INDIAN RESERVATIONS ￿ALBUQUERQUE, ESPANOLA, AND SAN LUIS BASIN USGS OIL & GAS ￿ ￿Geologic Structure A majority of the Pueblo Indian Reservations are located within the In mid- time, regional extension occurred along a major RESOURCE PROVINCES , which trends north-northeast from south-central north-trending zone of weakness called the . As the New to central (Chapin, 1971). In addition, small rift opened, it broke en echelon along pre-rift lineaments developed segments of the Pueblo Reservation overlie the Acoma Basin, located during earlier (Fig. P-3). High heat flow and volcanism 4 - ROCKY AND to the west of the Rio Grande Rift, and the which lies accompanied rifting. The resulting offset of the graben along old NORTHERN east of the San Luis Basin in northeast (Fig. P-1). The structural lineaments and the uneven distribution of the volcanic rift lies along boundaries of several major physiographic provinces, centers have divided the rift basin into sub-basins which include, the most fundamental of which are the Great Plains and Southern from south to north, the Albuquerque, Espanola (or Santa Fe), and 7 - MID-CONTINENT to the east, and the Colorado and Basin San Luis basins. The southern extension of the Espanola Basin is and Range to the west (Fig. P-2). The sedimentary layers that fill known as the Hagan and Santa Fe Embayments, which are separated these basins gently dip towards the center of the basin, which has by the Cerrillos Uplift, a late east-tilted block (Fig. P- dropped in relation to the surrounding strata due to normal or exten 4). The Hagan embayment is west of the Cerrillos Uplift and the sional faulting associated with the Rio Grande Rift. Santa Fe Embayment is to the east. For discussion purposes, these ￿The follo wing sections describe the geology of the (1) Albuquer two embayments are combined and are called the Hagan-Santa Fe que-Santa Fe Rift Province, (2) Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Embayment. In addition, the San Luis Basin has been further divid Province with focus on the southern Raton Basin, and (3) South-Cen ed into, from east to west, the Baca Graben, the Alamosa Horst, the tral New Mexico Province, in particular the Acoma Basin. Oil and Monte Vista Graben, and the San Juan Sag (Gries, 1985). gas production within each province is summarized in the ￿Structure within the rift basins is lar gely masked by late Tertiary "Production Overview" section. and basin fill. Geophysical (mainly gravity) data indi 3 - COLORADO Uncompahgre San Luis cate varying amounts of Tertiary fill (Cordell-Lindrith et PLATEAU AND Brazos uplift Basin al., 1982). The west sides of the basins are generally BASIN RANGE downdropped in a stepwise fashion by many down-to- San Juan Raton Bravo Basin Basin the-east normal faults. The deepest parts of the basins Sierre Grande are generally on the east side (Fig. P-4). uplift ￿W ells penetrating the and sec tion in the also indicate that the basin Espanola is down-dropped by many normal faults. Wells in the Zuni Basin uplift Albuquerque middle of the basin indicate more than 10,000 feet of Basin Tucumcari fault displacement between wells just a few miles apart Acoma Basin Basin (Black, 1982). The deepest well drilled in the Albuquer

Baca que Basin, the Shell Oil Co. Isleta No. 2 was in Tertiary Basin Estancia rocks at a total depth of 21,266 feet. The vertical relief 5 - WEST AND Basin Roosevelt Pedernal between the projected surface in that well lift Basin up and the Precambrian rocks exposed in the 16 miles to the east is at least 32,000 feet.

Palomas Basin

Burro uplift Tularosa Basin Florida uplift Mesilla Figure P-2. Location of Pueblo Indian Reservations with respect to USGS defined geologic provinces of the (modified after Basin Charpentier et al., 1996). Pedregosa Basin Area of Pueblo Reservation outside geologic basin Area of Pueblo Reservation that lies within geologic basin

100 miles

Figure P-1. Outline of major geologic basins in New Mexico with respect to the Pueblo Indian Reservations (modified after Broadhead, 1996).


15,000 ft. Humble Oil and Refining Co. Shell Oil Co. Santa Fe Pacific No. B-1 COLORADO Santa Fe Pacific No.1 Sec.18, T13N, R3E Prieta Sec. 20, T14N, R1W Ceja Del Rio Puerco NEW MEXICO Rio Puerco Fault Zone

uplift isto Cr isto uplift



Rio Gr

Basin Uplift, rift and caldera faults San Luis Basin


Axis of o

107 Sang re

36o 36o Los Alamos Index Espanola Basin 30,000 ft. Colorado U TEAPLA U Santa Fe

A' A'' New . Santa F Tejon Oil and Development 15,000 ft.

Mexico Basin ault a fTijer ault (Lease Unknown) No. 1 Sec7, T14N, R6E

Sandia up Cerrillos Hills e - Espanola Claunch sag Santa Ana Mesa Galisteo Creek o Albuquerque o Rio Grande 35 Puerco-bench 35

Pedernal Arch

Modified from Kelly (1979) SEA LEVEL

bench uquerque er

Lucero up.

Alb bell Manzano uplift

ande Riv

Joyita-Hub Rio Gr COLORADO Chupadera platfor

Magdelena o uplift Socorro o 34 34 30,000 ft.

sag Socorro trough Socorro

m yita uplift aJ uplift yita

Oscur San Mateo

Socorro up. uplift San Alluvium a uplift o Chinle Fm. Marcial 106 to Muer to Basin ascualm up. Santa Fe San Andres Ls, Glorieta Ss, and Yeso & Abo Fm. (undiv.) Winston trough orplatf Cuchillo Neg San P Galisteo & San Jose Formations (undiff.) Madora Ls & Sandia Fm. (undiv.)

P alomas Basin San Andres uplift Mesa Verde Gp., Mancos & Dakota Ss (undiv.) Precambrian undiff. ro up. del , Todilito Ls, & Entrada Ss (undiv.) Intrusive 33o 33o Caballo uplift

nado Jor nado 40 miles Figure P-4. Geologic cross-section across the northern part of the Albuquerque Basin and the southern part of the Espanola Basin (Fig. P-7; cross-section 1) (modified after Black and Hiss, 1974). Hatch o o 108 107 Figure P-3. Tectonic map of the Rio Grande Valley in North- (modified after Kelley, 1979).

PUEBLO INDIAN RESERVATIONS Geology Overview 2 NEW MEXICO Sante Fe Gp. The Albuquerque-San Luis Rift Basin contains rocks ranging in age 5000-20,000 ft. - from Precambrian to Recent (Fig. P-5). Most of the basin fill consists Mioc.- of thick deposits of nonmarine synrift sedimentary rocks and interca Abiquiu-Picuris Fms. Olig. 100-1,000 ft. lated volcanic rocks, especially in the lower part. Pre-rift (pre-Oligo Galisteo, Baca & cene) sedimentary rocks are exposed on the flanks of the basin or AGE SOUTH FORMATION OR GROUP NORTH Blanco Basin Fms. 400-3,000 ft

have been penetrated by drill holes, primarily in the southern part of QUATERNARY Alluvium and undivided the rift basin. Much or all Mesozoic and Paleozoic strata, the petrole ? ? Pliocene Menefee Fm. um prospective part of the section, are missing in the northern half of the basin because of - and Laramide uplift and Pt. Lookout Ss R that affected much of that area. Miocene ￿A nearly complete section of and older rocks is pres SR (gas)

TERTIARY Oligocene Abiquiu, Picuris, or Conejos Formation ent in much of the Albuquerque Basin. Well control in the basin and Gibson Mbr. R outcrop control along the flanks indicate that pre-middle Eocene ero Eocene Baca Formation Blanco Basin Formation Dalton Ss Mbr. sion has removed a variable amount of the Cretaceous section, which

Shale Tocito Ss Lent. R is the primary petroleum prospect within the section. To the north, in Lewis Mancos Dilco Coal Mbr. R the Espanola Basin, the Eocene cuts down section, Shale Gallup Ss completely removing the Cretaceous section. Figure P-6 is a general Semilla Ss Mbr. R ized stratigraphic column for the Albuquerque Basin with sections of Upper Cretaceous 0 - 400 ft. SR (oil) interest to petroleum geology highlighted. Mesozoic and Paleozoic Mesaverde Bridge Cr. Ls Mbr. Dalton Sandstone Mbr. Group CRETACEOUS ? Mancos Shale strata of the Albuquerque Basin are similar to these of the well-ex Crevasse Mancos Dakota Ss R Canyon Shale plored and productive to the northwest, hence some Fm. Tocito Sandstone Lentil analogues can be made. Figures P-7 and P-8 show the Cretaceous Gallup Sandstone Morrison Fm stratigraphic relations as determined from discontinuous outcrops Semilla Ss. Mbr. Codell Ss. Mbr.* along the east side of the Albuquerque Basin. MESOZOIC R Wanakah Fm. Explanation ￿The and Cretaceous section is partially preserv ed on the Dakota Sandstone SR (oil)

Jurassic Jurassic Todilto Ls Mbr 0 - 1000 ft. R west side of the San Luis Basin. In that area, the Entrada Ss Non-marine Morrison Formation rests unconformably on Precambrian rocks. The Creta Junction Creek Ss. JURASSIC ceous section consists of the basal Dakota Sandstone (100 to 200-feet Wanakah Formation Todilto Member Marine sandstones thick); the Mancos Shale (~1500-feet thick); and about 600 feet of Chinle Fm. Entrada Sandstone Marine below the Eocene unconformity. The Gallup, Dalton, and Point Lookout marine shoreface sandstone units that are present Triassic Limestone undifferentiated San Andres Limestone

to the southwest have pinched out and the Mancos and Lewis 500 - 1,600 ft have merged. The contact between the two shale units is identified Anhydrite deposits PERMIAN by a silty or discontinuous sandy zone. Well and seismic data indi Yeso Formation San Andreas Ls. Glorieta Ss R Shale cate that the Jurassic and Cretaceous section is progressively truncat Abo Formation ed from west to east under the Eocene unconformity in the western PALEOZOIC PENNSYLVANIAN Madera Limestone Yeso Fm. Shale with coal interbeds part of the San Luis Basin (Gries, 1985). Kelly Limestone or Espiritu Santo Formation De Chelly Ss R? Coal PRECAMBRIAN Basement complex Permian Permian *of (eastern Colorado terminology) Abo Fm. Volcaniclasitic rock and flows Figure P-5. Stratigraphic section depicting bedding relationships within the Albuquerque-Santa 1,000 - 2,000 ft. Fe Rift Geologic Province (modified after Gautier et al., 1996). Bursum Fm. Igneous & metamorphics

R Potential reservoir rock Madera R? SR Potential hydrocarbon Limestone SR? 400 - 2,500 ft. source rock 400 - 2,700 ft. Figure P-6. Generalized stratigraphic Pennsylvanian columnar section for Albuquerque Basin. Mississippian 0 - 190' (modified after Molenaar, 1987). Precambrian Basement Complex

