey. Public domain. Jessica Jacobs

Sources: Cross, P.C. et al. 2016. “Energetic Costs of Mange in Wolves Estimated from Infrared Thermography.” Ecology 97(8): 1938-1948. French, B. 2015. “Study: Wolves in Big Packs More Likely to Survive Mange.” Casper Star Tribune. http://trib.com/lifestyles/recreation/study-wolves-in-big-packs-more-likely-to-survive-mange/article_37d11712-a45c-56f8-bec6-db29aba4b8a5.html. Live Science. 2010. “Psychedelic Images to Aid Study of Wolves with Mange.” https://www.livescience.com/10910-psychedelic-images-aid-study-wolves-mange.html. The Northeast Wildlife Disease Cooperative. N.d. “Mange and Mites.” http://www.state. nj.us/dep/fgw/pdf/mange_factsheet.pdf. PetMD.com. N.d. “Sarcoptic Mange in Dogs.” http://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions/skin/c_dg_sarcoptic_mange?page=2. Trolle, M. 2013. “Wolves with Mange can Heal Themselves.” ScienceNordic. http://sciencenordic.com/wolves-mange-can-heal-themselves. USGS. 2016. “Study Shows Cold and Windy Nights Physically Drain Mangy Wolves.” https://www.usgs.gov/news/study- shows-cold-and-windy-nights-physically-drain-mangy-wolves. USGS. N.d. “Effects of Sarcoptic Mange on Gray Wolves in Yellowstone National Park.” https://www.usgs.gov/centers/norock/science/effects-sarcop- tic-mange-gray-wolves-yellowstone-national-park?qt-science_center_objects=1#qt-science_center_objects. Yellowstone Wolf: Project Citizen Science. N.d. “Recent Research: The Dyamics and Impacts of Sarcoptic Mange on Yellowstone’s Wolves.” http://www.yellowstonewolf.org/mange_in_yellowstone_wolves.php

30 | Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 MAKING TRACKS The Wolf A True Story of Survival and Obsession in the West By Nate Blakeslee Published by Oneworld Publications Hardcover 320pp RRP £20.00 ISBN-13: 978-1101902783

he reintroduction of wolves Author Nate Blakeslee has been into Yellowstone in 1995 was a given unprecedented access to the Tcontroversial and highly political notes of two pivotal Yellowstone decision that pitted rancher and people: field biologist Rick McIntyre hunter against environmentalist and and Laurie Lyman, a retired teacher wildlife supporter. The Wolf follows and wolf advocate who generously the life of one particular iconic wolf shares her daily experiences with that became known as 0-Six. How wolf lovers worldwide. The Wolf is she became an alpha, how her family a beautifully descriptive account of grew. It also describes those who the reintroduction, how the wolves Nate Blakeslee reintroduced the wolves, those who flourished in the early years and observe them and even the hunters then later struggled. It shows the who believe there is no place for beauty, harshness and cruelty of the To gain balance, Nate visited the them in their part of the world. As a wilderness that is Yellowstone. hunters, to understand their viewpoint Montana rancher once said to me: and their reasons for not wanting ‘There’s a reason we got rid of wolves, Wolf 0-Six, the focus of this book, the predator returned to its ancestral the reason hasn’t changed.’ was admired, respected and loved lands. He talked to the hunter who for her strength. She killed 0-Six; his name was never made held her pack together public but his deed even made UK with an iron will, and news. The hunter had no regrets yet could still play like and would do the same again if the a with her cubs. opportunity presented itself. She was a phenomenal hunter, described as The story flows from his pen with some the best in the pack. writer’s licence, which is what makes it When she partnered his own. I enjoyed reading it although I with her mate and his shed some tears at some of the painful brother (755 and 754), memories it invoked. I watched 0-Six their hunting abilities for many years, enjoying her mature were questionable. and become an alpha. I miss her still They were nicknamed and feel sad that thousands of people Beavis and Butthead could have enjoyed and been thrilled at by the wolf watchers, seeing her, but have been denied the but as 0-Six taught privilege because one person wanted them, they watched a pelt. her and learned how to hunt and provide The only thing missing are photos of for their family. The the stunning wolves whose lives have book describes her been shared. Nate Blakeslee has done return to Lamar Valley, 0-Six justice because he listened to the valley where her those who knew her the best. grandparents 21 and 42 led the Druid Pack. Sian Jones, the straight-talking retired It paints the picture UK police officer mentioned in the of their lives, giving book who broke down and sobbed on insights into the people the news that 0-Six had been who watched them. killed.

Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 | 31 MAKING TRACKS

What’s in a name? Putting the wolves into Wolverhampton

30 wolf sculptures are being placed Highfields School . around Wolverhampton in a bold, bright public art project. Wolves in There are also numerous sponsors, Wolves is being organised by Outside which currently include Marston’s, Centre and Enjoy Wolverhampton. Wolves FC, Talent Match, Grand Theatre, WV Active, University of Designers are being partnered Wolverhampton, Movecorp, NCP, with sponsors to create artwork to Hilton Main Construction, Learn Play decorate the wolves. For example, Foundation, of Wolverhampton pupils at Moreton School in Old College, Arena Theatre, Mander Fallings Lane have been working on Centre, Wolverhampton Homes, and designs for the Mayoral wolf, and Wolves Speedway. the students are also decorating the Clinical Commissioning Group City of Wolverhampton Council (CCG) wolf, while Head of Art, Jody Director of Governance, Kevin Williams, will be decorating one for O’Keefe, said: ‘The idea was put Yoo Recruit. There are numerous forward by business support officer, other artists, including University Manor Singh, as part of the council’s of Wolverhampton students and 100:100 scheme, which encourages

32 | Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 staff to suggest ways the council can improve. The Last Wolf

‘Manor’s inspiration arose The Hidden Springs from travelling in Europe, of Englishness where he saw a similar event being staged in Dublin some By Robert Winder years ago. Manor was born Published by Little Brown Book Group and brought up in Park Village Hardcover 480pp and was delighted his idea RRP £20.00 was picked to raise the profile ISBN-13: 978-140870779 of his home city.

‘Wolves in Wolves is a great opportunity to showcase the obert Winder’s hugely ambitious City of Wolverhampton to book is a provocative and intriguing visitors.’ Rlook at what has made England what it is, by its climate and geography. This exhibition has now As the United Kingdom turns away from climate, vegetation and the surrounding finished and the exhibits are its European neighbours and begins to seas, but also the determination of to be auctioned off for charity. look increasingly disunited at home, it is thousands of resourceful individuals becoming necessary to ask, what does down the centuries to use these natural England have that is singular and its own? resources to their advantage, such as hunting wolves to extinction. ‘It is often assumed that the national identity must be a matter of values and Winder explores what seems to be ideas. But in Robert Winder’s brilliantly every geographical and cultured byway written account it is a land built on a through 700 years of history. He plays lucky set of natural ingredients: the island down the idea that our very insularity has setting that made it maritime; the rain shaped us as a nation. He notes that the that fed the grass that nourished the English have long had a contradictory sheep that provided the wool, and the penchant for things we can’t possibly wheat fields that provided its cakes and grow here such as sugar, coffee, tea, ale. Then came the seams of iron and - not to mention opium. coal that made it an industrial giant.’ Winder is at his best when tracing He starts by telling us that in 1281 how one thing became another. His Edward I commissioned a Shropshire excellent description of the rise of knight called Peter Corbet to eradicate Lancashire’s enormous cotton industry England’s wolves. By 1290, by hunting triggers a discussion of the slave trade wolves with a pack of roaming and English morality (or hypocrisy) the forests of Middle England, this was in general. Describing the rigours of achieved. coal-mining and the chasm that emerge between ‘those who got their hands The implications of this eradication dirty and those who banked the profits’ were profound: without the wolf the leads him to muse on divisions of class, countryside was a tamed terrain and wealth and occupation that have long large scale sheep farming was possible. persisted in English society. Sheep produced wool, wool produced wealth and wealth produced power. In summary, Robert Winder’s conclusion Thus England was made. in his lively look at what made the English who and what they are is ‘that Unlike Germany and France, England the key thing is not the people but was subsequently able to become the place’. According to Winder the a gigantic sheep farm, followed episode of the wolf’s disappearance by profitable beef, milk and other more than anything else marks the birth agricultural industries. For Winder, of Englishness. geography is destiny – by geography we mean not just England’s geology, Tsa Palmer

Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 | 33 The Wolves of Currumpaw By William Grill Published by Flying Eye Books Hardcover 80pp RRP £14.99 ISBN: 978-1-909263-83-3 MAKING TRACKS

illiam Grill was inspired Grill’s tale confronts the reality of a to write The Wolves of problem wolf, who leads an equally WCurrumpaw after reading problem pack. There are plenty of the 1904 short story by conservationist twists and turns, with wolf hunter and illustrator Ernest Thompson Seton, Seton using his knowledge of from his collection Wild Animals I have wolves to facilitate an outcome, Known. It is the story of Lobo, an hot on the trail of Lobo and his ‘outlaw wolf’ who made his presence pack. There is a lot of sadness in known in New Mexico in the 1890s. The Wolves of Currumpaw but it is Lobo had a Rasputin-like ability to worth reading to the end, where here and it would certainly prompt survive attempts to eradicate him and Seton has an Aldo Leopold moment someone to delve more into wolves, was therefore nicknamed ‘The King of that changes his life. the fascinating Seton and other Currumpaw’. conservationists. This would be a superb book for This is a visually striking book, the cover a switched on, conservationist- The Wolves of Currumpaw has reminiscent of an old copy of Rudyard minded older child, although it enormous beauty and great soul. A Kipling’s Just So Stories, with the inner might upset a child of a more book to treasure. illustrations inspired by Fauvist painters sensitive nature. There are like Saul Steinberg and Eric Ravilious. important lessons to be learnt Julia Bohanna

Pup and Pokey By Seth Kantner Published by Snowy Owl Books (University of Alaska Press) Paperback 44pp RRP £14.95 ISBN: 978-1-60223-241-9

eautifully illustrated by artist Beth spikes and teeth. They eventually face Hill and superbly penned by Seth danger from a trapper who could end BKantner, this unusual relationship both their lives with weapons of his between a porcupine and a wolf is a own, not to mention the trapper’s tale of family and . Kantner devilish dog, Bonehead. The trapper is writes poetically, with the authentic shown with realism, not as a monster Alaskan voice of someone who lives but as another species existing in it daily, can paint the landscape with harsh terrain. The wolf and porcupine visually rich prose: ‘On the top of one are young and inexperienced in a of the miniature spruce a shorebird with world of potential predators and bony yellow legs shrieked ceaselessly…’ enemies. They must therefore learn to This story would be perfect for the help each another, absorb the lessons photographer, born and raised in actorly fireside narrator, with a fat of survival that will make them thrive. northern Alaska. He is the author moon adding theatre in the sky. The trapper has seen the world, but of Ordinary Wolves, Shopping for he can still be surprised. Forming allies Porcupine and Swallowed by The The story is certainly a good one, with and using initiative has never been so Great Land. depth and meaning. Pup and Pokey important… have to learn to deal with controlling http://sethkantner.com their bodies and the potential Seth Kantner is a commercial ‘weapons’ they possess, such as claws, fisherman, writer and wildlife Julia Bohanna

34 | Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 Wolf Conflicts A Sociological Study (Interspecies Encounters) By Ketil Skogen, Olve Krange & Helene Figari Published by Berghahn Hardcover 226pp RRP £76.50 ISBN-13: 978-1785334207

cross and North America, wolf populations have been making a comeback Aand appear to be thriving, which is great news for biologists and conservationists. It is important to remember that wherever large carnivores are present (bears, wolverines, lynx and wolves) there is likely to be conflict with co-existing communities.

Tensions inevitably arise when pro-wolf and anti- wolf groups discuss the issues of wolf management programmes. Particularly with social media, it is easy to get caught up in arguments and quickly judge those who are anti-wolf, forgetting communities/individuals heavily affected by wolves such as landowners, farmers and hunters. These people often feel that their views, concerns for their livelihood and way of life are in jeopardy.

This book chronicles fifteen years of research and case studies conducted across and focuses on the all too frequent unheard voices of landowners, farmers and hunters. Reading about the concerns and the conflicts that they have to face helps the reader understand how it affects them.

Wolf Conflicts expresses the idea that conflicts the local communities face are often about people’s attitudes to each other about wolves rather than with wolves. It is beautifully detailed, classifying what the wolf represents, such as the pure wolf, the wild wolf, the social wolf, the threatened or threatening wolf and the dangerous wolf. It also demonstrates how views can differ among individual ability to get their opinions heard. The media often focuses groups. on the most extreme individuals in a much larger group.

