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ON THE COVER As coronavirus spreads in April 2020, supporters of the Michigan the state’s stay-at-home orders on the steps of the Capitol building in Lansing. / HERALD



“Our country has had enough. will not take and separation of immigrant children from fami- anymore, and that is what this is all about … we fight, at the border. we fight like hell, and if you don’t fight like hell, Hate groups that traditionally occupy the main- you’re not going to have a country anymore. … So we stream, like anti-LGBTQ groups and anti-immi- are going to, we are going to walk down grant groups, saw their influence in Avenue… And we’re going to the Capitol…” – with balloon over the last four years, with serious con- those words on Jan. 6, incited a mob sequences for human rights in America and around that included the hate and antigovernment groups the world. Nativist bigotry brought about one of the the , the Keepers, and the Three worst human rights crises in modern U.S. , Percenters to storm the U.S. Capitol in an insurrec- when the Department of sep- tion to maintain . arated children from their parents at the southern Trump refused to condemn the insurrection, border. The administration also effectively sus- which left five people dead, including a Capitol law pended the legal asylum process, stranding peo- enforcement officer. He even praised the rioters, call- ple who fled violence in their home countries, and ing them “patriots,” saying “we love you” vacated asylum protections for survi- and “you are very special.“ The episode vors of intimate partner violence. Anti- was reminiscent of his notorious declara- LGBTQ appointments to the judiciary tion that there were “very fine people on will likely threaten trans and queer both sides,” in the aftermath of the vio- Americans’ civil rights for a generation. lence at the deadly 2017 white suprema- cist rally in Charlottesville, . 838 Hate groups declined, but hate did not While every few months it seemed hate groups in In 2020, SPLC tracked 838 active hate there was a new, brazen moment that the U.S. in 2020 groups. Though numbers have dropped would define the Trump presidency, it 11% overall, we are still recording his- was this of the U.S. Capitol, with toric highs. In 2015, the numbers pro-Trump rioters parading through the jumped from 784 to 892, and they have halls of Congress with Confederate flags remained well above 800 for the dura- and a self-described white nationalist pil- tion of the Trump presidency. fering from the office of House Speaker 29% It is important to understand that the , that will exemplify Trump’s number of hate groups is merely one met- racist demagoguery for posterity. ric for measuring the level of hate and Historically, SPLC research shows in America, and that the decline of Americans that when extremists perceive more in groups should not be interpreted as a allies in the halls of power, their num- personally know reduction in bigoted beliefs and actions bers dip. Not so with the Trump pres- someone who motivated by hate. The SPLC has begun idency. For the first three years of his that white conducting polling as an additional presidency, SPLC recorded historically people are the tool to measure extremist sentiment. high hate group numbers as bigotry superior race. Our August 2020 polling, for example, found a comfortable home in the White revealed that 29 percent of Americans House, and white nationalist ideologues personally know someone who believes

influenced policies like the Muslim ban that are the superior race. BOYS) (PROUD SLOAN IMAGES/BLOOMBERG/GRAEME GETTY (INSURRECTION); CORUM IMAGES/SAMUEL GETTY

2 SOUTHERN POVERTY LAW CENTER As another metric, SPLC keeps track of extrem- ist flyers reported around the country. This year we recorded almost 4,900 flyering incidents. Groups under the white nationalist exploited flyering as a tactic to spread their hate- ful nearly twelve times more than all other combined. Typically, new hate groups are formed and membership grows in reaction to changes in soci- ety, especially changes that challenge white hege- mony. A historical example of this is the , which was virtually nonexistent in the and 1940s after its membership reached record lev- Above: Far-right extremists storm the U.S. Capitol on Jan 6. els in the 1920s, and came roaring back in the 1950s. Below: Proud Boys in , D.C. in December 2020 White nationalist beliefs had not declined in the in an effort to overturn the results of the presidential election. 1930s and 1940s alongside group membership, a that became clear when organized hate activities erupted after the 1954 Supreme Court decision in to 25 groups in 2020. The number of Klan groups v. Board of made segregation ille- the SPLC tracked used to be consistently over 150; gal. In the modern era, we tracked a gradual rise of in recent years they dropped below 100, and then hate groups during the George W. Bush adminis- under 50. A major reason for this is that the Klan’s tration, when numbers peaked in the 800s. After name has become extremely toxic – if you are a Klan became the ’s first pres- member and your employer finds out, for instance, ident, the number jumped to more than 1,000. you are all but guaranteed to be fired. Unfortunately, The demise of the Klan in the last decade has those declining numbers do not reflect a parallel specifically resulted in an overall reduction in the reduction in support for their ideas. number of hate groups that the SPLC tracks. The Despite the massive drop in Klan groups, there Ku Klux Klan, formerly a significant generator of are now many alternative hate organizations that


THE YEAR IN HATE AND EXTREMISM 3 Proud Boys, which SPLC lists under the General Online platforms allow individuals to interact Hate category, vandalized historically Black with hate and antigovernment groups churches in Washington, D.C. during a December pro-Trump demonstration, and members of the without joining them, as well as to form Proud Boys were front and center during the U.S. connections and talk with likeminded people. Capitol insurrection. Many extremist ideologues are not formal mem- bers of any organization. Online platforms allow individuals to interact with hate and antigovern- The hate group landscape in 2020 ment groups without joining them, as well as to As previously mentioned, The Ku Klux Klan contin- form connections and talk with likeminded peo- ued its collapse, with only 25 active chapters in 2020. ple. And, despite the lack of formal affiliation, these White nationalist group numbers also dipped individuals still take real-world actions. The U.S. by over 100, a change that does not a trend Capitol insurrection exemplifies this. Most of the toward less white nationalist organizing. Both people storming the Capitol building not be white nationalist groups and neo-Nazi groups are -carrying members of a hate or antigovernment becoming more diffuse and difficult to track and group, but they extremist beliefs. quantify as they proliferate online and communi- The U.S. Capitol insurrection also showed us how cate on encrypted platforms. the Trump campaign and the MAGA movement Anti-immigrant, anti-Muslim and anti-LGBTQ offered individuals a twisted kind of camaraderie hate groups, which are typically more successful that you get from being a member of a hate or anti- at laundering their ideas into mainstream political government group, where Trump himself was a radi- discourse, saw their numbers remain largely sta- calizing force. We again see this with the people who ble, though their in-person organizing was curtailed were arrested – many had previously attended several due to the COVID-19 pandemic. rallies, and viewed President Trump as their leader. Even though anti-immigrant groups were not Two other trends that impacted the count in able to hold as many in-person events as years past, 2020 and will likely affect it in future years: 1) their influence was felt where it mattered: in policy COVID-19 minimized overt hate group activity. and legislation. Over Trump’s four years in office, There were some groups that we did not relist this according to data published by the Migration Policy year because they ceased their in-person activity Institute, the Trump administration implemented and did not appear to do anything online; and 2) more than 400 policy changes to curb both legal and Hate groups are increasingly being booted from illegal . Exploiting the COVID-19 pan- popular platforms and moving their demic to stoke health and economic , the Trump communications into encrypted chatrooms, which administration enacted a de facto moratorium on all makes it harder for the SPLC to track them. immigration to the U.S. by the end of 2020.

HATE GROUPS 1999 – 2020

1020 1002 1018 1007 954 940 926 932 939 917 888 892 838 844 803 784 751 762 708 676 602


1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 AP IMAGES/PATRICK SEMANSKY (BARRET); GETTY IMAGES/NURPHOTO/CHERISS MAY (GABRIEL) MAY IMAGES/NURPHOTO/CHERISS (BARRET); GETTY SEMANSKY AP IMAGES/PATRICK

4 SOUTHERN POVERTY LAW CENTER Influential anti-LGBTQ hate groups became fur- Left: is sworn in as Supreme Court Justice. She ther entrenched in the Trump , and the has ties to anti-LGBTQ hate group Alliance Defending Freedom. Right: Brigitte Gabriel and other nativist extremists enjoyed easy Trump administration continued its years-long pat- access to the levers of power during the Trump presidency. tern of appointing federal judges with ties to anti- LGBTQ groups. The most high-profile of these appointments was Amy Coney Barrett, who joined the Supreme Court last fall and has ties to Alliance found that 65 percent of respondents believe racism Defending Freedom, which SPLC has designated an exists and is harmful, but 49 percent believe that anti-LGBTQ hate group. Though the anti-LGBTQ people of color are more likely to be poor because hate movement has lost an ally in the president, they of a lack of work ethic. are likely to continue to use the lower courts and the Findings were similarly disturbing around gaps Supreme Court to try and roll back LGBTQ rights. in health outcomes, with only 38 percent of respon- The number of anti-Muslim hate groups dropped dents believing that systemic racism played a role, by 12, from 84 last year to 72 this year. The largest even as COVID-19 ravages communities of color. anti-Muslim hate group in the country, ACT for Despite some high-profile support for Black Lives America, enjoyed attention from the Trump White Matter demonstrations this summer, the poll showed House, which met with ACT head Brigitte Gabriel that 51 percent of Americans thought that the looting on at least two documented occasions in 2020. which occurred in several cities was a bigger prob- A former ACT staffer was also hired at the State lem than violence against , and 51 Department. Despite that influence, the group suf- percent also thought that the demonstrations were fered from infighting between smaller local chap- not justified because the problem with police vio- ters and the national office in Washington, D.C. lence was isolated to a few “bad apples.” Following Trump’s election loss, some leaders in These racist narratives and beliefs have been the anti-Muslim movement have signaled a shift reinvigorated thanks to one of the most enduring toward local and state-level organizing. and pernicious legacies of the Trump era: the far right’s success constructing a false alternative real- Confronting far-right and racist narratives ity, bolstered by a never-ending stream of baseless The incoming Biden administration faces dual theories and . This fight challenges: reversing the catastrophic damage to over the frame of has polarized American civil rights done by Trump and his allies, and doing further and fundamentally ruptured trust the harder work of exposing and dismantling the in institutions and information. The tech sector, an engines of entrenched, systemic white supremacy opportunistic ally in the propagation of this fraud, that have always threatened inclusive abdicated its responsibility so long ago that it has


THE YEAR IN HATE AND EXTREMISM 5 Trump incited a deadly insurrection and Democrats flipped the Senate did they suspend the President’s 65% accounts and begin to other extremists from Believe racism exists and is harmful. their platforms. The echo chambers have formed, trust in the credibility of reputable media outlets has been disastrously diminished, and the polarization of American society has accelerated. 49% Some of the robber barons of social media are warm- Believe that people of color are more likely ing to revisions of of the Communication to be poor because of a lack of work ethic. Decency Act – legislation that, in its current form, insulates platforms from liability for the content users post – long after its true utility ran out for their com- panies. The toxic networks that they nurtured are 51% migrating to new platforms, like and Telegram. Believe that the looting that occured in The dangers of these isolated and tainted wells of information reached their most critical point dur- several cities during ing the 2020 election, when Trump, his allies and the demonstrations was a bigger problem than extremists who support him, denied the severity of the police violence against Black people. COVID-19 and preemptively declared the results of the general election fraudulent. Throughout the year, armed became fixtures at state houses, and 51% election officials were targeted and threatened in mul- tiple states, including at their private homes. Believe that Black Lives Matter Fortunately, predictions of violent attempts to dis- demonstrations were not justified because rupt voting proved largely unfounded, and the U.S. cel- the problem with police violence was ebrated historic voter turnout. But in the weeks after isolated to a few “bad apples.” Biden’s victory, Trump and his compatriots spread dis-

—SPLC’S AUGUST 2020 POLL information and conspiracy theories at a breathtaking RAYFORD IMAGES/SEAN GETTY


Enact the Domestic authorities to confront far-right enforcement agencies is vastly Prevention Act, which would estab- extremism and create an interagency underreported – in part because lish offices within the Department task force to explore white suprema- reporting is not mandatory. In 2019 of Homeland Security (DHS), the cist activities within the U.S. armed (the most recent report), 86% of Department of Justice, and the FBI forces and federal law enforcement. police agencies either affirmatively to monitor, investigate and prose- reported that they had zero hate cute cases of Improve federal hate data , or they did not report any – and require these offices to reg- collection, training, and preven- data to the FBI at all. ularly report to Congress. Passed tion. Data drives policy. The FBI’s overwhelmingly by the House of annual Statistics Act As we work to build support for Representatives last September, report is the best national snap- mandatory hate crime reporting this legislation would also provide shot of hate violence in America, to the FBI, Congress should enact resources to strengthen partnerships but data received from the 18,000 the Khalid Jabara and Heather with state and local law enforcement federal, state, local and tribal law Heyer National to Hate,

6 SOUTHERN POVERTY LAW CENTER rate, and called on state and federal elected officials, as well as judges, to overturn the will of voters in five states. By late November, only 20 percent of Republicans surveyed said they believed was the true winner of the election, after he won the popular vote in a free and fair election by a mar- gin of more than 7 million and secured the electoral college by 74 votes. While most – but not all – elected officials and judges ignored Trump, his followers succeeded in temporarily halting the certification of the 2020 elec- tion during the joint session of Congress on Jan. 6. The election, and the violent backlash from , have all taken place against the backdrop of a global pandemic which has claimed the lives of more than 500,000 Americans in less than a year – disproportionately people of color, who have to Ahmaud Arbery, an unarmed Black man, was pursued and fatally contend with white supremacist systems that limit shot by white vigilantes while jogging in Brunswick, in their access to high-quality healthcare and other February 2020. vital resources. And skepticism towards safety mea- sures and the vaccine – much of it fueled by righ- officer) while he was jogging and shot to death. twing conspiracy networks – remains high. Despite the incident being captured on video, law enforcement made no arrests in connection with American attitudes about racism the attack for more than 70 days. Just weeks before the COVID-19 pandemic took Arbery’s death was among the first extrajudicial hold of the , a different tragedy gripped killings of Black people in 2020 to garner national Brunswick, Georgia when Ahmaud Arbery was media attention. Each one is a reminder that the

GETTY IMAGES/SEAN RAYFORD IMAGES/SEAN GETTY pursued by three white men (one a former police census of hate groups undertaken by the SPLC’s

Assault, and Threats to Equality from models and Reject efforts to create a new Act of 2019 (NO HATE Act), which toward the prevention of violent criminal domestic terrorism stat- would authorize incentive grants to extremism. It should focus on pro- ute – or the creation of a listing spark improved local and state hate that build resilient communi- of designated domestic terror- crime training and data collection ties and empower adults – including ist organizations. A new federal initiatives, as well as state-based parents, teachers, caregivers, coun- domestic terrorism statute or list hotlines to connect victims with selors, therapists, faith leaders and would adversely impact civil liber- support services. coaches – to help steer young peo- ties and could be used to expand ple away from dangerous ideas. or be wielded to sur- The law is a blunt instrument to These programs are better housed veil and investigate communities of address violent hate and extrem- in the Department of Education and color and political opponents in the ism – it is much better to prevent Department of Health and Human name of national security. these criminal acts in the first place. Services than DHS or other national Congress should shift funding away security agencies.


Hold former President Donald Trump and those who helped incite the deadly on the U.S. Capitol accountable. Action by Intelligence Project is only one metric for under- the House of Representatives to impeach standing the toll that white supremacy takes on former President Trump was absolutely Black and Indigenous Americans, along with other necessary to protect the future of our Americans of color. democracy. Now the Senate must have the Despite a historic, national outcry over these courage and true to convict him , SPLC’s poll showed a limited under- and permanently disqualify him from holding standing of such structural racism. Large majori- public office. In addition, Congress should ties of the population surveyed acknowledged the discipline, censure, or expel all of the 147 dangers posed by organized antigovernment and Senators and Representatives who supported white power groups, but failed to connect their the insurrection and baseless “Stop the existence and influence to the greater culture of Steal” lies by voting against Electoral College white supremacy. For example, the narrative of certification of President Biden’s victory. the odd “bad apple” in police departments persists, even as reports of violence and death at the hands Public figures involved in inciting and giving of law enforcement proliferate across the country. encouragement to the armed insurrectionists Throughout his presidency, Trump and his allies who stormed the U.S. Capitol on Jan. 6 denied and minimized the reality of bigotry in this – destroying property, injuring dozens of country, and legitimized white supremacy through officers, and leaving five people dead – should policies like the Muslim ban and the child separation, be permanently deplatformed from all through personnel like Stephen Miller, Julia Hahn, social media. In addition, corporations should Jason Richwine and Darren Beattie, and through permanently suspend political donations to behavior like defending Confederate monuments Members of Congress and other elected and the extremists who marched in Charlottesville. officials that helped incite the violent siege His administration mocked and resisted public edu- and request that any past political donations cation about our country’s racist legacy, attacking to their campaigns be returned. The Times’s The 1619 Project in particular. In late September, President Trump issued an exec- Provide funding for the Department of utive order banning some forms of training Education to develop a curriculum on for federal employees and contractors. structural racism and funding for states to implement their own related initiatives. Antigovernment uprising Americans can only dismantle white suprem- On Aug. 25, a 17-year-old named Kyle Rittenhouse acy if they understand how racism shaped traveled the 20 miles between his hometown of (and continues to shape) housing, educa- Antioch, and Kenosha, . He was tion, policing, health care and other policies answering an open call, sent out over social media, and practices that affect our everyday lives. for armed to “defend” Kenosha from the mostly peaceful demonstrations that had sprung Require renaming of military bases named up in the city after a Kenosha police officer chased for Confederate leaders, and ban the display Blake into his car and shot him four times of Confederate flags or other racist symbols in the back, paralyzing him. Rittenhouse, despite from all military installations, federal parks, being a minor, had procured a semiautomatic rifle streets and highways. The 2015 Charleston and brought it with him to the protest. Before the sparked a nationwide night was over, he allegedly shot three men, killing effort to remove Confederate symbols from two. He has been charged with multiple counts of public places, but hundreds remain – a sign , and his attorneys are arguing he acted that we have failed to fully acknowledge the in self-defense. People on the right, from the main- injustices of or affirm our commitment stream to the fringe, not only defended his actions,

to a wholly inclusive, pluralistic democracy. but celebrated them. PROTEST) (VIRGINIA AMOS IMAGES/EZE GETTY (MICHIGAN PROTEST); HERALD IMAGES/SETH GETTY In addition, Congress should create a federal grant program to help municipalities remove symbols of the Confederacy. 8 SOUTHERN POVERTY LAW CENTER The shootings in Kenosha were the apex of a Left: The Boogaloo boys hold a rally in Lansing, Michigan in year of feverish paramilitary , which 2020. Right: The Boogaloo boys march in Richmond, Virginia. The is a loosely connected group with began in January 2020 when militias showed up in ideological roots in white and antigovernment Richmond, Virginia to oppose gun measures prom- beliefs. Boogaloo boys believe a second civil war is imminent, ised by a newly Democratic-controlled state legis- and desirable. lature. Soon, they found a new mobilizing cause: As COVID-19 began to spread across the country, In their defense of Rittenhouse and other armed antigovernment groups came out in force to oppose militia action, the right has signaled that antigov- mask mandates and other safety measures to slow ernment participation is an acceptable form of the spread of the disease. As mass demonstrations right-wing political expression, a stance that did for racial justice mobilized around the country, not even waver when members of a Michigan mili- paramilitaries styled themselves as ad hoc depu- tia were arrested and charged with plotting to kid- ties of law enforcement, “patrolling” the streets in nap their governor, Gretchen Witmer. opposition to the largely peaceful demonstrations. The thwarted plot came after a string of violence A similarly laudatory reaction from the right and arrests attributed to the Boogaloo movement, a greeted Mark and Patricia McCloskey, who bran- predominantly white and heavily armed online sub- dished guns at a passing group of Black Lives Matter culture that began as a racist . The subculture demonstrators in St. Louis. They were rewarded with is an illustration of the porous boundaries between a speaking slot at the Republican National . the antigovernment movement and the larger hate


Establish a national truth, racial healing and transformation commission to examine the history of white supremacy and structural racism in the United States. This long-overdue truth and reconciliation commission would help the United States reckon with the injustices our country has committed and help spark a movement to eliminate racial .