PUEBLO INDIAN RESERVATIONS Geology Overview 3 NEW MEXICO B B' Zuni Basin Albuquerque Basin 4 Hagan-Santa Fe Embayment D D' Shell Oil Tenneco Oil Shell Oil Santa Fe No. 2 Shell Oil Federal No.1 Isleta No. 1 Valencia Co. Shell Oil Santa Fe No.1 Catron Co. Valencia Co. Cliffhouse Ss UT CO Santa Fe No.3 Sandoval Co. Sandoval Co. AZ NM Shell Oi Laguna Wilson Trust No.1l Bernalillo Co. Menefee Sun Oil San Augustine Plains Allison - Menefee Unit No.1 Coal Catron Co. TransOcean Oil Section removed by Tertiary Erosion Eastland 1 Henderson SFP No. 1 Hosta McKee No.1 C' Santa Fe Coal Dalton E B' Socorro Co. Cretaceous Santa Fe Co. A A' Menefee

Albuquerque Gallup 2 Greenhorn Sanostee Sanostee 3 Greenhorn DATUM 5 Chinle Triassic Morrison B San Andres C Todilto Yeso E' Permian Chinle

Abo San Andres Madera Pennsylvanian Yeso Precambrian Abo

EXPLANATION Stratigraphic intervals with oil and gas potential Figure P-7. Location of cross-sections through study area (modified after Molenaar, 1987; Black, 1982; and Woodward, 1984) Approximate attitude of bedding

RATON BASIN Figure P-8. Stratigraphic cross-section from outcrop along the Zuni and Acoma basins ￿Geologic Structure (Fig. P-7; cross-section 2). (modified after Molenaar, 1974) NW SE The Raton Basin is asymmetrical with a steep western limb and a Sangre de Cristo Sierra Grande gently dipping eastern limb (Fig. P-9). The synclinal axis occurs ing as uplift continued to the west. Some of the Poison Canyon For Uplift Arch near the western part of the basin. The part of the basin in New mation was eroded at that time. Thrusting and folding occurred Raton Basin Mexico is about 100 miles long and is divided into 2 parts by the Ci twice during the Eocene and the present structure outlines of the Ra 10,000 ft. marron Basement Arch that extends westward from Maxwell. ton Basin and the Sangre de Cristo Uplift were attained. Epeirogen ￿T ectonic evolution of the Raton Basin during Laramide time was ic upwarping of the region in late Tertiary time was accompanied by Mesozoic described by Johnson and Wood (1956). Uplift of the Sangre de Cris normal faulting (Woodward, 1984). to area west of the Raton Basin provided a source of detritus that was ￿The western mar gin of the basin is marked by steeply dipping Figure P-9. Geologic Paleozoic deposited as sand as the upper part of the , Trinidad thrust and reverse faults that have pushed Precambrian and Paleozo cross-section across the 0 Sandstone, and during time. ic rocks eastward for short distances over Paleozoic and, locally, Raton Basin illustrating the Strong uplift in the Sangre de Cristo area near the end of the Creta over Mesozoic rocks. To the east, the basin merges gradually with asymmetrical syncline Precambrian ceous time provided a source of sediment for the the western limb of the Sierra Grande Arch through low dips. South associated with the Sangre 0 and the lower part of the . The uplift was of Las Vegas, the axis of the Raton Basin dies out in gently dipping de Cristo Uplift (modified 50 miles after Woodward, 1984). rejuvenated in the and Eocene times with tilting and Permian and Triassic rocks (Woodward, 1984).

PUEBLO INDIAN RESERVATIONS GEOLOGY OVERVIEW: Raton Basin 4 NEW MEXICO Stratigraphy ODESSA NATURAL CORP. - MACGUIRE OIL 2 which consists mainly of dark-gray to blackish Age Stratigraphic Units Thickness (ft.) W.S. RANCH shale with minor thin interbeds of sandy shale, Strata of Cretaceous age are the most significant for hydrocarbon ex (sec. 30, T30N, R20E) sandstone, and limestone. The upper 100 feet Poison Canyon ploration and production in the Raton Basin and have a maximum COLFAX CO., NEW MEXICO 0 - 2500 G.R. N.P. is transitional with overlying Trinidad Sand Formation thickness of about 4,700 feet near the New Mexico-Colorado border.CRET. - T.TER 900 stone and consists of interbedded shale and PALEOCENE The following units, in ascending order, are present: Purgatoire For Raton Formation thin beds of sandstone. The Pierre Shale is mation, Dakota Sandstone, , ,

1000 generally 2,400-2,900 feet thick, although the CENEZOIC Carlile Shale, , Pierre Shale, Sandstone, reported thickness in one well was only 1,700 Raton Formation 0 - 2075 Vermejo Formation, and the basal part of the Raton Formation. Fig feet. Vermejo Formation 1100 ure P-10 shows the gamma ray log of the Cretaceous strata in the Ra ￿The Trindad Sandstone is an argillaceous ton Basin. Figure P-11 represents a complete stratigraphic section sandstone with a maximum thickness of about Vermejo Formation 0 - 350 1200 within the Raton Basin. 200 feet in the New Mexico part of the Raton Trindad Sandstone 0 - 255 ￿Baltz (1965) reported that the Pur gatoire Formation is present in Basin and 1300 most of the Raton Basin, but Jacka and Brand (1972) suggested that a minimum subsurface thickness of 100 feet. no Purgatoire is present in the southern part of the basin near Las Ve Matuszczak (1969) interpretated the Trinidad Pierre Shale 1300 - 2900 gas, New Mexico. The Purgatoire consists of a lower conglomerate 1400 Sandstone as beach, nearshore, and offshore sandstone and an upper unit of interbedded sandstone and carbona deposits formed by a regressive sea retreating CRETACEOUS 1500 ceous shale. Woodward (1984) stated that the Purgatoire is often in toward the northeast. Occasional pauses in re aar Smokey Hill Marl 900 cluded as part of the Dakota Sandstone because differentiation is dif gressions or transgressions toward the south Pierre Shale Break in log Fort Hays Limestone 0 - 55 MESOZOIC ficult. west resulted in thickening and winnowing of Niobr ￿The Dak ota Sandstone in the Raton Basin consists of three inter Codell Sandstone 0 - 30 the sands, leading to northwest-elongated, Carille Sandstone 165 - 225 vals (Jacka and Brand, 1972). Gilbert and Asquith (1976) reported 4000 thick lenses with high porosities. Reports of Greenhorn Limestone 20-70 that the lower interval is sandstone with conglomerate lenses, the maximum porosity of 21% and permeability of Benton Greneros Shale 175-400 middle interval contains interbedded sandstone, carbonaceous shale, 200 md were made for areas where the sand Dakota Sandstone 140 - 200 4100 Purgatoiro Formation 100 - 150 and coal, and the upper interval is composed of transgressive sand stone is thickest. Morrison 150 - 400 stone. Total thickness of the Dakota Sandstone plus the Purgatoire ￿The Vermejo Formation ranges from a 4200 JURASSIC Wanakah 30 - 100 Formation, where present, ranges from 110-220 feet. maximum thickness of about 400 feet in the Entrada 40 - 100 ￿L ying conformably on the Dakota is the Graneros Shale, which subsurface to a wedge edge on the east side of TRIASSIC 0 - 1200 4300 Dockum Group consists of dark-gray marine shale with minor interbeds of bentonite, the basin near Raton. It is composed of fine to 5,000 - 10,000

mation oraba F oraba mation PALEOZOIC UNDIVIDED limestone, and fine-grained sandstone. This unit is about 115-270 Smoky Hill Marl Mbr. medium-grained sandstone, gray carbonaceous feet thick, but most sections are about 170 feet thick. 4400 shale, and coal interpreted as a flood-plain and Primary gas reservoir Primary oil reservoir

￿The Greenhorn Limestone, lying conformably on the Graneros, CEOUS swamp deposit. Secondary gas reservoir Secondary oil reservoir consists of thin-bedded marine limestone with intercalated gray cal 4500 Niobr Ft. Hays Limestone Mbr. ￿The Raton F ormation is Cretaceous and careous shale. In the Raton Basin, the Greenhorn is 20-90 feet thick, Codell Sandstone Mbr. Source rocks for gas CRETA Paleocene in age and consists of very fine to Source rocks for oils but most sections are 30-60 feet thick. Carille 4600 coarse-grained sandstone, , and gray Figure P-11. Stratigraphic section depicting bedding relationships Shale ￿In conformable contact on the Greenhorn is the Carlile Shale, wacke with interbedded gray siltstone, shale, within the Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Geologic Province (modified after Gautier et al., 1996). which is composed of dark-gray marine shale with minor thin lime 4700 and coal. A thin conglomerate or conglomerat stone interbeds, calcareous , and calcareous sandstone Greenhorn Limestone ic sandstone is present at the base of the formation. This unit was de and sandy shale, particularly in the upper part. Where the sandstone 4800 posited in back-barrier swamps and alluvial-plain back swamps (Pill Graneros Shale is prominent, it is referred to as the Codell Sandstone Member and more, 1991) and ranges from a wedge to about 1,700 feet thick in the attains thicknesses up to 20 feet. The Carlile ranges in thickness 4900 Colorado part of the basin. Toward the southwest, beds in the upper from about 110 to 320 feet, with most localities having thicknesses of part of the Raton Formation intertongue with and grade into the lower approximately 175 feet. Dakota Sandstone 5000 beds of the overlying Paleocene Poison Canyon Formation. The Poi ￿The marine Niobrara F ormation above the Carlile has a lower son Canyon is the youngest formation preserved in the New Mexico member, the Fort Hays Limestone, composed of thin-bedded lime part of the Raton Basin. stone and subordinate intercalated gray calcareous shale, and an up 5100 per member, the Smokey Hill Marl, made up of calcareous shale with Morrison Formation T.D. 5160'

subordinate thin interbeds of gray limestone and sandy shale. The JUR. Fort Hays Limestone Member is about 20-45 feet thick, and the Nio Figure P-10. Gamma ray-neutron porosity log showing Cretaceous brara as a whole is about 250-285 feet thick. strata of Raton Basin, New Mexico. Log from Odessa Natural ￿Conformably abo ve the Niobrara is the marine Pierre Shale, Corporation-Maguire Oil No.2, W.S. Ranch; sec 30, T30N, R20E (modified after Woodward 1984).

