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Your purchases help support the mission of the International Wolf Center. VOLUME 25, NO. 1 THE QUARTERLY PUBLICATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL WOLF CENTER SPRING 2015

4 Cécile Bloch 9 Jeremy Hooper 14 Don Gossett In the Long Shadow of The Species Survival Are Gray Wolves Still the Pyramids and Beyond: Plan: Saving the Red Wolf Endangered? Glimpse of an African…Wolf? Through Partnerships In December a federal judge ruled Geneticists have found that some In 1967 the number of red wolves that protections be reinstated for of Africa’s golden are was rapidly declining, forcing those gray wolves in the Great Lakes members of the gray wolf . remaining to breed with the more wolf population area, reversing Biologists are now asking: how abundant or not to breed at all. the USFWS’s 2011 delisting many golden jackals across Africa The rate of hybridization between the decision that allowed states to are a known as the two species left little time to prevent manage wolves and implement African wolf? Are Africa’s golden red wolf from being completely harvest programs for recreational jackals, in fact, wolves? absorbed into the expanding coyote purposes. If biological security is population. The Red Wolf Recovery by Cheryl Lyn Dybas apparently not enough rationale for Program, working with many other conservation of the species, then the organizations, has created awareness challenge arises to properly express and laid a foundation for the future to the ecological value of the species. conserve the species. by Mike Phillips by Jeremy Hooper

On the Cover Departments Photo by Cécile Bloch. 3 From the Executive Director Did you know... 17 the One easy way for you to help us conserve natural resources is to make sure we have 20 Wolves of the World your email address. Simply email your 23 Book Reviews address to [email protected]. 24 Personal Encounter 26 Wild Kids International Wolf Center International Wolf 28 A Look Beyond Publications Director David E. Kline Graphics Coordinator PASSION Carissa L. Winter

Consulting Editor Marianne Strozewski

Technical Editor Dr. L. David Mech

Graphic Designer Tricia Austin Great Gift! International Wolf (1089-683X) is published quarterly and copyrighted, 2015, by the International Wolf Center, 3410 Winnetka Ave. N., Minneapolis, MN 55427, USA. email: [email protected]. All rights reserved. Publications agreement no. 1536338 Membership in the International Wolf Center includes a subscription to International Wolf magazine, free admission to the Center and discounts on programs and merchandise. Membership Levels: (in U.S. dollars) • Wolf Pup $25 (students • Wolf Associate $125 age 21 and under) • Wolf Tracker $250 Luna—Photo by Darcy Berus • Lone Wolf $45 • Wolf Sponsor $500 (individual) • Alpha Wolf $1,000 • Wolf Pack $75 (family at same address) For those outside the , please add an LEGACY additional $15 to Wolf Pup, Lone Wolf, Wolf Pack and Wolf Associate memberships. Your care and passion for wolves can have a lasting impact beyond Please mail membership payment to: International your lifetime. Wolf Center Administrative Office, Attn: Membership, 3410 Winnetka Ave. N., Minneapolis, MN 55427, USA. By choosing to leave a planned gift to the International Wolf Center, Please contact the membership department with questions: 763-560-7374 ext. 227 or [email protected]. you will help secure their future and you will become a member of International Wolf is a forum for airing perspectives, the Alpha Legacy Society with all its benefits. science-based information and personal experiences about wolves. Articles and materials printed in Inter- If you have already included the Center in your estate planning, we national Wolf do not necessarily reflect the viewpoint of the International Wolf Center or its board of directors. thank you and ask that you let us know about your commitment. International Wolf welcomes submissions of personal This will help us honor your wishes and recognize your intent. adventures with wolves and wolf photo­ ­graphs. Prior to submission of other types of manu­scripts, address Call today to start planning your legacy. queries to David Kline, publications director. 763-560-7374 ext. 225. PHOTOS: Unless otherwise noted, or obvious from the caption or article text, photos are of captive wolves. International Wolf is printed entirely with soy ink Thank you. on FSC® certified paper. We encour- FSC logo here age you to recycle this magazine.

2 Spring 2015 www.wolf.org From the Executive Director

INTERNATIONAL WOLF CENTER Raptors, Meet Our Wolves BOARD OF DIRECTORS Nancy jo Tubbs s an education-oriented organization celebrating its 30th , we’re fascinated with Chair Dr. L. David Mech the relationship wolves have with many species. Like wolves, of Vice Chair prey command interest and reverence worldwide. We’re excited to partner with Cree Bradley A Secretary raptor organizations and experts starting this May to bring a new exhibit for all ages to the Paul B. Anderson International Wolf Center’s interpretive center in Ely, . Through demonstrations Treasurer featuring live raptors, educational displays, and beautiful photography from Minnesota’s Cindy Carvelli-Yu Rick Duncan Heidi Pinkerton, we hope to enlighten the tens of thousands of annual Nancy Gibson visitors about other majestic predators. Debbie Hinchcliffe Hunter With our bias towards interactive learning, this temporary exhibit, Raptors … Deborah Wold Lewis Predators from the Sky, will teach about the habitat, prey, biology and behavior Dr. Rolf O. Peterson of these carnivorous birds. We invite you to swoop in and become uplifted Mike Phillips Debbie Reynolds by the eagle, falcon, hawk, owl, condor, kestrel, vulture, kite, osprey, merlin, Jerry Sanders and more! Paul Schurke Rob Schultz Dick Thiel Many of us venture out into the world’s wildlands to enjoy tranquility and Ray Wells beauty, while building lasting memories with family and friends. Although, unfortunately, Teri Williams we rarely see wolves and other apex predators in the wild, a look skyward will often EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR reward us with a glimpse—and if we are prepared, a photograph—of a soaring predator. Rob Schultz Heidi’s stunning raptor photos will serve as encouragement to the photographer in all of us. MISSION Our summer issue of International Wolf will have more The International Wolf Center advances the survival about this educational exhibit, as will www.wolf.org. of wolf populations by teaching about wolves, their We hope you’ll join us in Ely from May 2015 through relationship to wildlands and May 2016 to learn together about raptors and, of the human role in their future. course, wolves. n Educational services and informational resources are available at: 1396 Highway 169 © Heidi Pinkerton Ely, MN 55731-8129, USA 800-ELY-WOLF 218-365-4695 email address: [email protected] Rob Schultz, executive director Web site: www.wolf.org

International Wolf Spring 2015 3 In the

Illustration: Shutterstock/IRStone Long Shadow of the Pyramids and Beyond: Glimpse of an African… Wolf? Cécile Bloch

4 Spring 2015 www.wolf.org by CHERYL LYN DYBAS

A New Wolf in Town Skikda and El-Kala; and one in Mali, Adrar des floras, Terarabat. They also heune, Senegal.The village, found that two other seeming golden perched along the Senegal jackals were mostly African wolves. Both K River, doesn’t appear on a were in Senegal, one a captive animal at map, but it’s the site of one of the most the Zoo du Parc de Hann in Dakar, and far-reaching conservation genetics one in the wild not far from Kheune. discoveries of the decade. There Africa’s Mitochondrial DNA, which the first gray wolf, lupus lupaster, scientists used in their study, “shows only formerly thought to be the golden part of the picture of the African wolf’s Canis aureus, lopes across the rolling sandy lineage,” says biologist Dr. L. David Mech plains of the western Sahel. The “new of the U.S. Geological Survey and the wolf” has a range that extends more than University of Minnesota. It tells us about 6,000 kilometers (3,700 miles) from Egypt the wolf’s heritage through the mother’s to Senegal. Biologist Philippe Gaubert of side; nuclear DNA offers a more com- the Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle plete view. As with other wild canids, in Paris and his colleagues reported studies (and scientific journal papers the finding in the August, 2012, issue of to be published soon) are underway the journal PLOS ONE. to reveal its origins and genetic makeup. When the wolf was initially dis- Is lupaster a wolf or a close relative? covered by geneticists in 2011, its range, While the research is ongoing, they believed, was confined to “our assessment of the African wolf’s and Egypt. Now biologists are asking: range supports the idea of a wide how many golden jackals across Africa spectrum of habitats for the species,” are in fact wolves? “Unique field observa- says Gaubert, “from Mediterranean coastal tions in Senegal allowed us to provide a and hill areas, including hedged - diagnosis of the ‘African wolf’ that clearly lands, scrublands, pinewoods and oak distinguished it from the ,” in , to tropical, semi-arid says Gaubert. But hybridization between savannas in Senegal and massifs in Mali.” the two may be happening, at least in This range, he says, poses the question Senegal, based on detection of Canis of how such large went un- lupus lupaster genes in Canis aureus there. detected for so long. Or did they? In July 2011, researcher Cecile Bloch, a co-author of the 2012 PLOS ONE In the Time of the paper, observed wolf-like canids on the Jackal-Gods periphery of packs of golden jackals near Kheune. The were larger It is 2494 B.C., Egypt’s Fifth Dynasty. and darker than the jackals. They also A procession makes its way to a sun- behaved differently, with solitary and temple, where the pharaoh’s Sed Festival, somewhat shy demeanors. The only held in the 30th year of his reign, is interactions observed between the two set to begin. The gathering renews the were fighting by the larger canids for sovereign’s youthful vitality. A greeting carcasses being eaten by golden jack- awaits him: two officers wearing caps and als, “the latter inevitably abandoning its tails lined with —fur the Egyptians food to the former,” says Gaubert. believe came from wolves. The human Ultimately, Bloch, Gaubert and others sentries represent the jackal gods looked at the DNA of seven animals that and Wepwawet, Anubis’ lesser-known proved to be African wolves: one east of . The two were the guardians of the Parc National du Djoudj near Kheune; border between life and death, a bound- five in Algeria’s coastal region between ary which, in ancient Egypt, only canine