Prohibit racial, ethnic and religious profiling in federal, state and local law enforcement. Black, Latinx, Muslim and Indigenous people are subject to discriminatory policing, including increased , more harsh criminal sentences and disproportionately high rates of being killed by police. GETTY IMAGES/SETH HERALD (MICHIGAN PROTEST); GETTY IMAGES/EZE AMOS (VIRGINIA PROTEST) (VIRGINIA AMOS IMAGES/EZE GETTY (MICHIGAN PROTEST); HERALD IMAGES/SETH GETTY

THE YEAR IN HATE AND EXTREMISM 9 10 End fundingfor police militari ANTIGOVERNMENT UPRISING FOR SQUELCHING THE RECOMMENDATIONS enforcement officials. encourage reporting of racist law the “BlueWall of Silence” and protection can helpaddress government. accountability into thefederal capable of injecting muchneeded government watchdogs, whoare law to protect these necessary revealed thelimits of current federal inspectors agency general unprecedented purge of several Presidentagencies. Trump’s including federal law enforcement general at federal agencies and inspectors and autonomy protections for Codify independent authority not onlyineffective, butharmful. spying and surveillance. Americans andresult inillegal immigrants, MuslimsandBlack programs that profile andtarget lence andTerrorism Prevention /Targeted Vio End fundingfor DHSCountering and impendingcivilwar. evidence of government tyranny uses state-sponsored violence as noia of theextreme which right, violence anditinflames thepara communities of color to police tion disproportionately exposes ment agencies. military property to law enforce zation andthetransfer of excess SOUTHERN POVERTY LAW CENTER Police militariza

They are – - - - - - The forward challenges we faceinthefightagainst whitesupremacy. erty. Thechallenges poverty presents overlap with the other people are overrepresented inpopulationsexperiencing pov creates barrierstoadvancement, meaningBlackandBrown nationalism. and Brown peopleandfuelsthecore ideologyofwhite color and contributes to a culture that dehumanizes Black tion saps resources and opportunities from communities of Brown people undue influence by thesmallantidemocratic minority. the power inthehandsofAmericanpeopleandsafefrom ment for awhitenationalist worldview. reduce thepopulationofAmericansthatharborsympathy ing democracy and eachhasarole toplay incombatingtheextreme right. Impact Statements thathelpdefineandquantifyour mission, that justify it and give it fuel. The SPLC has developed four has to dismantle the symptoms ofwhite supremacy culture and“Stop“Re-Open” theSteal.” far right,particularlyinthemilitantedgeofcampaignslike go away. Instead, theywillfindshelterelsewhere amongthe Hate groups thatlosesalienceorpublicattentionwillnot ian populismthatismobilizingontheheelsofTrump’s loss. we must find ways tocounterthe , authoritar As we into 2021, and beyond the Trump presidency, 2020 list ofantigovernment groups. in asubsequentinstallment ofthisreport, alongwithSPLC’s violence, includingmurder. ond civil war and have been involved repeatedly in actsof continue toinfluenceboth. Its adherents advocate forasec ecosystem, and how posting forums like The antigovernment movement willbeexplored indetail Finally, Third, Second, First, An effective oppositiontothisantidemocratic movement . By dismantling laws, we can keep dismantling whitenationalismandprotect decriminalizing anddecarcerating Blackand eradicating poverty protecting voting rights and civic engage . Mass incarceration andovercriminaliza . With robust anti-racist education, we can . Yet again,systemic racism ------

GETTY IMAGES/NURPHOTO/ZACH D ROBERTS Flyering Remains a Recruitment Tool for Hate Groups In 2020, a year marked by political and social tur- With regard to groups and ideologies that carried moil, the repugnant messages spewed by hate out the bulk of flyering, trends remained largely the groups across the U.S. only proliferated. same across 2019 and 2020. White nation- Fueled in part by a presidential adminis- alist groups disseminated the most flyers, tration steeped in racism and misogyny, banners and stickers across the coun- the number of racist flyering incidents in try. Among groups under that ideology, 2020 grew to well over 4,000. 4,000+ was again by far the most Used as a tool for recruitment, pub- flyering incidents active, with over 3,500 incidents. These licity and , flyering is a rela- in 2020 incidents include posting flyers and stick- tively low-risk, contactless activity during ers in public places, attaching banners to a pandemic, therefore contributing to the highway overpasses, and spray-painting rise in incidents. Most often, those post- racist and antisemitic messages. Among ing flyers or hanging banners wear masks 250 the more notable actions in 2020, Patriot to conceal their identities. Thus, the only flyering incidents Front dropped a banner reading: “The revision to this tactic in 2020 was a focus on college campuses United States is no longer of America. on public rather than on campuses, Now we are on our own,” over a Black as many academic institutions moved to Lives Matter in , . online learning. The number of campus flyering inci- Also continuing on the same trajectory from dents dropped from 530 in 2019 to about 250 in 2020. 2019, the number of flyering incidents attributed to the American Identity Movement continued to drop significantly until the group’s leader announced Patriot Front, pictured, was among the hate groups that have their disbandment on Nov. 2. However, having

GETTY IMAGES/NURPHOTO/ZACH D ROBERTS IMAGES/NURPHOTO/ZACH GETTY enthusiastically embraced flyering as a tool. increased their flyering efforts in June 2019, white


AMERICAN IDENTITY MOVEMENT/ KU KLUX KLAN NJ EUROPEAN HERITAGE ASSOC. PATRIOT FRONT OTHER nationalist group European Heritage emulating President Trump’s xenophobic, anti- Association continued to regularly post flyers up immigrant rhetoric about the virus. and down the Eastern Seaboard in 2020. Posting Months later, as Black Lives Matter demonstra- roughly 630 flyers and banners throughout the year, tions coalesced around the need to confront systemic most efforts were concentrated in New York, New and racist policing, hate groups tailored Jersey, Pennsylvania and , with occasional their messaging to support Kyle Rittenhouse. Police postings in the Carolinas, and . say Rittenhouse, a 17-year-old armed with an AR-15, Outside of the white nationalist ideology, sev- shot three demonstrators, killing two, in Kenosha, eral newly formed neo-Nazi groups utilized the Wisconsin, on Aug. 15. Within days, the New Jersey tactic to recruit and spread their odious messages. European Heritage Association was using the Most notably, Nationalist Social Club (NSC 131) “#FreeKyleRittenhouse,” and first publicly distributed flyers over 130 times in states across posted such stickers on Sept. 4. the country, including , New York, This year’s Ku Klux Klan flyering numbers were and . Other recently nearly identical to last year’s, with an estimated formed neo-Nazi groups partaking in racist flyer- 42 incidents. Of those, roughly two-thirds can be ing during 2020 include Moonkrieg Division, Iron attributed to the Pelham, -based Youth, Folks Front/Folkish Resistence Movement Loyal White Knights, who left flyers in driveways and 14First. Since each flyering incident compiled across several states in the Mid-Atlantic region. on this map denotes real-world activity from mem- Other groups that dropped flyers in 2020 include bers of organized hate groups, this map is largely the Honorable Sacred Knights, Knights of the Ku a reflection of where each of these hate groups are Klux Klan, Imperial Klans of America and Church currently located. of the National Knights. Most of the aforementioned groups across the While the climate across the country remains white nationalist and neo-Nazi ideologies post tempestuous, flyering will continue to be a staple of about their flyering endeavors on such platforms far-right recruitment and propagation. The impact as Telegram and , where racist rhetoric flour- of the Biden-Harris administration on flyering is ishes completely unfettered. As various social and unforeseeable, as is the impact the vaccine will have political events transpired throughout the year, on its as a tactic. Despite the increasing the messaging – both in print and on social media number of hateful flyering incidents in 2020 and – changed accordingly. In mid-February, when the uncertainty of flyering in 2021, the resiliency reports of the coronavirus were initially surfacing, of communities across the country has remained

the American Identity Movement posted flyers steadfast in the face of racism. LTD. PICTURES IMAGES/CORBIS/IN GETTY

12 SOUTHERN POVERTY LAW CENTER PATRIARCHAL VIOLENCE Misogyny from the Far Right to the Mainstream By Lydia Bates

In both the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) of violent punishment both for having sex and deny- and the field of extremism research as a whole, anal- ing sex to men. Many of these narratives about the yses of the far right have often neglected to fully inferiority and subjugation of women underpin the account for the innumerable ways , misogyny beliefs of nearly all extremist groups. The manifes- and gender-based violence manifest within and oper- tations and rhetoric can be different across ideol- ate alongside other forms of racially and religiously ogies, however the resultant verbal, psychological motivated hate. Organizations like the Institute for and physical violence that such views motivate Research on Male have done pio- against women and trans people remains steadfast. neering work monitoring and defining misogynis- tic hate ideologies, but this area of extremism is still Dangerous manifestations: Extremism not widely recognized or accurately understood. and The SPLC has been adapting how we monitor In order to effectively and thoroughly research gen- hate and extremism to more accurately reflect ide- der in extremism, we must examine each intersec- ological distinctions. Our efforts to better capture tion of these issues. While the ubiquity of misogyny organized misogyny began in 2018, when we started and gender-based violence is hard to overstate in monitoring male supremacist hate groups. Male the far right, and our broader society, we began this supremacist groups vilify women along paradoxes: research by examining domestic violence – an issue manipulative yet incompetent; genetically inferior, that surfaces regularly in the lives, actions and dis-

GETTY IMAGES/CORBIS/IN PICTURES LTD. PICTURES IMAGES/CORBIS/IN GETTY yet the progenitors of the white race; and deserving cussions of far-right adherents – and extremism.

THE YEAR IN HATE AND EXTREMISM 13 Anecdotes of abound, from white nation- to violent extremism and domestic violence. alist Richard Spencer being accused of emotional Consistent throughout these discussions was a and in 2018 divorce filings1 to alle- need to move away from criminal justice solu- gations that Stewart – founder of the anti- tions to build upon victim-centered approaches government – engaged in emotional grounded in education and in restorative and and manipulative abuse aimed at limiting his fam- transformative justice. ily’s freedoms,2 a type of behavior Dr. Evan Stark calls coercive control.3 These harmful acts, if true, Patriarchal violence: An apt descriptor for are the physical embodiment of violent rhetoric and pervasive narratives from groups like the Proud Boys, who As the SPLC seeks to increase its efficacy at root- claim, “leftist women are more third-wave femi- ing out hate and extremism in all its forms, we nist and less feminine than ever and now, you’re not must also practice humility and flexibility. During even women anymore… either your [sic] women, our few years fully considering gender-based vio- and if you are, please stop fighting men, or you’re lence, and the handful of times our department has not women and your face is now punchable.”4 published articles on the subject, we have used the Domestic violence has been reported and alleged term “domestic violence.” While this term, as well across a spectrum of hate and antigovernment groups. as “intimate partner violence,” accurately define However, misogyny and rigid gender roles are a com- the specific type of relational harm that is being mon ideological pillar for most groups, and harm not enacted, these terms largely fail to capture the roots only cisgender women, but trans people as well, along of this cyclical violence at the intersections of race, with LGBTQ identified people more broadly. class, and gender.

Patriarchal Violence (PV) is an interconnected system of institutions, practices, policies, beliefs, and behaviors that harm, undervalue, and terrorize girls, women, femme, intersex, gender non- conforming, LGBTQ, and other gender-oppressed people in our communities. PV is a widespread, [normalized] epidemic based on the domination, control, and colonizing of bodies, , and sexualities, happening in every community globally. PV is a global power structure and manifests on the systemic, institutional, interpersonal, and internalized level. It is rooted in interlocking systems of oppression. — ABOLISHING PATRIARCHAL VIOLENCE INNOVATION LAB

To better understand these issues with an eye While the term “patriarchal violence” has towards more effectively confronting and inter- existed to describe structural inequities for decades, rupting violence, the SPLC convened a group of Black Feminist Future, Action for Safe researchers, practitioners, academics and activ- Spaces, Freedom Inc. and Stand with Black Women ists in far-right extremism, male supremacism, recently convened the Abolishing Patriarchal domestic violence, organizing and Violence Innovation Lab to resituate patriarchal journalism earlier this fall. Across the six 90-min- violence within a comprehensive context. Their ute panel discussions, speakers addressed the definition reads, “Patriarchal Violence (PV) is an intersection of issues including gun violence, interconnected system of institutions, practices, anti-LGBTQ bigotry, the continuing impact of policies, beliefs, and behaviors that harm, under- colonization, discriminatory immigration policy value, and terrorize girls, women, femme, inter- and comprehensive interventions as they pertain sex, gender non-conforming, LGBTQ, and other

14 SOUTHERN POVERTY LAW CENTER gender-oppressed people in our communities. PV ideology while simultaneously subjecting them is a widespread, [normalized] epidemic based on to rigid gender roles, sexual assault and physical the domination, control, and colonizing of bodies, violence. It undergirds the precarious bargain that genders, and sexualities, happening in every com- many white women have made in upholding insti- munity globally. PV is a global power structure and tutions of white supremacy while forfeiting safety manifests on the systemic, institutional, interper- from misogyny and gender-based violence. The sonal, and internalized level. It is rooted in inter- intersectional framing of patriarchal violence also locking systems of oppression.”5 opens a space for domestic violence intervention to The Abolishing Patriarchal Violence Innovation be an impetus for deradicalization processes. Lab’s definition provides continuity from the geno- cide of Indigenous populations, forced removal and The Trump administration and coronavirus lack of tribal jurisdiction to the high rates of missing pandemic, a confluence of patriarchal violence and murdered Indigenous women today. It contex- The weight of patriarchal violence in this year tualizes the gravity of the Supreme Court’s recent of upheaval provided a particularly motivating McGirt v. Oklahoma6 ruling in the history of allot- catalyst to evolve our department’s framing of ment policies,7 like the Dawes extremism. Four years of Act, and cases limiting tribal NUMBER OF PEOPLE WHO LEFT THE the Trump administration sovereignty, such as Oliphant v. WORKFORCE, SEPTEMBER 2020 have proven exceedingly dif- Suquamish.8 This understanding ficult for many women, par- of patriarchal violence shines a 865,000 ticularly women of color and light on the through-lines from trans women. The innumer- an increase in militia members able on fundamental working at the human rights include deci- Bakken oil fields and the subse- mating medical protections quent uptick in violence perpe- for LGBTQ people;14 appoint- trated against local Indigenous ing anti-choice,15 homopho- women and girls.9 bic federal judges,16 quietly Patriarchal violence recog- gutting the Department of nizes the centuries of oppression 216,000 Justice’s Office on Violence on the same land that connects the Against Women’s definition 17 forced sterilization of Indigenous FEMALE MALE of domestic violence and a women, through James Marion concerted effort to block asy- Sims’ unanesthetized gyneco- lum-seekers fleeing gender- logical surgeries performed on UNEMPLOYMENT RATE, NOVEMBER 2020 based violence.18 enslaved Black women, to allega- 6.1% 9% 8.2% In addition to the obvious tions of mass hysterectomies in concerns around illness and all women Black women Latinas ICE detention centers.10 It subse- death during a pandemic that quently accounts for the injustice has further exposed struc- of memorializing Sims as the “father of gynecology”11 tural inequities, domestic violence rates have also when the maternal mortality rate for Black women in increased due to necessary stay-at-home measures. America is two to three times that of their white coun- During the first two months of the pandemic, the terparts.12 It draws upon iterations of misogyny, racism National Domestic Violence Hotline reported a 9% and across generations to contextualize increase in calls and said that 10% of all callers “cited and bring visibility to the on average 30- to 35-year COVID-19 as a condition of their .”19 lifespan of trans women of color in the Americas.13 Contributing to this increase in domestic vio- This definition of patriarchal violence also helps lence calls is an exponential increase in financial explain the dichotomous role of white women instability. This financial crisis has had a much in hate groups that bolster a racist, self-serving worse impact on women than men, with roughly

THE YEAR IN HATE AND EXTREMISM 15 865,000 women leaving the workforce in September Decriminalizing Domestic Violence: A Balanced alone, compared to 216,000 men.20 In November, the Policy Approach to Intimate Partner Violence, “the overall unemployment rate for women was 6.1%, traumatic effects of the inhumane conditions and with a 9% unemployment rate for Black women and exposure to violence within prisons feed a destruc- 8.2% for Latinas.21 Financial uncertainty and unem- tive cycle of violence when those who abuse are ployment impacts rates and severity of domestic released into the community and resume their inti- violence.22 An increased financial dependency on mate relationships.”27 While this line is written spe- an abusive partner can also greatly limit a survivor’s cifically about domestic abusers leaving prison, the ability to leave a dangerous relationship. same could be said about those who have been rad- Hate groups are taking advantage of this icalized while incarcerated. A system built on vio- unprecedented moment; an increased amount of lence and control will only breed the same. time online, compounded by feelings of uncer- To root out extremism and build resilience tainty, a lack of meaningful social engagement and to radicalization at its source, significant invest- decreased supervision has increased young people’s ment needs to be made in education around digital susceptibility to radicalization.23 Deeply entrenched literacy,28 critical assessment of online sources and in the predation and propaganda of hate groups is online security for young people. Parents, teach- misogyny and ideations of gender-based violence. ers and caregivers also need to be equipped with As a driver to radicalization, misogyny works along- the tools to recognize and confront online radical- side racism, and perceptions of wan- ization. Key to this education is the eradication of ing civil rights in the face of increasing equality. harmful constructions of in boys and To further complicate these issues in the United young men, to move away from violence as a sub- States, “access to a gun makes it five times more stitute for emotional literacy. likely that the abusive partner will kill his female The United has begun making a con- victim.”24 With the incoming Democratic presidency, certed effort to integrate the “agendas on women, some experts predict that gun will spike due peace, and security, counter-terrorism and coun- to fears of increased gun control measures that may tering violent extremism.”29 In contrast, reflective accompany a liberal administration.25 With a pan- of the convergence of oppressions described under demic continuing to spread out of control, domestic patriarchal violence, the U.S. has long maintained violence concerns become all the more dire. an couched in misogyny, colonization and racism. Over the past 20 years, this Moving forward under the Biden-Harris administration foreign policy has resulted in the killing of 801,000 As our framing of extremism expands to better people and displacement of 37 million globally and encompass these understandings of misogyny, so too bigoted policies blocking refugees fleeing conflicts do our efforts to confront and build resilience against and asylum seekers fleeing violence in Central radicalization. The newly elected Biden-Harris America, escaping domestic violence, and “fleeing administration offers a step towards with on the basis of and policy proposals to bolster culturally specific domes- .”30 To move forward with mean- tic violence services and plans to increase the safety ingful policy to prevent patriarchal violence, the of survivors through housing initiatives and sensible Biden-Harris administration will first have to rad- gun laws.26 A coordinated effort to disseminate the ically reassess the country’s past approach. COVID-19 vaccines and provide financial assistance to all those suffering under the economic burden of a pandemic will also help. However, all of these steps must be taken with an antiracism and victim-centered For intimate partner violence support and approach to uplift those who are most vulnerable. resources, please contact The National Domestic The criminal justice system is particularly ill- Violence Hotline at 1-800-799-SAFE (7233) or suited to handle both domestic violence and rad- thehotline.org.

icalization. As Dr. Leigh Goodmark writes in COOK REUTERS/REBECCA


In pursuit of a more accurate and more just hate protest, despite the militarization of our police31 map, the Intelligence Project (IP) has committed to departments nationally. The continued police vio- collapsing the Black Separatist listing. We will still lence directed against Black communities and lack monitor these groups, but we will be transferring of justice for their victims shows plainly the strug- them to hate ideologies, including antisemitism, gle for Black lives is not over. that better describe the harm their rhetoric inflicts. The SPLC, and IP more specifically, recognizes This decision comes after many internal and the language shared by our Black Separatist external conversations. A change in the way the listing and federal attempts to criminalize Black map is structured will better capture the power . We reject federal law enforcement’s false dynamics endemic to white supremacy. Black sep- and misleading contention regarding threats from aratist groups land on the SPLC’s hate map because Black separatists. We believe this contention is used they propagate antisemitic, anti-LGBTQ and male to justify the over-policing and surveillance of com- supremacist views, not because they oppose a white munities of color. Contributing to a false dichotomy supremacist power structure. does not serve SPLC’s mission of racial equity. It is important to acknowledge the moment we are in and the incredible efforts of groups such as Why are we making the change? the and the power of Black activism and over-criminalization The new listings will help address the demographic reality of the groups currently categorized as Black Nation of leader has espoused virulently antisemitic beliefs. His group will now be listed as an Separatist. In fact, these groups are not made up Antisemitic hate group following the dissolution of the Black of only Black individuals. Furthermore, -

REUTERS/REBECCA COOK REUTERS/REBECCA Separatist category. ing only these groups’ separatist intentions does

THE YEAR IN HATE AND EXTREMISM 17 not examine their overall impact on marginalized Black is a response to white suprem- groups within and outside of the Black community. acy and ; it has not, however, These groups are very much part of activist received the same mainstream attention as white spaces. While they should be exposed for their nationalism. Nor do Black separatists have the harmful rhetoric and held accountable within the overwhelming share of racially motivated violence activist spaces they inhabit, the SPLC does not attributed to their overall goals of separation. Yes, believe criminalizing and over-policing is an accept- some Black nationalists have committed violence able solution. Unfortunately, the FBI has a “Black against Jewish communities, but those are fueled Identity Extremist” label32 for monitoring domestic by antisemitism, not separatism. Additionally, Black terrorism. This label is unfounded, and is in itself a separatism is rooted in valid concerns about how form of suppressing Black activism and organizing. federal and state institutions treat Black people. In March 2018, former FBI agent German Even as white supremacist violence is named gave testimony before the Congressional Black as a national threat, law enforcement instead dis- Caucus challenging the listing. German, who was at proportionately polices and surveils33 Black and the time a Fellow at the Brennan Center for Justice Indigenous activists, along with other activists at New York University, told the caucus, “What is of color.

What is most troubling about the [Black Identity Extremist] assessment is its potential to incite irrational police of black political activists. Irrational fear, unfortunately, too often in the past translated into unnecessary police violence against unarmed and unthreatening black men and women. — MICHAEL GERMAN, FORMER FBI AGENT

most troubling about the [Black Identity Extremist] Wanting separation from a society that has his- assessment is its potential to incite irrational police torically and systemically oppressed Black com- fear of black political activists. Irrational fear, munities isn’t extremism. Black isn’t black unfortunately, too often in the past translated into violence, and equivocating the two enables this unnecessary police violence against unarmed and over-policing of Black activism. unthreatening black men and women.” Due to the current manner of listing, many The SPLC hopes by dropping this listing we can assume that Black Separatist groups are more lead by example and be able to contribute to a more numerous than White Nationalist groups, which accurate understanding of violent extremism, one are not grouped under one listing but categorized that foregrounds white supremacist extremism as based on the specific of their varied ideol- the most dangerous threat to national security. ogies. When all the white supremacist groups are The Black Separatist listing created a color line totaled up, they far surpass the number of Black , separating hate and extremism by race and grant- Separatist groups. ing the appearance of a false equivalency of equal hate And while is the connecting on both sides. But the hate is not equal. Black separat- thread of these groups, it doesn’t illustrate the hate ism was born out of valid against very real his- of their collective ideologies. Black separatism on torical and systemic oppression. Black people in the its own does not necessarily meet our criteria for U.S. have rarely experienced having a power structure a hate listing, so placing these groups on our hate that represents them. However, white nationalism has map next to a laundry list of violent white suprem- held historical, systemic and institutional power for acist ideologies gives the appearance of an equiva-

hundreds of years in this country. lency that does not exist. FREEMAN REUTERS/DEMETRIUS

18 SOUTHERN POVERTY LAW CENTER Violence against trans people disproportionately affects people of color. Many of the hate groups formerly categorized as Black Separatist espouse homophobic, transphobic and misogynistic views that further harm these communities.

has harmful effects on other marginalized groups, such as queer and trans people. So far this year, 30 trans and gender non-con- forming individuals have been brutally murdered. Most of them were people of color. While their deaths are a product of both racism and transpho- bia, many Black separatist groups express homo- phobic and transphobic views. Black trans women are being murdered at astounding rates, and Black separatist groups, particularly those on our list, are contributing to a wider anti-trans narrative.