PUEBLO INDIAN RESERVATIONS Geology Overview 5 NEW MEXICO ￿ACOMA BASIN and black shale that caps the Twowells Tongue (Mellere, 1994). Fig ure P-14 illustrates a hypothetical paleogeographic reconstruction of Figure P-13. Schematic cross-section The Acoma Basin has a complex structural history, having been de the Twowells Tongue during highstand, lowstand, and transgressive of the intertonguing relationships of the West East Dakota Sandstone and the Mancos formed by three major periods of tectonism during Phanerozoic time: phases. Shale in the Acoma Basin (modified (1) Late Paleozoic formation of the ancestral Rockies during the Sev after Cobban and Hook, 1989). Greenhorn Limestone ier , (2) Laramide thick and thin-skinned compressional tec PRODUCTION OVERVIEW Granero Shale Member tonics, and (3) Cenozoic relaxation, extension, and volcanism. Oil and gas production in north central New Mexico was described in Twowells Tongue ￿The Se vier and Mogallan Highlands (Fig. P-12) the 1995 National Assessment of United States Oil and Gas Resour Whitewater Shale Upper

constrained a subsiding from ces (Gautier et al., 1996). All plays discussed in the "Play Summary an Paguate Tongue ani through Late Paleocene time (Armstrong, 1968; Villien and Klig Overview" combines the research from that publication along with tone field, 1986). The constrained basin, in combination with long-term other recent publications of interest to oil and gas in the Pueblo Indi Clay Mesa Shale Sands Mancos Shale eustatic sea level changes along the margin of the Cretaceous sea an Reservations. The following is a summary of the oil and gas plays Cubero Tongue Cenom ota

way, resulted in complex depositional patterns reflecting the interac within the (1) Albuquerque-Santa Fe Rift Province, (2) South-Central Middle￿

tion of tectonics and eustacy (Molenaar, 1983; Nummedal and Riley, New Mexico Province, and (3) Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Dak 1991). The western shoreline of the epicontinental seaway advanced (Fig. P-15).￿ Oak Canyon er and retreated across New Mexico many times, leaving a record of in Member wo 1. HIGHSTAND 2. LOWSTAND L tertonguing marine and non-marine sediments (Mellere, 1994).

Higher-frequency cyclicity during transgressions in Middle Cenoma CO nian through mid-Turonian time resulted in various tongues with in NM terfingered members of the Dakota and Mancos shale (Fig. P-13; CO Jurassic - Lower Landis et al., 1973; Molenaar, 1983; Hook, 1983). One of the most NM Cretaceous Play (4102 ) widespread of tongues in the Acoma Basin is the Late Twowells Tongue (Dane et al., 1971; Hook et al., 1980). The Two Biogenic Play (2304) UT CO wells Tongue is underlain by the dark-gray Whitewater Arroyo Shale Albuquerque AZ Tongue of the Mancos Shale and is overlain by the Graneros Shale NM Upper Cretaceous - Member of the Mancos Shale (Fig. P-12). Albuquerque Espanola Basin Lower Tertiary Play (4101) ￿The Twowell Tongue of the Dakota Sandstone encompasses two Acoma Pueblo Play (2303) depositional sequences, albeit incomplete in terms of systems tracts Southern Raton (Van Wagoner et al., 1988, 1990). The first is associated with the Basin Coal-Bed Play (4152 ) Whitewater Arroyo Shale and shoreface sediments, and the second Shoreface deposits Fluvial deposits Santa Fe Coastal plain deposits includes estuarine cross-bedded sandstone lithosome, oyster beds, Coastal plain deposits Marine shales Albuquerque 50 km Marine shales 50 km Hagan-Sante Fe Embayment Play (2302) 3. EARLY TRANSGRESSION 4. LATE TRANSGRESSION Albuquerque Basin Play (2301) CO Acoma Basin Play Base Twowells NM Shoreline FLOOD CO Sevier Orogenic Belt NM EBB (?)

Albuquerque Albuquerque FLOOD Acoma Pueblo

Top Twowells Shoreline Acoma Albuquerque-Santa Fe Raton Basin-Sierra Grande FLOOD Rift Province Outline Uplift Province Outline Basin Coastal plain deposits Coastal plain deposits Estuarine valley fill deposits Estuarine valley fill deposits South-Central New Pueblo Reservations Figure P-12. Location of Pueblo Indian Reservations (esp. Acoma ) Marine shales 50 km Mexico Province Outline Outline with indication of transport direction (arrows) of sediment that filled the Sevier 50 km Marine shales foreland basins during the Cretaceous and, in particular, the Dakota Figure P-15. Location of Pueblo Reservations with respect to the major geologic Sandstone. The map also indicates the position of the shoreline at the base Figure P-14. Hypothetical paleographic reconstruction of the Twowells Tongue during (1) highstand, (2) lowstand, provinces and the respective hydrocarbon plays of (modified of the Twowells Tongue and the maximum transgression (modified after (3) early transgression and (4) late transgression (modified after Mellere, 1994). after Gautier et al., 1996). Mellere, 1994; Molenaar, 1983; and Eaton and Nations, 1991).

PUEBLO INDIAN RESERVATIONS OVERVIEW - Acoma Basin 6 NEW MEXICO Play Summary Play Types Conventional Plays - Discrete deposits, usually bounded by a downdip water contact, from which oil, gas, or NGL can be extracted using The United States Geology Survey (USGS) identifies several petroleum plays in the Albuquerque-Santa Fe Rift, Raton Basin- traditional development practices, including production at the surface from a well as a consequence of natural pressure within the Sierra Grande Uplift, and South-Central New Mexico Provinces. Table 1 summarizes the petroleum plays relevant to the subsurface reservoir, artificial lifting of oil from the reservoir to the surface, where applicable, and the maintenance of reservoir pressure Pueblo Indian Reservations and describes the key characteristics of each field. The discussions that follow are limited to by means of water or gas injection.￿ those plays with direct significance for future petroleum development in the Pueblo Indian Reservations. Unconventional Plays - A broad class of hydrocarbon deposits of a type (such as gas in "tight" sandstones, gas shales, and coal-bed gas) that historically has not been produced using traditional development practices. Such accumulations include most continuous-type deposits.

Reservation: Pueblo Indian Reservations Total Production Undiscovered resources and numbers of fields are Geologic Province: Albuquerque-Santa Fe Rift Province, South-Central New Mexico ( by Province-1996) for Province-wide plays. No attempt has been made Province, and the Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Province ￿Oil: There has been no significant to estimate number of undiscovered fields within the Province Area: Appproximately￿ 7,000, 39,900, and 18,800 square miles, respectively ￿Gas: production in the three provinces. Pueblo Indian Reservations. Reservation Area: ? ￿NGL:

USGS Number of Undiscovered Accumulations Play Type Description of Play Oil or Gas Known Accumulations Undiscovered Accumulations > 1 MMBOE Play Probability Drilling depths Designation (med., mean) (min., med., max., mean) (chance of success) (min., max., med.) Albuquerque Basin Gas Play Gas and Gas (448,740 MMCFG) 20, 35.5 BCFG 2, 8, 30, 5.6 2301 Structural and Stratigraphic Minor Oil Oil (521,090 MBO) 3, 4.1 MMBO Oil 0.49 6,000, 10,000, 8,000 1 1, 2, 10, 1.7

Hagan-Santa Fe Oil Oil Embayment Play Gas (199,800 MMCFG) 2, 2.5 MMBO 0.42 2 2302 Structural and Stratigraphic Oil (174,135 MBO) 1, 2, 4, 0.9 1,500, 7,500, 2,500

Espanola Basin

Play 2303 Minor Oil Gas (94.42 BCFG, est. mean) Not Quantitatively Assessed Not Quantitatively Assessed 0.06 3 Structural and Stratigraphic Oil (188.85 MMBO, est. mean) Not Reported

San Luis Valley

Biogenic Gas Play 2304 Stratigraphic; biogenic gas Not Quantitatively Assessed Not Quantitatively Assessed 4 from lacustrine deposits Minor Gas Gas (7,000 BCFG) 0.03 Not Reported

Upper Cretaceous- Gas (7.8 BCFG, est. mean) Lower Tertiary Play Stratigraphic Gas Gas 0.64 4101 Oil (7.8 MMBO, est. mean) 8, 12 BCFG 4,000, 6,000, 5,000 5 (methane) 2, 4, 8, 2.8

Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Play Gas (62,100 MMCFG) Stratigraphic Not Quantitatively Assessed 4102 Minor Gas Oil (22,8559 MBO) Not Quantitatively Assessed 0.09 Not Reported 6 and Oil

Southern Raton Basin Play 4152 Coal-bed gas within Gas Gas (8211.28 BCFG, est. mean) 571 BCFG (mean) Not Reported Not Reported 500, 1,400, 1,200 7 fractured coal

Acoma Basin Play Not Reported Gas (59,518 MMCFG) Gas and Not Reported Not Reported Not Designated Stratigraphic Oil (53,700 MBO) Not Reported 8 Minor Oil

Table 1. Summary table of oil and gas plays that are located in or near the Pueblo Reservations. Conventional play type Unconventional/Hypothetical play type

PUEBLO INDIAN RESERVATIONS Play Summary Table 7 NEW MEXICO Albuquerque-Santa Fe Province ￿About 120 wells have been drilled in the province (Fig. P-17), horn interval). In the northern part of the play area, the middle part of ￿ but only about 50 wells penetrated Cretaceous or older rocks. Most Albuquerque Basin Play the Mancos Shale is the major source rock. Good gas-prone, Type III This province is part of the Rio Grande Rift system and consists of of these latter wells were drilled in the 1970's and early 1980's. (USGS 2301) source rocks are in Cretaceous carbonaceous shales and . The ma segmented or offset basins that formed as a result of middle Tertiary There is no production in the province, although there was marginal ￿General Characteristics turation ranges from immature to marginally mature along the shallow to Quaternary rifting. The province extends from Socorro, New oil production for a short time from two wells in different areas of This is a hypothetical structural play related to down-dropped blocks er basin margins to overmature or gas-prone in the deeper parts. Most Mexico, northward 280 miles through the San Luis Valley in Colora the province. Recent exploration has been minimal in the basin, with of Mesozoic and Paleozoic rocks that have been buried to a sufficient of the play is considered a gas play because of the predominance of gas do (Fig. P-16). The east-west width of the province ranges from 15 the exception of dry holes in the northwestern part of the province depth for the generation of hydrocarbons, or in areas where struc shows in the drilled wells, the gas-prone nature of most of the source to 65 miles and the eastern and western boundaries are mostly uplift (Molenaar, 1993).￿ tures are along migration paths of downdip-generated hydrocarbons rocks, and the generally high maturations. ed blocks exposing Precambrian and Mesozoic rocks gen ￿Based on expected reservoirs, reservoir depth, type of hydrocar (Black, 1982). The Albuquerque Basin Play is in the large, generally erally dipping away from the rifted basins. The primary hydrocarbon bon expected, drilling history, and , four relevant and hy flat or low-relief area of the Albuquerque Trough (Fig. P-18) and is Timing and migration: Data are lacking on the timing and migration objectives in the province are pre-rift Cretaceous and older strata, pothetical plays were identified by the USGS. These are the Albu bounded on the east by the Sandia, Manzano, and Los Pios Moun of hydrocarbons, but it seems likely that the amount of burial by Terti which in most of the province are covered by continental Tertiary- querque Basin Play (2301), Hagan-Santa Fe Embayment Play tains, which are composed of Paleozoic and older rocks. The west ary sediments and the degree of tilting of individual fault blocks was a Quaternary fill. More than 20,000 feet of fill has masked the Lara (2302), Espanola Basin Play (2303), and the San Luis Valley Bio side is bounded by the Puerco , composed of Cretaceous controlling factor, thereby indicating recent hydrocarbon migration. mide and older structures, thereby necessitating seismic data to delin genic Gas Play (2304). The plays of interest to the Pueblo Reserva rocks, and the Lucero Uplift and Ladrone Mountains, both of which eate structure. tions are discussed in the Play Summary Overview. consist of Paleozoic and older rocks. The northern boundary is a volcanic-covered area where the rift is offset to the east and the southern boundary is marked by the converging of the flanking up lifts in the vicinity of Socorro.