International Wolf Spring 2015 5 Cécile Bloch

divinities traversed. Called “the openers believe the Egyptians fashioned elabo- wolf,” says Sillero-Zubiri. “We hoped of the ,” Anubis led the way to the rate tombs to protect the dead from more information would turn up, but south, Wepwawet to the north. the jackals. But were Anubis and Wep- unfortunately it didn’t.” Anubis and Wepwawet were named wawet in fact jackals? Could one or for the propensity of jackals to hunt both gods have been something else? More to the Story by night near cemeteries. Some Egyptians thought so long ago. What But Wepwawet and Anubis did not did they know that we don’t, or didn’t, remain quiet in their underworld. While until 2011? That Wepwawet and Anubis doing field work in Ethiopia, scientists were wolves in jackals’ clothing. from universities in Ethiopia and Millennia later, Aristotle was the first noticed that certain golden jackals looked European to write of wolves in Egypt, different. “They were larger, more slen- stating that they were smaller than those der, and sometimes had a whitish color,” found in Greece. “The same observation says Nils Stenseth, a geneticist at the was made by twentieth-century biologists University of Oslo. The researchers col- when they compared the sizes of jackal lected scat specimens for DNA analy- skulls,” says ecologist Claudio Sillero- sis. The samples, including some from Zubiri, deputy director of the Wildlife “more usual-looking” golden jackals, Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU) were shipped to Stenseth’s laboratory for at the University of Oxford in the U.K. analysis. “With breathless excitement,” Fast-forward to a few ago, when remembers Sillero-Zubiri, the Oslo sci- an Indian biologist named Yugal Tiwari entists contacted him and others on the sent Sillero-Zubiri a picture from a video project. The jackal samples appeared to Tiwari had filmed in Eritrea. The footage be wolf DNA—but didn’t correlate with showed a lanky canine with large samples in GenBank, the world’s largest Shutterstock/IRStone “that might have been a desert-dwelling repository of genetic sequences.

6 Spring 2015 www.wolf.org “The results place lupaster in Egypt, as well,” says Sillero-Zubiri. Lupaster’s range extended as far south as the , scientists knew, but didn’t, it was thought, reach main- land Africa. Stenseth, Sillero-Zubiri and others, however, believed that many canids identified as golden jackals as far south as and beyond might be lupaster. Philippe Gaubert proved them right. “As we look more closely with genetic Cécile Bloch Lee R. Berger tools at even well-studied species such Field observations distinguish the African wolf (left) from the golden jackal (right), but biologists as the gray wolf in ,” says have unveiled evidence that the golden jackal, with its soft, pale fur may be a hybridization of the biologist Dr. Rolf Peterson of Michigan blackish-yellow lupaster, with its brush-like tail and mane of coarse, black-tipped fur. Technological University, “we’re refin- ing our understanding of these animals. “We could hardly believe our eyes,” with soft, pale fur, and it is a social animal. For Africa, and for North America, what says Eli Rueness, a geneticist at the A breeding pair is often followed by its we thought 10 years ago about the bio- University of Oslo and lead author of offspring, and it sometimes forms packs geography of the wolf has been turned the January 2011 paper in PLOS ONE when . Its cry, heard just after on its head.” The 2011 and 2012 find- reporting the results. “We had unwit- dark or shortly before dawn, is a long, ings, Peterson believes, are far from the tingly uncovered genetic evidence of a wailing howl followed by three yelps: end of the story. cryptic canid [a species hidden within “dead Hindoo, where, where, where.” a species] that looked like a golden In contrast, lupaster travels alone. Lone Wolf in a Starkly jackal,” says Sillero-Zubiri, “but whose A nocturnal creature, it is sometimes genetic code told another tale.” The biol- glimpsed as the sun begins to set, Beautiful Land ogists unveiled the news: some golden when it emerges from caves and crev- Genetic techniques are revealing the jackals are gray wolves. Scientists then ices, and from tombs. Whether it howls hidden biodiversity of largely unex- updated the wolf’s scientific name to remains unknown. plored places such Canis lupus lupaster, after the gray wolf Wepwawet continues to open new as Ethiopia. The Canis lupus. Hereafter, it is referred to roads. Further analysis links the lupas- discovery of lupas- simply by its scientific name,lupaster . ter specimens from Ethiopia with the ter’s true identity Lupaster is the only gray wolf on the same genetic sequences of animals shines a light on a African continent. The discovery tells 2,500 kilometers to the north in Egypt. formerly dark cor- researchers that members of the gray ner of the world: wolf lineage lived in Africa as far back as the Afroalpine

three million years ago. The wolves even- Shutterstock/IRStone tually spread through the Northern Hemisphere. They became the well-known gray wolves of the northern United States and . “We now know that wolves were indeed EGYPT in Africa in the days of the ancient Egyptians— MALI and long, long before,” SUDAN says Stenseth. S a h e l b i o g e o ERITREA Lupaster looks like SENEGAL g r a p h i c z o n e a large, blackish-yellow . Its tail is brush- DJIBOUTI like, with black hairs on Addis Ababa the end. A mane of long, ETHIOPIA coarse, black-tipped fur runs from its crown to the base of its tail and onto its shoulders and hips. KENYA The golden jackal is smaller than lupaster,

International Wolf Spring 2015 7

SOUTH AFRICA her answer was firm: ‘it’s a wolf.’ She said that wolves were once very common, but that she hasn’t seen any for decades. I’ve heard many claims like that.” Where there’s , lupaster may be, too. “We know so little about this subspecies,” says Zillero-Zubiri. “Who can say whether and when it takes ? It’s still a shadow on a ridge.” Luckily, says Tefera, “People here refer to it as the ‘nomad jackal’ rather than the more common jackals they’ve accused of killing their lambs.” Its elusiveness may be lupaster’s salvation. Wepwawet Among Us “Woollff!” shouted Lajos Nemeth- Boka, lead naturalist and tour leader for GreenEye Ecotours in the U.K. It was November 2007 when Nemeth-Boka was driving slowly along the west bank of the Cécile Bloch Nile River between Luxor and Aswan, Egypt. “An animal crossed the in front of us, coming from the Nile’s shore fauna and flora, an assemblage of spe- out Africa in countries like Ethiopia, and running toward the Sahara sands,” cies that evolved in the relative isolation Tanzania and Zambia. he says. “I’ve seen golden jackals and of the highlands of the of Africa. Guassa villagers live in kebeles I’ve seen wolves, and there is a big differ- Understanding the intricacies of that (farmers’ associations). In the day’s last ence between the two. This was clearly biodiversity may come not a moment light, Wepwawet may walk among them. a wolf.” It was, he believes, lupaster. too soon for lupaster. Although golden “Out of the corner of your eye at sunset In later Egyptian art, Wepwawet jackals are listed by the International you might just spot lupaster,” says Karen was depicted as part-human, part-wolf, Union for Conservation of Nature Laurenson, an ecologist and with the body of a human and the head (IUCN) as a “species of least concern,” at the FZS-Ethiopia Office. She’s glimpsed of a wolf. European Egyptologists lupaster may be much rarer. “It’s a prior- an animal that emerges at dusk, seem- mistook Wepwawet for a jackal, even ity, for both scientific and conservation ingly out of thin air, to disappear just as though the ancient Egyptians clearly efforts, to determine this wolf’s where- quickly. “I think I’ve seen lupaster, but identified the god, and the animal for abouts and numbers,” says Stenseth. didn’t know at the time what it was.” which it was named, as a wolf. According Gaubert agrees. “Since ‘jackal-like’ Laurenson is concerned that the wolf to texts inscribed in the pyramids, canids in Africa are regularly killed to could be gone before we know it. “Golden Wepwawet often led the way to suc- protect livestock,” he says, “it’s urgent jackals and other canids are susceptible cess for Egyptians from messengers to to develop a conservation strategy for to , virus, and kings. Five thousand years later, will we the African wolf. Shepherds say that the other diseases. With a population that give Wepwawet’s incarnation the recog- African wolf hunts larger livestock such may, or may not, be very small, lupaster nition—and protection—its position as as sheep, , and even cows, whereas could disappear in the blink of an eye.” Africa’s only gray wolf deserves? n the golden jackal only preys on lambs.” The Menz Guassa Community Lupaster vs. Science journalist and ecologist Cheryl Conservation Area in Ethiopia’s high- Lyn Dybas, a Fellow of the International lands may hold the key. Lupaster has been Homo sapiens? League of Conservation Writers, also seen most often in this land of short scrub Disease and clearly brings a passion for wildlife and conser- plants sprouting from rock-strewn hill- aren’t the only challenges lupaster faces. vation to National Geographic, Natural History, National Wildlife, BBC Wildlife, sides. “The region is among the Ethiopian Uncovering this cryptic species’ secrets Scientific American, The highlands’ most pristine and secluded may be a mixed blessing. Post, and other publications. natural wonders,” says Zelealem Tefera, “My Grandma told me about wolves a scientist at the Frankfurt Zoological that stole her livestock,” offers one Editors Note: This article has been adapted Society (FZS) Ethiopia Office. The FZS villager. “I’d always ask if she was sure it from previous pieces in Natural History and supports conservation projects through- wasn’t a , dog, jackal, or , but Africa Geographic.