New antisemitism listing Racism and power dynamics The harmful effects of antisemitic rhetoric from The SPLC was founded to fight against institution- these formerly Black separatist groups is not as alized racism. Part of that fight is doing the inter- direct, but no less insidious or painfully ironic con- nal work of anti-racism. While these groups can sidering the historical partnership between Black be virulently anti-white, this does not and Jewish activists during the civil rights move- represent the same threat as white supremacy in ment. IP has concluded that adding an antisemi- America. By making this distinction, IP is hoping tism listing will help address this, as many of the to help dispel any misinterpretations of our under- groups under the former listing express extreme standing of how racism functions in American soci- antisemitic beliefs. ety. In our endeavor for racial justice and equity, it is of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan34 imperative that we adopt an understanding of rac- tweeted in late 2018: “’m not an anti-Semite. I’m ism grounded in nuance and the of racial anti-Termite.” The has also pub- power dynamics. Racism in America is historical, lished a book called “The Secret Relationship systemic and structural. Between and ,” which claims that Jews created slavery in America. This listing is overdue More accurate descriptions and will help to monitor this form of hate more Black separatist groups earn their place among specifically, focusing not only on Black separat- our hate listings not for their calls for separation, ism but also on other groups, such as Holocaust but rather for how entrenched these groups are in deniers, that perpetuate, traffic in and spread anti- antisemitic, anti-LGBTQ, misogynistic and xeno- semitic propaganda. phobic rhetoric. We aim to expose these groups without helping Moving forward the FBI in its definition of Black identity extremists, As IP continues to carry on our work of exposing and this requires a change in how we talk about these hate and extremism, we hope to do so in partner- groups. Going forward, groups formerly designated ship and coalition with community organizers on as Black Separatist will be characterized by antisem- the ground to help them expose and push hate out of itism, anti-LGBTQ, male supremacy and whatever their communities. We can rise to the occasion and additional ideological categories most accurately demonstrate our commitment to adding a lens of describe their offending beliefs. While these groups anti-racism to our work. As we move forward in our are not as great a threat as white nationalist groups, mission of exposing hate in America, our commit- they are still hateful, use divisive rhetoric and often ment must be coupled with specificity and fairness. have authoritarian leadership that encourages anti- We are resolved to hold these groups accountable

REUTERS/DEMETRIUS FREEMAN REUTERS/DEMETRIUS LGBTQ, antisemitic and misogynistic beliefs. This for their divisive rhetoric equitably and accurately.

THE YEAR IN HATE AND EXTREMISM 19 Has Accountability for Big Tech Come Too Late? By Hannah Gais

As the turmoil of the Trump era drew to a close mainstream social media platforms and fringe apps with an attack on the U.S. Capitol, planned on both catering to and favored by the far right. mainstream and fringe digital platforms, tech com- Rather than come as a surprise to tech compa- panies found their policies governing extremism nies, the events of 2020 and early 2021 ought to tested like never before. serve as stark reminders that major tech platforms Former President Trump’s efforts to discredit have, time and time again, chosen profit over prog- the 2020 presidential election put our democ- ress. Their intransigence on robust content moder- racy under tremendous strain, using technology ation allowed for , conspiracy theories, as a cudgel. In so doing, he followed in the foot- and disinformation to flourish in the first place. steps of authoritarians throughout the world who While the havoc at the U.S. Capitol tested the will use technology, including social media platforms, of tech companies to tackle extremism, it has also as a . These efforts were on full display inevitably become a crucial component of an ongo- before and during the presidential transition, when ing discussion regarding regulating these platforms Trump and his allies weaponized social media to as well. In particular, it has shored up additional spread lies and conspiracy theories about the elec- support for a conversation about the revision or tion being rigged. His baseless allegations of fraud abandonment of a key piece of legislation regulating culminated in an attack on the U.S. Capitol that tech companies. This provision, known as Section left five people dead, and 140 law enforcement 230 of the Communications Decency Act, has long officers injured. The supporters who coordinated shielded companies from liability for users’ content the insurrection did so using a combination of on their platforms. In the past few years, Section 230 has been challenged by a number of figures across the . Trump, in particular, railed against Section 230 as his grip on power weakened, despite having sailed to victory in 2016 partially on the strength of social media. This, in addition to anti- trust lawsuits levelled at and in particular, means that the very ground beneath these social networks could be changing – and, along with it, the management of hate speech online. Expecting and encouraging companies to embrace better enforcement practices when it comes to hate speech online, whether through Section 230 reform or otherwise, is only one part of the solution. “” – a term used to refer to the actions GETTY IMAGES/MARIO TAMA that tech companies take to prevent an individual Supporters of former-President Donald Trump hold up their phones with messages referring to the QAnon or a group, often extremists, from using their prod- at a campaign rally at Convention Center on Feb. 21, ucts – can limit the spread of hate speech effectively

2020, in Las Vegas, . across popular social media sites while pushing them CALL/TOM WILLIAMS ROLL AP IMAGES/CQ

20 SOUTHERN POVERTY LAW CENTER to more niche communities. However, resulted in the removal or restriction of when it comes to curbing the threat posed roughly 3,290 groups and pages on the by extremism, these efforts are, on their 1 in 50 platform and of another 10,000 accounts own, insufficient and temporary fixes. Tweets about voting on its subsidiary, . and Without a sustained campaign to pro- in the 2020 election YouTube implemented similar restric- mote media literacy and a commitment tions in the latter half of the year. came from QAnon- to dismantling structural and systemic But these efforts, coming nearly three afflitated accounts. white supremacy, deplatforming efforts years after QAnon originated on , could be insufficient at fully stopping the —NBC INVESTIGATION fell short in large part because the con- spread of hate online. spiracy theory had already taken root in the mainstream. By the time Facebook and Moderating content came too little, 270 other major tech platforms rolled out their too late policies on QAnon, proponents of the con- Social media platforms and tech giants, The number of times spiracy theory were campaigning for – and such as Google, wrestled with their pol- Trump’s own Twitter even winning – positions in elected office. icies governing hate speech and disin- account boosted Indeed, the SPLC Action Fund counted formation throughout 2020, often while accounts promoting roughly 90 candidates running for office struggling to adapt to and keep pace QAnon content, as of in the 2020 election cycle who have either with the ever-changing landscape of Oct. 30, 2020. shared QAnon content or expressed an online extremism. Representatives from openness to the conspiracy theory.37 Facebook, Google and Twitter found Meanwhile, an NBC investigation themselves having to answer for many found that 1 in 50 tweets about voting in of their content moderation decisions 91 the 2020 elections came from QAnon- 38 in House and Senate hearings through- The number of affiliated accounts. Trump praised out the year. While all three platforms candidates running QAnon supporters during an Aug. 19, continued to develop their hate speech 2020, press briefing, calling them “peo- for office in the policy throughout the year, there was ple that love our country” who are 2020 election who progress on other platforms as well. “against ” – a wink and a The discussion site , for instance, have shared QAnon nod to the baseless conspiracy theory has booted nearly 7,000 communities, content. Two were at the core of QAnon that Democrats in known as subreddits, that it deemed in elected to Congress. power run a global child violation of its new policy on hate speech ring.39 Trump’s own Twitter account had and since June 2020. Among boosted accounts promoting QAnon con- these were a pro-Trump forum, r/The_ on Twitter nearly 270 times by Oct. Donald, that has been a haven for far- 30, 2020.40 These issues came to a head in right extremists since 2016. November, when two vocal proponents of Other changes included Facebook’s the conspiracy theory – Marjorie Taylor October 2020 pronouncement that it , of Georgia, and , would prohibit content that “denies or GREENE (R-GA) of Colorado – won seats in Congress. distorts .” The move came Then, on Jan. 6, some of the conspir- two years after Facebook founder and acy theory’s supporters participated in chief executive came an insurrection at the U.S. Capitol in under fire for implying that Holocaust an effort to prevent the certification of GETTY IMAGES/MARIO TAMA deniers may have held their beliefs President Biden’s electoral victory. unintentionally.35 Platforms also took These platforms’ struggles with on the antisemitic, anti-LGBTQ QAnon QAnon reflected an even larger prob- 36 LAUREN BOEBERT conspiracy theory. Facebook’s first (R-CO) lem – specifically one stemming from

AP IMAGES/CQ ROLL CALL/TOM WILLIAMS ROLL AP IMAGES/CQ purge of QAnon groups in August 2020 the executive branch.

THE YEAR IN HATE AND EXTREMISM 21 Throughout the year, Trump used his caustic to a head following the attack on the Capitol, with social media presence to encourage violence against a wide range of observers predicting that changes racial justice demonstrators;41 target activists and to the law were now inevitable. lawmakers;42 and call for designating antifascist Sometimes referred to as “the 26 words that cre- organizers as members of a terrorist organization.43 ated the ,” Section 230 provides broad pro- Though Twitter flagged and restricted some of the tections to tech companies by shielding them from president’s tweets that it said were “glorifying vio- liability for user-generated content. Proponents lence” or promoting electoral disinformation, the of retaining Section 230 have claimed revising or president continued to operate otherwise unabated repealing it would have a on free on the platform, thanks to an exception in Twitter’s speech online. Others have criticized tech compa- terms of service that allows the site to preserve access nies for not doing nearly enough to uphold their to tweets of individuals they deem in the “public end of the deal. interest.” Trump’s account was finally banned on Jan. The former Trump administration and its allies’ 8, 2021, following the U.S. Capitol siege.44 efforts to strike down the law dealt with neither In response, Trump and his supporters cried of these issues. Instead, it is based on the errone- . Bolstered by the myth of conserva- ous and disingenuous that is tive censorship online, they launched an attack on “censoring” conservative voices. These endeavors a piece of legislation that has been credited with have often aligned with Trump’s own violations of creating the internet as we know it. Twitter’s terms of service in particular. In his last attempt to quash Section 230, Trump The Section 230 controversy vetoed the National Defense Authorization Act in The Trump administration’s war with tech com- late December 2020 because it did not include lan- panies, combined with mounting frustration over guage repealing the provision. Congress overrode sites’ inability to police hate speech, has ignited a the veto, but his failed attempt to challenge the tech discussion about the legal protections granted to industry should not stand in the way of real reform. digital platforms through Section 230 of the 1996 Informed proposals for Section 230 – exclud- Communications Decency Act. These debates came ing those based on ill-informed protestations about censorship – focus on either careful revision or Douglas Austen Jensen of Iowa confronts police wearing a complete reinvention. Biden, for his part, called QAnon shirt at the U.S. Capitol insurrection on Jan. 6, 2021. for eliminating Section 230 at numerous points throughout his campaign – a point that he reiter- ated in the aftermath of the Capitol siege.45 Other Democrats have advocated for a “change, but don’t repeal” strategy. Rep. (D-CA) told Reuters in an October 2020 interview that she’d prefer to use “a scalpel instead of a jackhammer to reform the critical statute,” noting that a complete repeal “is not viable.”46 Sen. Ron Wyden (D-OR), who helped create Section 230 in the 1990s, has advocated for the same care. “He isn’t saying no one can ever change a word of Section 230, but that politicians need to be very careful when it comes to tinkering with founda- tional laws around speech and the internet,” an REUTERS/MIKE THEILER aide to Sen. Wyden told Reuters in the same piece. Both Democrats and Republicans brought for- ward several challenges to Section 230 in 2020 and going into early 2021. In March, Sen. Lindsey

22 SOUTHERN POVERTY LAW CENTER Graham (R-SC) introduced a measure Tech platforms the right wing. But their loose content that would require tech companies to have, time and moderation polices can pose a threat to “earn” Section 230 protections. Another these platforms’ ability to operate effec- time again, measure, brought forward by Sen. Brian tively, if at all. The impact these deci- Schatz (D-HI), focused on increasing the chosen profit sions to let hate speech flow freely on a transparency and accountability require- over progress. platform was evidenced most recently by ments for companies. Lastly, on Feb. 5, Parler’s exclusion from the Apple Store 2021, Senate Democrats Mark Warner and – plus the subsequent (D-VA), Mazie Hirono (D-HI) and Amy loss of its host, Web Services – Klobuchar (D-MN) offered another vision after it was used to plan, promote and of reform, known as the SAFE TECH Act, coordinate the Jan. 6 insurrection.47 which would limit Section 230 protections Others, like Telegram, have a libertar- in cases where payments were involved. ian approach to content moderation that As events such as the Jan. 6 insurrection at the allows hate to fester. All of these, as J.M. Berger U.S. Capitol make clear, the ties between online observed in in 2019, can encourage a speech and offline action should be part of any dis- “pressure-cooker environment where radicaliza- cussion of the future of Section 230. Such changes tion to violence can take place very quickly.”48 This could provide lawmakers the tools to hold tech is an important phenomenon to track but at pres- companies accountable for their own inaction on ent there is no research to prove this. For instance, managing threats. It would also bring U.S. law on while many have cited the migration of Trump content moderation closer to our European coun- supporters from mainstream social media sites to terparts, who launched their own concerted effort Telegram and elsewhere after the 2021 siege on the to tackle online harm in late 2019. U.S. Capitol as a possible means of further radical- izing them, researchers have noted that there is no Combating hate through media literacy casual evidence to support the argument that these None of the challenges posed by the years of insuf- users will be pushed to even more extreme views ficient and ineffective moderation of online plat- on these platforms.49 forms that helped drive the movement that stormed Deplatforming cannot fix this problem. the U.S. Capitol will disappear in the early Biden However, expanded deradicalization tools can era. However, as tech platforms grapple with nav- provide an off-ramp for those looking to leave igating the role they played in the insurrection, extremism, while preventative measures can as well as the looming possibility of Section 230 build the support structures needed to prevent reform, it is time to move past simplistic explana- radicalization from taking root. Programs that uti- tions of how extremism online can produce radi- lize one or both of these strategies have already calization. Among these assumptions are the idea achieved some success in parts of but also that deplatforming extremists from tech platforms offer a large body of lessons learned and evolving is, in and of itself, sufficient. Reducing the presence best practices. of extremists on platforms can limit their ability In June 2020, the SPLC, in conjunction with to recruit, promote, and fund hate activity. But as America University’s Polarization and Extremism the Trump era ought to have demonstrated, it does Research and Innovation Lab (PERIL), released a nothing to address the very aspects of society that joint report on building resilience against radical- make white extremism possible. ization in the COVID-19 era.50 When paired with Stronger hate speech policies have given rise a robust digital literacy program, such as the one to a crop of niche, unregulated social media sites developed by SPLC’s Learning for Justice staff, as REUTERS/MIKE THEILER that cater to right-wing extremists who have well as exit programs like Life After Hate, these either been booted off or are concerned about programs can work hand-in-hand to inoculate or being booted off of mainstream social media sites. rescue those who are at risk of radicalization or Some of these, such as Gab and Parler, market to have been radicalized themselves.

This article has been abridged. Read the full version at splcenter.org/big-tech-accountability THE YEAR IN HATE AND EXTREMISM 23 A CONVERSATION WITH CYNTHIA MILLER-IDRISS Preventing Radicalization into Violent White Nationalist Movements

In June 2020, the Southern Poverty Law Center and the Polarization & Extremism Research & Innovation Laboratory (PERIL) at American University partnered to release “Building Resilience & Confronting Risk in the COVID-19 Era: A Parents & Caregivers Guide to Online Radicalization.” The guide illustrates tan- gible steps to counter the threat of online radicalization, how to recognize warning signs, and how to get help and engage a child or young adult who you suspect has had contact with or is immersed in extrem- ism. In December, we interviewed Cynthia Miller-Idriss, PERIL’s director and a professor at American University, about her new book, Hate in the Homeland, and how parents, caregivers and educators are the frontline of reducing harm and inoculating young people against extremism.

You distinguish PERIL’s mission as rooted in a “pre- mainstream-targeted approaches. The field of inter- prevention” approach. How does this approach vention work related to extremism has long been make the lab’s work different? Why was it so focused on countering violent extremism (CVE) important for our organizations to collaborate on through deradicalization and disengagement pro- this guide and through this approach? grams. Of course, when people are ready to disen- Once we acknowledge that the problem of radical- gage from violent extremist movements, they need

ization and extremism is not only something on the access to counseling and a wide range of reintegra- DAN CHUNG subcultural fringe, but also is plainly in the main- tion support. But there is thin evidence that dis- stream, it becomes clear that what we need are engagement processes can be effectively initiated,

You can download the Parents & Caregivers Guide 24 SOUTHERN POVERTY LAW CENTER at www.splcenter.org/PERIL. especially at scale. PERIL believes it is essential to PERIL believes it is essential to instead instead work to prevent people from entering rad- work to prevent people from entering icalization pathways to begin with, and to create early off-ramps for those who are initially exposed to radicalization pathways to begin with, and extremist propaganda, disinformation, manipulative to create early off-ramps for those who are rhetorical strategies and techniques like - initially exposed to extremist propaganda, ing. We are empirically field-testing interventions disinformation, manipulative rhetorical based on lessons from public health research, aiming for inoculation of the whole population so that we strategies and techniques like . reduce vulnerability to extremist propaganda when by violent extremists of any ideology. people encounter it – much like a vaccine. — CYNTHIA MILLER-IDRISS, PERIL’S DIRECTOR Part of pre-preventative work includes equipping AND AN AMERICAN UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR the entire public with better information about how extremist propaganda, conspiracy theories and per- You dedicate your new book, Hate in the suasive rhetoric works. And this is where PERIL’s Homeland, “to all the victims of hate and their foundational partnership with SPLC comes in. With families, along with the broader communities SPLC’s support and substantive partnership, we are who suffer with and support them.” Why is it developing a series of tools, including this guide, that important for prevention and intervention work will help parents, caregivers, educators, school coun- take a victim-centered approach? selors, mental health professionals, and other adults A lot of work on extremism and terrorism focuses who work with youth – like coaches and youth group primarily or exclusively on the actors who perpe- counselors – better recognize warning signs, under- trate violence and spread hate without sufficiently stand how exposure to extremist propaganda can rooting that work in the experience of victims. A work, know where to go for further resources, and victim-centered lens is critical to ensuring that an ensure responses to hate are victim-centered. approach focused on understanding perpetrators’ In academia, we refer to this kind of work as of trauma through a lens of , for “translational” – work that translates academic example, stays at least equally focused on those who expertise and empirical evidence into actionable have suffered (or would suffer) at their hands. for practitioners and communities. It’s Such an approach requires that antiracist prac- hard to think of anything more important for aca- tice be a foundational part of work to combat demic experts to be doing. But equally incredible white supremacist extremism. By understanding is that this partnership with SPLC does not only the of women, the LGBTQ commu- translate existing research, but produces new nity, and nonbinary victims specifically, it calls on research through focus groups with practitioners us to recognize the role that misogynist views and to create and refine content; impact studies to trace gender-based violence play in all extremist move- the effectiveness of the guides; and evaluations that ments. Those are just two examples, but overall, study whether and how our efforts to reach out to a victim-based approach is essential to developing practitioners in these ways are working and what interventions that don’t just direct resources to we could do better. communities that already hold more privilege and This means the entire approach is empirically power, but work instead to ensure healing and sup- guided, aimed at developing nationally scalable, for the most marginalized among us. empirically tested interventions that link rigorous and ethically-supervised research with local communities. In the book, you illustrate the complicated, And through partnerships with international funders contested concept of a “homeland.” Can you and organizations, we are connecting this work with explain the concept, and discuss how it has been

DAN CHUNG efforts in and elsewhere to ensure that we manipulated by political actors and members of can share lessons learned and stay focused on the hate groups in ways that prime young people for global dimensions of white supremacist extremism. radicalization online and offline?

This is an abridged version of SPLC’s conversation with Dr. Miller-Idriss. Read the whole interview online at splcenter.org/prevent-radicalization THE YEAR IN HATE AND EXTREMISM 25 Homeland – a concept that links race or ethnicity schools, and elsewhere? Additionally, acknowledging with a sense of entitlement to territory – is cen- that this work must continue no matter what tral to almost all forms of extremism. In the case administration is in the White House, how might this of white supremacist and other far right extrem- work be different under the Biden presidency? isms, the idea of white homelands or ethnostates Parents whose children51 have perpetrated racist or is a key mobilizing force, rooted in a sense of exis- extremist acts often respond to those acts by assert- tential threat about demographic change and the ing that their child didn’t learn that at home, or that “replacement” of white civilizations with multi- those aren’t their family’s values. But white families’ ethnic ones. The “” is a global approach to instilling “good values” about race often conspiracy theory that unites conspiracies about rely on a colorblind approach, using statements like Europe turning into “” at the orchestrated “everybody is equal” but failing to have explicit con- hands of or “white ” in the U.S., versations with children about race. This leaves which suggests that are dying out. These white children to draw their own conclusions about conspiracy theories motivated the of doz- what they observe in the world, or worse – let what ens of people over the past decade, in terrorist they encounter online explain it for them. attacks in , , and in El Paso Given the amount of , extremist and in the U.S., among others. propaganda, and hateful content circulating online, this approach is simply inadequate. Parents often We have heard you discuss readers’ reactions have no idea that nearly a quarter of online gamers to the exclusion of a chapter dedicated solely to will encounter white supremacist extremist pro- gender and, more specifically, the role of women in paganda while gaming, for example. Teenagers are organized white power. Can you expand upon your likely to encounter racist , jokes that mini- decision-making process? mize or deny the Holocaust, and other dehuman- I decided not to include a dedicated chapter on izing and misogynistic content on a regular basis. gender, misogyny and the role of women because The extreme right has weaponized youth culture I wanted to make the point that practically every- by using irony, wit, and to present extremist thing I analyze in the book is gendered. I didn’t and hateful ideas as edgy humor, allowing youth want to bound the idea of gendered aspects to a sin- [who] get the joke to feel like powerful insiders, gle chapter and have readers think “ok, here’s where [and] frame anyone who “can’t take the joke” as a we learn about gender” but then approach the other “triggered” . Parents need to be alert to chapters without a gendered lens. Rather, I hope warning signs that their kids have been exposed to that readers will see – as I point out in the introduc- this kind of content online and need to be aware of tion – that each chapter is foundationally gendered. the range of toxic sites, encrypted apps and radical- For example, I discuss misogynistic sexual izing chat rooms where youth encounter it. harassment, , and anti-gender stud- A Biden administration can and likely will help ies in the chapter on higher education, and in the change the course of the kinds of normalization chapter about online spaces, I look at the roots of and mainstreaming of racist and incendiary rheto- online trolling in attacks on women in Gamergate. ric we’ve seen through President Trump’s campaign In fact, making those arguments about the founda- and rally speeches. But it’s critical to remember that tional nature of gender and misogyny has convinced the biggest spike in hate groups we’ve seen in recent me that this should be the topic of my next book. years happened after President Obama was elected, So, I thank the readers and reviewers who helped and that the past five years have seen a 320% me articulate why a single chapter is insufficient! increase in right-wing terrorism globally. It would be a mistake to think the problem of extremism and Why must parents and caregivers, particularly those hate came about because of the current adminis- who are white, educate themselves and speak about tration or that it will go away [now that] President racism and our country’s history of systemic white Biden is in place. The problems are deeper, more supremacy with young people, in their homes, in systemic, and decidedly global.