Reservoirs: The primary objec San Luis Valley tives of this play are coastal and Biogenic Play (2304) marine Cretaceous sandstones that UT CO are along depositional strike with AZ NM the San Juan Basin where these San Luis Valley rocks are major producers of oil Biogenic Play (2304) Espanola Basin and gas. Secondary objectives are UT CO Play (2303) the Jurassic Entrada Sandstone and AZ NM Paleozoic shelf sandstones and car bonates. All these potential reser Espanola Basin Play (2303) Santa Fe voirs range in thickness, but are Hagan-Sante Fe Embayment Play (2302) Dry generally less than 100 feet thick. Albuquerque Oil Recoveries on drill-stem and pro duction tests of Cretaceous sand Santa Fe PUEBLO INDIAN stones in wells in the play area in Hagan-Santa Fe Embayment Play (2302) RESERVATIONS dicate low permeabilities for these Albuquerque potential reservoirs (Molenaar, Albuquerque Santa Fe Basin Play (2301) N 1993). Source rocks: Oil-prone source 50 mi. rocks are in the basal marine part Albuquerque of the Cretaceous section (Green Albuquerque-Santa Fe Albuquerque Basin Play (2301) Rift Province Outline

Pueblo Reservations Outline Albuquerque-Santa Fe Rift Province Outline Figure P-17. Outline of Albuquerque-Santa Fe Rift Geologic Pueblo Reservations Province with exploration wells from 1900-1993 depicted. The Outline Albuquerque, Espanola and San Luis Basins are highlighted in Figure P-18. Location of Albuquerque addition to the Hagan-Santa Fe Embayment (modified after Basin Play (2301), with respect to the Figure P-16. Outline of Pueblo Reservations with respect to the Albuquerque-Santa Fe Pueblo Reservations (modified after Rift Province. The Albuquerque Basin Play (2301), Hagan-Santa Fe Embayment Play Gautier et al., 1996). (2302), Espanola Basin (2303), and the San Luis Valley Biogenic Play (2304) are depicted (modified after Gautier et al., 1996).

PUEBLO INDIAN RESERVATIONS CONVENTIONAL PLAY TYPE: Albuquerque Basin Play 8 NEW MEXICO Traps: Although the structure of underlying rocks is obscured by the late Tertiary fill, normal Figure P-19. Block diagram depicting PUEBLO schematic structure across the Albuquerque faulting seems to be a predominant structural feature of the Albuquerque Basin (Figs. P-4 and ESPANOLA A RESERVATION ALBUQUERQUE BASIN A' and Espanola Basins (modified after Black, P-19). At least three of the nine Cretaceous test wells encountered normal faults that cut out BASIN significant parts of the section (Fig. P-20). Traps are anticipated closures within different fault 1982). blocks, and many probably would be fault traps. Drilling depths to the Dakota Sandstone are 6,000 to 20,000 feet, and the size of the possible traps are unknown. Seals are dependent on fault seals and overlying impermeable shales, either within the Cretaceous section or overlying Tertiary fill. The abundance of gas shows in the Tertiary continental section, which probably ESPANOLA was sourced from Cretaceous rocks, suggests that sealing of Cretaceous or older reservoirs A PUEBLO RESERVATION BASIN A' may be a problem. ￿ Exploration status: Of 46 tests in the play area, only nine penetrated the Cretaceous section ALBUQUERQUE BASIN (Table 2) and four penetrated all or parts of the Paleozoic section. The Tertiary and Quaterna N ry fill, which is greater than 20,000 feet in some places, has masked Laramide and older struc Shell SFP No.1 tures, thereby necessitating seismic data to delineate structure. Published data on pre-Tertiary Shell SFP No.3 structure are not available, but Shell Oil Company conducted seismic surveys throughout the **Schematic cartoon, not to scale. basin in the 1970's and drilled, or caused to be drilled, nine deep test wells (Fig. P-20). The Shell seismic data must have been difficult to interpret in places, judging by the differences between Stratigraphy & Hydrocarbon Potential Fed. No.1 the prognosticated formational depths and the actual drilled depths. Gas and some oil shows Explanation T e were reported in Cretaceous rocks (Fig. P-21). Unsuccessful attempts were made in one well r Triassic- ALBUQUERQUE Outline of significant basins t Potential source, reservoir, and seal. to complete for gas production in the Shell farmout (Molenaar, 1987). i Alluvial valley fill deposits Jurassic Shell Laguna- a Wilson Trust #1 Outline of Pueblo reservation outside geologic basin r Norins Parajito y Permian Potential source, reservoir, and seal. Grant #1 TransOcean Outline of Pueblo reservation within geologic basin Isleta No.1 Resource potential: In summary, the Albuquerque Basin Play covers a large area and has the C r Pennsylvanian Potential source. potential for large amounts of hydrocarbons, probably gas. Little is known about the subsur Extensional faults e t a Potential source, reservoir, and seal. Pre-Camb. Igneous & metamorphics Shell Isleta #1 face structure. Seismic data collected in the recent past seem to have been of only moderate c Stone Horland No. 1 Line of cross section for upper block e Joiner Sanclemente No. 1 quality, necessitating additional seismic surveys because the few deep tests indicate that large o Long Dalies No.1 Stone #2 u Big Three Dalies Townsite No. 1 Harlan et al. s Harlan #1 normal faults are present and may control hydrocarbon occurrence. Harlan #3 Humble Oil SFP #1 Von G No.1 Harlan#4 Ringle Tome #3 Shell SFP #2 Cal-New Mexico Harlan #5 Dechares No. 1 Ringle Tome #1

Location C C' Grober Fuqua No.1 Well No. and Name Completion Date Total Depth (ft) Belen Oil-Seipple No.1 Explanation N Central New Mexico Shell SFP No. 1 18-13N-3E 6-19-72 11,045 Brown #1 Gas show Marine shale & siltstone 1 mile Menefee Fm. Oil show Marine & coastal-barrier sandstone Shell Laguna-Wilson Oil & Gas show 8-9N-1W 9-21-72 11,115 Nonmarine deposits Trust No. 1 Timemarker bed Outline of 20 miles Albuquerque Basin V.E. 121x Shell SFP No. 2 29-6N-1W 3-29-74 14,305 Figure P-21. Test wells that had shows of oil and gas in Satan Tongue of Mancos Shale Shell Isleta No. 1 7-7N-2E 10-25-74 16,346 Albuquerque Basin (modified after Black, 1982).

Crevasse Canyon Fm. Dallon Ss Mbr of Crevasse Canyon Fm Shell SFP No. 3 28-13N-1E 4-19-76 10,276

Mulallo Tongue of Mancos Shale TransOcean Isleta Mancos Shale 8-8N-3E 10-4-78 10,378 No. 1 Gallup Ss Top of Juana Lopez Mbr. Shell Isleta No. 2 16-8N-2E 11-23-79 21,266 Greenhorn Limestone Mbr of Mancos Shale Tres Hermanos Formation Figure P-20. Stratigraphic cross-section C-C' of Cretaceous Shell West Mesa 24-11N-1E 12-30-80 19,375 Mancos Shale Twowells Tongue of Dakota Ss rocks along the east side of the Albuquerque Basin into the Fed. No. 1 Whitewater Arroyo ?Tongue of Mancos Shale HAGAN-SANTA FE Santa Fe Embayment (Fig. 7; cross-section 3) (modified after Table 2. Summary table of eight deep test wells in Albuquerque Basin (modified after Dakota Sandstone EAST SIDE OF ALBUQUERQUE BASIN EMBAYYMENT Molenaar, 1987). Molenaar, 1983).

PUEBLO INDIAN RESERVATIONS CONVENTIONAL PLAY TYPE: Albuquerque Basin Play 9 NEW MEXICO Hagan-Santa Fe Embayment Play (USGS 2302) TION ￿ San Luis Valley Biogenic Play (2304) General Characteristics UT CO E ncinal Canyon Member AZ NM TA FORMA TA The Hagan-Santa Fe Embayment is in the southern part of the Espanola Basin, but be Espanola Basin OAKD cause of the different play attributes, this hypothetical play is split off from the Espa Play (2303) nola Basin Play and is considered separately (Fig. P-22). The play area is tear-drop shaped and about 25 miles in diameter. It is bound on the west by the northern vol Santa Fe

canic-covered end of the Albuquerque Basin, on the east by the southern plunge of the Albuquerque Hagan-Santa Fe Sangre de Cristo Mountains, and on the south by the and their Embayment Play (2302) broad eastern flank. To the north, the play is separated from the Espanola Basin along

the line of truncation of Cretaceous rocks, which is controlled by wells in one area. Albuquerque Member Jackpile Member Basin Play (2301) Reservoirs: The play is a structural-stratigraphic play for oil and gas in relatively TION shallow (<4,000 feet) Cretaceous objectives (Black, 1979 and 1984). The primary res ervoir objectives are the Dakota Sandstone, 25-100 ft thick, and the Tocito and Semilla Albuquerque-Santa Fe Rift Province Outline Sandstone Members of the Mancos Shale, 10-25 ft thick (Figs. P-23 and P-24). The Pueblo Reservations Jurassic Entrada Sandstone, about 50 feet thick, and possibly Pennsylvanian carbo Outline

nates, are secondary objectives. MORRISON FORMA Source rocks: The primary oil-source rocks are of moderate quality and are in the lower part of the Mancos Shale and, where preserved, the Niobrara-equivalent within Figure P-22. Location of Hagan-Santa Fe Embayment Play (2302) with respect to the Pueblo the Mancos. Shales at the base of the Todilto Limestone are also potential source Reservations (modified after Gautier et al., 1996). rocks. In addition, carbonaceous shales in the Dakota and above the Mancos Shale are B TION potential gas source rocks. All of these rocks are mostly in the oil-generating range, B' Recapture Member Brushy Basin Member although maturation levels range widely because of Oligocene intrusion of volcanics Albuquerque Basin Hagan-Santa Fe Embayment Shell Oil Shell Oil in the area (Molenaar, 1987). Santa Fe No. 2 Isleta No. 1 Shell Oil Shell Oil Valencia Co. Valencia Co. Santa Fe No.1 Cliffhouse Ss Santa Fe No.3 Sandoval Co. Timing and migration: Unlike the other plays in this province, the Hagan-Santa Fe Sandoval Co. Embayment Play area is only partially covered by late Tertiary synrift fill. The struc Shell Oi