8 Spring 2015 www.wolf.org The Red Wolf Species Survival Plan: Saving the Red Wolf Through Partnerships

f the road to was a hundred miles long, the red wolf was already in Ithe ninety-ninth mile and was about to drop off the edge into extinction.” These were the words of Curtis Carley, wildlife biologist and future coordinator of the Red Wolf Recovery Program. In the 1970s, Carley, with help from scientists including Ron Nowak and Howard McCarley, led a charge to save the remaining red wolves. They were about to embark on a conser- vation journey unlike any other.

Text and Photos by JEREMY HOOPER

International Wolf Spring 2015 9 The commitment of the Red Wolf SSP Like all wolf populations in the in captivity that had been removed will continue to be a critical factor United States, the red wolf (Canis rufus) from the wild. Their goals were to had been mostly eliminated from in the long-term survival of one of the certify the genetic purity of wild- the landscape due to intense human caught wolves, increase the number persecution, habitat loss and degra- world’s most endangered animals of genetically pure red wolves in cap- dation, and prey declines resulting as the U.S. and Wildlife Service tivity, and maintain a continuing red from over-harvesting by humans. wolf pool for reestablishment This forced scientists, government prepares to announce its decision about of the species in the wild and for officials, and the general public to whether to continue or to terminate distribution to selected zoos. New make a decision—attempt to save husbandry techniques were quickly the species or watch it go extinct. the Red Wolf Recovery Program. developed, including the adoption In 1967 the red wolf was listed by of an unconventional “hands-off” the newly adopted federal Endangered approach designed to reduce the Species Preservation Act. When the challenged by many, Carley believed likelihood of wolf-human habituation Act became law in that this was the only way to save the by minimizing interactions between 1973, a recovery plan was developed species from extinction. Over a seven- wolves and their keepers (unlike some for the red wolf. At this time, the num- year period (1973-1980), 400 canids gray wolves, red wolves are not hand- ber of red wolves was in rapid decline, that resembled red wolves were captured raised in captivity). Scientists were hope- with those remaining forced to breed within the wolf’s historical range. Of ful this approach would maintain a level with the more abundant coyote (Canis these 400, only 17 were identified as red of the wolves’ intolerance of humans, latrans) or not to breed at all. The rate wolves; the majority were and minimizing the potential for human-wolf of hybridization between the two spe- red wolf-coyote hybrids. Of these 17, 14 conflict at reintroduction sites. cies left little time to prevent red wolf would become the “founders” of the red By 1981 the American Association genes from being completely absorbed wolf captive population, removed from of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) had into the expanding coyote population. the wild and taken to Point Defiance developed the Species Survival Plan Recognizing that the red wolf’s existence Zoo and Aquarium (PDZA) in Tacoma, (SSP) program with a stated mission was in peril, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Washington. This marked to “cooperatively manage specific, and Service (USFWS), led by Carley, began of the red wolf program. typically threatened or endangered, an effort to capture and remove the species populations within AZA- remaining red wolves from the wild. accredited Zoos and Aquariums, Certified Though such an effort to cause the Captive Program History Related Facilities, and Sustainability functional extinction of a species in the The USFWS partnered with PDZA in Partners.” The AZA approved the red wild seemed counterintuitive and was 1973 to maintain and manage red wolves wolf for the SSP program in 1984, lead- ing to the development of a new manage-

Brief Historic The red wolf is The captive The first litter of listed as an breeding center red wolf pups is Time Line for endangered species at Point Defiance born at PDZA. the Endangered under the Zoo and Aquarium Endangered (PDZA) acquires Red Wolf Species first red wolf. Preservation Act.

1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

The red wolf is The U.S. Fish and Wildlife The Endangered Red wolves are recognized as Service begins study Species Act becomes successfully being in danger of the red wolf in federal law. The first released on Bulls of extinction. southeastern and Red Wolf Recovery Island, South southwestern . Plan is completed, Carolina. and implementation begins.

10 Spring 2015 www.wolf.org ment plan to ensure the persistence of a “healthy, genetically diverse, and demo- graphically varied captive population.” By 1989 the USFWS had integrated the SSP into the Red Wolf Recovery Program, marking the first time a USFWS Recovery Plan had been combined with a Species Survival Plan. The Red Wolf Species Survival Plan (RWSSP) initiated a network of facilities across the country with a common goal of restoring the red wolf to its native range. This network provided more space for housing red wolves, increased oppor- tunities for breeding and research, and a broader outreach campaign. Resulting efforts by: 1) scientifically managing increases in the captive population the captive population and supplying brought the program closer to its goal wolves for release when needed to add of wild reintroduction. genetic vigor to the wild population or In 1987, ten years after the first pups when additional reintroduction sites were born in captivity and seven years are identified; 2) supporting field con- after the species was declared biologically servation activities, such as by applying , eight red wolves were captive research to the field; 3) working released into Alligator River National in areas such as banking Wildlife Refuge in eastern . and assisted reproduction, contracep- This represented several firsts: an attempt tion, behavior and husbandry; and to reintroduce a wolf into the wild; a car- 4) promoting red wolf awareness. nivore from captive stock; and a species previously declared extinct in the wild. While the need for assisting in wild The RWSSP: A Closer Look recovery efforts has shifted as the wild A cornerstone of the RWSSP’s suc- population has grown, the RWSSP, led cess has been the management of captive by coordinator Will Waddell, contin- breeding. In a systematic fashion, breed- ues to an integral role in recovery ing efforts are designed to increase genetic

The last red wolves The first wild litter of pups Red wolves are released The GSMNP are removed from the is born in the ARNWR. in Pocosin Lakes reintroduction wild. The red wolf is A second restoration National Wildlife Refuge project is declared functionally project is started in (PLNWR). First pups are canceled. extinct in the wild. born in the GSMNP. National Park (GSMNP).

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993-1997 1998 1999 2000

The Red Wolf Four pairs of captive-born Second-generation Scientists and experts Recovery Plan is wolves are released in pups are born in the determine hybridization revised, updated the ARNWR. An island wild in the ARNWR. with coyotes to be the and approved. propagation site is The first litter of pups greatest threat to The Alligator River established on Bulls via artificial recovery of the red wolf. National Wildlife Island, , insemination is born An Adaptive Management Refuge (ARNWR) to acclimate wolves at PDZA. Plan is developed to is established. to the wild before address and manage mainland release. hybridization.

International Wolf Spring 2015 11 diversity and ensure long-term viability agement became even more valuable in American Conservation Award from the of the red wolf population. Built from 2002 when program biologists began a AZA, illustrating the benefits of organi- just 14 wolves, the current population pioneering effort to supplement the wild zations working together to conserve a is characterized by closely-related indi- population with captive-born pups. species. Moreover, it demonstrates that viduals. As a result, undesirable effects Cross-fostering integrates genetically zoos, nature centers, and similar orga- believed to be attributed to inbreeding, valuable, captive-born pups into wild lit- nizations can and will play a significant such as lower weights, smaller ters in an attempt to increase population role in future red wolf conservation. Not numbers and, most importantly, genetic only do they bring awareness to red wolf Red Wolf Recovery Program diversity. For both an increase in popu- conservation, they provide the public … demonstrates that zoos, lation and diversity to occur, a captive- an opportunity to see red wolves and to born pup must be raised by a wild wolf experience a rare glimpse into the social nature centers, and similar pack, survive to maturity, and reproduce. lives of these mysterious canids. n organizations can and will Usually, candidates for fostering, both captive and wild, are selected based on Jeremy Hooper is a graduate student at play a significant role in three ideal factors. The captive and wild- the University of Tennessee, Chattanooga, future red wolf conservation. born pups must be similar in age, less where he’s studying the relationship than 2 weeks old, and the wild litter must between humans and coyotes in the litter sizes, physical abnormalities, and be relatively small, to prevent overbur- of Atlanta, . He has been involved with the RWSSP since 2008 through his increased pup mortality, continue to dening the mother. The first successful work at the Reflection Riding Arboretum pose potential problems. To mitigate cross-fostering in 2002 led to a captive- and Nature Center in Chattanooga. these effects, the RWSSP collaborates born male wolf producing a wild litter Jeremy’s goals are to improve relations with scientific advisors from the AZA of his own in 2004. Cross-fostering has between humans and predators through Population Management Center (PMC) to become an effective tool in red wolf recov- research, education and partnerships. base breeding efforts on a comprehensive ery efforts. Acceptance of fostered pups genetic and demographic analysis of the by wild mothers has been high, leading population. With the help of a computer to more captive-born wolves producing software program, information on the litters in the wild. Recognizing these suc- A federal court issues a preliminary pedigrees of all wolves in the population cesses, the Mexican Gray Wolf Recovery injunction blocking the North Carolina reveals how closely related individuals Program recently adopted and completed Wildlife Resources Commission are to one another and to the population a successful cross-fostering effort. (NCWRC) from authorizing coyote as a whole. From this information, pairs In 2007, the 20th anniversary of the hunting—including at night—in the whose offspring would be least related to release of red wolves into North Carolina 5-county red wolf restoration area. the population are identified for breeding, and the 30th anniversary of the first red Settlement Agreement is reached the key to improving . wolf litter born at PDZA, the Red Wolf between plaintiffs (RWC, DOW, AWI) Such stringent captive-breeding man- Recovery Program was awarded the North and NCWRC. The NCWRC agrees (1) to impose specific conditions on coyote hunting in the restoration One of the 2002 Alarming increase occurs region and (2) to list the red wolf as a fostered wolves in suspected or confirmed threatened species in North Carolina. a litter of gunshot mortalities. Wild U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) eight pups. population is estimated conducts internal review of Red Wolf at 90–100 wolves. Recovery Program.