Cynthia’s book, Hate in the Homeland: 26 SOUTHERN POVERTY LAW CENTER The New Global Far Right, is out now. How an Encrypted Messaging Platform is Changing Extremist Movements By Hannah Gais and Megan Squire

Far-right extremists and white supremacist terror- Telegram offers a one-stop shop for extremists ists have embraced Telegram as their platform of Pavel Durov, considered by some to be “’s Mark choice, signaling a shift away from these groups’ Zuckerberg,”54 founded Telegram in 2014. Its appeal traditional methods of organizing and toward a to extremists55 is twofold. First, the platform’s techni- dangerous future defined by leaderless resistance52 cal features make it especially effective for spreading and “lone actor” terrorism. propaganda. As on Twitter or Facebook, an individ- Telegram, a messaging app, is a haven for neo- ual user or group can start an account – known as Nazis, white nationalists and antigovern- a “channel” on Telegram – that allows them to ment extremists locked out of traditional post messages, pictures, videos, customiz- social media sites, as Hatewatch first able “stickers” and other files for their fol- reported53 in mid-2019. lowers. Messages and digital media can But 2020 presented a year full also be “forwarded” or shared between of new hurdles for in-person orga- channels on Telegram, increasing the nizing for the movement, ranging audience for hate content. from legal quagmires to the COVID- The file storage feature in particu- 19 pandemic. As a result, extremists lar is leveraged on Telegram to store have come to rely less on in-person and share massive libraries of multi- groups, such as those recorded in media propaganda. These may include the Southern Poverty Law Center’s By signing up for images and videos dedicated to white annual hate count, and more on dif- Telegram, you supremacist terrorism and encourag- fuse, leaderless digital networks, ing violence against religious and eth- such as those facilitated by Telegram. accept their Privacy nic minorities, guides for 3D printed While this shift does indicate that Policy and agree weaponry, white supremacist liter- extremists are using new strategies not to promote ature, hate music and more. These for organizing, it does not signal a violence on publicly same channels have also provided a decrease in the threat those extrem- space for livestreams of white suprem- ists pose in the United States and viewable Telegram acist terrorists, including the perpe- around the world. channels, bots, etc. trators of the 2019 terrorist attacks in “If [a group has] got a logo, a — TELEGRAM’S , New Zealand, and , name, and an online presence, that’s TERMS OF SERVICE Germany, engaged in acts of mass mur- three strikes, run for your life,” wrote der. Telegram’s lax enforcement pol- one moderator of a prominent white icies have allowed these videos to supremacist accelerationist channel proliferate long after they were purged in a guide, distributed on Telegram, from other parts of the internet. for organizing white supremacist In addition to the spread terror cells. of propaganda, Telegram’s built-in

THE YEAR IN HATE AND EXTREMISM 27 features also facilitate recruitment by effort to the international terrorist making it easy for extremists to up organization that calls itself the Islamic public or private encrypted discussion 28,000 State (also known as ISIS or Daesh), groups. ( refers to the pro- Telegram channels and related networks from its platform. cess of scrambling data so that mes- As a Europol sages cannot be read by anyone other announced56 in November 2019, this than the sender and recipient.) In these 489 move took place alongside an expanded chat groups, potential recruits can min- reporting mechanism that would allow gle with organizers of a group, talk restricted in some users to “refer and classify the content with other members, learn the culture capacity for terms they find inappropriate and violent” for of the group and gain access to media of service violations the app’s moderators to review. From deemed too sensitive for the public- there, channels could be removed or facing propaganda channels. Many banned from the platform entirely, or channel administrators have also lev- simply quarantined. In the latter case, eraged Telegram “bots” to support vet- 58 they would be inaccessible to users ting requirements and to automatically quarantined due accessing the app on particular devices, erase content from the channel, thus to violent content such as iPhones, while still available on reducing the likelihood that a chan- — 2020 REVIEW OF others, such as desktop computers. nel is infiltrated or that its contents are TELEGRAM CHANNELS However, a 2020 review conducted copied. Telegram’s “secret chat” fea- by a handful of academics of nearly ture allows for a private conversation 28,000 channels57 reveals that these between two users. enforcement mechanisms have done Increasingly, Telegram chats consist of individ- little to prevent the spread of violent content. ual extremists who are not members of any group Rather, according to an analysis of 498 channels sharing hate content and discussing plans with that had been restricted in some capacity for terms one another. of service violations, a mere 58 were quarantined due to violent content. Instead, channels were more Hate content flourishes on Telegram with frequently limited on iOS, Android and minimal restrictions devices because they showed pornographic content In late 2019, Telegram, in partnership with (344 channels) and engaged in copyright infringe- European law enforcement, launched a systematic ment (96 channels). AP IMAGES/VINCENT THIAN (CHRISTCHURCH); AP IMAGES/DPA/HENDRIK SCHMIDT (HALLE, GERMANY)

Makeshift memorials appeared at the sites of two mass shootings in 2019 – one in Christchurch, New Zealand and another in Halle, Germany. Despite terms of use that forbid promoting violence, attacks such as these are commonly celebrated in some spaces of Telegram, with little moderation or oversight.








0 2019 2020 JUNE AUG. OCT. FEB. APR. JULY DEC.


To limit access to channels on specific devices, The chart above illustrates the exponential growth of platforms such as the Apple Store – where users Terrorgram-affiliated channels since 2019. would download the Telegram app for devices such as an iPhone or iPad – look for flags that label an But these device-based restrictions had little to individual channel as “restricted.” This snippet of no effect on the membership of many channels. In code would make a channel and its content that had fact, an analysis conducted by the Southern Poverty been forwarded elsewhere on Telegram not visible Law Center of 36 far-right channels that had been to a user on that particular device. Users restricted for violence revealed that 21 of of Apple’s iOS, for example, who try to them continued to attract followers at a view a restricted channel would instead median growth rate of 43.63% between be presented with an error message tell- 2019 and the end of 2020. Most of them ing them that the material violated the 2,031% continued to promote white supremacist Apple Store’s prohibition on “objection- terrorism and even after able content,” which includes a section rate of growth for being “quarantined” by Telegram and on “defamatory, discriminatory, or mean- one Terrorgram the app stores. One channel associated spirited content.” channel after being with the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche AP IMAGES/VINCENT THIAN (CHRISTCHURCH); AP IMAGES/DPA/HENDRIK SCHMIDT (HALLE, GERMANY) Among many of the channels “restricted” Arbeiterpartei International – a nod to the restricted in this manner for violent con- by Telegram official title of Hitler’s – grew at tent are an array of networks associated a rate of 2,031.87% after being “restricted” with white supremacist accelerationism by Telegram, boosting their followers – an increasingly popular strategy on from 775 in 2019 to 16,522 in 2020. the extreme right58 that contends modern society In other cases, administrators chose to abandon is irredeemable and offers up an apocalyptic race their prior restricted channels and simply create a war as a solution. At least one channel had been new, unrestricted channel using a new name. One restricted just a few months before its moderator, such channel, run by former Republican congres- 21-year-old Luke , was charged in the United sional candidate and white supremacist accelera- Kingdom for allegedly supporting Feuerkrieg tionist , grew over 150% between 2019 Division, an international neo-Nazi terror group. and 2020 after being rebooted under a similar name. Hunter’s association with the group was far from Telegram could ban these channels, as it did to subtle; on Oct. 1, 2019, he reposted a Feuerkrieg those operated by ISIS and its supporters. Indeed, Division propaganda video to his Telegram chan- the Telegram terms of service, as of December 2020, nel with the caption: “Edited by yours truly.” states that in registering an account you agree not to

THE YEAR IN HATE AND EXTREMISM 29 “promote violence on publicly viewable Telegram These Terrorgram channels epitomize what the channels, bots, etc.” It simply, for whatever reason, U.K.-based Institute for Strategic Dialogue (ISD) chooses not to enforce this clause when it comes to has referred to59 as a “post-organisational par- right-wing terrorism. adigm.” ISD researchers Jakob Guhl and Jacob Davey describe a new way of organizing in which How Telegram’s popularity has reshaped the an “online connection to extremist culture and ide- white power movement ology could be equally important for inspiring vio- Telegram’s favorability among right-wing extrem- lence as connections to ‘on the ground’ groups.” ists has gone hand-in-hand with the growth of We already are seeing this play out on accelerationism. As the “alt-right” seized the spot- the ground. Both reporters and antifascist activ- light in the early Trump era, accelerationism flour- ists observed a handful of extremists tied to neo- ished in niche internet communities and forums, Nazi Telegram channels appearing at racial justice such as Iron March. Today, Telegram has enabled demonstrations throughout the country. One this accelerationist influence to reach the main- National Guardsman took to Telegram chats to stream white power movement. express his enthusiasm about being deployed Nowhere is this fact more evident than a net- to Washington, D.C., in early June, according to work of neo-Nazi accelerationist channels known reporting from Right Wing Watch60 and Unicorn as “Terrorgram.” .61 Extremists on the platform have also used it This network, which fuses the glorification of to organize other real-world activities once tradi- with a distinctive hyper-stylized tionally considered the domain of groups, such as visual aesthetic, consists of a small network of chan- distributing downloadable propaganda and instruc- nels that share memes glorifying an apocalyptic race tions for how and when to post flyers and banners. war, instructions for 3D-printing , extrem- Telegram presents other challenges to the white ist literature and , and video recordings power movement’s traditional mode of organizing. of white supremacist terror attacks that have been The platform makes promoting visual propaganda removed from other platforms. Many of these chan- simple, and users are bombarded with an almost nels came into existence in 2019, and by 2020 all of endless wall of neo-Nazi imagery when they log on. them had grown their subscriber counts from the There are no requirements for membership to pub- double- or triple-digits into the thousands. The data lic channels, as well as many chats, which makes was collected from Telegram’s own internal systems joining easy. Additionally, anyone with access to by accessing its application programming interface image editing software can create and broadcast (API), which provides a window into the application’s their own extremist propaganda. As the white data layer and is designed for developers to access. power movement increasingly shifts to organizing Three channels identified by the Southern Poverty online, these aspects of the platform will prove to Law Center as part of the Terrorgram network were be crucial. created as late as spring and summer of 2020, and Durov, Telegram’s founder, was once asked62 by by the end of the year had collectively acquired over WIRED about his plans for finding a new headquar- 16,100 followers. One of these three channels, which ters for the company after his self-imposed originated in February 2020, focused specifically on from his native Russia. Durov explained that he tying extremist messaging to the COVID-19 pandemic. was searching for “a country that will allow us to Many of the Terrorgram channels experienced develop our projects with privacy and freedom of triple-digit growth throughout 2020 despite pre- speech in mind.” He went on to add, “We like free- GETTY IMAGES/CONTOUR/JUDE EDGINTON viously being banned from the platform or being doms, strong judicial systems, small , restricted on some devices. One channel at the free markets, neutrality and civil rights.” heart of the network, which is one of the few neo- With Telegram still the leading platform for Nazi channels that been banned from Telegram on a fomenting terroristic violence, albeit now on the few occasions, has garnered nearly 3,000 followers far right, it is worth pondering whose civil rights

since it was newly created on Oct. 9, 2020. Durov is aiming to protect. SCHMIDT IMAGES/AFP/ROBERTO GETTY

30 SOUTHERN POVERTY LAW CENTER At the End of the Trump Era, White Nationalists Increasingly Embrace Political Violence Cassie Miller & IP Staff

If anything has defined the white power movement and the internet was where they would build a over the latter part of the Trump administration, it’s movement using the forces of youthful energy and the adoption of “accelerationism” – a term with a transgressive humor. complicated academic lineage, but a simple mean- But for all of the cruelty resulting from his ing within the far right. administration’s policies, Trump failed to satisfy all The entire economic and political system, accel- of his white supremacist supporters. “We are won- erationists contend, must be dismantled through dering if Trump trotted out ending birthright citi- apocalyptic race war. In their conception, poli- zenship and other populist meat merely to save tics as it’s often waged – where power is exercised himself and his worthless party for another round of through elections, campaigns, policy, and mass cuts, foreign policy , and fundamen- movements – has no utility. They choose instead a tal of white America,” the white national- “cleansing fire” of violence, as one of the strategy’s ist Greg Johnson wrote only days after Trump was more prominent proponents put it. Accelerationism elected. To many within the white power move- is an anti- born of this particular moment, ment, Trump simply perpetuated “the system” and defined by widespread financial and political acted more like a traditional conservative than the uncertainty, a pessimistic view of the future, and kind of leader they hoped he would be. declining faith in democracy. Accelerationism operated at the fringes of the far right at the beginning of the Trump era. Its small community of adherents, who assembled mainly in the hyper-vetted Iron March forum, were crowded out by the “movemen- tarians” of the so-called alt-right who wanted to build broad-based support for their white nationalist agenda. For the far right, it was a moment of intense optimism: Trump was the conduit through which they could access mainstream political power, GETTY IMAGES/CONTOUR/JUDE EDGINTON

White power accelerationists argue in favor of political violence to overthrow democratic government. Once occupying the fringes of the white power movement, they gained momentum during the latter years of the


THE YEAR IN HATE AND EXTREMISM 31 The accelerationist label refers to a strategy and encrypted peer-to-peer communication. They con- not a particular system of beliefs. The members of verse secretly on highly encrypted apps as they pro- these communities want to bring about “system col- pagandize and build their networks on platforms lapse” through acts of violence, and much of their like Telegram, where accelerationists have created online chatter focuses on how to prepare for the a fascistic they call “Terrorgram.” apocalyptic end that they assume is inevitable in Deplatforming racists from mainstream social a multicultural, democratic society. For some, that media sites helps to break up their networks and means seeking out paramilitary training by joining hinders their ability to spread propaganda, but groups like The Base. Before it was severely ham- there is no shortage of spaces for them to regroup pered by a series of arrests, The Base held training and openly make calls for violence. camps around the country, with the goal of even- Accelerationists can’t be viewed apart from a tually having a formalized training program com- larger shift toward cultural and political pessi- plete with designated instructors and a curriculum. mism, especially among young people. According to Others advocate for moving off-grid. “Stop throwing a poll conducted63 by the away money on politicians or movementarian grift- Institute of Politics in spring 2020, only eight percent ers selling false hopes[.] Retreat to rural White areas, of 18- to 29-year-olds believe the country is working improve yourself, and organize locally as it should be. They expressed particu- and privately in silence,” one accelera- lar concern about how student debt and tionist wrote in an online forum. housing costs will impact their future. Accelerationists aren’t part of a These kinds of feelings are not con- new racist movement. The orientation 8% fined to the United States: the UK-based toward apocalyptic race war and advo- of 18- to 29-year-olds Varkey Foundation found in a 2017 cacy of political and racist violence have believe the country is report64 that, in 16 of the 20 countries long been hallmarks of the white power working as it should be surveyed, more people in Generation movement, but these accelerationist Z believed the world was becoming a ideas are today at the forefront of the worse place than believed it was improv- far right. And the question we should ing. That lack of faith in the future is be asking ourselves is, why now? 71% entangled with the belief held by many Trump, of course, acts as a partial of Americans do that the political system is unresponsive explanation. He undoubtedly embold- not believe elected to people’s needs. According to a Pew ened the far right and, importantly, survey from 2020,65 71% of Americans do officials care about created heightened expectations. In not believe elected officials care about ordinary citizens the aftermath of the 2017 Unite the ordinary citizens. Those who took this Right rally – which left most of the view were more likely to say they were movement’s high-profile leaders bogged down in dissatisfied with the way democracy is working. ongoing lawsuits – many came to believe that mass Feelings of uncertainty and political pessimism mobilization and fealty to figures like Trump were don’t necessarily translate into and dis- not enough to build an ethnonationalist state. engagement – it can also mean searching for new “There is no political solution,” members of the levers to exercise power or trying to rebuild existing white power movement endlessly repeated. As we structures. This can find expression in the growth approached the 2020 election, their mantra shifted of social movements like Black Lives Matter. But it to “Voting will not remove them,” meaning people can also take sinister forms in which people try to of color, Jews, immigrants, leftists and others who overcome uncertainty by retreating to a defined in- stand in the way of building a fascist state. group and, with sometimes violent results, casting Accelerationists were also helped immeasurably outsiders as an existential threat. As extremist expert by the of tech. Over the last sev- J.M. Berger reminded in a recent article,66 factors like eral years, they have increasingly flooded to alter- “Unemployment and poverty do not drive extrem- native social media platforms and sites that offer ism directly,” but “When uncertainty overtakes the

32 SOUTHERN POVERTY LAW CENTER When uncertainty overtakes the system itself, when the system is the source of uncertainty, things can really fall apart, and it becomes difficult to know which way society will turn. — J.M. BERGER, AUTHOR AND EXTREMISM ANALYST system itself, when the system is the source of uncer- it seems that more people have come to believe that tainty, things can really fall apart, and it becomes dif- intimidation and violence are appropriate tools for ficult to know which way society will turn.” pursuing political aims. Members of the far right have taken a hardened A recent wave of arrests has dealt a blow to white turn against those they consider their enemies dur- power groups, including The Base and Atomwaffen ing the Trump era, to the point where many are no Division, but they haven’t stopped the spread of longer satisfied with letting the state maintain a accelerationist ideas. Those are not maintained and monopoly on violence. Hence the embrace of vig- spread solely by organized groups, but by a larger ilantism evidence in their defense of accused mur- white power movement that operates before a back- derer Kyle Rittenhouse, as well as the spread of drop of systemic white supremacy. Indeed, the move- accelerationist language into the broader fabric of ment as a whole is becoming more decentralized, the far right. In a Telegram channel associated with where adherents can become a part of a social net- the Trump-loyalist Proud Boys, an administrator work, or “radical milieu,” without necessarily joining recently wrote that “No amount of capitulation, good a group. And if they do, they tend to be smaller, local- optics, or virtue signaling will get us out of this war. ized cells that might not even have a name. There are no political solutions.” They hope those Intervening in the lives of young people who they consider their adversaries will yield to intimi- are radicalizing toward racist, violent extremism dation, something they punctuated at a Washington, involves all those who interact with them. Our D.C. pro-Trump rally in December when members communities need preventative and intervention- of the group destroyed two Black Lives Matter ban- based models for social programs and processes ners67 that had hung at historic Black churches. One that steer young people away from lives embroiled was burned by a number of Proud Boys who wore in hate. These models must be rooted in empiri- “Right Wing ” patches. cal guidance and involve academics, mental health The disillusionment and disbelief that has professionals and others who can collaborate to gripped part of the Trump-supporting rightwing build models for intervening as early as possible could have dangerous results. Trump often told when a young person encounters extremist ideas. his supporters that he alone represented them This work will require experts to collaborate with within a “swamp” of uncaring political elites – parents and caregivers, schools and local govern- with Trump no longer in power, but telling them ment, and community hubs like churches and Biden is illegitimate, why should they have faith sports leagues. The Polarization and Extremism in the political system at all? One white suprema- Research Innovation Lab (PERIL) at American cist podcaster recently noted witnessing what he University, which brings academic research to called “Sudden Acceleration Syndrome” in which bear on the problem of youth radicalization, is one Trump supporters began espousing acceleration- example of a promising path forward. ist ideas after his loss. “It’s called waking up to the Extremist ideas don’t exist separately from our truth and embracing extremism,” the administra- larger culture – including our political economy, of a popular accelerationist Telegram channel media landscape and education models. It’s only responded. “The system is too rotten and corrupt. by addressing all of these arenas, together, that we It must be torn down completely.” If the slew of can stall the mobilization of a far-right movement threats68 made against elected officials in the after- that has spent the last four years turning toward an math of the presidential election is any indication, increasingly apocalyptic vision of the future.






The Ku Klux Klan, with its long history of violence, is the oldest and most infamous of American hate groups. Although Black Americans have typically been the Klan’s primary target, it also has attacked Jews, immigrants, members of the LGBTQ community and, until recently, Catholics.

Knights of the Ku 0 0 0 Klux Klan Rebel Brigade Knights 0 0 Florida True Invisible Empire 0 0 0 0 Knights of the Ku Martinsville, VA* 0 0 0 0 0 0 Klux Klan United Klan Nation 0 0 2 0 1 Harrison, Arkansas* Thurmond, NC* 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Loyal White Knights Tazewell, TN 1 2 2 0 0 of the Ku Klux Klan United Klans of America 0 4 2 Pelham, NC* * 0 1 0 1 United Northern and 0 1 1 Pennsylvania Southern Knights of the 2 0 0 Virginia Ku Klux Klan Noble Klans of America Ellijay, GA* 0 2 Maryland* Nordic Order Knights of the Ku Klux Klan American Christian Knights of the Ku Honorable Sacred Indiana* Dixie Knights of the Klux Klan Knights of the Ku Order of the Ku Klux Ku Klux Klan South Bend, IN* Klux Klan Klan / White Christian Tennessee* East Coast Knights of Madison, IN* Brotherhood Florida the True Invisible Empire Imperial Klans Cookeville, TN* Church of the Ku Pennsylvania* of America of Dayton, OH Klux Klan Exalted Knights of the the Ku Klux Klan Patriotic Brigade Knights DeKalb, TX* Ku Klux Klan Dawson Springs, KY* of the Ku Klux Klan Church of the National Tennessee* International Keystone Gladewater, TX*

TOP TAKEAWAYS In the past few years, the Ku Klux Klan experienced a drop in the number of active chapters. Unlike years past, however, this downward trajectory was partially impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. A purge of VK (a Russian social media network popular with the Klan) earlier this year severely limited the visibility of many Klansmen, while con- stant infighting and an inability to resolve conflict had the largest impact, making the Klan increasingly insular. Few new members are being recruited to the remaining Klan organizations. KEY MOMENTS Most Klan interactions and activations came from online activity on VK, and Facebook. An increase of online interaction as opposed to in-person may have contributed to more infighting between Klansmen, causing the creation of more splinter groups. Roughly two-thirds of Klan-related hate flyering incidents can be attributed to the Loyal White Knights across several states in the Mid-Atlantic region. Other groups that dropped flyers in 2020 include the Honorable Sacred Knights, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, Imperial Klans of America and Church of the National Knights. WHAT’S AHEAD Several Klan groups cancelled events as a result of the pandemic. Klan activity may pick up a bit in 2021 once a vaccine becomes available, but a notable rise in Klan activity is not expected.