Laguna Wilson Trust No.1l MORRISON FORMA Bernalillo Co. WANAKAH FORMATION tural history of the Hagan-Santa Fe Embayment is poorly understood, but is complex Menefee Section removed (Black, 1979). At least 6,000 ft of Eocene Galisteo Formation and Oligocene Espina by Tertiary Erosion Allison - Menefee Coal so Formation were tilted eastward 20° to 30° in middle or late Tertiary time. It seems Eastland Hosta McKee No.1 likely that the time of maximum maturation was prior to this deformation or in the Coal Dalton Santa Fe Co. Cretaceous Oligocene, when the intrusive rocks were emplaced and there was sufficient overbur den of the Eocene Galisteo Formation and Oligocene Espinaso Formation. TION Sanostee Gypsum Member Traps: Traps of probable small to moderate size are both structural and stratigraphic, Greenhorn DATUM the latter in the case of lenticular Semilla and Tocito Sandstone Members (Fig. P-23). TO FORMA TO Seals would be overlying Mancos Shale for Cretaceous reservoirs, Todilto Anhydrite Triassic Morrison ss - trough crossbeds Todilto

for the Entrada Sandstone, and interbedded shales for the Pennsylvanian carbonate TODIL ss - tabular cross beds reservoirs. Chinle Permian ss - laminar Exploration status: About 34 wells have been drilled in the play area, most since San Andres limestone member ss - massive 1974, and all but two of three wells were drilled into or through the Cretaceous sec 15 m tion. Several wells were drilled to the Entrada Sandstone. Oil or gas shows were re Yeso & siltstone ONE upper sandy member limestone ported in most or all the wells. A small amount of oil has been produced in one well Pennsylvanian Abo from the Tocito Sandstone Lentil of the Mancos Shale at a depth of 2,740 ft (Mole sandy limestone naar, 1987). EXPLANATION A SANDST gypsum Resource potential: In summary, the Hagan-Santa Fe Embayment Play covers a rela medial silty member tively small area, and the individual trap sizes are probably small. Although gas has Stratigraphic intervals with oil and gas potential ENTRAD been encountered, the main potential is oil. Shallow drilling depths along with out Approximate attitude of bedding crop and well control allow for a better understanding of the geologic structure when Figure P-23. Stratigraphic section showing facies relationships from Albuquerque Basin north to the Santa Figure P-24. Measured stratigraphic section of Jurassic strata in the Western Hagan compared to the Albuquerque Basin. Fe Embayment of the Espanola Basin (Fig. P-7; cross-section 2) (modified after Black, 1982). Basin (modified after Black, 1982).


General Characteristics San Luis Valley This hypothetical play covers a major part of the Espaola Basin Biogenic Play (2304) PUEBLO north of the Hagan-Santa Fe Embayment (Fig. P-25). The southern CO ESPANOLA UT A RESERVATION ALBUQUERQUE boundary, which separates this play from the Hagan-Santa Fe Em BASIN A' AZ NM BASIN bayment Play, is the projected northern truncation edge of Creta ceous rocks. The eastern boundary is the uplifted Sangre de Cristo Espanola Basin Mountains, the northern boundary is the narrowing and eastward off Play (2303) set of the rift system, and the western boundary is the volcanic Je mez Mountains. The entire play area is covered by late Tertiary syn Santa Fe rift deposits, and little is known about the subsurface structure and Hagan-Santa Fe stratigraphy (Fig. P-26). Embayment Play (2302) Albuquerque

Reservoirs: Potential reservoirs are Pennsylvanian carbonate rocks and possibly the Jurassic Entrada Sandstone along the southern mar Albuquerque Explanation gin, where it has not been removed by pre-Galisteo erosion. Reser Basin Play (2301) voir thickness is estimated to be less than 100 feet. Outline of significant basins

Source rocks, timing and migration: Postulated source rocks Outline of Pueblo reservation outside geologic basin would be marine shales within the cyclic Pennsylvanian system and, Albuquerque-Santa Fe where preserved, the basal shale of the Todilto Limestone Member. Rift Province Outline Outline of Pueblo reservation within geologic basin Sparse data indicate the maturation levels in Pennsylvanian rocks and Tertiary rocks to be in the oil-generating window. The data on Pueblo Reservations Outline Extensional faults Tertiary rocks are from depths of 6,000-7,000 feet (Gautier et al., 1996). Line of cross section for upper block

Traps: The play is an oil play for structural traps.

Exploration status: Only about four exploration tests have been Figure P-25. Location of Espanola Basin Play (2303) with respect to the Stratigraphy & Hydrocarbon Potential drilled in the Espaola Basin Play area. Two wells east of the of Pueblo Reservations (modified after Gautier et al., 1996). Espaola, drilled in 1931 and 1961, bottomed in Pennsylvanian rocks at depths of about 1,700 and 2,730 feet, respectively. Minor Triassic-

y tiarerT y Potential source, reservoir, and seal. oil shows were reported in both wells. These wells were probably Alluvial valley fill deposits Jurassic drilled on an intermediate adjacent to the Sangre de Cris to Mountains (Molenaar, 1987). No specific data has been provided Permian Potential source, reservoir, and seal. on these wells. ￿ Pennsylvanian Potential source. Resource potential: In summary, the Espaola Basin Play is specu lative and risky. Although oil shows have been reported, good Pre-Camb. source rocks and reservoirs have not been documented. Seismic data Potential source, reservoir, and seal. Igneous & metamorphics and additional well control are necessary to further evaluate the play.

￿ Cretaceous

Figure P-26. Block diagram of the Espanola Basin (modified after Black, 1982).

PUEBLO INDIAN RESERVATIONS CONVENTIONAL PLAY TYPE: Espanola Basin Play 11 NEW MEXICO San Luis Valley ￿Limited geoph ysical and well data indicate that a basement high Figure P-27. Location of the San Luis Biogenic Play Biogenic Gas Play or horst block underlies the play area (Fig. P-28). Depth to Precam San Luis Valley (2304) with respect to the Pueblo Indian Reservations ￿ (USGS 2304) brian Basement is as shallow as 6,000 feet. The deepest part of the Biogenic Play (2304) (modified after Gautier et al., 1996). ￿ greater San Luis Basin, which is bounded by the foothills of the San UT CO General Characteristics Juan Mountains on the west, and by the Sangre de Cristo Mountains AZ NM This hypothetical play covers an elongate area about 70 miles long on the east, is near the east margin. According to gravity calcula and 20 miles wide in the east-central part of the San Luis Valley tions, the top of the Precambrian surface is at a depth of about Espanola Basin Play (2303) (Fig. P-27), which is a rifted valley filled with continental Tertiary 22,500 feet in the structurally low area northeast of Alamosa. A

deposits (Fig. P-28). The boundaries are arbitrary, and the play is slightly greater depth was calculated for the area a few miles west of Santa Fe based on the many gas shows in shallow water wells in the area Taos, New Mexico. Hagan-Santa Fe Embayment Play (2302) north and east of Alamosa, Colorado (Fig. P-29). Gas has been pro ￿In addition to the shallo w wells that were drilled for gas, or wa Albuquerque duced from about 35 of these wells and used by farmers for heating ter wells that were converted to gas wells, about 23 wells were dril Albuquerque purposes for many . Analytical data indicate that the gas is of led in the greater San Luis Valley area (Fig. P-29). Three wells in Basin Play (2301) biogenic origin. The reservoirs for gas in this play are sands or the northern third of the San Luis Valley that penetrated the entire sandstones in lacustrine, clay-rich beds of Pliocene age. Whether or section found Tertiary on Precambrian. The other wells were still in Tertiary rocks at total depth. The hydrocarbon potential of this large Albuquerque-Santa Fe not a commercial accumulation of gas exists in this play is specula Rift Province Outline tive. Certainly at such shallow depths, the reservoir pressure would area is very low. Pueblo Reservations be low. Outline

D F.W. CARR D' 1 Crow CARR BACA GRABEN GAS SHOWS Sec.4, T39N, R11E Kennedy- SAN JUAN SAG Williams SAN LUIS BASIN SANGRE DE T 4 RESERVE OIL MAPCO/(AMOCO) CRISTO RANGE T.D. 6200' 1 NBH - Alamosa 1-33 1-3 State N Sec.33, T40N, R11E Sec.32, T40N, R12E AMAREX, INC. TENN. GAS TRANS. AMERADA Strat. Test TUCKER 1-3 State 1-f State COUGAR PET. Whittier Sec. 38, T39N, R5E Sec.14, T41N, R7E Sec.16, T39N, R10E 1 Crow T 4 Feet Sec.3, T39N, R11E Feet T.D. 4280' RESERVE MAPCO 0 8000 8000 NBH Land 1-33 State 1-32 N T.D. 7011' T.D. 9490'

AMERADA 4000 4000 State "F" T CARR 3 Crow 9 T.D. 6072' Sea Sea T.D. 6574' N Level Level

-4000 -4000 T 3 8 N

EXPLANATION ALAMOSA Quaternary alluvial Cretaceous Dakota Ss 0 10 miles Tertiary volcanics Jurassic Morrison Fm. R 9E Santa Fe Group R 10 E R 11 E R 12 E Tertiary sediments undiff. Jurassic Entrada Ss. Note: Vertical scale is not uniform Cretaceous Mancos Shale Precambrian basement Water wells that produce or had significant shows of biogenic gas.

Figure P-29. Location of water wells that produce or had significant shows of biogenic gas within the Baca Graben of the San Luis Valley (modified after Figure P-28. Geologic cross-section across San Luis Basin. Vertical scale is a conversion of a time-depth scale from a seismic section. Therefore, the vertical scale is not uniform (Fig. P-7; cross-section 4) Black, 1982) (modified after Gries, 1985).

PUEBLO INDIAN RESERVATIONS UNCONVENTIONAL PLAY TYPE: San Luis Valley Biogenic Gas Play 12 NEW MEXICO Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Province ￿ is produced from the Sheep Mountain Field and ￿ Mountain Fields, Huerfano , Colorado. Drilling began in The Raton Basin is an elongate, asymmetric basin in southeastern the early 1970's, when the target was oil and (or) gas. Production of Age Stratigraphic Units Thickness (ft.) Colorado and northeastern New Mexico, analogous to other Rocky CO2 is from the Cretaceous Dakota and Jurassic Entrada Formations Mountain structural-stratigraphic basins associated with the Rocky at depths between 3,500 and 6,000 feet. The field has produced ap Poison Canyon Mountain Laramide Orogenic Belt. It is bounded on the west by the proximately 481 BCF of CO . The Bravo Dome [Bueyeros Field] 0 - 2500 2 Formation Sangre de Cristo Uplift, on the north by the and the (Fig. P-36), located in parts of Harding, Union, and Quay Counties, Apishipa Arch, and on the southeast by the Sierra Grande Uplift. New Mexico, also produces CO2, in part from the Permian Glorieta PALEOCENE The basin is approximately 175 miles long and up to 65 miles wide. and Yeso Formations, and has produced [through 1990] 118 BCF of