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

The entire North One hundred to 130 wild Coyote hunting at night with SELC, on behalf of USFWS will Carolina red wolf red wolves roam 1.7 million artificial light is suspended in RWC, DOW and announce its population is wild born acres in northeastern North 5-county red wolf restoration AWI, asks a federal decision regarding except for two pups Carolina. Over 170 exist region pending the outcome judge to halt all the future of the born at North Carolina in captive populations. of a lawsuit filed by Southern coyote hunting in Red Wolf Recovery Zoo and fostered into a Adaptive management Environmental Law Center 5-county red wolf Program. wild den, where they is working to control the (SELC) on behalf of the Red Wolf restoration region are raised by wild wolf coyote population in Coalition (RWC), Defenders of in northeastern parents. the recovery area. Wildlife (DOW) and the Animal North Carolina. Welfare Institute (AWI).

12 Spring 2015 www.wolf.org Cane

Old Mom Old Mom Stands Firm n December 2012, a large male red wolf weighing 70-80 the Cinderella Wolf (wolf 42) and the 06’ female (wolf pounds arrived at the Reflection Riding Arboretum 832). Known for their intelligence, leadership, hunt- Iand Nature Center, a RWSSP cooperator located in ing abilities, and parenting, these wolves are admired Chattanooga, Tennessee. His name was Cane, and all we by scientists and the general public. knew about him was that he had a history of dominant and As is standard practice, Cane was placed in quaran- aggressive behaviors toward other wolves, notably females. tine before release into the main enclosure with Old Due to these persistent behavioral issues, the RWSSP wanted Mom. Met with nervous anticipation, the day finally to transfer 7-year-old Cane to a new facility. Tish Gailmard arrived. We opened the door. He was in. Mom initi- was the Director of Wildlife at Reflection Riding and also ated the first meeting. Side by side they both stood a member of the RWSSP Advisory Committee. She and I firm and tall. Several times early on, Cane put a came to a similar conclusion—if any wolf was capable of on Old Mom’s back, and she would soon return the holding its own, it was Old Mom. favor. After a couple of minutes, Cane went on his way An 11-year-old, 40-pound female red wolf, Old Mom seemingly more interested in exploring his new home. is a very confident, dominant animal. Nicknamed “Busy According to the reports, Cane was most aggressive Feet” by a past keeper, she’s constantly on the move, around food. We threw in two pieces of meat. Each patrolling her enclosure, eyes alert and tail held high. grabbing a piece, the two wolves moved away from She usually initiates and ends howls, closing with a each other. Then, in a moment I’ve never forgotten, long series of impressive barks, as if reinforcing claim Old Mom seemed to decide, “I want his piece, too.” of her area. As I’ve watched her over the years, I’ve She took it from him. Since that day, neither Tish nor imagined what she would have been like as a wild I have seen any of the behaviors mentioned by Cane’s red wolf. My thoughts raced with comparisons of past keepers. Old Mom had straightened him out. n well-known, successful gray wolves from Yellowstone— — Jeremy Hooper

International Wolf Spring 2015 13 Are Gray Wolves Still Endangered? by MIKE PHILLIPS Rob Jackson

n a stunning move on December 19, 2014, Federal Judge Beryl Howell ruled that Endangered Species Act protections be reinstated for gray wolves (Canis lupis) Iin Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and parts of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and South Dakota. The ruling resulted from a lawsuit filed by the Humane Society of the United States and other wildlife protection groups against the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s (USFWS) December 2011 decision that removed the act’s protections. That delisting decision allowed state fish and game departments to manage wolves and to implement harvest programs for recreational purposes. The judge’s ruling ended all public taking of wolves in the Great Lakes states for depredation control or any other purpose except defense of human life. The ruling did not put an end to federally enacted depredation control efforts in Minnesota, where the wolf was returned to threatened rather than endangered status.

14 Spring 2015 www.wolf.org Even though the ruling could be wolf recovery offered rationale for this interpreted as indicating otherwise, approach, it is important to note that Wolves will the gray wolf is biologically secure in the courts have rendered it unlawful. Minnesota, Michigan, and Wisconsin Why? probably and should have remained so, even with Judge Howell set aside the delisting liberal state management. However, a decision because she concluded that the always stir thorough reading of the Endangered USFWS had failed to adequately explain Species Act indicates that biological why the majority of the Great Lakes security and legal recovery are not nec- wolf population area, where the species deep emotions essarily one and the same. The latter remains extirpated, was insignificant requires wolves to be far more common and, therefore, superfluous to recovery. in us. How and widely distributed than the former. The term insignificant is important in One can argue that wolves have been the context of the Endangered Species one perceives biologically secure in Minnesota since Act, since its counterpart significant is the 1970s when approximately 1,000 included in the definitions for endan- Judge Howell’s animals lived there. The state used that gered and threatened species: argument to oppose the original listing of ruling probably the species. But the Endangered Species • Endangered species—any species Act has always required that the gray …which is in danger of extinction depends more wolf be more common than that. The throughout all or a significant law requires that a species be secure (not portion of its range. on personal endangered or threatened, but suitable • Threatened species—any spe- for delisting) across a significant portion cies which is likely to become an values than of its range. Put another way, recovery endangered species within the requires that before delisting can occur a foreseeable future throughout all species can only remain insecure (threat- or a significant portion of its range. facts. ened, endangered, or extirpated) across no more than an insignificant portion When considering significant and of its range. insignificant it is important to accept This notion of recovery is consistent that the insignificant portion of a spe- with the definitions for important words cies’ range can include large areas that in the act including endangered, threat- are not occupied securely, if at all, by originally listed entity in total, rather ened, and species. It is consistent with the species. Recovery does not require than piecemeal. the USFWS’s previous delisting deci- that a species occupy all of its range. It Lastly, Judge Howell was concerned sions for species other than the wolf. In is equally important, however, to accept that the USFWS had failed to adequately those cases, the species in question were that in every meaningful way, significant explain why a liberal recreational fairly common and widespread at the has to mean more than insignificant. harvest of wolves did not threaten the time of delisting. Finally, this notion Recovery does require that a species be species. It is worth noting that since del- of recovery is consistent with the all- fairly widespread in the area considered isting, trophy hunters important “Findings” section of the by the original listing action, which and trappers have killed more than 1,500 Endangered Species Act which specifi- typically is the species’ historical range, wolves. A recent USFWS internal report cally identifies ecological value as an before federal protections are lifted. indicates that recreational and manage- important reason for conserving imper- Judge Howell also concluded that the ment harvests can cause declines in wolf iled species. It is very hard for the eco- USFWS erred by adopting a piecemeal populations, despite the birth of far more logical value of a species to be properly approach to wolf recovery by delisting pups (about 11,000 since delisting) than expressed if it is absent from many of the Great Lakes gray wolf population wolves killed by hunters and trappers. the ecoregions of its historical range. when it was never more than a subset of Since Judge Howell’s ruling was some- In sum, Judge Howell took sharp the originally listed entity (i.e., the gray thing of a shocker, given the presence exception to the USFWS’s advance of a wolf across a much larger area) which of more than 3,000 wolves and several novel, relatively easily attained approach had not been recovered. According hundred breeding packs in the Great to gray wolf recovery. While it is easy to the judge the Endangered Species Lakes states, it is reasonable to consider to understand that the difficulty of Act only allows for the delisting of the possible consequences.