THE COURSE OF THE MODERN KU KLUX KLAN 190 130 72 51 47 28 25

1990 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020


Neo-Nazi groups share a for Jews and a love for and Nazi TOP TAKEAWAYS The neo-Nazi move- Germany. While they also hate other minorities, gays and lesbians and even ment as a whole struggled under sometimes , they perceive “the ” as their cardinal enemy. significant setbacks to in-person orga- nizing in 2020. The National Socialist Movement, a decades-old group with 14 First Mountain City, TN* Nevada roots in the , floun- Washington* Hillsboro, WV New Hampshire dered amid ongoing legal actions. The Kentucky Iowa New York momentum of the neo-Nazi movement Texas Pennsylvania has mostly built behind more decentral- Virginia National Socialist Virginia ized groups and online social networks American Nazi Party Charitable Coalition/ Tennessee with a terroristic focus. The early 2020 Indiana Global Minority Initiative Texas arrests of key members of Atomwaffen New Hampshire Illinois Division, a neo-Nazi terroristic group, have Ohio National Socialist , WI* pushed many of the ideology’s adherents Nations – Church German Workers Party NS Publications to darker corners of the internet. of Christian Lincoln, NE Wyandotte, MI* KEY MOMENTS In February of 2020, * National Socialist Patriotic Dissent Books five members of Atomwaffen Division Liberation Front New Jersey were arrested on charges related to Arizona Pennsylvania* PzG Inc. a conspiracy to threaten and intimi- Alabama Rapid City, SD date and activists. Among Colorado National Socialist Reform the States them was the group’s then-leader, John Florida Movement Virginia* Cameron Denton. Less than a month South Carolina Kissimmee, FL* Rural Nexion later, , a confidant of sev- Texas Detroit, MI Texas* eral prominent Atomwaffen members, Washington Kentucky Straight Arm Media announced the group had disbanded. Alliance, The Maricopa, AZ Tennessee* Over the course of 2020, several mem- Illinois Massachusetts The Green Brigade bers of the group entered plea deals Daily Stormer, The Pennsylvania Oregon related to both these and other separate Ohio* Tennessee Third Books charges. Arrests also affected another Folks Front/Folkish National Socialist Order Fairbury, NE* white power accelerationist network, The Colorado* Vanguard News Network Base, which SPLC classifies under our Arizona* National Social Kirksville, MO* White Nationalism category. Colorado Club (NSC 131) WHAT’S AHEAD The size and influence Michigan Massachusetts* San Jacinto, CA* of historically prominent groups will con- Nevada Arizona tinue to change as the movement reforms Oklahoma Arkansas itself to cater to a younger generation of Moonkrieg Division Florida neo-Nazis. Online neo-Nazi spaces have * Indiana embraced more openly violent messages, National Alliance Kentucky including advocating for more terrorism. This rhetoric will continue in 2021. While some neo-Nazi groups once emphasized simple hatred, others have 2 0 0 been more focused on the 0 0 creation of a fascist political state. Links 1 1 2 0 between American and European neo- 3 0 1 0 Nazis have been historically strong and 1 2 2 2 3 0 have, at various points, grown stronger. 2 2 2 2 0 0 3 1 0 1 1 0 3 3 0 2 0 1 4 0 0 1 5 1 1 1 0 4 0 0

0 3

If the group has a known headquarters, it appears first in the THE YEAR IN HATE AND EXTREMISM 37 listing of the group’s chapters and is marked with an asterisk. 128 WHITE NATIONALIST

White nationalist groups espouse white supremacist or white separatist ideologies, H.L. Mencken Club California* often focusing on the alleged inferiority of nonwhites. Groups listed in a variety of Elizabethtown, PA* Patriot Front other categories – Ku Klux Klan, neo-Confederate, neo-Nazi, racist skinhead and International Texas* Christian Identity – could also be fairly described as white nationalist. Conservative Community Arizona California Arkansas Colorado California 3 2 0 Colorado 3 3 Pennsylvania Connecticut 0 2 District of Columbia 1 1 Koschertified? 1 6 6 1 San Marcos, CA* Florida 1 1 1 2 7 2 Legion of St. Ambrose Georgia 2 2 1 4 2 Knoxville, TN* Idaho 1 2 2 0 3 2 0 2 8 2 National Justice Party Illinois 12 3 Butler, PA* Indiana 1 5 1 0 2 National Policy Institute Iowa 2 5 2 2 6 , VA* Kentucky 4 1 National 0 Party 0 6 California* Maryland Arizona Massachusetts Michigan Michigan Minnesota Minnesota Affirmative Right Missouri Charlotte, MI* Mississippi Mississippi , GA* Nevada Colchester Collection, The South Carolina Missouri American Freedom Party Ohio Machias, ME* Tennessee Nebraska , CA* Rhode Island Council of Texas Nevada Bradenton, FL Sacramento, CA Conservative Citizens New Albion New Hampshire Granbury, TX Washington, DC Blackwell, MO* Jackman, ME* New Jersey Indiana American Patriots USA Counter-Currents New Jersey European New York Montana Dahlonega, GA* Publishing Heritage Association North Carolina New York American Renaissance/ , CA* New Jersey* Ohio New York, NY Cursus Honorum Northwest Front Oklahoma American Freedom Union Oakton, VA* Foundation , WA* Oregon Hampton Township, PA* Antelope Hill Publishing Austin, TX Occidental Dissent Pennsylvania American Identity Quakertown, PA* Exodus/Americanus Eufaula, AL* Rhode Island Movement Floyds Knobs, IN* South Carolina Harpers Ferry, WV* New York, NY* Fight White Genocide Laguna Hills, CA* Tennessee Alabama Blood River Radio Cayce, SC* Occidental Quarterly/ Utah Connecticut Bartlett, TN* Fitzgerald Griffin Charles Martel Society Kentucky Christ the King Foundation, The Atlanta, GA Virginia Minnesota Reformed Church , VA* Our Fight Clothing Washington

TOP TAKEAWAYS The number of white nationalist groups dipped in 2020, down 27 groups from 2019. While COVID-19 partially explains the change, most of the decline was due to the disbanding of American Identity Movement, one of the largest and mostly active white nationalist groups in the country in recent years. KEY MOMENTS In January, police arrested seven members of The Base, an accelerationist white nationalist group. Since 2017, the accelerationist wing has been rising to the forefront of the white . In recent months, though, the “main- streamer” part of the movement has regained some momentum. Their success comes in large part from the so-called Groyper movement, led by and Patrick Casey. One of the most notable trends within the far right this year has been the emergence of the Boogaloo boys, an amorphous group of far-right actors who believe the U.S. is headed toward a second civil war. While some of the subculture’s adherents describe themselves as hardcore libertarians, others hold overtly white nationalist ideas. WHAT’S AHEAD The white nationalist movement is on two different tracks. One is focused on harnessing populist anger and frustration at Trump’s loss to channel people into their movement. Figures like Nick Fuentes are attacking mainstream conservatives while painting themselves as the future of the right in America. The other part of the movement believes in accelerationism. While some join groups like The Base, the movement is increasingly decentralized. There is an increasing overlap in violent rhetoric among both groups.


West Virginia Racist form a particularly violent element of the white supremacist Wisconsin movement and have often been referred to as the “shock troops” of the hoped-for Wyoming . The classic skinhead look is a shaved head, black Doc Martens , Patriots Flags jeans with suspenders and an array of typically racist tattoos. Summerville, SC* Political Cesspool, The AC Skins Virginia Northwest Bartlett, TN* Atlantic City, NJ* Crew 38 Washington Racial Nationalist Arizona Florida United Skinhead Nation Party of America Nebraska Die Auserwahlten Florida* Lockport, NY* American Utah Tennessee Radix Journal Defense Skinheads Firm 22 Vinlanders Social Club Alexandria, VA* Illinois Arizona Florida Real Republic of Florida Pennsylvania Florida Indiana Tallahassee, FL* Oklahoma Minnesota California Pennsylvania New Jersey Harrisonburg, VA* Montana Utah North Carolina Renaissance Horizon Blood and Honour Golden State Skinheads Oklahoma Summerville, SC* Social Club Northern* Washington Revolt Through Tradition Michigan Southern Wisconsin Florida Missouri W.A.R./P.F.R. Georgia Pennsylvania Pennsylvania* Arkansas* Indiana Virginia Nationalist Western Hammerskins Massachusetts Confederate Women’s Front California Right Clothing Hammerskins California* Anaheim, CA* Huntington Beach, CA* 2 1 0 1 Scott-Townsend 0 0 1 Publishers 0 0 Washington, DC* 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 Shieldwall Network 4 0 0 Mountain View, AR* 0 1 1 0 2 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 Petoskey, MI* 5 0 2 1 1 Stormfront 0 1 2 0 West Palm Beach, FL* 0 0 0 The Base 0 0 California 0 Georgia 0 4 Maryland Michigan Washington TOP TAKEAWAYS With almost no young recruits, the racist skinhead movement’s Wisconsin prominence within this country’s far right has been diminishing steadily for years. The SPLC recorded another decline in 2020. Hopewell Junction, NY* KEY MOMENTS The Hammerskin Nation, among the nation’s most established and Pennsylvania most violent hate groups, remains in decline but not out of the headlines. This move- Virginia Beach, VA ment, while losing momentum, continues to pose a public safety threat. In December VDARE Foundation 2018, a group of racist skinheads were arrested in Washington for allegedly assault- Warrenton, VA* ing a Black DJ at a bar. Local and federal law enforcement have been reviewing the case White Rabbit Radio and investigating it as a hate crime. A federal grand jury indicted four individuals in late Dearborn Heights, MI* 2020. Three were members of Crew 38, the supporters group for the Hammerskins. Will2Rise WHAT’S AHEAD As racist skinheads age and fail to replenish their numbers, the move- Lucie County, FL* ment will continue to lose relevance in this country. White nationalist groups like Rise Above Movement, which has maintained connections to the Hammerskins in the past, and milieus like that of white power accelerationism have emerged to replace the racist skinhead movement among younger recruits, both in posture and intent. Danger related to the movement is still tragically present, as the enclosed reports underscore.


Christian Identity is a unique antisemitic and racist that rose to a position TOP TAKEAWAYS Christian Identity of commanding influence on the racist right in the 1980s. “Christian” in name only, groups held at 11 again across 2020, just it asserts that white people, not Jews, are the true favored by God in the as in 2019. This further reflects the con- . The movement’s relationship with evangelicals and fundamentalists has tinued stagnation of this radically racist generally been hostile due to the latter’s belief that of Jews to is religious . Although Christian Identity essential to the fulfillment of end-time prophecy. tenets have become more popular with some members of neo-Confederate hate Christian Revival Center Euro Folk Radio Scottsbluff, NE* groups in recent years, the movement Harrison, AR Chicago, IL* Our Place Fellowship is failing to attract new adherents, fur- Christogenea Fellowship of God’s Colville, WA ther evidenced by its 45 percent decline Panama City, FL* Covenant People Sacred Truth Publishing between 2017 and 2019. Union, KY* & Ministries KEY MOMENTS As Christian Identity Schell City, MO Kingdom Identity Mountain City, TN* continues to stagnate, the movement’s Covenant People’s Ministries Scriptures for America lack of significant happenings shows its Ministry Harrison, AR* Worldwide Ministries lack of influence within today’s white Brooks, GA* Mission to Israel Laporte, CO* power movement. WHAT’S AHEAD With the release of our 2019 annual hate map, SPLC’s ana- lysts noted a growing interest in Christian 1 0 0 Identity beliefs among some neo-Confed- 0 0 erates, taking care to register whether a 0 0 0 0 deeper pool of adherents would material- 0 0 0 0 0 0 ize. The dwindling handful of individuals 1 0 0 0 0 who have been involved with Christian 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Identity for decades are still struggling 1 0 0 0 0 to reinvigorate their movement, how- 0 1 0 ever, and that pool has not risen. All signs 0 2 0 0 point to the belief system remaining niche 0 0 1 within the white power movement, with its 0 0 0 influence paling in comparison to its influ- ence across the 1990s to early . 0 1


The SPLC organizes the hate groups it tracks under 17 different categories based on ideology. A number of those categories, however, could fall under a broader category of “white supremacy” or “white power.” TOTAL HATE In fact, almost 40% of all active groups in 2020 could be described GROUPS as being rooted in white supremacy, including those in the following categories: Ku Klux Klan, Neo-Nazi, White Nationalist, Racist Skinhead, 838 Christian Identity, Neo-Confederate and Neo-Völkisch.

Beyond a goal of preserving the white race, these groups also share core against classes of people that white supremacists view as threatening, such as immigrants and refugees, BIPOC persons, Muslims, LGBTQ persons and others. These groups have sustained narratives of WHITE SUPREMACY 327 disinformation, misinformation and conspiracies across the broader hard HATE GROUPS right for decades.

40 SOUTHERN POVERTY LAW CENTER 31 NEO-CONFEDERATE HATE BY STATE The arrows at right indicate whether Neo-Confederacy is a reactionary, revisionist branch of American white nationalism the number of hate groups in each typified by its predilection for symbols of the Confederate States of America, state rose or fell in the last year. typically paired with a strong belief in the validity of the failed doctrines of The four highlighted states saw the nullification and – in the specific context of the antebellum South – that steepest decreases. rose to prominence in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. AK å KY å NY å ACTBAC NC Virginia McKee, KY AL Å LA å OH å Camp, NC* Ocala, FL å å Å Confederate 901 Killen, AL* Panama City, FL AR MA OK Memphis, TN* , GA Shreveport, LA AZ Å MD å OR å Dixie Republic Bunker Hill, WV Travelers Rest, SC CA å ME Å PA - Travelers Rest, SC Cartersville, GA Wewoka, OK Heirs to the Confederacy Danville, VA Southern Cultural Center CO å MI å RI Å Asheboro, NC* Edinburg, VA Wetumpka, AL* CT å MN å SC Å Identity Dixie Gallatin, TN Dothan, AL DC - MO å SD å Cookeville, TN* Harrison, AR Northport, AL Florida Holly Springs, MS Oxford, AL DE - MS å TN å North Carolina Jacksonville, FL Weogufka, AL FL Å MT - TX å Texas Lake City, FL GA å NC å UT å HI - ND å VA å IA - NE Å VT å 0 0 0 ID - NH Å WA å 0 0 å å å 0 0 IL NJ WI 0 0 0 0 0 0 IN å NM - WV - 0 0 0 0 0 0 KS å NV Å WY - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 3 0 0 0 1 3 3 0 1 0 2 1 6 2 TOP FIVE 1 1 0 2020 HATE GROUPS

0 5 Though the number of hate groups fluctuates each year, states with large populations like Texas, California and Florida regularly have the most. TOP TAKEAWAYS Neo-Confederate group numbers declined between 2018 and 2019 1. CALIFORNIA when the largest neo-Confederate hate group, the League of the South, lost several chapters. Neo-Confederate propaganda group Identity Dixie has also faltered, in part, 2. FLORIDA from revelations in SPLC’s 2019 expose about the group’s leaders and history. In 2020, 3. TEXAS SPLC’s analysts documented a minor increase with the Neo-Confederate category. 4. NEW YORK KEY MOMENTS On December 28, 2020, a senior U.S. district judge dismissed Michael 5. PENNSYLVANIA Hill and Michael Tubbs, both leaders within the League of the South, from a federal lawsuit brought by DeAndre Harris over the pair’s alleged role in the deadly riot that occurred in Charlottesville, Virginia in August 2017. The pair, along with the League of the South itself, are still named as defendants in a lawsuit related to Charlottesville brought by Integrity First for America. WHAT’S AHEAD In recent years, ongoing debates around public memorials to the Lost Cause galvanized small groups that have promoted neo-Confederate ideology and spawned pro-monument groups relatively new to the neo-Confederate hate movement. Energized online and among its ranks, these groups have failed to organize and mobilize widely across the South. But while neo-Confederates have failed to gain a noticeable uptick in recruits across 2020, flashpoints around Lost Cause memorials and Army bases named for Confederate military officers may provide opportunities for neo-Con- federates to engage in violence during 2021.


Neo-Völkisch followers base their movement on the falsehood that white European people and cultures are dying and thus in need of preservation. Neo-Völkisch hate groups romanticize pre-Christian Viking culture and espouse regressive notions of gender. The foundations of the ideology emerged in the mid-19th century racist movements in what is now present day and Germany.

Asatru Folk Assembly North Dakota Princeton, MN* Viking Brotherhood California* Ohio CarolynEmerick.com/ California* Alabama Oregon Oakwise Becoming Woden’s Folk Kindred Pennsylvania Rochester, NY* Waxahachie, TX* Colorado South Carolina Gallows Tree Wolves of Florida Tennessee Alliance Lynchburg, VA* Idaho Texas Grand Rapids, MI* Alabama Indiana Virginia Heathen Coalition, The Pennsylvania Massachusetts Washington Milwaukee, WI* South Carolina Minnesota Wisconsin Order of the Black Washington Missouri Black Sun Tribe Sun, The North Carolina Project, The Mesa, AZ*

2 0 1 2 0 0 2 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 2 0 2 0 2 0 1

0 1

TOP TAKEAWAYS The number of neo-Völkisch hate groups is lower in 2020 than 2019. The downturn in numbers comes mainly from the inactivity of Wotan’s Nation in 2020 and the use of statewide chapter listings rather than individual chapter listings. The Ásatrú Folk Assembly (AFA), the largest neo-Völkisch hate group in the United States, had another very active year the pandemic. AFA’s original hof, or meeting hall, located in Brownsville, California, was paid off in January 2019. The group purchased a second hof this year in Linden, North Carolina and a third in Murdock, Minnesota. KEY MOMENTS The Ásatrú Folk Assembly had numerous events at each of their three hofs throughout the year. Similar to years past, the group’s largest event was Midsummer, held at Odinshof in Brownsville, California in June. Other large events that the hosted this year included Fallfest in Minnesota in September. Outside of the AFA, Woden’s Folk Kindred, based in Texas, was also quite active in 2020. The group hosted several events, erected a memorial runestone and published a book about runes. WHAT’S AHEAD Neo-Völkisch groups’ reliance on imagery and myths of a bygone, romanticized Viking Era seeks to transcend nationalism and wield whiteness as it their ill-conceived ends. The aesthetic these groups offer and the malleability of their messaging has continued to attract new members. With the Ásatrú Folk Assembly’s expansive year they have reaffirmed their lasting presence in the neo-Völkisch hate scene.


Anti-immigrant hate groups are the most extreme of the hundreds of nativist and vigilante groups that have proliferated since the late 1990s, when anti-immigrant began to rise to levels not seen in the U.S. since the 1920s.

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 4 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 2 0 0

0 2

American Border Patrol Center for Rockville, MD* Respect Washington Sierra Vista, AZ* Immigration Studies Immigration Reform Burien, WA* American Immigration Washington, DC* Law Institute San Diegans for Control Foundation/ Colorado Alliance for Washington, DC* Secure Borders Americans for Immigration Reform Legal Immigrants , CA* Immigration Control Lakewood, CO* for America Texans for Immigration Monterey, VA* Dustin Inman Society, The Winter Springs, FL* Reduction and Americans for Legal Marietta, GA* Oregonians for Enforcement Immigration (ALIPAC) Federation for American Immigration Reform Houston, TX* Raleigh, NC* Immigration Reform Salem, OR* AZ Patriots Washington, DC* ProEnglish Arizona* Floridians for Washington, DC* Californians for Immigration Enforcement Remembrance Population Stabilization Pompano Beach, FL* Project, The Ventura, CA* Help Save Maryland Houston, TX*

TOP TAKEAWAYS In 2020, the total number of anti-immigrant hate groups decreased by one. Despite this minor decrease, the nativist movement at-large witnessed unprecedented policy gains as a result of the Trump administration’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic. According to a report by the Migration Policy Institute, the Trump administration implemented more than 400 policy changes on immigration over four years. Early on, the administration focused on curbing unlawful immigration, but this year, following the onset of the coronavirus pandemic, the administration shifted its ire to legal immigration. KEY MOMENTS On June 22, 2020, Trump issued an executive order restricting the entry of people on nonimmigrant work visas. The executive order paused the admittance of foreign workers who come to the U.S. on, but not limited to, H-1B, J and L visas. The order brought immigration to the U.S. to a complete halt. During the coronavirus pandemic, the Trump administration ordered the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention mandate the expulsion of unauthorized arrivals, essentially ending asylum at the U.S. southern border. They banned travel from 31 countries, suspended all routine visa services at U.S. embassies and consulates, suspended refugee resettlement, and suspended immigration for most family-based visa categories. WHAT’S AHEAD As part of his immigration platform, then-Presidential candidate Biden recognized that “the next president will need to take urgent action to end the Trump administration’s draconian policies, grounded in fear and racism, rather than fact, work to heal the wounds inflicted on immi- grant communities, and restore America’s moral leadership.” It could be years before the Biden-Harris administration is able to undo the damage.