It encompasses approximately 18,800 square miles (Fig. P-30) and CO2. This field is estimated to contain more than 16 TCF of CO2 re CENEZOIC sedimentary rocks within the basin may be 15,000-20,000 feet thick serves; approximately one-half is estimated to be recoverable with 0 - 2075 in the deepest part (Fig. P-31). The western flank of the basin dips existing technology (Keighin, 1995). Raton Formation steeply to the east and has been affected by substantial transcurrent ￿No commercial oil or g as fields are now active in the basin area, and thrust faulting. In the Miocene, the basin was intruded by the although the coal-bearing Raton and Vermejo Formations yield sig igneous complex, which was accompanied by exten nificant quantities of methane. Two hypothetical conventional gas Vermejo Formation 0 - 350 sive fracturing and intrusion of numerous dikes and sills. Intrusion plays are defined. These are the Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary of the Spanish Peaks Complex does not appear to have significantly Play (4101), and Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Play (4102). An uncon Trindad Sandstone 0 - 255 elevated the general geothermal level of the entire basin. ventional coalbed gas play, the Southern Raton Basin Play (4152) is ￿Post-Precambrian stratigraph y in the Raton Basin is typical of also relevant for gas production in or near the Pueblo Indian Reserva the . A thin carbonate succession (Devon tions (Fig. P-30). ian/Mississippian) overlies the Precambrian Basement (Fig. P-32). Pierre Shale 1300 - 2900 Overlying this sequence are 5,000-10,000 feet of terrigenous Per mian-Pennsylvanian strata, largely sandstones and redbeds. Triassic Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous Play (4102 ) CRETACEOUS redbeds (approximately 1,000 feet thick) overlie about 500 feet of terrigenous Jurassic sediments. The Cretaceous section includes 200 Smokey Hill Marl 900 CO feet of the basal sequence of clastic Purgatoire/Dakota, followed by UT Fort Hays Limestone MESOZOIC 0 - 55

1,000-2,000 feet of marine chalks, marls, and organic-rich shales of AZ NM Niobrara Upper Cretaceous - the Benton and Niobrara Groups. This sequence is overlain by ap Lower Tertiary Play (4101) Codell Sandstone 0 - 30 proximately 2,500 feet of Pierre Shale. The marginal marine, partly Carille Sandstone 165 - 225 deltaic Trinidad Sandstone overlies the Pierre, and is in turn overlain Southern Raton Basin Greenhorn Limestone 20-70

Coal-Bed Play (4152 ) Benton by the coal-bearing Vermejo Formation. The Upper Cretaceous/Pa Greneros Shale 175-400 Santa Fe leocene coal-bearing Raton Formation overlies the Vermejo. Tertiary Dakota Sandstone 140 - 200 sediments of the Poison Canyon Formation overlying these strata are Albuquerque Purgatoiro Formation 100 - 150 highly variable, and represent continental terrigenous sedimentation Morrison 150 - 400 during the end of the . Perhaps 10,000 feet of Ter JURASSIC Wanakah 30 - 100 tiary sediments were originally deposited, but erosion has removed Entrada 40 - 100 much of the sediment, especially around the basin margins. A gener alized stratigraphic section showing the hydrocarbon-bearing strata TRIASSIC Dockum Group 0 - 1200 is shown in Figure P-31. 5,000 - 10,000 ￿In the Colorado portion of the Raton Basin, g as wells have pro Raton Basin-Sierra Grande PALEOZOIC UNDIVIDED Uplift Province Outline duced measurable quantities from Permian, Upper Triassic, and Cre Primary gas reservoir Primary oil reservoir taceous strata in Las Animas County, and from Cretaceous age rocks Pueblo Reservations in Huerfano County (Fig. P-33). Approximately 4,000 bbl oil were Outline Secondary gas reservoir Secondary oil reservoir produced from the Codell Formation (Cretaceous) at the Gardner Field (now plugged and abandoned) in Huerfano County. The Gar Source rocks for gas Source rocks for oils cia Field (Fig. P-34), now abandoned, in Las Animas County, Colo rado, produced 1.5 BCFG from the Cretaceous Pierre Formation and Figure P-31. Stratigraphic section depicting bedding relationships within the Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Geologic Province (modified after Gautier et al., 1996). Apishipa Member of the Niobrara Formation between 1896 and Figure P-30. Outline of Pueblo Reservations with respect to the Raton Basin-Sierra 1943. Natural gas was produced from the Dakota and Morrison For Grande Uplift Province. The Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary Play (4101), Jurassic-Upper mations in the now-abandoned Wagon Mound Field in Mora County, Cretaceous Play (4102) and Southern Raton Basin Coal-Bed Play (4152) are depicted New Mexico (Fig. P-35). (modified after Gautier et al., 1996).

PUEBLO INDIAN RESERVATIONS Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Province 13 NEW MEXICO 4500 4400 4600 4300 4700 R.17E. R.18E. R.19E. R.20E. R.21E. R.22E. R.23E. R.24E. R.25E. R.26E. R.27E. 4200 20 21 22 23 24 19 20 21 22 p-C 4800 T. Dike 32 Raton 1000 4340 N. 4900 T. 1500 31 4612 N. 2000 T 29 T. 28 27 4974 26 25 30 29 28 27 33 30 2500 5046 S N. 3000 Basalt Dike T. 29 4747 N. 3500 4000

T. 4134 32 33 34 35 36 31 32 33 34 28 4700 N. 6000 Maxwell T. 27 4711 N. Cimarron 4600 5 T. 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 26 4500 N. p-C 4500 4633

T. Springer 4557 4616 4603 25 N. 4550 4461 T 34 T. 8 10 4609 11 12 7 8 9 10 24 S N.

T. 23 4648 N. 4650

T. 17 22p-C 16 15 14 13 18 17 16 15 N.

Santa Fe

Albuquerque T. R 62 W R 61 W 21 -500 N. Figure P-34. Structure map of Garcia Field. Datum is the base of the Timpas limestone;

0 3000 T. contours are in feet (modified after Clair and Bradish, 1956). 20 p-C N. 500 1000 Outcrop of Precambrian T. 19 N. 5000

T. 1500 Structure Contour - Top Analog Field Within Raton Basin near Pueblo Reservations 18 2000 N. of Precambrian rocks Garcia Field (Elevation in feet above T. (Figure P-34) 17 3500 mean sea level). CO N. NM · Location of Discovery Well: ￿T34S , R62W T. PUEBLO INDIAN 16 20 miles ￿· Producing Formation: ￿ ￿Codell Fm; Greenhorn Lms; Dakota Ss N. Las Vegas RESERVATIONS N SCALE ￿· Type of Trap: ￿ ￿ ￿Str atigraphic; Dry ￿· Initial Production: ￿ ￿1.5 MCFD Figure P-32. Structure-contour map of top of Precambrian basement rocks in Raton Basin, Oil ￿· Cumulative Production: ￿ ￿NA New Mexico (modified after Woodward and Snyder, 1976). Gas Oil and Gas ￿· Gas Characteristics: ￿ ￿26.6 g ravity API ￿· Type of Drive: ￿ ￿ ￿Lo w pressure 40 miles ￿· Average Net Pay: ￿ ￿v ariable Santa Fe Figure P-33. Outline of Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Geologic Province with ￿· Porosity: ￿ ￿ ￿NR exploration wells from 1900-1993 illustrated. Also highlighted is the outline of the Wagon Mound ￿· Permeability:￿ ￿ ￿NR hydrocarbon plays within the region (modified after Gautier et al., 1996). Field (no longer active)

PUEBLO INDIAN RESERVATIONS Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Province 14 NEW MEXICO 5000 RATON +2200 2000 +2800




2000 +2400 T 21 N +2500 +2700

4500 3000 9000 7000

4000 CIMARRON K d T 20 N +2600 +2300 5000 +2400

SPRINGER 6000 +2500

Santa Fe +2500


T 19 N 6000 Kd +2400 Outcrop of Dakota Ss 7000 Wagon Mound 6000 Dakota Ss Field Structure contour of Kd +2300 Kd top of Dakota Ss in Gas show feet above mean sea T 18 N level 6500 Oil show Anticline, showing plunge 20 miles Dome LAS VEGAS R 30 E R 31 E R 32 E R 33 E R 34 E R 35 E Figure P-35. Structure-contour map of top of (Cretaceous) in Raton Basin, New Mexico (modified after Northrop et al., 1946; Bachman, 1953; Simms, 1965; Figure P-36. Structure map of the Bravo Dome Carbon Dioxide Area Field showing the base of the Cimarron Anhydrite. Contour lines are in feet (modified after Johnson, 1983). Pilmore, 1969; Speer, 1976; and , 1974). Wagon Mound Field Bravo Dome Field (Fig. P-35) (Figure P-36) Location of Discovery Well: ￿ ￿T21N, R21E, sec14, Mor a County, NM Location of Discovery Well:￿￿ ￿s w nw sec 32, T20N, R31E (No.1 Bueyeros) Producing Formation: ￿ ￿ ￿Cretaceous Dak ota Ss & Jurassic Producing Formation:￿ ￿ ￿Santa Rosa ss (T riassic); Sangre De Cristo Fm ￿ ￿ ￿ ￿ ￿Morr ison Fm Type of Trap:￿ ￿ ￿ ￿Str atigraphic Type of Trap:￿ ￿ ￿ ￿Shale (Gr aneros Shale); Stratigraphic Initial Production:￿￿ ￿ ￿1,500 MCFD Initial Production:￿￿ ￿ ￿300-500 thousand cubic f eet per day Cumulative Production: ￿ ￿ ￿5.3 to 9.8 TCF (estimated) Cumulative Production: ￿ ￿ ￿NR Gas Characteristics:￿ ￿ ￿98.6 to 99.8% CO 2 Gas Characteristics:￿ ￿ ￿NR Type of Drive:￿ ￿ ￿ ￿Gas Expansion Type of Drive:￿ ￿ ￿ ￿Gas pressure (lo w) Average Net Pay:￿￿ ￿ ￿100 f eet Average Net Pay: ￿ ￿ ￿110 f eet Porosity:￿￿ ￿ ￿ ￿20% Porosity:￿￿ ￿ ￿ ￿15% Permeability:￿ ￿ ￿ ￿42 millidar cies Permeability:￿ ￿ ￿ ￿~2 darcies

PUEBLO INDIAN RESERVATIONS Analog Fields Within Raton Basin Near Pueblo Indian Reservations 15 New Mexico Conventional Plays Traps: Trinidad Sandstones, in a basin-center environment, may Source rocks, timing, and migration: Shale and coal are ODESSA NATURAL CORP. - Figure P-39. lack a conventional seal. Depth to production is rather shallow, rang possible sources within the Purgatoire-Dakota sequence, MAGUIRE OIL CO. Typical gamma-ray Upper Cretaceous- ing between approximately 4,000 and 6,000 feet. and overlying shales include potential source beds for oil No. 2 W.S. Ranch log of Dakota Lower Tertiary Play and gas. Generation probably began in early Tertiary (Eo sw nw 30 - T 30 N - R 20 E Formation in south- COLFAX CO., NEW MEXICO Exploration status and resource potential: The play is poorly ex central Raton Basin ￿(USGS 4101) cene-time) when overlying strata were at least 10,000 feet 4900' ￿ plored. It is possible that a few new discoveries will exceed 6 thick. Migration probably began in the Eocene. (modified after General Characteristics BCFG. A number of small gas fields possibly could be found. Gilbert and Asquith, TOP OF DAKOTA FM. 1976). This hypothetical, continuous-type "tight-gas" play is largely restrict Traps: Gas was structurally trapped in the Dakota Sands in 4950' ed to the marginal marine, partly deltaic Trinidad Sandstone. Al Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Play a low-relief, northeast-trending Laramide Anticline. Some though, stratigraphic traps could occur in the Vermejo and Raton For (USGS 4102) gas was trapped in lenticular, fluvial Jurassic Morrison mations (Fig. P-37). Dolly and Meissner (1977) estimated the upper Sandstones. Interbedded shales probably act as traps. 5000' most Cretaceous/lowermost Tertiary section may have generated ap General Characteristics Depth to known occurrences is 500-5,000 feet. proximately 23 TCFG, of which approximately 6 TCFG may be re This is a high-risk play, and potential reservoirs are restricted to Ju coverable. Additionally, as much as 750 BCF of recoverable gas re rassic Morrison and Cretaceous Dakota Sandstones deposited as Exploration status: The play is poorly explored. It is un 5050' serves exists in basin-centered gas in the northern portion of the Ra highly lenticular marine bars and fluvial channels (Fig. P-38). Sand likely that new discoveries will exceed 6 BCFG or 1 ton Basin. stones may be fine to coarse grained, 10-40 feet thick and log-de MMBO. A number of small gas fields could probably be

rived porosity may reach 15-25 percent. Field pressure, determined found. 5100' from the now-abandoned Wagon Mound Field (Mora County, New Reservoirs: The Cretaceous Trinidad Sandstone, characterized as TOP OF MORRISON FM. marginal marine and partly deltaic, is the potential reservoir rock. Mexico) is low. Resource potential: This is a high risk play; undiscovered