International Wolf Spring 2015 15 The USFWS’s most recent vision for recovery of the wolf subspecies that occupies the Great Lakes states called for delisting from the to the Pacific Northwest based solely on its bio- logical security in Minnesota, Michigan, and Wisconsin (and, curiously, Canada). Judge Howell’s ruling strongly suggests that this vision comes up short. Why? Because the area targeted for delisting includes vast tracts of highly suitable, but unoccupied, habitat that is significant in many relevant ways. Judge Howell’s ruling bolsters an interpretation of the Endangered Species Act that concludes that federal protections for the wolf must apply until the species is securely dis- tributed across much more of this area. The judge’s ruling might prompt some elected officials to try to gut the act. Given the controversial nature of wolves, it is reasonable to expect blowback of this sort. I suspect, however, that any substantive change to the Endangered Rob Jackson

Species Act would be hard to enact. ?????????? Given the public’s overwhelming and persistent support of the law, President Obama would seem an unlikely ally in such an effort, and procedural rules for doubt that passage of the Endangered clearly signifies that biological security the U.S. Senate could be exercised to Species Act cleared the way to secure a is not necessarily an adequate threshold prevent such a bill from ever passing. future for the gray wolf, but it was large for wolf recovery under the Endangered The ruling might prompt some tracts of public land, not private land, Species Act. It seems that even contro- elected officials to try to amend the that allowed that future to be realized. versial species must be fairly widespread Endangered Species Act to minimize Rather than gutting or lightly amend- before federal protections can be lifted, the consequences of recovery. Some ing the Endangered Species Act, a more or the USFWS has to adequately explain amendments may be in order. It could likely legislative response to Judge why more widespread distribution is be useful to amend the phrase “sig- Howell’s ruling would be fiscal in nature. not possible or necessary to honor the nificant portion of range” to read Congress could, for example, defund spirit and intent of the act. n “significant portion of historical range activities by attaching riders to unrelated where habitat remains suitable or can spending bills. This is the approach that Mike Phillips has been a state be made so through reasonable means.” Congress recently used to express dis- legislator since 2006 and is currently a Granted, such an amendment would favor with the USFWS’s consideration state senator. For the last 29 years he has create a slippery slope, given the myriad of listing the greater sage grouse. Or worked with threatened and endangered definitions that could be attached to Congress could legislatively delist the species in the research, management and , , and means. policy realms. He led the effort to restore significant suitable reasonable wolf as it did in Idaho and Montana. the red wolf to northeastern North However, the vast extent of private land Several legislators are now preparing Carolina and the gray wolf to Yellowstone across much of the gray wolf’s histori- such a bill. National Park. He has served on every cal range precludes recovery there. Due Wolves will probably always stir deep Recovery team convened to extensive private land in Illinois, for emotions in us. How one perceives Judge since 1995, and has directed the Turner example, the state seems lost to the Howell’s ruling probably depends more Endangered Species Fund since he gray wolf. No reasonable means seem on personal values than facts. Whether co-founded the organization with Ted to exist to change that fact. There is no it is cause for celebration or regret, it Turner in June 1997.

16 Spring 2015 www.wolf.org Nancy Gibson International Wolf present. hair already note whiteguard on ,Canada; Wild, two-month-old pupsphotographed just startingtoappearontheirheadsandlegs. one monthofage;notethewhiteguard hairsare ShadowandMalikastheynearedCaptive born we startedtheresident wolfprogram among wolfpopulations.In1989,when scientific communityisgenetic variations wolves. physical andbehavioraltraitsof pose ofeducatingourvisitorsaboutthe as ambassadorstothewildforpur duction. TheCentermaintainswolves are heading toward the2016pupintro pups, Luna and Boltz, seem recent, we Even thoughthememoriesof2012 fouryears.the ExhibitPackevery A by Lori Schmidt,Wolfby Lori Curator an EyetothePast Looking Toward theFuture with One aspect under discussion in the One aspectunderdiscussioninthe chosen torotate newpupsinto Center’s wolf care plan,we have Wolfs partoftheInternational

Nancy Gibson

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Tracking thePack site, to observe the behavioral patterns thebehavioralpatterns site, toobserve Ely, Minnesota, or visitors to our web- visitors totheeducationalfacilityin species ofwolvessince2000,allowing has beenmanagingmultiplesub- baileyi nubilus arctos or , lupus occidentalis lupus These subspeciesare theCanis we currently recognize fivesubspecies. soupus. Classification of lupus Wolves: Canis wolf.org forthearticle,“TheScientific search theCenter’s websitehttp://www. To gainmore insightintothisissue, fied toincludefivesubspeciesofwolves. wolf inNorthAmericahavebeenreclassi measurements, subspeciesofthegray By 1995,duetonewanalysesofskull subspecies of wolves in North at theCenter, there were 24accepted The Center’s captivewolfprogram ber wolf. timberwolf. , theeastern Canis lupus lupus or Mexicanwolf,andCanis ” For the purpose of this article, ” For the purpose of this article, or , Canis wolf,Canis ornorthwestern the dominantfemale anddisplayabehaviorcalled parallelgait. wolves are spayedandneutered, Shadow choseMayatobe During thewinterof2005,even thoughtheCenter’s

Canis lupus lupus Canis Canis lupus lupus Canis America. America. -

subspecies in the Exhibit Pack: Aidan and subspecies in the Exhibit Pack: Aidan and 2010. We are currently managingtwo Exhibit PackintotheRetired PackinJuly the retirement ofShadow from the The naturalprocess ofagingwarranted contained three ofthefivesubspecies. wolves,theExhibitPack northwestern arrival ofAidanandDenali in 2008,both joined the exhibit in 2004. With the representing theGreat Plainswolves, and Malik.Grizzer, MayaandNyssa, arctic wolves represented by Shadow diversified itsExhibitPackbyadding wolves. InMay2000theCenterfirst and physical characteristics of our the subspecies,awolfiswolf. scientists oftenmake—regardless of Maya and Shadow proved the point that many visitors,andthepairbondingof of arctic wolves,drew theattentionof Their uniquewhitepelage,representative Shadow and Malik’s time in the exhibit. past and share many fond memories of aneyetothe tion in2016,weturn and Boltzare Great Plainssubspecies. wolves;Luna Denali are northwestern As welooktothefuture introduc

Spring 2015 n -

17 Kelly Godfrey INTERNATIONAL WOLF CENTER Major Contributors and Special Gifts


Major Individual Donors and Foundations Honorary In honor of Frederick deRosset Strong’s 100th birthday: In honor of Darlene Berchin: Richard and Gail deRosset Albrecht Family Foundation Richard Jolkovsky Bruce Weeks Darlene Berchin Michele Amacker Kristine Karnos Ray Wells In honor of Eli Weissman: In honor of Ryan Bruno’s Hayes Anderson Christopher Kennedy Jean West KB Weissman birthday: Anonymous Jeanie and Murray Kilgour James Wiener The Visco Family Patricia Bellace Paula Kocken Virginia Wolfe Matching Gifts In honor of my children: Scot Bernstein Robert and Kathleen Kulus Brian and Kathy Yelton Ameriprise on behalf of: Stephanie-Ann Bahr Boy Scout Troop 411, Connie and Nick LaFond Erik Johnson In honor of Pam Churn: Stacy MN James Lundsted Melissa Kotek Lorianne Churn Leslie Brown Donna Mack-Iwanski Memorials Christopher Lamere Lori Buswell Paul Trevizo Kathryn Mahigan In memory of Bebe and Bella: In honor of Lynn Cook: Cindy Carvelli-Yu Barbara Cook Sylvia Mannig Donna Duran Connexus Energy on behalf of: Patricia Clarke Linda McGurn Shannon McDonald In memory of Marian Bloechl: In honor of William Fox: Lisa Crawford Elaine and Myron Schlechter Dr. L. David Mech Dianne Wulff Hospira on behalf of: Kevin Culver Dave Messinger In honor of Greg Gailen: Stanley Lipinski, Jr. David D. Dayton In memory of Arlin Erickson: Seamus Metress, Ph.D. Jill Weems Dick and Deb Thiel Medtronic on behalf of: James Denton Barbara Müller Cathy Gray In memory of Jim Gates: In honor of Susan Goebel: Daniele de Ponthiere Janice Navratil Joan Gates David Bedrin Connie Di Bratto Roger and Hollie Parsons In-Kind Donations Brian and Ellen Dietz In honor of Karl Hassis: Robert Patterson In memory of Pat Gillespie: Justin Benjamin Melanie Donaghy Essential Health, St Mary’s Thomas Cowette Patricia Pettis Charles Biviano Hospice, Virginia, MN Connie and Mike Dowler In honor of Judi Jarnberg’s Tanya Reiss Carol Brooks Richard Duncan In memory of Heidi birthday: Debbie Reynolds Leslie Brown and Brandy: Sarah Booth Joseph Ehrbar The Constance Robert Richard Bartlett MaryAnn Canning Alan and Sharon Fearey Fund of the Community In honor of Bob Landis: Christine A. Coletta Denise and Mike Ferguson Foundation for In memory of Lakota: Deborah Hinchcliffe and Greater New Haven Jerry Sanders Carlos Horta Font Friends of Tamarac Nancy Vanderwerff Google National Wildlife Refuge Paul E. Robert In memory of Marcia Larson: In honor of Conrad Patrick, Jr.: Michael Ross Traci McFadden Sonia Fuerstneau Tracy Bygrave Nick Patrick Michael Sanders Kathleen Melde Bridget Fusco In honor of Debbie Reynolds: In memory of Eleanor Sabatini Valerie Gates Daniel and Susan Schmitt Mary Nicholson: Susan Anderson Martha Schoonover Susan Todd Deborah Gentile Margaret Nicholson In honor of Siobhan Rix: Doris Werner Michael Gerritsen Bradley and Melissa Schumacher In memory of Vivian Nohr: Joanna Pasternack Kathy Yelton Nancy Gibson and Catherine Criel Ron Sternal Paul and Susan Schurke, In honor of Jerry Sanders: Wintergreen Dogsled Rich Hinchcliffe, Jr. Estates Edward Gleason Lodge In memory of Remy: Lisa Nivens Margaret A. Haines Carol J. Green Kathleen and In honor of my 6th-grade Edna Mae Lamb Joe and Jody Greenhalgh Michael Shopa In memory of Shadow: SETSS class: Wesley Haut Sharon Siebert Kathy Belgea Iveliz Colon Sustaining Andrene Smith Helena Goscilo Charles and Sharon Heck In honor of the marriage of Members and Guy Smith Kris Sheldon and Anine Jensen: Debbie Hinchcliffe and In memory of Sally Larson Monthly Donors Jerry Sanders Code Sternal William Weisman: Bob Akerley Judy Hunter Nancy jo Tubbs Audrey Wolf In honor of Paige Snyder, Neil Hutt who is very concerned Mara Arico Joseph Velasquez In memory of Wildlife: about the wolves: Rebecca Becker Michael Huwaldt Michael Vieths Marina Mooney Robert Snyder Darcy Berus John and Donna Virr