A central theme of anti-LGBTQ organizing and ideology is the opposition to LGBTQ Rock Falls, IL* Save California rights, often couched in demonizing rhetoric and grounded in harmful Counsel Sacramento, CA* that portrays LGBTQ people as threats to children, society and often public health. Orlando, FL* Ministries Mass Resistance Springfield, MA* Waltham, MA* Stedfast Baptist Church 3 0 0 Austin, TX Fort Worth, TX* 0 0 , TX Oklahoma City, OK 0 1 1 0 Detroit, MI Strong Hold 0 2 3 0 0 0 Downey, CA Baptist Church 0 2 1 0 3 Houston, TX Norcross, GA* 1 4 1 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 Las Vegas, NV Sure Foundation 0 1 0 10 1 New York, NY Baptist Church 1 2 0 San Diego, CA , WA* 0 0 5 1 Torrance, CA Honolulu, HI 1 0 2 Mission: America Spokane, WA 7 3 0 Columbus, OH* Tom Brown Ministries Pacific Justice Institute El Paso, TX* 1 5 Sacramento, CA* True Light Salem, OR Pentecost Church All Scripture Faith Baptist Church San Jose, CA Spartanburg, SC* Baptist Church Fellowship Violet, LA* Santa Ana, CA United Families Knoxville, TN* Worthington, OH* Baton Rouge, LA Seattle, WA International Alliance Defending Campus Ministry Faithful Word Pass the Salt Ministries Gilbert, AZ* Freedom USA, The Baptist Church Hebron, OH* Verity Baptist Church Scottsdale, AZ* Terre Haute, IN* Tempe, AZ* Pilgrims Covenant Church Sacramento, CA* American College Center for Family and Tucson, AZ Monroe, WI* Warriors for Christ of Pediatricians Human Rights (C-FAM) Pray in Jesus Bristol, TN* Gainesville, FL* New York, NY* Washington, DC* Name Project, The Westboro American Family Family Research Institute Colorado Springs, CO* Baptist Church Association Vallecito, CA* Colorado Springs, CO* Probe Ministries Topeka, KS* Tupelo, MS* Church / Family Watch Plano, TX* World Congress of Franklin, PA St. Michael’s Media International Public Advocate of Families/International Ferndale, MI* Gilbert, AZ* the United States Organization for Powder Springs, GA* Concerned First Works Merrifield, VA* the Family Americans for Truth Christian Citizens Baptist Church Revival Baptist Church Rockford, IL* About Temple, TX* El Monte, CA* Clermont, FL* Naperville, IL* D. James Kennedy Illinois Family Institute Jacksonville, FL ATLAH Media Network Ministries Tinley Park, IL* Ruth Institute New York, NY* Fort Lauderdale, FL* Liberty Baptist Church Lake Charles, LA*

TOP TAKEAWAYS Despite lockdowns related to the pandemic, 2020 saw further entrenchment of influential anti-LGBTQ hate groups in the Trump administration, and a continued appointment of anti-LGBTQ judges to the federal judiciary. Amy Coney Barrett was named to the Supreme Court. Coney Barrett served as a speaker five times for the Blackstone Legal Fellowship, a secre- tive legal training program of anti-LGBTQ hate group Alliance Defending Freedom. KEY MOMENTS Internationally, the Trump Department of State released a report in July 2020 via its controversial Commission on Unalienable Rights, which demonstrated an alternative view of human rights that puts primacy on certain rights over others, specifically religious liberty. The commission is stacked with anti-choice and anti-LGBTQ thinkers. A GLAAD analysis determined that 7 of the 10 members have a history battling LGBTQ rights. Another prong in the anti-LGBTQ movement is the pushback against comprehensive sexuality education in public schools. The groups often claim that comprehensive sexuality education “sexualizes” children and “indoctrinates” them into being LGBTQ. According to the ACLU, a record number of anti-trans bills directed at trans youth were proposed in 2020 in at least 23 states. WHAT’S AHEAD A Biden-Harris administration will be able to slow, stop and rollback anti-LGBTQ policies across federal administrations. The Biden administration did start rolling some policies back immediately, including ending the ban on people serving in the military. The anti-trans movement will continue to attempt to enact legislation and policy to ensure the criminalization of gender-affirming care and fur- ther marginalize trans- and gender-nonconforming youth. We will also see a continued crossover between anti-trans feminist groups and anti-LGBTQ groups. The anti-LGBTQ movement will also attempt to undo LGBTQ rights via federal courts and the Supreme Court.


Anti-Muslim hate groups are a relatively new phenomenon in the U.S., with many TOP TAKEAWAYS Despite a drop in appearing after the terrorist attacks on Sept. 11, 2001. They frequently traffic active groups, the anti-Muslim movement in conspiracy theories involving the infiltration of the government by Islamist remains a force in the United States. extremists, warn that the U.S. legal system is being subverted by Shariah law and Groups continue to be well-funded, with portray Muslims in general as potential terrorist threats. some enjoying mainstream political clout. There was a decrease in activity ACT for America Forest, VA* New York County, NY* from chapters of ACT for America, the Washington, DC* Citizens for Red-Green Axis Exposed largest anti-Muslim hate group in the Austin, TX National Security Brecksville, OH* country. The pandemic prevented chap- Baton Rouge, LA Boca Raton, FL* Refugee Resettlement ters from meeting in person. Some ACT Bear, DE Counter Coalition Watch chapters have also folded after express- Cheshire, CT Santa Monica, CA* Fairplay, MD* ing discontent with the national office in Connecticut Cultures in Context Rise Align Ignite Reclaim Washington, D.C. Corona, CA Incorporated/Turning Fishkill, NY* KEY MOMENTS Muslims were the sec- Des Plaines, IL Point Project Sea Jay Foundation ond largest target of religious hate Hauppauge, NY Immokalee, FL* Highlands Ranch, CO* incidents after Jews, according to the Heathrow, FL Crime Stoppers FBI’s 2019 hate crimes statistics. State- Hollis, NH Freedom Center Mount Clemens, MI* sponsored , like government Hopkinton, MA Sherman Oaks, CA Shoebat Foundation, The surveillance of Muslim communities, still Houston, TX Florida Family Association Newtown, PA* remains an issue. Anti-Muslim hate con- Jacksonville, FL Tampa, FL* tinues to run rampant and unchecked on Jonesboro, AR Fortress of Faith Illinois social media platforms. Kansas City, MO Bellingham, WA* Nevada ACT for America stepped up its anti- Lafayette, IN Foundation North Carolina amid the global Laguna Woods, CA for Advocating Pennsylvania pandemic. In March 2020, Gabriel co- Los Angeles, CA Christian Truth Virginia signed a letter organized by the Media Metairie, LA Bronx, NY* Idaho Research Center asking Trump to inves- Mission Viejo, CA G416 Patriots Ventura County, CA tigate China’s alleged role in spreading Oostburg, WI Meridian, Idaho Straight Way and the virus. Pittsburgh, PA Glasov Gang Productions More, The WHAT’S AHEAD Donald Trump’s defeat San Fernando Valley, CA Los Angeles, CA* Marble Hill, MO* left anti-Muslim groups without their top San Gabriel Valley, CA Global Faith Institute Thomas More Law Center political ally. The Biden administration Spokane Valley, WA Omaha, NE* Ann Arbor, MI* has signaled it will reverse Trump pol- Tucson, AZ Truth in Love Project icies championed by these groups like Vancouver, WA Manchester, NH* Maryville, TN* the Muslim ban, the low caps on refu- Viera, FL Last Chance Patriots Truth in Textbooks gees resettled in the country and other Walsenburg, CO Dayton, MT* Boerne, TX* nativist immigration practices. With Whitehall, MT Political Islam Understanding the Threat Democrats in control of the White House, American Nashville, TN* Dallas, TX* some anti-Muslim groups have signaled Freedom Alliance Radio Jihad/Global United West, The the importance of organizing at the state Encino, CA* Patriot Radio Palm Beach County, FL* and local level. American Freedom Defense Initiative New York, NY* 3 2 0 American Freedom 0 0 Law Center 0 1 0 2 Ann Arbor, MI* 0 3 5 0 0 2 American Public 1 1 3 0 1 Policy Alliance 1 2 1 2 0 2 0 Washington, DC* 0 2 0 1 0 2 1 Bomb Islam 11 3 Phoenix, AZ* 0 2 1 0 1 2 0 Bureau on American 0 0 0 Islamic Relations 5 2 Irving, TX* 0 Center for Security Policy 0 7 Washington, DC* Christian Action Network

THE YEAR IN HATE AND EXTREMISM 45 Kansas City, MO CATHOLIC (9) 355 GENERAL HATE Lexington, KY Catholic Apologetics Los Angeles, CA International Louisville, KY Greencastle, PA* These groups espouse a variety of rather unique hateful doctrines and beliefs that Memphis, TN Catholic Family News/ are not easily categorized. Many of the groups are vendors that sell a miscellany of , FL Catholic Family hate materials from several different sectors of the white supremacist movement. Milwaukee, WI Ministries, Inc. Mobile, AL Niagara Falls, NY* HATE MUSIC (11) Productions Austin, TX Monroe, LA Christ or Chaos BeaSSt Productions Wausau, WI* Birmingham, AL Montgomery, AL West Chester, OH* Roanoke, VA* ANTISEMITISM (75) , NY , LA Culture Wars/ Black Metal Records Barnes Review/ Camden, NJ New York, NY Fidelity Press Phoenix, AZ* Foundation for Charlotte, NC Newark, NJ South Bend, IN* DNVF Records Economic Liberty, Inc. Chattanooga, TN Norfolk, VA Fatima Crusader, The/ Shawnee on Delaware, PA* White Plains, MD* , OH North Charleston, SC International Fatima ISD Records/NS88 Video Carolynyeager.net Columbia, SC North Little Rock, AR Rosary Crusade Denison, TX* Kerrville, TX* Compton, CA Oakland, CA Buffalo, NY* Micetrap Distribution Committee for Open Dallas, TX Oklahoma City, OK IHS Press Maple Shade Township, NJ* Debate on the Holocaust Dayton, OH Pensacola, FL Norfolk, VA* MSR Productions Mill Valley, CA* Denver, CO , PA In the Spirit of Gering, NE* York, PA Detroit, MI Phoenix, AZ Chartres Committee Tightrope Records Independent History Dorchester, MA Pittsburgh, PA Glenelg, MD* Arkansas* & Research Durham, NC Plainfield, NJ Remnant, The/The United Riot Records Coeur d’Alene, ID* Fort Lauderdale, FL Richmond, VA Remnant Press New York * Institute for Historical Fort Worth, TX Rochester, NY Forest Lake, MN* Vanguard Productions Review Grand Rapids, MI Rock Hill, SC Slaves of the Immaculate New Jersey* Newport Beach, CA* Greensboro, NC San Antonio, TX Heart of Mary Vinlandic Nation of Islam Greenville, SC San Diego, CA Town of Richmond, NH* Distribution Chicago, IL* Houston, TX Shreveport, LA Tradition in Action California* Akron, OH Indianapolis, IN Springfield, MO Los Angeles, CA* Winter Solace Atlanta, GA Jacksonville, FL St. Louis, MO OTHER (258) St. Petersburg, FL A2Z Publications Tampa, FL Parrish, FL 5 1 0 Toledo, OH Ambassadors of Christ 5 0 Trenton, NJ Brooklyn, NY* 0 5 5 3 Tulsa, OK Chicago, IL 0 9 21 0 1 1 Washington, DC Houston, TX 3 4 14 0 Willingboro, NJ 11 6 8 6 2 1 5 11 Wilmington, DE Upper Marlboro, MD* 1 10 0 2 5 8 9 Wilmington, NC Army of Israel 8 28 Winston-Salem, NC Missouri* 6 11 19 1 5 7 8 Realist Report, The Bill Keller Ministries 4 8 16 Long Beach, CA* St. Petersburg, FL 27 9 MALE SUPREMACY (1) Black Riders 0 Liberation Party 3 32 Roanoke, VA Los Angeles, CA* RADICAL TRADITIONALIST Las Vegas, NV

TOP TAKEAWAYS As SPLC seeks to better understand the ideological drivers of hate groups, we have developed the antisemitism categorization, which is now listed under “General Hate.” The bulk of the groups listed under this ideology were formerly categorized as Black Separatist and Holocaust . Another group listed in General Hate is the Proud Boys, the “Western chauvinist” men’s club that espouses rabidly anti-Muslim and anti-immi- grant beliefs, demonizes trans people, and clings to archaic and misogynistic notions of gender. KEY MOMENTS After a downturn in activity in 2019, the Proud Boys capitalized on the instability and conflict that the COVID-19 pandemic and divisive Trump administration sowed in 2020. Early on in the pandemic, members of the Proud Boys began attending anti- , claim- ing these gatherings would be “where the battle for the 2020 election starts.” In December, amidst Trump’s false accusations of election fraud, Proud Boys gathered in Washington, D.C. to support the president’s unfounded claims. One Proud Boy who attended was photographed wearing a shirt emblazoned with, “6MWE,” an antisemitic that stands for, “six million wasn’t enough.” , the group’s leader, was arrested after his involvement in burning a church’s Black Lives Matter sign at this protest. WHAT’S AHEAD Though the Biden-Harris administration and Trump’s impending impeachment trial mean the Proud Boys have lost their ally in the White House, they remain highly organized. Street mobilization will continue to be an important political tool for the group, as will their alliances with more radical segments of the Republican Party.

46 SOUTHERN POVERTY LAW CENTER Portland, OR Lubbock, TX Durham, NC Houston, TX* Minnesota Brother Nathanael Rochester, NY Fayetteville, NC Nation of Kings and Priests Arkansas Foundation, The Sacramento, CA Fort Wayne, IN Orlando, FL* Arizona Priest River, ID Jacksonville, FL Greensboro, NC New Miami, FL Chick Publications Columbia, SC Greenville, NC Houston, TX* Philadelphia, PA , CA Lafayette, LA Greenville, SC Atlanta, GA Portland, OR Dixie Giftshop Philadelphia, PA Hartford, CT Baton Rouge, LA Utah Tennessee Jackson, MS Houston, TX New Orleans, LA Seattle, WA European-American Little Rock, AR Indianapolis, IN New Black Panther Sacramento, CA Evangelistic Crusade Nashville, TN Jacksonville, FL Party for Self Defense Sheridan, CA Tulsa, OK Kansas City, MO Charlotte, NC Indiana Great Millstone Honolulu, HI Las Vegas, NV Memphis, TN Rense Radio Network New York, NY* Seattle, WA Los Angeles, CA Seattle, WA Ashland, OR Valdosta, GA Mobile, AL Louisiana St. Louis, MO Revolutionary Black Kansas City, MO Concord, NC Louisville, KY Tupelo, MS Panther Party West Palm Beach, FL Oklahoma City, OK Memphis, TN Tampa, FL Valdosta, GA* Nashville, TN Detroit, MI Milwaukee, WI Jacksonville, FL Louisville, KY Denver, CO Brockton, MA , MN Washington, DC Philadelphia, PA Little Rock, AR St. Louis, MO Mississippi Northern Kingdom Sharkhunters Honolulu, HI Las Vegas, NV Nashville, TN Prophets International St. Louis, MO Newark, NJ New York, NY Pueblo, CO* Hernando, FL Indianapolis, IN Heath, OH Newark, NJ Official Street Preachers Sicarii 1715 Louisiana Turtle Creek, PA Oakland, CA Los Angeles, CA San Diego, CA* Milwaukee, WI Memphis, TN Oklahoma, OK OneBody in Yashawashi Phoenix, AZ Los Angeles, CA Dallas, TX Phoenix, AZ Dallas, TX* San Francisco, CA Miami, FL Houston, TX Pittsburgh, PA AZ Tampa, FL San Antonio, TX Austin, TX Richmond, VA Litchfield Park, AZ Miami, FL Des Moines, IA Corpus Christi, TX Rochester, NY Power of Prophecy Long Beach, CA Birmingham, AL San Antonio, TX St. Louis, MO Spicewood, TX Chicago, IL Dallas, TX Newport News, VA Syracuse, NY Proud Boys Dallas, TX , MD Upper Marlboro, MD Tampa, FL New York, NY* Orlando, FL Chicago, IL Birmingham, AL Washington, DC Saint James, NY Atlanta, GA Cleveland, OH Phoenix, AZ Wilmington, DE Montana Seattle, WA Tampa, FL Los Angeles, CA Winston-Salem, NC Milton, FL Sons of Liberty Media Memphis, TN Denver, CO Israelite the Branches Ithaca, NY Annandale, MN Mississippi Orlando, FL Baltimore, MD* Carson City, NV Tony Alamo Christian Las Vegas, NV Miami, FL Israelites of Christ Wallowa County, OR Ministries Omaha, NE Tallahassee, FL Richmond, VA* Modesto, CA Canyon Country, CA Houston, TX Atlanta, GA New Jersey Wisconsin TruNews Detroit, MI Savannah, GA North Carolina New Jersey Beach, FL* Charlottes, NC Chicago, IL Huntsville, AL Washington, DC True National Israelite Atlanta, GA Kansas City, KS Jewish Task Force Canton, OH Congregation House of David Louisville, KY Fresh Meadows, NY Lansing, MI Los Angeles, CA* Brooklyn, NY* New Orleans, LA Last Frontier Evangelism Anaheim, CA Augusta, GA House of Israel Israelite Church of God – Repent Alaska North Carolina United Nuwaupians New York, NY* in Jesus Christ, The Amarillo, TX New Worldwide, The/All Eyes Philadelphia, PA Baltimore, MD Lion of Judah – Columbus, OH on Egipt Detroit, MI Pittsburgh, PA Jeshurun Lions Salem, OR Brooklyn, NY* Inglewood, CA Israelite School of Chicago, IL* Sarasota, FL Charleston, SC Washington, DC Universal Practical Lions of Israel Richmond, VA , GA Atlanta, GA Knowledge Mount Vernon, NY* Orlando, FL Philadelphia, PA Insight USA Upper Darby, PA* Lordship Church Nebraska Charlotte, NC Longwood, FL Atlanta, GA Bonners Ferry, ID Austin, TX Washington, DC International Society of Austin, TX Luxor Couture Tennessee Lithonia, GA Indigenous Sovereigns Baltimore, MD Atlanta, GA* Oklahoma Detroit, MI Atlanta, GA* , MA Masharah Yasharahla – Tampa, FL Cleveland, OH Israel United in Christ Charleston, SC Government of Israel Las Vegas, NV Chicago, IL Mount Vernon, NY* Charlotte, NC Raleigh, NC* DeLand, FL Hartford, CT Raleigh, NC Chicago, IL Masjid al Islam – Spokane, WA War on the Horizon Minneapolis, MN , OH As Sabiqun Colorado Washington, DC Bakersfield, CA Dallas, TX Washington, DC Alabama Watchmen for Israel Grand Rapids, MI Detroit, MI Mountains of Israel St. Louis, MO Baltimore, MD*

THE YEAR IN HATE AND EXTREMISM 47 The Year in Antigovernment Extremism By Rachel Goldwasser, Freddy Cruz and IP Staff

2020 was pivotal in the spread of the antigovern- the steal” as they pushed the conspiracy theory that ment movement, galvanized by the coronavirus Joe Biden and Democrats had somehow stolen the pandemic, Black Lives Matter demonstrations election from outgoing President Donald Trump. against police violence and the 2020 presiden- The falsehood was spread by Trump himself and tial elections. The perfect storm of events not only Republican lawmakers69 such as Missouri Sen. Josh fueled the movement, but also increased the poten- Hawley and Texas Sen. , who challenged tial for violence as disinformation spread mostly the Electoral College certification on Jan. 6. unchecked across social media platforms. In this The waves of disinformation across the antigov- report, we will explore in three parts the events that ernment movement culminated in horrific violence fueled the feverish antigovernment activity of 2020. as thousands of Trump supporters converged on Late summer’s crackdowns on Facebook and the U.S. Capitol building in Washington, D.C., on Twitter drove many in the antigovernment universe Jan. 6, egged on by President Trump at a rally near to more permissive platforms where participants the building. Hundreds forced their way into the continued to spread unchecked conspiracy theories, Capitol in a domestic terror assault that security planned events and shared violent threats against and law enforcement were clearly unprepared for, public officials. So though there may be a slight drop while Congress met to confirm electoral ballots for in the numbers of organized antigovernment groups President-elect Joe Biden and Vice President-elect this year, shared beliefs created larger, looser move- . ments such as the Boogaloo and QAnon movements, The attack included groups and individuals from whose supporters often appeared side-by-side with across the right-wing extremist spectrum, includ- more organized groups. The antigovernment move- ing antigovernment groups such as Oath Keepers, ment thus became more flexible and more metastatic. white nationalists such as Nick Fuentes and Tim Public health lockdowns and restrictions on “” Gionet, QAnon adherents and mem- gatherings and mask mandates drove antigovern- bers of the hate group the Proud Boys. Those who ment groups to massive protests at state capitols in broke into the Capitol ransacked offices, vandalized 2020, and led to a plot in Michigan to kidnap the and stole furniture, and allegedly stole documents governor. (The militia group also plotted to do the and electronic devices.70 At least one individual same to the Virginia governor.) BLM demonstra- dressed in paramilitary garb was photographed car- tions also drove antigovernment groups to counter- rying zip ties71 into the Senate and House chambers. protest, as they painted BLM and supporters across Dozens were injured and five people died, includ- social media with racist dog whistles such as “thugs” ing a Capitol police officer who was beaten by pro- and blamed violence on leftists. The 2020 presiden- testers, and a QAnon supporter who was shot by tial elections also provided fertile ground for dan- law enforcement. gerous conspiracy theories about voter fraud, which Against this backdrop, the movement enters a new evolved into mass movements of right-wing activ- year, and with Trump no longer president, the move- ists upset about the legitimate election of Joe Biden. ment could continue to grow, feeding off conspiracies After the election, another movement galva- and resentment against President Biden and enabled

nized antigovernment forces that wanted to “stop by platforms that allow such rhetoric to flourish. HERALD REUTERS/SETH