General thickness probably varies between 100 and 250 feet. Reser resources are estimated to be of small size. 5150' voir sandstones may be as much as 50 feet thick and reservoir porosi Reservoirs: Jurassic Morrison and Cretaceous Dakota Sandstones, ty is probably 10-14 percent, but porosity usually varies between 2 deposited as highly lenticular marine bars and fluvial channels, are the potential reservoirs. Sandstones are fine to coarse grained, 10-40 and 18 percent. Other potential clastic reservoirs include the Creta Figure P-40. Typical W.J. GOURLEY No. 2 VERMEJO ceous Vermejo and Cretaceous/Paleocene Raton Formations. feet thick. Porosity, determined from logs (Figs. 39 and 40), varies electric log characteristics 16, T30N, R19E between 15 and 25 percent and permeability appears high. Field of the Dakota Sandstone Colfax County New Mexico Source rocks, timing, and migration: Pierre Shale and coal/carbo pressure is low (5.5 psi). Most of the gas has been found in the up in the Raton Basin, Colfax County, New Mexico naceous beds are potential sources in the Vermejo, Raton, and Poison per Dakota Sands. SP RESISTIVITY (modified after Gilbert and - + Canyon Formations. Generation and migration probably began no Asquith, 1976). earlier than Eocene. Jurassic - Lower Jurassic - Lower Graneros Shale Cretaceous Play (4102 ) Cretaceous Play (4102 )

UT CO UT CO AZ NM AZ NM Upper Cretaceous - Marine Sand Upper Cretaceous - Lower Tertiary Play (4101) Lower Tertiary CEOUS Belt Play (4101) A Interval

Santa Fe Braided

Santa Fe CRET

ota Sandstone Alluvial

Albuquerque Interval

Albuquerque Dak Southern Raton Basin Southern Raton Basin Coal-Bed Play (4152 ) Coal-Bed Play (4152 ) Purgatoire Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Formation Uplift Province Outline

Pueblo Reservations Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Outline Uplift Province Outline

Pueblo Reservations Morrison Outline Formation 100 feet JURASSIC

Figure P-37. Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary Play (4101) with respect to the Pueblo Figure P-38. Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Play (4102) with respect to the Pueblo Indian Indian Reservations (modified after Gautier et al., 1996). Reservations (modified after Gautier et al., 1996).

PUEBLO INDIAN RESERVATIONS CONVENTIONAL PLAYS: Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary Play and Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Play 16 NEW MEXICO UNCONVENTIONAL PLAYS rocks is oriented east-west. resources of the Raton Basin are estimated to be as much as 12 TCF Analog Field Within Raton Basin (near Pueblo Indian Reservations) ￿ ￿Groundw ater recharges the topographically high Vermejo-Raton (Fig. P-42). Coal-Bed Gas Plays along the western margin of the basin and flows eastward to ￿Some coal is produced by both under ground and surface meth Sheep Mountain Field discharge at the topographically lower eastern outcrops along major ods in the Colorado and New Mexico parts of the basin. Mine-relat (Figure P-41) Three coal-bed gas plays are identified in the Raton Basin Province. seeps and drainage areas (Geldon, 1989; Stevens et al., 1992). The ed emissions are minor. An explosion in an underground mine near Location of Discovery Well:￿￿ ￿No .1 Faris, The Southern Raton Basin Play (4152) is relevant to the Pueblo Indi primary fracture (face cleat) trend in the Raton Basin coals is per Trinidad, Colorado, indicates that the coal beds are gassy. ￿ ￿ ￿ ￿ ￿nw se 15, T25S, R70W an Reservations (Fig. P-41). Tyler et al., 1991; Stevens et al., 1992; pendicular to the local trend of the Sangre de Cristo thrust front and Since the late 1970's, more than 110 exploration wells have been Producing Formation: ￿ ￿ ￿Cretaceous Dak ota Ss; and Close and Dutcher, 1993, have described the geologic controls thus enhances groundwater flow and the potential for artesian over drilled for coal-bed gas in the Raton Basin, both in Colorado and ￿ ￿ ￿ ￿ ￿J urassic Entrada Ss and potential of coal-bed gas in the Raton Basin, southeastern Colo pressuring (Tyler et al., 1991). New Mexico. Production tests have been variable, but gas rates of Type of Trap:￿ ￿ ￿ ￿Str atigraphic (shale) rado and northeastern New Mexico. ￿Gas contents of coal beds in the basin are highly v ariable and more than 300 MCF/D have been reported. At present, all wells are ￿In the Raton Basin, coal beds with potential for coal-bed g as are range from 4 to 810 Scf/t. These contents seem to correlate more shut-in because of the absence of gas pipelines in the basin. Howev Initial Production:￿￿ ￿ ￿4900 MCFD contained within the Upper Cretaceous Vermejo and Upper Creta closely with depth below the hydrologic potentiometric surface than er, a pipeline is under construction and a pilot nitrogren injection Cumulative Production:￿ ￿ ￿NR ceous-Paleocene Raton Formations (Fig. P-42). The Vermejo For with depth below the ground surface. On the basis of coal thickness, project for coalbed gas wells has been approved (Rice and Finn, Gas Characteristics:￿ ￿ ￿NR mation is as much as 350 feet thick and individual coal seams are as coal density, drillable area, and gas content, in-place coal-bed gas 1995). Type of Drive:￿ ￿ ￿ ￿Gas pressure much as 14 feet thick. The cumulative coal thickness for the forma Average Net Pay:￿￿ ￿ ￿350 f eet, 110 feet tion ranges from 5 to 35 feet. The overlying Raton Formation is as +2000 Porosity:￿￿ ￿ ￿ ￿NR much as 1,600 feet thick and has a net coal thickness in the range of <- Figure P-41. Structure Permeability:￿ ￿ ￿ ￿NR 10 to 120 feet. Although the Raton Formation contains more coal, +1500 map of the Sheep Mountain +3500 Field showing the outline of individual coal seams are thinner, more discontinuous, and distribut R 69 W R 65 W R 61 W the Sheep Mountain unit. T ed over 1,200 feet of section. The nature of the coal seams in the two +1000 27 +6000 S Datum is the top of the Dakota River +5500 +500 formations is controlled by depositional environment; the Vermejo 0 +5000 +2500 Sandstone Formation S +3000 was deposited in a lagoonal environment; whereas, the Raton was +3500 Walsenburg U +4500+4000 +3000 Cucharas R (modified after Roth, 1983). F 8 deposited in a fluvial setting. Although coal beds are as much as A 0 C 16 4,100 feet deep in the northern part of the basin along the LaVeta E +4500 4 +5000 TR 20 12 A Syncline, they are generally less than 1,200 feet over a large part of C River E O the basin. F +4000 P A ￿The rank of coals in the Vermejo Formation ranges from high- L 24 U 0 volatile C bituminous along the margins of the basin to low-volatile D Apishapa U bituminous in the central part of the basin. The rank generally coin R 24 T A 31 T Vermejo/Trinidad cides with present-day depth of burial and structural configuration, H S R contact and probably resulted from maximum depth of burial that occurred U S T +500 12 River in early Tertiary time. However, the highest ranks (low-volatile bitu F A minous) occur along the eastward-flowing Purgatoire River where U 8 L Purgatoire T the present-day depths of burial are less than about 1,200 feet. These Stonewall Trinidad high ranks are interpreted to be the result of high heat flow from the crust, upper mantle, and (or) deep igneous intrusions which was 4 0 transferred laterally by groundwater flow in middle Tertiary time. During this time, Vermejo and Raton coal beds commonly served as 0 +4500 COLORADO T 35 S planes of weakness for igneous intrusions. However, the thermal +5000 +4000 NEW MEXICO T 32 N maturity of the coal beds is only locally affected (one-dike width) by 4 the intrusions. Raton ￿Coal-bed g ases from production tests in the Raton Basin are U D composed mostly of methane with minor amounts of ethane, carbon Figure P-42. -> Raton dioxide, and nitrogen (each less than 1 percent). Isotopic analyses +3000 Basin coal-bed methane in

+4000 indicate that the gases are predominantly of thermogenic origin and EXPLANATION +3500 place, contoured in 4 8 +4500 were probably generated during time of maximum burial and (or) BCF/mi intervals; data er Riv 0 heat flow. Some mixing of relatively recent biogenic gas may occur +2000 inside the 16 BCF/mi Outline of Sheep Mtn. Unit +5500 T contour have a high degree N. Ponit CO in areas of groundwater flow. +5000 28 of uncertainty (modified N ￿The Raton Basin is a strongly asymmetric basin with a gently N

after Stevens et al., 1992). NM Canadian Canadian dipping eastern flank and a steeply dipping western flank that is +4500 U +4000 Vermejo Normal Fault U D 0 10mi thrust-faulted (Fig. P-9). Several major folds are located along the D western margin of the basin. Minor normal faulting occurs within U D River 0 10km Axis of syncline Cimarron Creek the basin with displacements generally less than 50 feet. The pri Contour Interval: 4 BCF/sq. mi. mary fracture permeability system in both the coals and adjoining R 17 E R 21 E