18 Spring 2015 www.wolf.org INTERNATIONAL WOLF CENTER Member Profile

Anne Braaten James Brady Jen Webb— Carol Brooks Finding Strength Michael Byrnes Mary Ann Canning in a Time of Carly Dent Personal Tragedy Linda Dougherty Matthew Dresnick By Darcy Berus Cameron Feaster Martina Fehlhaber nyone who sees Jen Webb’s Vic and Yvonne Gagliano five wolf tattoos can tell Jennifer Herstein Ashe loves wolves. They’ll Carol Hodges hear excitement in her voice Karen Hodsdon when she talks about her dis- Judy Hunter covery of the International Wolf David Kline Center. She said, “I was surfing Catherine Kling online and found what I thought was an amazing place and all you Debbie Kowalski do to teach people about this Hui Chuan Li misunderstood creature.” Valerie Lockhart On the phone from her Louise Murphy home, Jen shared Roberta Odell with me why she’s been a member Michael Pastorelli of the International Wolf Center Dana Pond since 2006. “I’ve always had a Nancy Powers passion and fascination for these Henry and Carol Rompage beautiful animals…I would give Photo courtesy of Jen Webb Bette Jean Rua anything to see a wolf in person S. Schade and take a picture of one, but traveling Jen’s campaign was a huge success! Pierre Schlemel is an issue for me. That’s why I haven’t She not only exceeded her goal—so far, Rob Schultz and been able to visit (the International Wolf over $1,600 and counting—but she is Andrew Engelhart Center’s Interpretive Center in Ely).” regaining her personal strength and C.A. Sharp Not long ago, Jen experienced the positive spirit. Catherine Shepard tragic loss of Rich, her husband of 22 “You take a lot of things for granted. Rebecca and Ronald Sinclair years. In her search for strength, she You figure there’s always tomorrow. But Paul Smith looked for ways to get up each morning I’ve come to see that it’s not always true. Peter Smith and face the day. “I needed to be a part And then it takes time to heal. It was Patti and Bob Sobecke of something positive and latch onto important for me to get involved. I want Carol Lynn and Ronald it …something to help me focus,” she to give and help wolves, however I can.” Sokoloff said. After seeing the Center’s CrowdRise Thank you, Jen, for reaching out to Lynn Streadwick online fundraising drive for a new “Wolf the International Wolf Center and letting Walt Stump Wagon” for the Wolf Care program, she your dedication to our mission help you Leslie Teuber and David Albert decided to create her own CrowdRise in your personal recovery journey. We Nancy Vanderwerft campaign to boost the effort. “I was are touched by your story and are grate- n Manuel Vazquez hoping not only to meet my goal, but I ful for your generous, enduring spirit. wanted to help in whatever way I can… Sandra Weiner It gave me something positive to be Steffanie Wiggins involved with.” Linda Williams

International Wolf Spring 2015 19 Wolves Return to Denmark: A Long Journey, An Even Longer Time

by Tracy O’Connell

erete Prior writes from Denmark Andersen verified that this wolf origi- about the arrival of wolves in nated from the Mielkeler pack in Sachsen, Mher country. She spent a week the easternmost part of Germany. The with International Wolf Center staff in the wolf was born in 2009 and had traveled Northwest Territories, and has remained around 850 kilometers (more than 528 a friend of the Center through the years. miles) to the northern part of Jylland She notes that Denmark had not been called Thy, home to a national park, home to wolves in the wild for several as well as diverse landscapes including decades. The last wolf was killed in 1813. beaches and . Nearly 200 years later, in October 2012, DNA samples and photos now show a wild wolf was observed in Jylland, that wolves have spread to several parts also called Jutland, the Danish main- of Jylland, and that at least eleven wolves land that shares a border with northern have been in Denmark, all males. Germany. The animal died a month later They come from Germany, and from an infection in the chest which had the Baltic countries, and some have caused a buildup of fluid in the , traveled over 900 miles (more than 1448 according to an autopsy. It showed no kilometers). sign of rabies, distemper or parvovirus As in many other countries, Prior infections. notes, the return of wolves has provoked With the help of German scientists discussion among the Danes. The popula- from the Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut tion is polarized: those who do not want und Naturmuseum, a major science the wolf, typically hunters and farmers museum in Frankfurt, and DNA tests, who claim the country is too small for a Awen Briem Awen the Danish scientist Liselotte Westley

Tved Klitplantage in Thy National Park, Denmark: Evidence shows that wolves from Germany, Poland and the Baltic countries have traveled hundreds of miles to the diverse landscapes of this national park in Denmark. Wikimedia Commons/Jens Buurgaard Nielsen

20 Spring 2015 www.wolf.org NORWAY

SWEDEN large predator and that the wildlife will Thy National Park suffer; and those who welcome the wolf DENMARK as a long-lost inhabitant of the country and a tribute to the diversity of nature. The Danish government has agreed on a management plan for wolves which UNITED Berlin POLAND states that it is illegal to hunt them and KINGDOM forbidden to destroy the areas where GERMANY wolves have established themselves. Sachsen Denmark is committed to follow the rules which dictate strong protection of wolves, while pay- ing compensation to farmers who lose livestock to wolf attacks. It has basically AUSTRIA adopted the same rules as Sweden, where FRANCE D two men were sentenced to two years in rava River prison last September for killing a wolf. Lessinia Natural Meanwhile, farmers are investigating Regional Park new measures, such as various kinds of fences and the use of guard , to ITALY protect livestock, especially sheep.

Elsewhere in the World…

SLOVENIA: meters (more than 8,500 feet) and the THE UNITED Wolf OR-7 made waves would have been about six meters KINGDOM: throughout the world’s media (more than 19 feet) deep at the time. A plan to re-introduce now- for his wide-ranging travels from his NichollsSPAIN notes, “Slavc was one of departed species into the UK, described native pack to California and an estimated 4,000 wolves living on the by British environmental activist George back to Oregon, spawning a movie and Balkan peninsula of south-eastern . Monbiot in his book, Feral, has been set fan club. Now he has a counterpart This most urbanized, industrialized and back by a government plan to subject in Europe—Slavc, a wolf collared in farmed continent on Earth is now home species not now present in the landscape MALTA ALGERIA TUNISIA 2011 in southern Slovenia, which has MOROCCOto some 12,000 wolves, 17,000 brown at least some of the time, to eradication traveled 2,000 kilometers (more than and 9,000 Eurasian .” and control. The re-wilding plan has the 1,242 miles) to Italy. Slavc stayed with If it was a mate Slavc sought, the trip support of the John Muir Trust, which his natal pack from his June collaring paid off. In early 2012 he passed through sees ecotourism among the advantages, into December, then headed north. His Italy’s Lessinia Natural Regional Park in and millionaire Paul Lister, who wants to travels were tracked by Slovenian biolo- the province of Verona. Biologists there introduce bears and wolves to what he gist Hubert Potočnik, who gave the play- had seen video footage of a female wolf, envisions to be an enclosed 50,000 acre by-play in an interview last August with judging by its posture when it urinated. area (more than 20,234 hectares) which Henry Nicholls for the online news site Slavc kept going, however, and tarried encompasses his estate in Sutherland, theguardian.com. for a while farther north, in a region of as well as other land. Other species that Concerned that Slavc would be shot vineyards and greenhouses, where he is would be similarly barred by the gov- by people confusing him with a stray believed to have killed the only domestic ernment’s proposed ruling: the lynx, dog because of his collar, Potočnik livestock he hunted on this trip. Then he European , brown , spotted reached out to the media with infor- backtracked to the regional park, depicted hyena, , and blue stag bee- mation throughout his trek. He reports online as a verdant wonderland of 10,000 tle. “Some would be widely welcomed; Slavc crossed two major motorways hectares (more than 24,500 acres). Here others not at all, but it’s clear that a debate in the early days, using underpasses he met the she-wolf, now dubbed Juliet, about which species we might bring back and overpasses to navigate traffic. He in tribute to the Shakespearean character is one that many people in this country swam the Drava River, a tributary to the of that region whose story did not end as want to have, but that the government Danube, at a place that was 280 meters well. Park rangers confirmed the prints wants to terminate,” in the words of James (more than 900 feet) wide, where there of two canids together in the snow. The Delingpole, himself vocal in opposition were no bridges. He crossed the Austrian pair produced litters in 2013 and 2014; to the re-wilding proposal, writing in Alps where the lowest pass was 2,600 the 2014 litter had seven pups. the UK’s Breitbart online news service.

