of 2 Flowering Key Concept Flowering plants reproduce sexually and asexually. What You Will Learn • After , in flowering plants occurs when an Imagine you are standing in a field of wildflowers. You’re egg is fertilized by a . surrounded by bright colors and sweet fragrances. You can hear • form from fertilized . The of a becomes a buzzing from flower to flower. Flowering plants are the largest . and most diverse group of plants. Their success is partly due to • In the proper conditions, seeds can their . Flowers are structures for sexual reproduction. In sprout and develop into plants. sexual reproduction, an egg is fertilized by a sperm. • Flowering plants can reproduce asexually. Fertilization Why It Matters The fertilization of flowering plants takes place within the Flowering plants and their reproduc- flower. Pollination occurs when , which carries sperm, tive structures provide food for many . is moved from anthers to stigmas. Usually, or move pollen from one flower to another flower. After pollen Vocabulary lands on the , a tube grows from each pollen grain. The • dormant tube grows through the style to an . Ovules are found inside the ovary. Each ovule contains an egg. Sperm from the Graphic Organizer In your Science pollen grain move down the and into an ovule. Journal, create an Idea Wheel about Fertilization occurs when a sperm fuses with the egg inside an the stages of sexual reproduction in a ovule. Figure 1 shows pollination and fertilization. flowering . Describe sexual reproduction in plants. 7.2.a

Figure 1 Pollination and Fertilization

Stigma Pollen tube 1 Pollen grains Anther land on the stigma and Pollen Sperm begin to grow pollen tubes. Style


7.2.a Students know the differences between the cycles and reproduction methods of sexual and asexual organisms. Ovary 2 Sperm travel down 7.5.f Students know the structures and processes Ovule by which fl owering plants generate pollen, ovules, pollen tubes and Ovule containing seeds, and fruit. fertilize the eggs. egg

400 Chapter 13 Plant Processes Figure 2 Production

a A mature plant produces a flower. Pollination and fertilization take place.

b Each ovule within the flower’s ovary contains a fertilized egg.

c and fall away.

e Each seed contains a tiny plant. If a seed sprouts, or begins to grow, it will become a new plant. d The ovary becomes the fruit, and each ovule becomes a seed. Then, the fruit ripens, and seeds are dispersed.

From Flower to Fruit After fertilization takes place, the ovule develops into a Fruit from seed. The seed contains a tiny, undeveloped plant, called an ovary . The ovary surrounding the ovule becomes a fruit, as Figure 2 shows. As it swells and ripens, a fruit protects its developing seeds. Figure 3 shows a common fruit. often help a plant spread Seed from its seeds. Many fruits are edible. Animals may eat these fruits. ovule Then, the animals discard the seeds away from the parent plant. Fruits such as burrs are spread when they get caught in Figure 3 Tomatoes develop an ’s . And some fruits are carried by the wind. from a flower’s ovary and ovules. Where do seeds and fruit come from? 7.5.f

Section 2 Reproduction of Flowering Plants 401 From Seed to Plant Once a seed is fully developed, the embryo inside the seed stops growing. If the conditions are not favorable for growth, dormant (DAWR muhnt) describes the seed may become dormant, or inactive. Dormant seeds often the inactive state of a seed or other survive long periods of drought or freezing . Some plant part when conditions are seeds need extreme conditions, such as cold winters or unfavorable to growth fires, to break their dormancy. When seeds are dropped or planted in a suitable environ- ment, the seeds sprout. To sprout, most seeds need , air, and warm temperatures. Each plant has an ideal tem- perature at which most of its seeds begin to grow. For many plants, the ideal for growth is about 27°C (80.6°F). Figure 4 shows the , or sprouting, of a seed. Other Methods of Reproduction Quick Lab Flowering plants can also reproduce asexually. But they do not need flowers to do so. Instead, a new plant grows from Plant Cuttings 7.2.a one of the plant parts, such as a stem or . The follow- 1. Get an African violet 7.7.c from your teacher. ing are three examples of structures plants use to reproduce Create a sketch of asexually: the leaf. • Plantlets Tiny plants grow along the edges of a plant’s 2. Place the leaf . These plantlets fall off and grow on their own. in a cup of soil so that • Tubers Underground stems, or tubers, can produce new the tip of the plants after a dormant season. leaf is above the soil. • Runners Above-ground stems from which new plants can 3. Water the plant, grow are called runners. and place it in a sunny Figure 5 shows examples of these three structures. A plant location. Predict what will that results from sexual reproduction is genetically related to happen. both parents. But a new plant that grows from the plantlet, 4. If the soil feels dry, water the plant as needed for tuber, or runner of another plant is genetically identical to three days. Record your that plant. observations. What are three structures that plants use to repro- 5. On the fourth day, carefully duce asexually? 7.2.a take the leaf out of the soil. Use water to gently remove the soil from the leaf. Sketch the leaf. 6. How is the leaf different? Figure 4 Seeds grow into new What is happening to the plants. First, the begin to grow. leaf cells of this plant? Then, the grows up through the soil. 15 min plus follow-up

402 Chapter 13 Figure 5 Three Structures for

Kalanchoe plants produce A is a tuber, or under- The plant produces plantlets along the edges of ground stem. The “eyes” of runners, or stems that grow their leaves. The plantlets even- potatoes are that can horizontally along the ground. tually fall off and root in the grow into new plants. Buds along the runners take soil to grow on their own. root and grow into new plants.

7 Making Inferences What do Review flowers and runners have in 1 Comparing How are pollina- common? How do they differ? tion and fertilization related? 2 Identifying Which part of a 7.2.a, 7.5.f flower develops into a fruit? into a seed? 8 Using Equations A seed Summary 3 sprouts when the temperature is Concluding Why do some 27°C. If the temperature starts at • In the sexual reproduction seeds become dormant? 20°C and rises 1.5°C each week, of flowering plants, a sperm 4 Describing How do plants how many weeks will the seed fertilizes an egg. reproduce asexually? take to sprout? • After fertilization, seeds and fruit form. The seeds may sprout into new plants. 5 9 • A dormant seed can survive Identifying Relationships Predicting Consequences How drought and freezing tem- When may asexual reproduction might the world be different if the peratures. Some seeds need be important for the survival of of fertilized plants no extreme conditions to break some flowering plants? longer developed into fruits? their dormancy. 6 Analyzing Ideas Sexual repro- Internet Resources • Some plants use plantlets, duction produces more genetic tubers, or runners to repro- variety than asexual reproduction For a variety of links related to this chapter, go to www.scilinks.org duce asexually. does. Why is variety important? Topic: Reproduction of Plants SciLinks code: HY71295