The Coronavirus Pandemic The coronavirus pandemic ignited activity by anti- On , Ammon Bundy, known for coor- government groups in 2020 as many resisted stay- dinating standoffs against the U.S. government at-home orders and requests to wear masks. This in Nevada in 2014 and Oregon in 2016, hosted an included militias, constitutional sheriffs, conspiracy Easter Service on his property in Emmett, Idaho, theorists, antigovernment secessionists and mem- that protested and defied the state’s stay-at-home bers of Boogaloo and QAnon movements. orders. A makeshift sign stood in front of the pul- Many groups have denied the virus’s existence or pit that read, “Defy martial law.” severity, reacting by spreading baseless conspiracy Bundy’s group, People’s Rights, has hosted doz- theories,72 claiming government health guidelines ens of events to protest coronavirus restrictions,75 were tyrannical and calling lawmakers who imple- including events at government buildings in Idaho, mented them tyrants. Constitutional sheriffs across at government workers’ homes in Washington state, the country refused to enforce stay-at-home orders, and in Montana, where they threatened citizen’s claiming they were “unconstitutional” mandates arrest of those enforcing coronavirus policy. while antigovernment groups cheered them on. The Nevada Caravan Protest of Government As stay-at-home orders were implemented to Overreach was also held April 12 in Las Vegas and slow the spread of the virus, antigovernment groups was promoted by Nevada. This was took to the streets to protest, claiming their liber- the first of many reopen protests held in Carson ties were being infringed upon. Law enforcement City, Reno and Las Vegas, Nevada. has arrested members of at least two73 groups74 on Other extremists at protests include the Proud various charges including bombing and kidnap- Boys at an April 18 protest in Las Vegas,76 the ping, based on actions they took in opposition to Lightfoot Militia at a May 2 protest in Carson City,77 the state’s coronavirus response. a crew of armed Boogaloo boys at an event in early April and Boogaloo boy Cody Cunningham hosting a May reopen rally in Las Vegas.78 The same group Paramilitary groups came out in force to oppose public health regulations during the coronavirus pandemic. Members of the would later be arrested and charged for plotting Wolverine Watchmen militia were arrested in 2020 and charged in to firebomb a power substation during a May 30 79 REUTERS/SETH HERALD REUTERS/SETH relation to a plot to kidnap Michigan’s governor, Gretchen Whitmer. Black Lives Matter demonstration. According to

THE YEAR IN HATE AND EXTREMISM 49 the criminal complaint, they wanted to see a violent to provide security for her property. They invited overthrow of the government and their goal was to members, encouraging them to open carry rifles. induce confrontation between police and protest- On the same day, Oath Keepers hosted a rally ers to provoke it. They intended to execute the first in Newburgh, New York, for a member’s business phase at a May 16 reopen protest, setting off fire- that was reopening against state guidelines. They works, smoke bombs or noise makers to create a invited “Oath Keepers, and patri- public panic, but called it off on May 13. ots” to come to the tattoo shop of Robert Minuta. Another protest was Operation Gridlock, on The invite, signed by Rhodes, claimed Minuta was April 15, in Lansing, Michigan. Cars jammed the the first business owner to defy the New York gov- roads around the state Capitol to oppose stay-at- ernor, and called the event “a display of defiance home orders. According to police estimates, 3,000 against a tyrannical dictator.” to 4,000 people attended. Proud Boys and the Across the country, protesters referred to their Michigan Liberty Militia were present. governors as dictators, kings and tyrants for impos- One day later, a protest was held at the Texas ing coronavirus restrictions. Arguably, no one was Governor’s Mansion in Austin. The event’s more villainized than Michigan’s governor, Gretchen Facebook page stated, “We want to reopen Texas Whitmer, for whom, as CNN noted, Trump reserved businesses and we want to hold our government his harshest rhetoric.83 On April 17, Trump tweeted, officials accountable for infringing upon our rights in all caps, the words “LIBERATE MICHIGAN.” as American citizens.” The Texas Freedom Force On April 30, American Patriot Council leader Ryan militia was present, along with Owen Shroyer of Kelley hosted a protest, and the Michigan Liberty Infowars, a conspiracy propagandist site. A day Militia provided security. Kelley claimed he invited prior, Shroyer questioned the severity of the pan- the militia “to keep things orderly and help protect demic80 and alleged that the death toll from the the First Amendment.” The Michigan Civil Defense coronavirus was Chinese propaganda. Force, Michigan Home Guard and the Southeast Shroyer held his own rally in Austin on April 18, Michigan Volunteer Militia, along with “constitu-

defying the state’s coronavirus restrictions. On June tional sheriff” movement member and REUTERS/JIM URQUHART 28, the day Travis County had its largest spike in coro- Stop the Steal’s Brandon Straka, also attended. navirus cases up till that time, Infowars founder Alex On the same day, armed protesters stormed Jones hosted an Austin anti-mask rally with Shroyer. the statehouse84 where legislators were meet- At the event, they claimed mask mandates were illegal ing to discuss extending the state’s stay-at-home orders and equated them with slavery.81 “We’re going to tell the globalists, ‘We’re not your slaves, we’re not in your cult, and if you want war, you better believe you got war,’” yelled from a bullhorn. Oath Keepers also were active in opposing and defying coronavirus guidelines in Texas. Leader Stewart Rhodes spoke at a rally in , Texas on May 16, and Texas Oath Keepers hosted a rally in Austin, Texas on May 23. They were involved in one of six incidents in Texas82 where armed individ- uals sought to “protect” businesses that reopened during the lockdown. On May 30, their Texan Spartan group put out a call to action, saying Dallas salon owner Shelley Luther had authorized them

Antigovernment extremist Ammon Bundy, known for clashing with law enforcement, defied Idaho’s stay-at-home order in


50 SOUTHERN POVERTY LAW CENTER Above: Conspiracy theorist Alex Jones spoke at an Austin, Texas rally opposing public health measures to combat COVID-19. Right: Antigovernment protests opposing coronavirus-related restrictions were fierce in Michigan. Heavily armed protesters stormed the state house on April 30, 2020.

orders, intimidating lawmakers. State Sen. Dayna Polehanki, a Democrat who represents the 7th District, posted a tweet from the Michigan State House with a photo, writing: “Directly above me, men with rifles yelling at us. Some of my colleagues who own bullet proof vests are wearing them.”

REUTERS/JIM URQUHART Two of the men in Polehanki’s photo were Michael and William Null, members of the Wolverine Watchmen militia85 who were charged on Oct. 8 with providing material support for ter- rorism. Enraged with Michigan’s coronavirus Although not all antigovernment activity related restrictions, the group and additional individu- to the coronavirus has been violent, Polehanki’s als conspired to kidnap Gov. Whitmer. Some also words speak to the potential for violence when these discussed Virginia’s governor Ralph groups become angry and agitated. Unfortunately, Northam and burning down the Michigan State the lesson learned in Lansing did not prevent an House or invading it to “take , execute insurrection from unfolding at the U.S. Capitol on tyrants, and have it televised.”86 Jan. 6 of this year. The day the men were charged, Sen. Polehanki Groups who did not plot acts of terrorism still spoke on the floor of the Michigan State Senate, tell- took part in activities dangerous to themselves and ing her colleagues: others by spreading conspiracies and misinforma- tion about the virus and its transmission, downplay- Men armed to the teeth stormed our chambers ing the pandemic’s severity and disregarding public to intimidate us. Today we found out that these health guidelines designed to keep people safe. threats were real. There was a plan in place to Many antigovernment extremists attended large not only scare us, but to kidnap us and kill us. events, maskless, including stay-at-home protests where they often created an atmosphere of fear by We literally dodged death this time. But what carrying weapons, rallying outside homes and forc- about next time? We may not get a second ing their way into government buildings, all in an

GETTY IMAGES/GARY MILLER (JONES); REUTERS/SETH HERALD (MICHIGAN) HERALD REUTERS/SETH MILLER (JONES); IMAGES/GARY GETTY chance like we have today. attempt to defy the government and its policies.


Opposing Nationwide Protests Against Fewer antigovernment groups were active in 2020, Mike Dunn, shared an image of members taking on but we witnessed the mobilization of extremist groups the role of security for a Black Lives Matter event in against the Black Lives Matter movement (BLM). South Boston, Virginia. Dunn expanded on his post BLM, a nationwide movement aimed at chal- by saying: “Protest was a success and wonderfully lenging and dismantling the structures of systemic peaceful! We stood in support of the protest and were racism, protested the killing of 46-year-old George blessed many times by the words from the speakers.” Floyd, a Minneapolis man who was killed in May by These calls for also spilled a police officer while being detained on suspicion over into the larger Boogaloo movement,87 a com- of buying cigarettes with a fake $20 bill. munity of far-right antigovernment libertarians In response to demonstrations in more than 150 who openly call for a second civil war. In an arti- cities, antigovernment groups that have historically cle published by , reporters Robert Evans been at odds with government agencies experi- and Jason Wilson documented88 the internal strug- enced division when some factions initially came gle within the movement. out in support of the demonstrations. In Boise, Idaho, antigovernment activist Ammon Bundy voiced support for BLM rallies, saying in a Early signs of support Facebook live video, “You must have a problem in In Virginia, the Boogaloo group and militia organiza- your mind if you think somehow the Black Lives tion Virginia Knights initially defended the rights of Matter is more dangerous than the police.” The demonstrators to rally for justice. In a Facebook post Bundy family is best known for their ongoing dis- shared in June, the 20-year-old leader of the group, putes with the Bureau of Land Management that GETTY IMAGES/AFP/LOGAN CYRUS have resulted in high-profile standoffs between fed- eral officers and Bundy family supporters. A member of the Boogaloo boys marches in Charlotte, North Carolina in May 2020 next to protesters opposing police The initial outrage over the killing of George violence after the murder of . Some far right groups Floyd was even evident in some on the far right, but initially supported calls for police accountability. early signs of support quickly turned into disdain

52 SOUTHERN POVERTY LAW CENTER The heavily armed individuals who flaunted This vigilante narrative served as a rallying cry. themselves at the protest, calling themselves The Southern Poverty Law Center has noted at least 50 instances where far-right wing extrem- a ‘civil guard,’ were there for one reason: ists showed up to BLM rallies during the sum- to menace protesters, to present an mer. One of the most notable encounters occurred unsanctioned show of unregulated force. in Kenosha, Wisconsin on Aug. 25, when Kyle — NEW MEXICO GOVERNOR MICHELLE GRISHAM Rittenhouse, then 17, traveled from Antioch, Illinois to “patrol” the streets, firearm in hand. Police say Rittenhouse shot three people, killing two,91 after as antigovernment paramilitary organizations and a heated confrontation with BLM demonstrators. others likened BLM – including through conspira- The event in Kenosha wasn’t the only incident cies and disinformation – to the anti-fascist move- involving right-wing trying to act as ad ment, or , a loosely organized network of hoc law enforcement. In June, members of a group leftwing activists. calling itself the New Mexico Civil Guard were Then-President Trump also weighed in on the arrested after they tried to intervene in a shooting ongoing demonstrations, but he focused much of incident in Albuquerque. The group, which claimed his attention on a handful of violent incidents that they weren’t familiar with the victim or the shooter, occurred near peaceful events. The White House’s were present at the scene brandishing firearms and response to the social unrest89 helped shift the donning paramilitary attire. antigovernment movement’s posture toward BLM New Mexico Governor Michelle Grisham from one of uneasy support to open antagonism. quickly condemned their actions. She said, “The In late May, Trump exacerbated tensions when heavily armed individuals who flaunted them- he published a tweet describing demonstrators in selves at the protest, calling themselves a ‘civil Minneapolis as “thugs” and saying, “When the loot- guard,’ were there for one reason: to menace ing starts, the shooting starts.” protesters, to present an unsanctioned show of Shortly thereafter, the Oath Keepers militia, a unregulated force.” far-right national vigilante group, took to Facebook On Facebook, antigovernment groups praised to issue a statement reading: the militia activity. After the shooting in Kenosha, Dunn, who had backed the initial BLM cause with I see some of you conflicted about how to han- his group Virginia Knights, flipped his stance and dle what’s going on in the streets of this country. posted to his page: “No Kyle shouldn’t have been I too was conflicted but let me say this. Maybe there. Yes he acted in self-defense. No he shouldn’t you better read that Oath again it said protect be a statist (sic). Yes people can change. Kudos to the constitution from all enemies foreign and or him for not lying down for a beating.” here’s the part you better read slowly… Domestic Chris Hill, leader of the III% Security Force … Once these thugs turned to burning, killing militia, decried the arrests of the New Mexico and looting, they became domestic enemies. Civil Guard members and instead tried to push the notion that antigovernment extremists were ‘An unsanctioned show of unregulated force’ unjustly being targeted: “You see this shit?..random The Trump administration’s role in portraying BLM dude gets beat with skateboard, mob moves in to demonstrators as “thugs” only encouraged the mobi- knock him out, stab him, and he shot the assailant. lization of far-right wing extremists. These actors So, armed militants are the terrorists! This is a coup

GETTY IMAGES/AFP/LOGAN CYRUS quickly claimed to their supporters that armed citi- guys. Think big picture.” were needed in the streets to protect communi- Over the course of 2020, the right wing increas- ties from vandalism and destruction. These groups ingly turned their ire toward the Black Lives Matter capitalized on the domestic terrorist narrative to justify movement as a perceived counterpoint to antifa. vigilantism, a role right-wing militias have historically Armed militants will likely continue to make their embraced90 in their attempts to circumvent the law. presence felt at future public demonstrations.


Opposing the Election Results Antigovernment extremist groups mobilized around In addition to opposing government from the the general election in 2020. The antigovernment outside, many antigovernment figures now are movement’s response mirrored Trump’s rhetoric attempting to run for public office. According toa falsely claiming that the election was “stolen.” report by the Institute for Research and Education Many antigovernment groups supported Trump on Human Rights,92 several leaders from Ammon throughout his presidency and continued to do so Bundy’s new People’s Rights network aim to run for during the 2020 election and beyond. Many anti- office in an attempt to “become” the government. government groups, including the Oath Keepers, This group started forming in March 2020, and its were present at the Capitol insurrection. Some who membership consists of militia groups, conspira- broke through into the Capitol Building were pho- cists, anti-maskers, anti-vaxxers and others from tographed wearing Oath Keepers merchandise. the far right who have united around protesting The antigovernment movement as a whole COVID-19 restrictions. The antigovernment mili- tends to oppose the federal government only dur- tia group the Oath Keepers also appear to be using ing Democratic presidencies, with few exceptions. this strategy at the local level. In the 2020 election The movement views Trump as a government out- cycle, large numbers and types of extremist-tied sider cleaning up from the inside, shepherding the candidates ran for office.93 Marjorie Taylor Greene government back to its “intended” form and pur- and Lauren Boebert, both with known affiliations pose. In response, groups have redirected most of to the antigovernment conspiracy theory QAnon, their ire toward state and local government officials. were elected to U.S. Congress. In 2020 specifically, antigovernment groups tar- Constitutional sheriffs, who form another geted governors and local public health officials by movement within antigovernment extremism, objecting to coronavirus restrictions and were crit- believe sheriffs are the highest law enforcement ical of state and local election officials. authority in the country and have the ability to use

their elected positions to defy federal laws they REUTERS/JIM BOURG Members of the Oath Keepers were some of the most visible deem unconstitutional. The roots of this ideology participants in the insurrection at the U.S. Capitol Building stem from the Posse Comitatus and ideas around on Jan. 6. county supremacy. Evidence of this movement’s GABER NETWORK/HANNAH TODAY USA

54 SOUTHERN POVERTY LAW CENTER The movement views Trump as a government outsider cleaning up from the inside, shepherding the government back to its “intended” form and purpose. In response, groups have redirected most of their ire toward state and local government officials.

influence can be seen among county sheriffs who The Constitution Party, an antigovernment refused to enforce COVID-19 mandates. group, posted a on their website that stated, A new strain of antigovernment ideology also “We may safely assume that she [Harris] is on board emerged in 2020 with the Boogaloo movement. with the Democratic/Progressive/Marxist pro- The self-identified Boogaloo boys consist mostly gram that will replace our Constitution and make of young, white men, who unify around the issue America a totalitarian state.” It went on to say: “If of unrestrained gun rights – they oppose any and Biden wins the election a discovery will be made all firearm regulations. The Boogaloo movement is about his mental competence… If Biden steps down, primarily defined by their anticipation of a coming the Vice-President-elect becomes President. Say civil war. Contrary to most antigovernment groups, to President Harris.” the Boogaloo movement was much less support- At the first presidential debate on Sept. 29, ive of the Trump administration. Many members of Trump encouraged his supporters to watch the the group are explicitly Libertarian. Jo Jorgensen, polls and called on the far-right group the Proud the Libertarian Party’s presidential candidate, was Boys to “stand back and stand by,” comments some invited and appeared on a Boogaloo-associated pod- antigovernment groups94 heard as calls to action. cast to answer questions from “head admins for some On Oct. 29, Stewart Rhodes, leader of the mili- of the most influential pages in the so-called Boogaloo tia group the Oath Keepers, appeared on Infowars movement.” As the Boogaloo movement continues to with Alex Jones, a conspiracy theorist and anti- gain momentum, we expect it will continue to sway government extremist, and touted that members the entire antigovernment movement and its agenda. of Rhodes’ organization would be at polling loca- Early in the presidential election cycle, base- tions95 to “stand up and protect people on Election less claims and disinformation circulated about Day” from anti-Trump left-wing groups. the inadequacies of vote-by-mail and allegations of voter fraud. As the election approached, these messages continued to spread in the online echo chambers of social media. Throughout 2020, antigovernment groups engaged in and spread misinformation about then-candidates Joe Biden and Kamala Harris. Typical false narratives focused on unsupported and already disproven accusations of misconduct by both Biden and his son Hunter and the family’s ties to foreign countries. Antigovernment extrem- ists consistently accused Harris of being a socialist and Marxist and predicted that she would take over as president soon after the election. REUTERS/JIM BOURG Oath Keepers claim to defend the Constitution, yet the entire organization is established on a set of baseless conspiracy theories about the federal government working to destroy the


THE YEAR IN HATE AND EXTREMISM 55 Pro-Trump protestors gathered in Washington, D.C. in December 2020 to support Donald Trump and overthrow the legitimate results of the November election.

Despite reports and threats by militia groups96 the steal” protests. They also went to the “Million of showing up at polling locations, these promises MAGA March” (while law enforcement declined largely went unfulfilled, but the effects of potential to put an exact number on attendance, it was well armed voter intimidation on voter behavior cannot below 1 million, and the permit was for just 10,000) be known fully. that took place in D.C. on Nov 14. Initially, these In the days immediately following the election, events largely were organized in Arizona, Georgia, concerns around ballot counting, calls to “stop the Michigan and Pennsylvania, states where votes count” and claims of a “stolen” election started spread- still were being counted or where Biden’s victory ing throughout all segments of the antigovernment was narrow. Similar protests now have occurred in movement, echoing Trump’s accusations, and prompt- numerous states and cities around the country ing several protests at ballot-counting locations.97 Antigovernment movement extremists claimed On Nov. 6, two Virginia men, Joshua Macias the presidential election was stolen by the and Antonio Lamotta, were arrested on weapons Democrats, and Trump’s refusal to concede the charges98 outside a Philadelphia convention center election only exacerbated these claims. Many in where votes were being counted. According to pros- antigovernment groups suggested Trump should ecutors, their plan was to deliver fake ballots to the use the 1807 Insurrection Act100 and refuse to leave location because they were concerned about the bal- office since the Democrats rigged the election. lot-counting implementation. In their vehicle, which Given the antigovernment movement’s previ- was decorated with QAnon decals, police found ous and well-established pattern of undermining weapons and hundreds of rounds of ammunition. trust in public officials and institutions, and espe- On Nov. 10, Stewart Rhodes made another cially in light of its belief that the 2020 presiden- appearance on Infowars,99 and stated that his tial election was “stolen” and the Biden presidency group had “men already stationed outside D.C. as a is illegitimate, the movement is expected to con- GETTY IMAGES/BLOOMBERG/ALEX EDELMAN nuclear option in case they attempt to remove the tinue engaging in efforts to sow distrust in our dem- president illegally, we will step in and stop it.” He ocratic systems. Eliciting fears around the idea of a continued by saying, “We’ll be inside D.C., we’ll also “corrupt” government, intimidating lawmakers and be on the outside of D.C. armed, prepared to go in, public officials whose policies they oppose and infil- if the president calls us up.” trating political institutions by running for office all QAnon followers and armed militia members are strategies we likely will continue to see from the also have attended “protect the vote” and “stop antigovernment movement.