International Wolf Spring 2015 21 International Wolf has no independent confirmation of the alleged attacks on humans or whether the wolves were rabid

CHINA: media “take a similar approach,” noting, , or ancestry, that is found across It was widely reported last “Stories of the grisliest wolf attacks are the rest of and North America. August that a pack of starving splashed all over…and feature sensa- He notes that human population pres- wolves attacked a farming community tionalist headlines.” sure will continue to exert demands on in rural near the Mongolian bor- wolf habitat, as the treeless der, injuring six people, some severely. : are considered by the government to be Some sources claimed the wolves were The nation’s first-ever attempt a wasted area and, therefore, not pro- after the village’s sheep population, and at counting its wolf population tected as a resource, but rather marked only attacked humans who were defend- aims to do so by documenting howls. for development. ing the flocks.Editors note: International “Every wolf howl is unique, just like every The goal of protecting wolves is seen Wolf has no independent confirmation of has a unique stripe pattern on its as less noble than protecting other spe- the alleged attacks on humans or whether the body,” says Bilal Habib, a scientist at the cies, like the rhino, elephant, lion or wolves were rabid Wildlife Institute of India and an expert tiger, Banerjee explains. Adding to the on wolves. Ananda Banerjee, writing in difficulty of protecting wolves is their : the English- Indian website Mint, need for big tracts of land in which to In an article last June, freelance notes that there is no well-documented disperse new populations, which this journalist Luke-Dale Harris population estimate for wolves anywhere crowded nation can ill afford. Noting described the way the public’s popular in the Indian subcontinent. The pro- the negative views of wolves because of conception of wolves as bad animals posed census will be through a means their depredation of livestock, Banerjee causes them to be singled out more called “capture and recapture,” he says, draws attention to the positive myths than lynx or bear for public hatred. “The explaining that it is a method commonly that have grown up around these ani- wolf is a demonic image that corrupts, used to estimate a species’ population. mals as indication that their stories can destroys innocence, and makes victims of Scientists will record samples of wolf be cast in a more positive light, citing the small ones,” a theater producer tells howls in various areas over various sea- , who, according to him of the villain in the classic children’s sons, using the formula Total = original legend, built Rome after being raised by play, The with Three Kids. “He feels number tagged x total recaptured ÷ number a wolf, and in ’s the smell of blood and flesh. He goes tagged on recapture. , whose extraordinary on high rocks and howls at the moon. Banerjee addresses the challenges talents are credited to his being raised All of this makes us think of him like of protecting the wolf in India, citing by wolves in the jungle. n of a demon.” Harris contends Romanian that nation as the cradle of wolf evolu- tion in which a proposed three species Tracy O’Connell is associate professor exist, two of which—the Indian and emerita of marketing communications at the University of Wisconsin-River Falls Himalayan wolves—are unique to the and a member of the International Wolf subcontinent. The third, the Tibetan Center’s communications wolf, is from the wolf-dog and magazine committees. George Hughes

22 Spring 2015 www.wolf.org and development of major highways, Excitement, Entertainment, Learning often interrupt natural corridors, while Can Be Shared national parks, wilderness areas and continental-scale conservation efforts by Nancy jo Tubbs support the “ way.” Eisenberg aids the lay reader with helpful defini- dults can gain insight into key ate her cash income for the whole year. tions of biological terminology and offers predator research and the pathway It’s not the magnitude of the killing; stories of face-to-face encounters with A for the migration of imperiled it’s how personal it feels.” The second these provocative predators. species, while kids can become inspired half of the book focuses on the cre- to care about and work with animals. ative fervor and imperfect science of Mission: Wolf Rescue. Targeted for kids These awesome animals sometimes finding methods to deter wolves from 10 and older, this 128-page National frighten, often delight, and always engage taking livestock. Flags, surgical steril- Geographic Kids large paperback by readers of all ages. ization, fences, artificial scent marking, Kitson Jazynka and Daniel Raven- and relocation projects are detailed in a Ellison is irre- The Predator Paradox: Ending the way that will fascinate anyone who has sistible for all War with Wolves, Bears, , and ever, even for a minute, been intrigued ages. Full-page Coyotes. Author John by predator research. photographs A. Shivik is an even- and eye-catch- handed storyteller and The Carnivore Way: Coexisting with and ing graphics sur- experienced researcher Conserving North America’s Predators. round readable who brings into sharp Researcher Christina Eisenberg takes information and focus the world of us on a trek from activities that “varmints”—wolves, , north ground children bears, cougars, and through the in the basics of coyotes—as well as wolf behavior Mission: Wolf Rescue those who revere, to . This and biology. detest, or study them. potential wild 2014. Turtleback Books Throughout, In short, readable sec- lands corridor, she Written by Kitson Jazynka and they are intro- The Predator tions, The Predator contends, is essen- Daniel Raven-Ellison duced to engag- Paradox: Ending 128 pages ing observations the War with Wolves, Paradox introduces the tial for the disper- insights of key predator sal, breeding, and from profession- Bears, Cougars, als who interact and Coyotes researchers and con- future survival of servationists, includ- our charismatic with wild animals, including biologists, 2014. Beacon Press ing Dave Mech, Diane megafauna: griz- photographers, , and res- Written by John Shivik Boyd, Hank Fischer The Carnivore Way: zly bears, wolves, cue workers. The booklet encourages 208 pages and Doug Smith. Shivik Coexisting with and lynx, , cou- sensible ways to help wolf populations, references a myriad of Conserving North gars and wolver- and it might well inspire a child’s pas- America’s Predators inside sources. He quotes Richard Nixon ines. Offering a sion to work with animals. Adults could signing the 1973 Endangered Species 2014. Island Press chapter on each do worse than to share this with a kid Act, saying, “…nothing is more price- Written by Christina one, Eisenberg and, themselves, become enthralled n less and more worthy of preservation Eisenberg provides an over- once again with the world of wolves. than the rich array of animal life with 328 pages view of how sci- which our country has been blessed.” ence, policy, and Interviewing a widowed grandmother environmental ethics promote, or stand whose small Wisconsin herd lost in the way of, a pathway for the migra- two head to wolves, Shivik notes, “The tion of these imperiled species. Human dead were cows with calves. The wolves extraction activities, such as logging,

International Wolf Spring 2015 23 The Red Wolves of the Ozarks that the old tales were of coyotes. I’ve no doubt that Jack McCall would have been surprised by this argument as wolves by Steve Weems and coyotes not only look different, they sound different. In his younger days, he arly pioneers to the Ozark hills a coffee can at his feet, feed the stove killed wolves for the bounty and because of Carroll County, Arkansas, another stick of wood, and patiently they killed sheep. Later, he killed coy- Erecounted wolves as being abun- answer my questions. otes because they preyed on his chickens dant. According to the book Pioneer In my time Jack McCall was an and . In his mind the two types Tales by Cora Pinkley-Call, the earliest elderly, compact man in a cowboy hat. of animals were not the same. Wolves European settlers to Carroll County He was a lifelong farmer and timber were obviously bigger than coyotes, but had to continually guard their stock man whose livelihood took place out of they also carried themselves differently against the threat posed by wolves and doors, tending his livestock and land. when they moved. In John Sealander’s A other predators. At night wolves would At an early age I realized that his life Guide to Arkansas , he recounts “come and pick up the crumbs from was centered more on the production an Arkansas red wolf specimen tipping where (the settlers) had eaten” in their of food than earning money. Cash was the scales at 90 pounds. I’ve read that primitive pioneer camps. The wolves necessary, but you couldn’t eat it. And out West, pure coyotes seldom weigh were often described as large and either when you have twelve children, like he more than 30 pounds. reddish-gray or black in color. Biologists and Granny, an abundant food supply There is a story from the 1930s of say it was the red wolf that was found is critical. McCall men being seen with a - in Carroll County. Jack McCall was quick to defend that drawn wagon piled with the bodies of I’ve long been fascinated by the stories food supply with a gun. He didn’t take dead wolves. They’d been running the of wolves in Carroll County. I recall sit- kindly to competition, whether it be wolves with into areas where men ting with my grandfather, Jack McCall, in the garden or predators lay in wait with rifles, ready to ambush on cold winters’ nights, asking about in the livestock. He considered it to be a and kill. I don’t exactly understand the them. He would spit tobacco juice into life and death matter for all concerned. I’ve heard the opinion that Carroll County never had any actual wolves—

The farm that Granny grew up on is now a small part of the Nature Conservancy’s shutterstock/Colin Stitt King’s River Preserve… The red wolf, though, is missing.

