Nugent: English 11 Fall What do you know about King , and the of the ? Do you know about any Knights? If so, who?

If you know anything about , why did you learn about King Arthur?

If you don’t know anything, what can you guess King Arthur, Camelot, or Knights. A LEGEND is a story told about extraordinary deeds that has been told and retold for generations among a group of people. Legends are thought to have a historical basis, but may also contain elements of magic and .

MYTH: a story that a particular culture believes to be true, using the supernatural to interpret natural events & to explain the of the universe and humanity.

An ARCHETYPE is a reoccurring character type, setting, or action that is recognizable across literature and cultures that elicits a certain feeling or reaction from the reader.

GOOD EVIL • The Hero • Doppelganger • The Mother The Sage • The Monster • The Scapegoat or sacrificial • The Trickster lamb • Outlaw/destroyer • The Star-crossed lovers • The Rebel • The Orphan • The Tyrant • The Fool • The Hag/Witch/Shaman • The Sadist

A ROMANCE is an imaginative story concerned with noble heroes, chivalric codes of honor, passionate love, daring deeds, & supernatural events. Writers of romances tend to idealize their heroes as well as the eras in which the heroes live.

Romances typically include these MOTIFS: adventure, , wicked adversaries, & magic. Motif: an idea, object, place, or statement that appears frequently throughout a piece of writing, which helps contribute to the work’s overall theme 1. Romantic hero – a of superhuman strength, intelligence, and virtue who follows the code of .

2. Exotic Setting: Romances are set in imaginary kingdoms with great castles, enchanted lakes, and forest populated with and monsters. 3. Supernatural elements: sorcerers and magic spells, giants and , mysterious evil forces and foreknowledge of future events---such elements all play a part in romances. 4. Hidden identities: In a romance, others are often unaware of a character’s true identity. The truth is usually revealed at the climax of the tale.

Medieval romances, such as and the and Le Morte d’Arthur, are stories of kings, knights, and ladies, who are motivated by love, religious faith, the chivalric code of honor, or simply a desire for adventure. Usually the main character has a series of adventures while on a to accomplish a goal. He must overcome many obstacles on this quest.

Arthurian legend emerged gradually over centuries as storytellers told and retold popular tales about a great chief who mysteriously disappeared but promised to return when his people needed him. King Arthur legends are based on a 5th or Celtic warlord who lived in and led his people to victory against Saxon invaders. King Uther of , who was unmarried, loved , another man’s wife. In disguise, the king deceived Igraine into thinking he was her husband. Arthur was the child born to Igraine as a result of their affair. The wise man, , knew the baby was in danger because many men wanted Uther’s throne, so he asked & his wife to raise the infant Arthur with their own son, Kay. When King Uther died, no one except Merlin knew Arthur’s true identity, which would be revealed when Arthur completed a task that only the rightful king could perform.

Upon King Uther’s death, Merlin places the (a magical sword given to Merlin by the ) in a stone containing a spell that only the rightful king could remove it from the stone In need of a sword for his adoptive brother, Arthur pulls Excalibur from the stone, proving himself the rightful king of England According to legend, Arthur became King of England and established his court at Camelot. He then gathered the best knights from the area to join with him in the fellowship of the Round Table. These knights lived according to the chivalric code.

When Arthur assumes power, England is torn apart by war, is fractioned into city-states, and is on the brink of invasion by the Recently married, Arthur is gifted a round table by his father in law, King . This table was once a prized possession of his father’s. It seats hundreds of nights. It is not the table alone that his part of this fabled story, but how Arthur uses it. To unite the country and defeat the Saxons, Arthur creates the Knights of the Round table. This is a revolutionary idea for the time in which each city state (kingdom) is represented by a knight. No one knight, including King Arthur himself, has more power than another. Arthur creates a democratic society. Because of this alliance, Arthur and his knights defeat the powerful Saxons in a series of 12 battles. It is said that the key to Arthur’s success is the sword Excalibur which he always takes into battle. Excalibur is said to make its barer invincible.

CHIVALRY is a code of behavior that medieval knights followed.

The Code: Honor Courage Generosity Modesty Honesty Faith in God Loyalty Civility Compassion

To never do outrage nor murder To injure no one Always to flee treason Not to attack one another To by no means be cruel but to To fight for the safety of one's give mercy unto him who asks country for mercy To give one's life for one's country To go to the aid of one in distress To seek nothing before honor To never force ladies, Never to break faith for any gentlewomen or widows reason Not to take up battles in To practice religion most diligently wrongful quarrels for love or To grant hospitality to anyone, worldly goods each according to his ability To never lay down arms Whether in honor or disgrace, to To seek after wonders make a report with the greatest fidelity to truth to those who keep When called upon, defend the the annals rights of the weak with all one's strength

King: male ruler of the country Queen: female ruler of the country or wife of a king Duke: a nobleman of highest rank Duchess: a noblewoman of highest rank Knight: a member of a medieval warrior class Archbishop: a bishop of the highest rank Men and women of high social stature were addressed as Sir and Lady.