The book discusses the rumours of wolves being It’s clear that individuals can have a detrimental effect on reintroduced into the wild secretly by the government, a whole community. For example Kjell Vidar, who works and finally the opinions and responses from communities in the private service sector, discusses his workmate’s regarding the management of large carnivores. daughter and the Koppang wolf cull: ‘She doesn’t dare to admit that she comes from Koppang. She really can’t do I do highly recommend this book, although the first few that, (…) She was really shocked when these newspaper chapters are long and heavy going for the average reader, pieces about Koppang [and a wolf culling] appeared. and personally took me back to my university study. Wolf When it finally came out that she was from Koppang, she Conflicts is the result of ‘fifteen years of sociological was harassed [by the other students].’ He also referred research on the conflicts of wolves in Norway’, rather than to the fact that hunters are often seen as ‘some barbaric a behavioural wolf study. Humans are the real subject morons who take our rifles to bed and such things’. matter and it may take a little while to acclimatise to the terminology used. However, it is a rewarding book, This truly is a fascinating, compelling and highly engaging providing great insights into a community who feel that book. the media often portray them as the enemy or even ‘backwards’. This often has an impact and limits hunters’ Francesca Macilroy

Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 | 35 Gifts, clothing and wolfy souvenirs

Pewter Wolf Head Cufflinks £15.00 A wolf head made in pewter with amazing detail. Size 3cm x 3cm

Black & White Wristband £2.00 A black wristband which has white writing embossed with words - UK WOLF CONSERVATION TRUST, a print & website address.

Wardens of the North Book Ends £15.00 A pair of Arctic wolf bookends made of resin. 13cm high x 8cm depth.

A5 Desktop Calendar 2018 £6.50 Brighten up your desk with a ringbound A5 desktop calendar featuring our wolves.

Waterproof Duffle Bag £4.50 Choice of two designs with image printed on both sides a) Wolf face. b) Wolf howling on moonlit hill.

36 | Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 Wolf Reflection or Sunset Wolves – Travel Mug £11.00 With an ergonomically-contoured shape, an easy to use no-spill lid, and a stainless interior - these travel tumblers make a great gift. Vibrantly printed with gorgeous art, the double-walled construction keeps beverages hot, resists condensation. The lid is a screw top with slide lock to prevent spills.The size of each tumbler is 8.5cm diameter, 19.5cm height and holds 47cl. Stainless steel lined. Handwash only. Designed and printed in USA. Choice of two designs.

Wall Calendar 2018 £7.50 Brighten up your home or office over the coming year with one of our calendars. This ringbound A4 calendar opens to A3 in size and provides plenty of space for planning events. Features a different picture of our wolves for each month.

Wolf Chopping Board A Tuftop glass kitchen board featuring a pack of four wolves. Available in three sizes. Small size 30cm x 23cm - £10, Medium size 41cm x 30 cm - £12, Circular - £12. 20cm Huggers Wolf £7.50 A cute 20cm wolf on a huggers bracelet to be worn on the wrist, or can be attached to most circular objects.

To view and order any of these items and our other stationery, clothing, books, gifts and souvenirs, visit our online shop at www.ukwolf.org or call 0118 971 3330.

Please note: all UK orders are subject to a minimum P&P charge of £4.50. For overseas orders, please contact us.

Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 | 37 Christmas ONLY special offer Magazine Adopt a Wolf membership £14 UK, membership - comes £17 EU, £26 ROTW with a special cuddly Three issues of our informative magazine on wolf conservation wolf toy £40 worldwide along with book reviews, merchandise, interviews If you’d like to support the Junior membership – and of course updates on our ten Trust, why not adopt one of our resident wolves. wolves? Adoptions cost £40 per £20 wolf per year and the adoption pack includes a beautiful 10”x Open to children aged between 6 8” photograph of your adopted and 12, this includes: one Junior Gift Vouchers wolf, three copies of Wolf ticket to come to visit on one of our ‘Wednesday Open Days’ Print magazine, a Certificate of Gift vouchers available in during membership year, advanced Adoption and a biography of your denominations of £20, £10, & £5 notification of events and 20% wolf. In addition, we’ll send a which can go towards any event, discount on children’s events small vial of moulted fur from your merchandise or membership. run by the Trust, Wolf Chronicle adopted wolf. You’ll also receive Please note that all gift vouchers newsletter three times a year, a voucher for a free admission to will need to be redeemed over the welcome pack, including 10” x 8” visit on a ‘Wednesday Open Day’ phone on 0118 971 3330 and are colour wolf photograph, fun fact so that you can come and see valid for 12 months from date of sheet, membership certificate, wolf your adopted wolf. purchase. information sheets, UKWCT car sticker and a free gift.