24 Spring 2015 www.wolf.org intricacies of this hunting method, but it was apparently successful. The hounds would likely have been foxhounds or coonhounds, the traditional athletic, long-eared dogs used for tracking and giving chase in the Ozarks. Though more rare, another of dog was employed to battle these predators. When I was young, Granny also told me about wolves, which she indicated were numerous in her childhood. Raised upriver several miles from her future husband in the Mason Bend of Kings River, she saw them only occasionally, but heard them often. Across the river from her family’s log house was a high bluff where the wolves would congregate at night and howl. Like other sheep farm- ers of the time, her hated wolves. She recalled that circa 1918, he left on a trip, traveling what was considered a great distance. He returned with two massive wolfhounds, dogs powerful enough to hunt and bring down wolves on their own. When the wolves gathered across the river on the bluff, Granny’s father would release the wolfhounds. The farm that Granny grew up on is now a small part of the Nature Conservancy’s Kings River Preserve in Carroll County. The preserve protects ten miles of clear, free flowing river and the surrounding acreage for a variety of native species, several quite rare. The red wolf, though, is missing. The Arkansas Game and Fish Commission says that in the 1940s, Carroll County had one of the larg- est populations of wolves left in the state, the small farms and woodlands providing good habitat. Each year the number of pure wolves dwindled, as Jack McCall and his hounds they were hunted by man and interbred with coyotes. Carroll County continued to offer a $15 bounty on wolves in 1966. In 1967, Photo courtesy of Steve Weems the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed the red wolf as endangered under the wolves from Arkansas. He wondered continually discovering nature’s mysteries. Endangered Species Preservation Act. if it was man’s place to annihilate an His writing is often fueled by the desire to In 1969 the Arkansas Game and Fish entire species. n capture the tales of a disappearing culture Commission gave wolves protected sta- learned from the elders of his family. tus. By 1980 the red wolf was officially Steve Weems returned to writing moti- He lives with his wife and three children extinct in the state of Arkansas. vated by his love of the forests and lore in a deep hollow near Eureka Springs, of his native Ozark Mountains. He draws Arkansas. Murder in the Ozarks is his Late in life, Jack McCall, not one for first full-length novel. giving a predator an even break, was inspiration from deep woodland hikes, wistful about the disappearance of the clear spring-fed creeks, and the thrill of Blog/Web site: http://steveweems.com/

International Wolf Spring 2015 25 rizzer is a Great Plains subspecies of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus nubilus). He is - Grently the only wolf in retirement at the International Wolf Center. He was born on May 5, 2004. Grizzer was removed from the Exhibit Pack in March, 2011, after the loss of his littermate, Maya. It was determined that Grizzer had been losing con- fidence in his status and, without the support of his littermate, he struggled to compete with his younger packmates. Now in the retirement enclosure, he has less stress, but he can still interact with the other wolves through the fences. This winter Grizzer has been alert to the sounds of nearby sled dogs and the ravens perched overhead waiting to steal a scrap of food. Visitors to the Center cannot see Grizzer in the retirement enclosure, but he can be seen through the live wolf cams at www.wolf.org as well as in weekly updates on YouTube about all the ambassador wolves at the Center.

Telemetry The use of electronic equipment to locate a distant source. Researchers use telemetry equipment, such as receivers and antennas, to locate

International Wolf Center International Wolf signals emitted from radio collars which have been put on the wolves they are studying.

Biologist A person who studies living organisms, life processes and/or the animal and plant life of a particular place. Biologists also study the relationship of living things to one another.

Canis lupus The scientific name for the gray wolf.

26 Spring 2015 www.wolf.org inter is a great time Wfor scientists to track and study wolves, because wolves are easily seen against the white winter snow, espe- cially from an airplane. With the thick summer foliage gone and with the use of radio-telemetry equipment, scientists can track and study radio-collared wolves and their packs. Radio telemetry works like a radio station, sending out very high frequency (VHF) signals. Wolves are captured and fitted with trans- mitter collars. When the wolf is released, the transmitter starts send- ing out VHF signals. When the wolf biologists are in range with an antenna and receiver, they hear the beeping noise emitted from a wolf’s collar. Thanks to this technology, wild wolves can be located and studied. Visitors to the International Wolf Center can learn about track- ing, observation, data collection and radio telemetry. They can even try all the radio telemetry equipment outside at the Center. Check our website www.wolf.org to look for radio telemetry classes for kids Darcy Berus and adults. n

I T T S H G E N R W K F T R X X Z F L Q Y A R M A O U E T X R G U V Y Q P V V R Y U S A Q L Z T W R E S E A R C H B L Z F H M J N Z C Y A J C E M M P H X K K Y Word Search R B O B I S C J D S E E N M H K W U R E Use the Word Bank below to E G S R Y K M Z P K I K K V A S F T C J find the words hidden in the Q I G M T N E I H H V N E F N K E P A U puzzle. Words may be found horizontally, vertically, diago- U J R B N V U N T H E G C Y T M P G K A nally, forward and backward. E W I A D M S E T T R C J W E H S T E N wolf antenna N K I V U M B S V H E H J L N H G F T X C S R Q A A I J Z H X R E V N B O L T Z telemetry signal Y I I M W G V J X U V T M D A S L U N A biologist research B R E G O O Y S K D V G T X M Y F I S T transmitter Boltz Y L V L L R R F D K E R F G T N O T I M radio Luna D E O B F E J U D C H N Q H N B W X G E X I T O T N R A D I O L A I D A N T N D frequency Aidan B B E N F A I R P L A N E L D O D A A S winter Denali I Q I W M X S S V W P Q U I I A D G L X airplane Grizzer P W T H Q Y M S O D P Y Y E F C W O L F receiver F P R I F X M J B J M X F A A E K H P X

International Wolf Spring 2015 27 research, or compensation, and they are The Future Holds Challenges pressuring WDFW to employ intensive for Washington’s Wolves lethal management of wolves. Human- caused mortality has been a major cause by Diane Gallegos of losses for Washington’s wolves since wolves began recolonizing in the state, fter being absent for over 70 years, The Successes including the killing of two breeding females in 2014. wolves have been recolonizing In 2007, in anticipation of wolves’ Ain Washington since early 2000 return, the Washington Department of The Future by dispersing from neighboring Idaho, Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) convened a Montana, Oregon and . While wolf recovery continues to have citizens’ stakeholder group to develop broad public support in Washington, Currently the gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a recovery and management plan. The listed and protected as endangered in we are at a crossroads. Will we work Washington Wolf Conservation and together to effectively employ current Washington under state law and pro- Management Plan, adopted in December tected under the federal Endangered nonlethal tools and support the research 2011, serves as the wolf recovery plan needed to develop new methods of pro- Species Act in the western two-thirds for the state. Addressing gray wolf-live- of the state. Wolves in the eastern third tecting livestock, or will we revert to stock conflicts is an essential part of the intensive lethal practices of the early were removed from federal protection plan. Thanks to a bipartisan effort, the in 2011. 1900s? The state wolf conservation goal state legislature provided funding for is a minimum of 15 successful breed- research, training and cost-sharing for ing pairs for three consecutive years nonlethal deterrents, including range in three recovery regions across the riders, fencing, night penning, guarding state from eastern Washington to the and herding animals, and the removal Olympic Peninsula. I believe that with of carcasses. In addition to support with cooperation, collaboration, and inno- nonlethal deterrents, the plan also pro- vation Washington can be a leader in a vides for compensation in the event that sustainable 21st century wolf manage- producers experience livestock losses, as ment program that protects these apex well as the legal permission for livestock predators (along with bears and cougars) producers in the eastern portion of the while continuing to have functioning state to kill wolves caught in the act of livestock production. n attacking livestock or guarding animals. Diane Gallegos has served as the executive The Challenges director of Wolf Haven International since Although a great deal of support is 2011. She began her career as a field available to Washington livestock pro- biologist and has served in leadership ducers, some have chosen not to par- positions for a number of nonprofit ticipate in nonlethal deterrent programs, organizations prior to joining the staff at Wolf Haven. Although a great deal of support is available to Washington livestock producers, some have chosen not to participate in nonlethal deterrent programs, research, or compensation, and they are pressuring WDFW to employ intensive lethal management of

Photo courtesy Wolf Haven International Photo courtesy Wolf wolves… While wolf recovery continues to have broad public support in Washington, we are at a crossroads.

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• Ambassador wolves VISIT, LEARN, REPEAT. • New exhibit! Raptors… Predators from the Sky Every visit to the International Wolf Center is unique. Be entertained and amazed by our Exhibit Pack. Learn and be • Daily & specialty programs inspired by wolf educators in daily programs or take in a specialty program perfect for you, your family or group. Plan • Learning your next adventure today! Adventure Arriving in May is a new temporary exhibit, Raptors…Predators from the Sky! Programs featuring live guest raptors along with Vacations Heidi Pinkerton’s stunning wildlife photography will uplift and teach you about another majestic predator. • Lecture series Members enjoy free admission and save 10% on Learning Adventures, specialty programs • “Little Wolf” and purchases at the Wolf Den Store. exhibit for kids © Heidi Pinkerton Gene Ortiz

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