Because the Celtic religion is based upon tangible items and nature, Arthur would need artifacts to convince his country to convert to Christianity. With the help of Merlin, Arthur decided to send his knights on a quest for religious artifacts, more commonly know as the . The body of The spear of Destiny The King Solomon’s Temple Byzantine Crown of Thorns Holy Rood

Merlin sees the love between Arthur and will end disastrously. Guinevere and the other members of the court pay compliments to the young talented knight, . Lancelot will become one of Arthur's favorites and closest friends.

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is one of the many stories that focuses on the other knights of the round table. This story comes at a time of piece, after the Round table has been established and Arthur is happily married to Guinevere. Gawain is Arthur's Nephew, son of a sibling of Guinevere.

During this time of peace in Camelot, other parts of kingdom are restless. Arthur unknowingly had a half sister, Morgan le Fey. She believed that she was rightful ruler since she was the first child of King Uther. In an attempts to usurp the throne, she slept with him and conceived a son. Morgan was said to be a witch and a powerful woman. Her son, , threatened Arthur’s marriage and his throne.

The greatest and most trusted of Arthur's knights, and plays a part in many of Arthur's victories Arthur's eventual downfall is also brought about in part by Lancelot, whose affair with Arthur's wife Guinevere destroys the unity of Arthur's court Once Arthur discovers 's love affair, his own system of justice requires that he condemn his wife to death Lancelot rescues her, but initiates a war between his forces and those of Arthur and the knight Gawain

During the search for the Holy Grail Arthur’s life begins to fall apart. Some versions of the story have Arthur gone 10-20 years on his quest. During this time, Merlin is seduced by a young woman () who steals his powers and imprisons him. Arthur is left without an advisor. In Arthur’s absence Mordred has been raised to hate Arthur and upon his return, Arthur unknowingly knights his own son and invites him to the round table. Guinevere has begun to realize her true love for Lancelot, not Arthur, during both their absences.

Metaphorically, the country already had fallen with the betrayal of Arthur’s only love and his best friend There are many versions of the story. All of which end with Arthur’s death in battle. Some of the versions include the following battles: Saxons / Romans / / French / Irish Lancelot Morgan le fey Mordred All of the stories end with Arthur’s glorious death in battle, all that any legendary king or hero can ask for.

Camelot – King Arthur’s kingdom. Castle – Where Arthur is born. Isle of – island to which Arthur is sent to recover from the last battle. – claimed by some to be the actual Isle of Avalon, as it was once surrounded by marshes.

Excalibur – Arthur’s magical sword; given to him by The Lady of the Lake. The Holy Grail – the cup used by Christ at the ; used by Joseph of Arimathea to catch Christ’s blood when he was on the cross. The Round Table – the table given as part of Guinevere’s dowry & used by Arthur and his knights. Each knight’s name was magically inscribed on the table. Everybody was equal. – son of Sir Ector; raised as Uther – Arthur’s Arthur’s step-brother. biological father. Mordred – Arthur’s nephew; Igraine – Arthur’s biological seized Guinevere & rebelled mother against Arthur; killed by Lancelot Sir Ector - Arthur’s adoptive after the last battle. father Guinevere – Arthur’s wife; Merlin – Arthur’s counselor, Lancelot’s lover. prophet, and wizard; he placed Lancelot – Arthur’s chief knight & Arthur with Sir Ector. rival for Guinevere’s love. Morgan le Fay – Arthur’s half The Lady of the Lake – Vivienne; sister; healer & shape-changer; an gave Excalibur to Arthur; adversary of both Arthur & enchanted & imprisoned Merlin. Guinevere Joseph of Arimathea – soldier of – Arthur’s half sister; Pontius Pilate who was given the married to ; mother of cup (Holy Grail) from the Last Gawain, , , Supper; settled in Glastonbury. , & Mordred.

Sir Sir Palomedes Sir Lancelot du Lac Sir Sir Gawain Sir de Ganis Sir Percivale Sir Safer Sir Lionell Sir Sir Tristram de Lyones Sir Ector de Maris Sir Gareth Sir Sir Sir Degore Sir Bleoberis Sir Brunor le Noir Sir La Cote Male Taile Sir Le Bel Desconneu Sir Lucan Sir Alymere Sir Kay Sir Mordred