56 SOUTHERN POVERTY LAW CENTER Antigovernment Groups in 2020

The Intelligence Project identified 566 extreme antigovernment groups that were active in 2020, down from 576 in 2019. Of these groups, 169 were militias, down from 181 in 2019. The remainder included “common-law” courts, publishers, ministries and citi- zens’ groups. Generally, such groups engage in con-

spiracy theorizing, or advocate or adhere to extreme 16 6 2 9 antigovernment doctrines. Listing here does not 6 2 7 imply that the groups themselves advocate or engage 18 18 9 22 22 5 in violence or other criminal activities or are rac- 5 6 5 4 23 4 ist. The list was compiled from field reports, group 31 11 13 9 9 11 10 8 publications, the internet, law enforcement sources 3 18 7 1 8 15 7 and news reports. It does not document activities 51 2 6 7 13 that take place only online by individuals or groups, 9 7 14 7 whether on social media, online forums or websites. 6 11 14 Groups are identified by the city, county or region 29 7 3 where they are located and active. Militia groups are 27 marked with an asterisk. 3

ALABAMA (11) ARIZONA (14) American Patriots California Victorville III% Security Force* III% Arizona Minutemen Three Percent Three Percenters Outpost of Freedom Statewide Phoenix Statewide Sanger Los Molinos III% United Patriots* III% United Patriots* Arkansas Defense Force* Constitution Club, The People’s Rights Statewide Statewide Statewide Hemet Statewide American Patriots Arizona Freedom Militia* Constitution Party Constitution Party Reign of the Three Percent Mohave County Fort Smith San Leandro Heaven’s Society Statewide Arizona State Militia* National Assembly DEMOCRATS AGAINST Ontario Constitution Party Statewide Statewide U.N. State of Jefferson Montgomery Constitution Party Oath Keepers Santa Rosa Formation Eagle Forum Tempe Statewide Eagle Forum Calaveras County Birmingham Eagle Forum Secure Arkansas Orange County El Dorado County Freedom Yell Statewide Little Rock Sacramento Lassen County Ozark Northern Arizona Militia* CALIFORNIA (51) San Diego Mariposa Golden Valley III% Defense Militia* Santa Rosa Nevada County Mobile Oath Keepers Statewide Educate Yourself Placer County LewRockwell.com Chino Valley III% United Patriots* Costa Mesa Siskiyou County Auburn Pima County Sacramento Valley Foundation, The Sonora Medical Kidnap Statewide Sunnyvale Walnut Stanislaus County Huntsville Riders United for a American Patriot HISAdvocates.org Sutter County Oath Keepers Sovereign America, Corp. Vanguard Costa Mesa Tehama County

GETTY IMAGES/BLOOMBERG/ALEX EDELMAN Statewide Tempe Statewide Jeremiah Films Trinity County United States of America Southern Arizona Militia* American Patriots Los Angeles Yuba County Republic Government Statewide Three Percent Liberty Under Fire Tenth Amendment Center Statewide Union of Three Percenter Statewide Taft Los Angeles ALASKA (3) American Patriots California State Militia* National Assembly Three Percenters- Constitution Party Phoenix Bay Area Statewide III%ers, The Soldotna Veterans on Patrol* Central Oath Keepers Statewide National Assembly Pima County Northern Anaheim United States Fairbanks ARKANSAS (7) Sacramento Central Justice Foundation South Central Patriots III% United Patriots* Southeast Huntingdon Beach Ramona Wasilla Statewide Southern Northern We Are Change

THE YEAR IN HATE AND EXTREMISM 57 THREE PERCENTERS Three Percenterism is one of three core components within the Fresno Statewide Patriot Depot antigovernment militia movement, San Francisco American States Powder Springs along with the Oath Keepers and COLORADO (10) Assembly, The Freedom Fighter Radio traditional militia groups. The III% United Patriots* Atlantic Beach Evans movement is largely a loose national Statewide Constitution Party Georgia Three network, but does include some American Freedom The Villages Percent Martyrs* organized groups within it. Those Network Florida Militia* involved champion gun rights and Johnstown Central John Birch Society resistance to the federal government. American Patriots Northeast Lamar County The reference to 3% (III%) stems Three Percent* Northwest Statewide from the dubious historical claim Statewide Southern Moorish Temple that only 3% of American colonists Constitution Party John Birch Society of America 1928, The fought against the British during the Arvada Statewide Lithonia Revolutionary War. Faith Education Freedom Law School Oath Keepers Commerce (FEC United) Spring Hill Adairsville OATH KEEPERS Colorado Springs KrisAnne Hall Bulloch County The Oath Keepers organization was Parker Wellborn Statewide founded in 2009 by Elmer Stewart Freedom First Society Liberty First University Sovereign Filing Solutions Rhodes, a veteran army paratrooper, Colorado Springs Wellborn Lake City Yale Law School graduate and Team Law National Assembly HAWAII (3) former congressional Grand Junction Statewide American States staffer. It primarily recruits current We are Change Now the End Begins Assembly, The and former law enforcement, Denver Jacksonville Statewide military and first-responder Walsenburg Oath Keepers Circle of Sovereigns personnel, though it also accepts CONNECTICUT (9) Gainesville Statewide civilians. Unlike Three Percenters, American Patriots Statewide Three Percenters- Oath Keepers was conceived as Three Percent People’s Rights III%ers, The an organization with hierarchical Statewide Statewide Statewide leadership at national, state and American States Redpill Roadshow IDAHO (18) local levels, one committed to Assembly, The Cape Coral American Patriots establishing a network of activists it Hamden Reign of the Three Percent hopes will lay the groundwork for the Connecticut Militia Heavens Society Statewide creation of state militias. Members Three Percent* Statewide AVOW (Another Voice of the Oath Keepers figured Statewide Sarasota Patriots of Warning) prominently in the Jan. 6 assault on Connecticut Minutemen* Sarasota Rigby the U.S. Capitol. Meriden Statewide Common Constitution Party John Birch Society Law Grand Jury Coeur d’Alene CONSPIRACY PROPAGANDISTS Norwich Arcadia John Birch Society Organizations like the John Oath Keepers* Uncle Sam’s Preston Birch Society, World Net Daily Hartford Misguided Children Light Foot Militia and InfoWars are crucial to the Post and Email, The Sarasota Canyon County antigovernment extremist movement Canterbury We Are Change Meridian* in that they help craft and nurture Three Percent- Daytona Beach Kootenai County* the very conspiracy theories that III%ers, The* Orlando Micro Effect, The animate the movement’s activists. Hartford County Tampa Kamiah These conspiracy theories identify We Are Change West Palm Beach Oath Keepers grievances, both real and imagined, New Haven County Wild Bill for America Boundary County and demonize groups they deem DELAWARE (1) South Daytona Kootenai County responsible for them. Conspiracy First State Pathfinders* GEORGIA (14) Statewide propagandists often stop just III% Security Force* People for Constitutional short of offering a solution to the DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA (2) Statewide Freedom (P4CF) threats, instead leaving action Renew America III% United Patriots* Emmett up to movement members while Washington Statewide People’s Rights being careful to maintain plausible WorldNetDaily American Patriots Coeur d’Alene deniability. These conspiracy Washington Three Percent Emmett theories generate a sense of urgency FLORIDA (27) Statewide Political Prisoner Project in the antigovernment Patriot III% United Patriots* Constitution Party Boise movement that can lead to criminal Statewide Woodstock Real Three Percenters activity, including terrorism. American Patriots Discount Book Idaho, The* Three Percent Distributors/The Statewide

58 SOUTHERN POVERTY LAW CENTER Redoubt News INDIANA (9) Des Moines III%ers, The Three Percenters- Priest River III% United Patriots* Oath Keepers Louisville III%ers, The* Voice of Idaho, The Statewide Statewide LOUISIANA (7) Piscataquis County Boise American Patriots KANSAS (3) III% United Patriots We Are Change ILLINOIS (13) Three Percent III% United Patriots* Statewide Bangor III% United Patriots* Statewide Statewide American Patriots MARYLAND (7) Statewide Constitution Party American Patriots Three Percent III% United Patriots* 2.0 Evansville Three Percent Statewide Statewide Naperville Indiana Citizens Statewide Constitution Party American Patriots Connecting the Dots Volunteer Militia* Prophecy Club Eunice Three Percent* Chicago Statewide Resources, The Empire Washitaw de White Marsh Constitution Party Oath Keepers Topeka Dugdahmoundyah America’s Survival, Inc DuPage County Elkhart KENTUCKY (8) Richwood Owings Metropolis Westfield* III% Security Force* Oath Keepers Constitution Party Eagle Forum United States of America Statewide Central Rockville Alton Republic Government III% United Patriots* Statewide Institute on the Illinois Sons of Liberty Merrillville Statewide Three Percenters- Constitution (aka Statewide We Are Change American Patriots III%ers, The American View), The Next News Network Charlestown Three Percent Avoyelles Parish Pasadena Northbrook What Really Happened Statewide MAINE (6) March to Exodus Oath Keepers Santa Claus Constitution Party American Patriots Elkton Woodstock IOWA (5) Lexington Three Percent My Brother’s Threepers* Overpasses for America III% United Patriots* National Patriot Statewide Smithsburg Statewide Statewide Defense Team* Constitution Party MASSACHUSETTS (4) United States of America American Patriots Statewide Kennebunk III% United Patriots* Republic Government Three Percent Oath Keepers Maine Militia* Statewide Chicago Statewide Statewide Belfast American Patriots We Are Change Constitution Party Party of Kentucky Maine Volunteer Three Percent Chicago Pleasant Hill Louisville Responders Statewide Rockford Iowa Patriots III%* Three Percenters- Gardiner Constitution Party




858 874 824


623 612 576 566 523 512


217 194 171 158 152 149 143 132 147 131

1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 BILL CLINTON 1993 2001 GEORGE W. BUSH 2001 2009 BARACK OBAMA 2009 2017 DONALD TRUMP 2017 2021

THE YEAR IN HATE AND EXTREMISM 59 Statewide Constitution Party Three Percent NEW JERSEY (8) National Liberty Alliance Oath Keepers Redwood Falls Statewide American Patriots Hyde Park Ware John Birch Society John Birch Society Three Percent* New York Militia TM* MICHIGAN (22) Lake Benton Great Falls Statewide Albany County American Patriot Council Oath Keepers* Oath Keepers Constitution Party Statewide Statewide Hennepin County Statewide New York Watchmen* American Patriots Three Percenters- People’s Rights John Birch Society Buffalo Three Percent III%ers, The* Kalispell Statewide Oath Keepers Statewide Crow Wing County Stand Up America National Assembly Albany American States We Are Change Bigfork Jersey City Columbia County* Assembly, The Statewide NEBRASKA (5) Oath Keepers* Herkimer Grand Rapids MISSISSIPPI (6) III% United Patriots* Bergen County Long Island Constitution Party American Patriots Comstock Cape May County Orange County Grand Rapids Three Percent American Patriots Statewide Statewide* American Constitutional Statewide Three Percent R.V. Bey Publications Sisters of Liberty* Elites* Citizens Militia Statewide Pleasantville Norwich Muskegon of Mississippi Constitution Party NEW MEXICO (9) Three Percenters- Capitol City Militia* Statewide Lincoln III% United Patriots* III%ers, The* Statewide Constitution Party Free Inhabitant Statewide Herkimer County Genesee County Newton County Omaha American Patriots We Are Change Volunteer Militia* Seminary Oath Keepers* of New Mexico New York Genesee County Oath Keepers* Statewide Statewide NORTH CAROLINA (13) III% United Patriots* Statewide NEVADA (11) American Patriots III% United Patriots Statewide Watchmen of America III% United Patriots* Three Percent Guilford County Michigan Home Guard* Statewide Statewide Statewide Statewide Statewide MISSOURI (18) American Patriots American States America’s Remedy Michigan Liberty Militia* III% United Patriots Three Percent Assembly, The Charlotte Barry County Statewide Statewide Statewide American Patriots Michigan Militia 2nd Amendment Constitution Party Constitution Party Three Percent Corps Wolverines* Patches.com Las Vegas Albuquerque Statewide Statewide Halltown Eagle Forum New Mexico Civil Guard* Camp Constitution Michigan People’s American Patriots Elko Doña Ana County Charlotte Reactionary Force* Three Percent Oath Keepers Bernalillo County Constitution Party Genesee County Statewide Las Vegas* Curry County Charlotte Northwest Lower Constitution Party Statewide Three Percenters- Free North Carolina Michigan Civil Defense* Cole County People’s Rights III%ers, The Cape Carteret Statewide Piedmont Statewide Statewide National Assembly Oath Keepers* Pulaski County Three Percenters- NEW YORK (22) Statewide Statewide Randolph County III%ers, The American Patriots North Carolina Light Southeast Michigan St. Charles County Statewide Three Percenter* Foot Militia Volunteer Militia Eagle Forum We Are Change Statewide Statewide Genesee County Statewide Las Vegas Constitution Party NORTH-CAROLINA Lapeer County* Missouri Militia Reno Buffalo American Republic Livingston* Joplin* West Coast Patriots Corporate Freedom Group Charlotte Macomb County* Kansas City* Statewide Buffalo Oath Keepers Oakland County* Rolla NEW HAMPSHIRE (6) Creditors Debtors Columbus County St. Clair County* St. Joseph* III% United Patriots* Contracts in Commerce Statewide Statewide* Springfield* Statewide (CDCIC) Stokes County Militia* Wolverine Watchmen* Oath Keepers American Patriots Statewide King Statewide St. Louis* Three Percent* NORTH DAKOTA (2) MINNESOTA (9) Statewide Statewide Rochester Constitution Party III% United Patriots* People’s Rights Constitution Party John Birch Society Bismarck Rice County Statewide Auburn Saratoga Springs We Are Change Statewide United States of America New Minutemen* Liberty State Militia* Statewide American Patriots Republic Government Statewide Chenango County OHIO (31) Three Percent St. Louis Oath Keepers Long Island Mutual III% United Patriots* Statewide MONTANA (6) Alstead Assistance Group Statewide Central Minnesota III% United Patriots Patriot Mutual Nassau County American Tea Party Statewide Assistance Group* Madison’s Militia Constitutional Elites* Saint Cloud American Patriots Rindge New Marietta

60 SOUTHERN POVERTY LAW CENTER American Patriots Patriot Shit Outfitters Assembly, The Three Percent* Pennsylvania Three Percent* Bethel Statewide Statewide State Militia* Statewide Patriot Watch Media Constitution Party Berks County Patriots Statewide Constitution Party Louisville Grants Pass Blandon Three Percent New Lebanon Reapers Constitutional Embassy of Heaven Carlisle Light Infantry* Liberty Defenders* Frontiersmen, The* Militia of Ohio* Stayton Carlisle Statewide Ravenna Cortland Freedom Bound Civilian Defense Force* Three Percenters Heartland Defenders Silver Shield Xchange International Fayette County Original, The Statewide Cleveland Klamath Falls Constitution Party Northumberland County Irregulars of Ohio Southern Ohio Freedom From Lancaster We Are Change Reserve Militia* Outdoorsmen Government Statewide Statewide Statewide Peebles Newberg Eastern Pennsylvania RHODE ISLAND (4) John Birch Society Threeper Tactical News With Views Regional Militia* Oath Keepers Statewide Training, LLC Merlin Wyomissing North Kingstown Last Militia, The Massillon Oath Keepers Emergency Non-Profit Rhode Island Patriots Allen County* West Ohio Minutemen* Portland Assisting Communities Statewide Butler County* Oregon State Together (ENACT)* Rise of the Moors Clark County* OKLAHOMA (6) Jural Assembly Dauphin Pawtucket Hamilton County* III% United Patriots* Beaverton Freedom Patriot TruthRadioShow.com Montgomery County* Statewide People’s Rights Defenders* Providence Preble County American Patriots Statewide Statewide SOUTH CAROLINA (7) Summit County* Three Percent* State of Jefferson Gun Owners of America III% United Patriots* National Assembly Statewide Formation Harrisburg Statewide Loveland Constitution Party Coos County Iron City CRU (Citizen American Patriots North East Ohio Chandler Curry County Response Unit)* Three Percent Woodsmen* Cowboys Motorcycle Douglas County Pittsburgh Statewide East Rochester Club* Harney County Maulitia Bikers MC Christian Exodus Oath Keepers Tulsa Jackson County Dauphin Fort Mill Statewide New Sons of Liberty* Klamath County Oath Keepers* Constitution Party Ohio Defense Force McCloud Timber Unity* Statewide Taylors Home Guard* Oath Keepers Statewide Pennsylvania John Birch Society Cleveland Oklahoma City PENNSYLVANIA (23) Homeland Shield* Statewide New Lexington OREGON (18) III% United Patriots* Clarksburg Light Foot Militia* Toledo American Patriot Party Statewide Pennsylvania Horry County Zanesville Ashland A.R.M.E.D. Riding Club Oath Keepers* South Carolina Light Ohio Militiamen* American Patriots Statewide Statewide Foot Militia Special Statewide Three Percent Alt-Market.com Pennsylvania Response Team* Ohio Minutemen Militia* Statewide Pittsburgh Patriots United Bishopville Oak Harbor American States American Patriots Oley SOUTH DAKOTA (2)

TOP TAKEAWAYS COVID-19, Black Lives Matter demonstrations and the 2020 elections have contributed to increased activity of paramilitary groups, as well as growth in related movements like Boogaloo and the elaborate antigovernment conspiracy theory known as QAnon. Protests against public safety measures in the pandemic created opportunities for crossover with a variety of right-wing extremist groups includ- ing militia, Boogaloo, QAnon, Proud Boys and Oath Keepers. KEY MOMENTS An antigovernment rally in Richmond in January 2020 brought together extreme antigovernment militia groups alongside other 2nd Amendment absolutists. On April 30, antigovernment protesters stormed the Michigan statehouse, many of them armed. Brothers William and Michael Null, members of the Wolverine Watchmen militia, were there. On Oct. 8, the brothers were charged with terrorist acts for their alleged participation in a plot to kidnap Michigan Governor Gretchen Whitmer, because of the guidelines enacted in response to the pandemic. In late August, militias came out to counter Black Lives Matter demonstrations in Kenosha. On Aug. 25, police say 17-year-old Kyle Rittenhouse shot three people, killing two. He claimed he was there to keep the peace. He’s received an outpouring of support from the far right. After the presidential election, antigovernment groups rallied behind President Trump. Following his false claims of election fraud, they mobilized in places like Georgia and Washington D.C., with “Stop the Steal” events. WHAT’S AHEAD After the insurrection at the U.S. Capitol, antigovernment groups are facing increased scrutiny from law enforcement. Many of those who broke into the U.S. Capitol Building are facing criminal charges. Despite that, their opposition to the Biden administration and their false claims that the election was stolen are likely to continue. The QAnon conspiracy theory, many followers of which participated in the insurrection, is continuing to spread.

THE YEAR IN HATE AND EXTREMISM 61 ANTIGOVERNMENT ‘PATRIOT’ GROUPS American Patriots Hood County Statewide Spokane IN PERCENTAGES Three Percent Quitman American Patriots WEST VIRGINIA (7) Statewide Statewide* Three Percent III% United Patriots* Constitution Party Temple Statewide Statewide 26 Sioux Falls Republic Broadcasting American Policy Center American Patriots 2016 TENNESSEE (7) Round Rock Warrenton Three Percent 623 GROUPS American Patriot Radio Constitution Party Statewide 74 Vanguard Austin Newport News Constitution Party Statewide Silver Bear Café Constitutional Rights PAC Weston American Patriots Garland McLean National Constitutional Three Percent Texans4Truth Gun Owners of America Coalition of Patriotic Statewide Georgetown Springfield Americans 40 Constitutional Sheriffs Texas Eagle Forum New Virginia Militia* Bridgeport and Peace Officers Dallas Statewide Oath Keepers 2017 689 GROUPS Association Texas State Militia* Oath Keepers Statewide 60 Nashville Austin Bedford Eastern* East Tennessee Houston Northeast Ohio Valley Minutemen Mountain Militia* This is Texas Northwest Citizen’s Volunteer Knoxville Freedom Force* Southeast Militia* John Birch Society Statewide Southwest Charleston Statewide UTAH (11) Statewide WISCONSIN (7) 35 Oath Keepers III% United Patriots* Virginia Knights* III% United Patriots* 2018 Statewide Statewide Statewide Statewide 612 GROUPS We Are Change American Patriots We Are Change American Patriots 65 Knoxville Three Percent Blascksburg Three Percent TEXAS (29) Statewide WASHINGTON (16) Statewide III% United Patriots Constitution Party III% United Patriots Constitution Party Statewide Bountiful Statewide Milwaukee Alamo Militia* Eagle Forum American Patriots John Birch Society 31 San Antonio South Three Percent Appleton American Patriot Freedom Rising Son Statewide Oath Keepers* 2019 576 GROUPS Union, The Logan American States Statewide San Antonio Liberty RoundTable Assembly, The Republic for the united 69 American Patriots American Fork Statewide States of America Three Percent* National Assembly Black Horse Militia Statewide Statewide Statewide Seattle United States of Cold Dead Hands Oath Keepers Center for Self America Republic 2nd Amendment Statewide Governance Government 30 Advocacy Group People’s Rights Republic Milwaukee 2020 Greenville Statewide Citizen Review Online WYOMING (9) 566 GROUPS Constitution Party Utah Constitutional Sequim Natural News 70 Iredell Militia Constitution Party Cody Constitution Society Spokane Valley American Patriots Austin We Are Change John Birch Society Three Percent MILITIA GROUPS Defense Distributed Salt Lake City Snohomish County Statewide Austin VERMONT (5) Light Foot Militia Constitution Party OTHER PATRIOT GROUPS Freedom School Three Percenters- Grant County Riverton The overall number of Austin III%ers, The* Spokane County* III% United Patriots antigovernment “Patriot” Golden Triangle Militia* Orange County North Western Statewide groups has dropped by Orange American Patriots Research Institute Oath Keepers more than half since InfoWars Three Percent Statewide Cody* peaking in 2012 with Austin Statewide Oath Keepers Northeast 1,360 groups. Militias John Birch Society Constitution Party Newport Northwest are Patriot groups that Houston Williston Statewide Southeast actively engage in military- Statewide Green Mountain Militia* People’s Rights Southwest style training. They are Oath Keepers Statewide Statewide shown in the chart above Afton Oath Keepers Three Percent as a percentage of the Eastern Randolph of Washington* movement each year from Fort Worth VIRGINIA (15) Statewide 2016 to 2020. Grayson County III% United Patriots* We Are Change

62 SOUTHERN POVERTY LAW CENTER ENDNOTES 1 Beckett, Lois. “White Nationalist Richard Spencer Accused of Physical Abuse by Wife.” business/gun-sales-surge-black-americans-women/index.html. . Guardian News and Media, October 23, 2018. https://www.theguardian. 26 “The Biden Agenda for Women.” Joe Biden for President: Official Campaign Website, com/world/2018/oct/23/white-supremacist-richard-spencer-physical-abuse- September 22, 2020. https://joebiden.com/womens-agenda/. divorce-filings. 27 Goodmark, Leigh. Essay. In Decriminalizing Domestic Violence: A Balanced Policy Ap- 2 Lenz, Ryan. “Oath Keepers Founder Stewart Rhodes’ Wife Alleges Widespread Abuse in proach to Intimate Partner Violence, 142 – 43. Oakland, CA: Press, for Restraining Order.” Southern Poverty Law Center, March 15, 2018. https:// 2018. www.splcenter.org/hatewatch/2018/03/15/oath-keepers-founder-stewart-rhodes- 28 “Digital Literacy.” Learning for Justice. 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64 SOUTHERN POVERTY LAW CENTER ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research for this report was conducted by the staff of the Southern Poverty Law Center’s Intelligence Project. They include, among others, Lydia Bates, Eddie Bejarano, Freddy Cruz, Hannah Gais, Tracey Gale, Rachel Goldwasser, Howard Graves, Keegan Hankes, Raven Hodges, Rachel Janik, Caleb Kieffer, Cassie Miller and Megan Squire. The report was written by the Intelligence Project staff. Additional editing, editorial support and editorial oversight were provided by Rachel Janik and Angela Tuck, along with IP Director Susan Corke and Chief Program Strategy Officer Seth Levi. Copy editing was provided by Chris Heller and Christine Harrison, and this report was fact-checked by Ethan Harfenist, Chris Heller, Cameron Koob and Brianna Provenzano. Policy recommendations were contributed to this report by Senior Policy Advisor Michael Lieberman and other SPLC Policy Staff. Michelle Leland designed the layout.

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