PUEBLO INDIAN RESERVATIONS Coal-Bed Gas Plays 17 NEW MEXICO Southern Raton Basin Play South-Central New Mexico Province tion is preserved. Laramide compression from the southwest re province. They are Orogrande Basin Play (2602) and Mesilla-Mimbres (USGS 4152) juvenated older fault-bounded structures and other paleo-zones of Basins Play (2603), neither of which occur in or near the Pueblo Indian ￿ This frontier petroleum province covers about 39,900 square miles, weakness (for example thrust faults) and created basement-cored up Reservations. However, limited exploration has occurred within the General Characteristics primarily in the easternmost part of the Basin and Range Physio lifts. Plutons, with attendant rich mineralization, intruded the prov Acoma Basin Play, which underlies a segment of the Pueblo Reserva The target area for coal-bed gas is where coal beds of the Vermejo graphic Province; it has no production (Fig. P-44). For a more com ince. Early Tertiary uplift provided cyclic alluvial-fluvial fan grav tion. A brief description of the production within the Acoma Basin is and Raton Formations are greater than 500 feet deep. The thicker, plete description of this province, see Butler, 1988; and Grant and els and deltaic clastics to continental interior-drained basins and presented in the following section.￿ more continuous seams of the Vermejo Formation are probably better Foster, 1989. small lakes. targets for coal-bed gas production. The Southern Raton Basin Play ￿Small, northeast-trending rift basins are the predominant ph ys ￿T wo hypothetical conventional plays were assessed in this target area (Fig. P 43) is based on depth, coal rank, and concentration iographic feature of the South-Central New Mexico Province. As of gas in place. Exploration wells have been drilled for coal-bed gas much as 10,000 feet of alluvium and volcanic rocks fill these exten in the play, but production has not been established (as of 1996). The sional basins, obscuring a moderately thick section of Paleozoic stra reserve potential of coal-bed gas from all three plays is considered ta. PUEBLO INDIAN very good, but production will depend on infrastructure development, ￿This pro vince has a complex geologic history, having been de RESERVATIONS particularly pipeline construction. formed by three major periods of tectonism during Phanerozoic time: ￿In the Southern Raton Basin Play (4152), coal ranks are as much (1) Late Paleozoic formation of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, (2) Santa Fe as medium-volatile bituminous, but depths of burial are less than Laramide compression, and (3) Cenozoic relaxation and extension 1,400 feet. Because of these relatively shallow depths, concentra and volcanism. South-Central New Mexico was near the terminus of tions of gas in-place are about 8 BCF/square mile or less. The re the northeast-trending transcontinental basement arch during the Late Albuquerque serve potential of this play is also regarded as good (Rice and Finn, and Paleozoic. Within this time span, sediments were 1995). deposited in platform, shallow shelf, basinal, and alluvial plain envi ronments. Epeiric seas generally transgressed from the south, and thus a greater thickness of strata was deposited during this time in the southern part of the Jurassic - Lower province. During the mid-Paleozoic, general Cretaceous Play (4102 ) quiescence of the in the equatorial paleo- latitudes resulted in widespread deposition of Acoma Basin UT CO fossiliferous carbonates accompanied by basin- Upper Cretaceous - margin organic buildups. Convergence of the AZ NM Lower Tertiary North and South American tectonic plates in Play (4101) the late Paleozoic resulted in intraplate defor mation. ￿T riassic and Jurassic strata are not well represented in the province, which depositio Santa Fe nally represents an erosional surface shifting from highlands to interior lowlands and coastal Albuquerque plains. Nascent opening of the Gulf of Mexico (Chihuahua Trough) deposited as much as 750 Southern Raton Basin feet of marine Jurassic sediments in the south Coal-Bed Play (4152 ) ernmost Mesilla Basin. Continued opening near the New Mexico-Mexico border resulted in an east-west Early Cretaceous rift, extending Dry into southeastern . A thick Late Creta Raton Basin-Sierra Grande ceous section of marine sandstones and shales Gas and continental fluvial clastics and paludal Uplift Province Outline Oil and Gas coals was deposited as seas transgressed and re Pueblo Reservations gressed from the north-northeast and from the Outline south-southwest; about 3,000 feet of this sec 50 miles

Figure P-43. Southern Raton Basin Coal-Bed Play (4152), with respect to the Pueblo Indian Figure P-44. Outline of South-Central New Mexico Geologic Province with exploration wells from Reservations (modified after Gautier et al., 1996). 1900-1993 illustrated. The Acoma Basin is highlighted (modified after Gautier et al., 1996).

PUEBLO INDIAN RESERVATIONS UNCONVENTIONAL PLAY: Southern Raton Basin Play and South-Central New Mexico Province 18 NEW MEXICO Acoma Basin Play Mesaverde and Dakota Sandstones are secondary UT CO reservoir targets that have been eroded from the AZ NM The Acoma Basin has seen limited exploration since the 1920's (Fig. eastern part of the basin and are present only at shal Santa Fe P-45). The boundary between the Acoma Basin and the San Juan Ba low depths (less than 1500 feet {Broadhead, 1989}) sin to the northwest and the eastern Baca Basin is transitional. in the western part of the basin (Fig. P-48). Pennsyl

￿Three signif icant exploratory wells have been drilled in the Aco vanian and Cretaceous marine shales are potential Santa Fe Albuquerque ma Basin since 1981. The Topaz Southwest Number 1 State tested source rocks, but the Cretaceous section may be Cretaceous sandstones and shales and Jurassic sandstones with no re thermally immature (Broadhead, 1989). Albuquerque ported shows. The Austra-Tex Numbers 1 through 7 Rio Puerco Fed eral, were drilled to test the Pennsylvanian section (Fig. P-46). ￿Primary reserv oir targets in the Acoma Basin are Permian lime stones and sandstones of the San Andres and Yeso Formations and Dry Pennsylvanian sandstone and limestones (Fig. P-47). The Cretaceous Figure P-45. Outline of Gas the South-Central New Acoma Basin Play ERA PERIOD Mexico Province with the Oil and Gas NORTH SOUTH Acoma Basin Play Basin-fill alluvium and basalt flows QUATERNARY Highlighted (modified after Pueblo Reservations Camp Rice Fm. Gautier et al., 1996). Outline Pliocene Ft. Hancock Fm. 50 miles Santa Fe Group South-Central New Miocene Mexico Procince Outline Oligocene Sierra Blanco Fm. Pueblo Reservations CENOZOIC Figure P-48. Location of exploration wells in Acoma Basin (modified after Gautier Outline Eocene Baca Fm. Love Ranch Fm. et al., 1996.) TERTIARY Paleocene Cub Mountain Fm. McRae Fm. Undifferentiated Late ä E Top of Gallup E' CRETACEOUS Dakota Sandstone Cebollita Mesa Sarten Fm. Early Mesaverde Gp. <-Figure P-46. Sandstone Mancos Shale Marine Late clastics Stratigraphic section JURASSIC Middle depicting bedding Puertecito Carthage relationships within the Top of Gallup Sandstone Early Zone of pink MESOZOIC Chinle Fm. Dockum Grp. South-Central New D-Cross Mtn. Late Santa Rosa Ss. Mexico Geologic fluvial Ss complex TRIASSIC Ramah Middle Province (modified Early Abo Fm. after Gautier et al., Late Hueco Fm. San Andres Fm. Gallego Ss PERMIAN 1996). ä Glorieta Ss. Early ä Hueco Fm. Yeso Fm. Laborcita Fm. Bursum Fm. Late Holder Fm. Magdalena Panther Seep Fm. Beeman Fm. Group Bishop Cap Fm. PENNSYLVANIAN Middle Berino Fm. Gobler Fm. Early La Tuna Fm. D-Cross Sh Tongue Helms Fm. Pescado Tongue Late Rancheria Fm. MISSISSIPPIAN Lake Valley Fm. Las Cruces Fm. Early Caballero Fm. Late Percha Formation Lower Mancos Sh Lower Gallup Middle ä Canutillo Formation (Atarque Mbr)

PALEOZOIC Early Contadero Fm. Late Sly Gap Fm. Onate Fm. Middle Fusselman Formation Early Late Montoya Group 300 feet Lower Mancos Sh Middle EXPLANATION Early El Paso Group Figure P-47.-> Bliss Formation Stratigraphic cross- Marine & coastal barrier sands Late Nonmarine deposits (including coal beds) section E-E' of the of Gallup & Dalton Middle Acoma Basin (Fig. P-7; Early Tidal channel sands of Gallup Marine shale & siltstone cross-section 5) SCALE (modified after Molenaar, 1974). Vertical exaggeration = 528 NONE DEFINED and metamorphic rocks Measured sections in outcrop ZOIC

PROTERO- 30 miles

PUEBLO INDIAN RESERVATIONS CONVENTIONAL PLAY-TYPE: Acoma Basin Play 19 NEW MEXICO Pueblo Reservations of New Mexico Chapin, C.E.,1971, The Rio Grande rift, Part.I: modifications Resources Circular 150, 16p. 54. REFERENCES and additions: New Mexico Geological Society, Guide Grant, P.R., Jr. and Foster, R.W., 1989, Future petroleum prov Mellere, D., 1994, Sequential development of an eustarine valley ￿ book for the 22nd Field Conference, p. 191-202. inces in New Mexico-discovering new reserves: New fill: The Twowells Tongue of the Dakota Sandstone, Acoma Armstrong, R.L., 1968, The Sevier orogenic belt in Charpentier, Ronald R., et al., 1996, Tabular Data, Text, and Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, p. 57-58. Basin, New￿Mexico, Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. and : Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 79, Graphical Images in Support of the 1995 National Assess Gries, R.R., 1985, San Juan Sag: Cretaceous rocks in a volcan B64, no. 4, p. 500-515. p. 229-258. ment of United States Oil and Gas Resources, United ic-covered basin, South-, The Mountain Molenaar, C.M., 1993, Albuquerque-Santa Fe-san Luis Rift Ba Baltz, E.H., 1965, Stratigraphy and history of Raton Basin and States Geological Survey, Digital Data Series DDS-36, Geologist, v. 22, no. 4, p. 167-179. sins Province, in Petroleum exploration plays and resource notes on San Luis Basin, Colorado-New Mexico: AAPG CD-ROM. Hook, S.C., 1983, Stratigraphy, paleontology, depositional estimates, 1989, onshore United States; Region 3, Colorado Bulletin, v. 49, p. 2041-2075. Clair, J.R., and Brandish, B.B., 1956, Garcia gas field, Las framework and nomenclature of marine Upper Cretaceous Plateau and Basin and Range., R.B., Powers, ed., U.S. Geo Animas County, Colorado, in Guidebook to the Geology Rocks, Socorro County, New Mexico: New Mexico Geo logical Survey Open-File Report, p. 66-73. Baltz, E.H., 1967, Stratigraphy and regional tectonic implica logical Society Guidebook, 34th Field Conference, p. 165- of Raton Basin, Colorado, p. 75-78. Molenaar, C.M., 1987, Petroleum geology and hydrocarbon tions of part of Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks, east- 172. Close, J.C., and Dutcher, R.R., 1993, Predication of permeabil plays of the Albuquerque-San Luis Rift Basin, New Mexico central San Juan Basin, New Mexico: U.S. Geological Hook, S.C., Cobban, W.A., and Landis, E.R., 1980, Extension ity trends and origins in coal-bed methane reservoirs of and Colorado: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report Survey Professional Paper 552, 101p. of the intertongued Dakota Sandstone-Mancos Shale ter the Raton Basin, New Mexico and Colorado: New Mexi 87-450-S, 26p. Bachman, G.O., 1953, Geology of a part of northwestern Mora minology in the Southern Zuni Basin: New Mexico Geol County, New Mexico: U.S. Geological Survey, Oil and co Geological Society, Guidebook to 41st Field Confer Molenaar, C.M., 1983, Major depositional cycles and regional ence, p. 387-395. ogy, v. 2, p. 42-44. Gas Investigations Map OM-137. 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