38 | Wolf Print Autumn/Winter 2017 UKWCT Wolf Centre FORTHCOMING EVENTS ‘Visit Wednesdays’

Visit Wednesdays give you the opportunity to come and see the Trust without pre-booking, unlike our other events. You will be able to observe our ten very charismatic wolves – from our three Arctics with their amazing white coats, to our enigmatic black Canadian wolves – and have a guided tour with one of our knowledgeable volunteers. There will be fantastic photographic views of the wolves in their large, natural-looking enclosures and you’ll have access to the raised photographic platform on site. Hear them howling during the day and watch them being fed at 2pm. We have picnic areas for warmer days, a gift shop for you to browse for books and souvenirs, and plenty of free parking. Please note that we will be closed on Wednesday December 27th.

Wednesdays – Open from 11am to 4pm ADMISSION: Adults – £8; Members Children (age 3-11) & OAPs – £5; Children under 3 – FREE. Tickets on the gate only. Sorry, no dogs on site.

Wolf Discovery Day

Spend the whole day studying in-depth wolf behaviour close up by observing and getting involved with the welfare of our ten resident wolves. Learn about wolf pack structure, our wolves’ personalities and take close-up photos.

You will have the opportunity to: • Listen to a presentation about wolf behaviour • Learn personal information about our ten resident wolves • Have the opportunity to hand feed the wolves • Take part in our enrichment programme for the wolves, which differs daily, and observe the behaviours shown. Learn how we keep our wolves healthy and happy • Have a tour inside one of our enclosures whilst the wolves are in a different holding area and learn about the habitat in which we keep our wolves • Undertake wolf tracking and learn how to use our telemetry equipment with our Wolfkeeper Mike, who has tracked wolves in the wild • Have a howling session to encourage the wolves to howl back • Watch a wrap-up presentation about the projects we support. Learn what needs to happen for wolves and humans to coexist in the future • Take close-up photos throughout the day

Make sure to bring your own lunch, tea and coffee will be provided.

Check website for future dates – 10am to 4pm £90 Per person. Age 18+ – BOOKING ESSENTIAL. FORTHCOMING EVENTS Photography Day

Each of the four wolf packs can be photographed from an adjoining enclosure where there are specially made holes for cameras, giving great results. These charismatic animals look their best in the winter months. Expert handlers will encourage the wolves to stand in the best position in their natural-looking Howl Nights enclosures. You will also be able to use our raised photography platform. During the day the handlers Feel your backbone tingle and your ears vibrate with the will give a tour of the Trust, where you will see all of sound of the wolves howling. The evening starts with a our wolves and learn about each individual. presentation on ; you will then go on a tour of the Trust and have the opportunity to let Refreshments available but no lunch included, out a howl and see if the wolves respond! (Don’t forget so please bring your own. to dress up warmly for an evening under the stars). The event usually finishes from around 9 to 9.30pm. Check website for future dates 10.30am to 3pm Check website for future dates £80 per person (no wolf walk included). 7pm to 9.30pm Suitable for all abilities. £10 per person. Age 18+ – BOOKING ESSENTIAL Age 8+ – BOOKING ESSENTIAL

Children’s Christmas Cracker Event

This is a really fun activity that all the children and wolves enjoy. The children fill empty toilet rolls with an assortment of wolf friendly treats, such as black pudding, sausages, cheese, fish and hot dogs. The cardboard rolls are then wrapped in festive Christmas wrapping paper to make crackers. The wolves are moved into their side enclosures where they eagerly watch the children put the crackers on the Christmas trees in their main enclosures.

Once the children have left the enclosures the wolves are let back in to devour the treats. It is an ideal opportunity to take lots of photographs and also to watch and learn about the different wolf behaviour.

21st December, 10:30am – 12:30pm £10 per person. £8 Junior members. Recommended age 6-12 years – BOOKING ESSENTIAL