Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2014) 3(1): 461-475

ISSN: 2319-7706 Volume 3 Number 1 (2014) pp. 461-475 http://www.ijcmas.com

Review Article Recent Antimicrobial and Pharmacological studies in Linn

Varsha A. Parasharami*, Vindya Vati, Bhakti Rabade and Urmil J. Mehta

Plant Tissue Culture Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, 411008, *Corresponding author


Ficus religiosa L., commonly known as Peepal tree is a medicinally important tree species belonging to the Moraceae family. It is considered a sacred tree in India and is respected by followers of many religions. It is extremely popular in K e y w o r d s indigenous system of medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homeopathy. Studies have been carried out in the past that validate the antimicrobial property of Ficus religiosa; Ficus religiosa and have been documented. Recent pharmacological reports show antimicrobial; the potential of this tree as a source of many bio medicinally active pharmacological; compounds/molecules that could be used for future drug synthesis. These reports Disc Diffusion; have focused on investigating the antidiabetic, anticancer, antiulcer, anticonvulsant, Well Diffusion; antioxidant, nootropic and wound healing properties of different parts of Ficus MIC; religiosa. While working on antimicrobial property studies with different solvent MBC; extracts of various parts of this tree, recent research articles have been surveyed. antibacterial; Most of the recent reports have used Disc Diffusion, Well Diffusion, MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) and MBC (Minimum Bacterial antifungal. Concentration) methods for determination of antimicrobial potential. The present review compiles findings of all recent studies dealing with both, antibacterial and antifungal properties of Ficus religiosa.


Ficus religiosa L. is an important the religious significance attached to this medicinal tree species belonging to the tree. The prince Siddhartha is believed family Moraceae. It is commonly known to have sat and meditated under the Peepal as the Peepal tree and is one of the most tree and found enlightenment from which revered trees in Asia due to its time he became Buddha . This is mythological and traditional background. probably why many people use its It is also known as, the sacred fig tree or decoction as a brain tonic (Devi et al., tree and is the most planted tree 2011).The tree is therefore sacred to species near religious or spiritual places in Buddhists not just in India, but also in Indian cities and villages. It grows up to other East Asian countries like , elevations of 5,000 feet (Starr et al., 2003). Japan and even . Scientifically, The specific term religiosa is related to the enlightenment can be due to the effect

461 Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2014) 3(1): 461-475 of this tree on the central nervous system Ficus religiosa L. is the most popular (CNS). It is said that the Peepal Tree s member of the genus Ficus, and is known infrared sauna produces radiant energy, by more than 150 names (Figure. 1). Even which is the same as the sun, but without in one language, the tree is referred to in the harmful rays. Unlike multiple ways across the world. Consider traditional saunas which heat the body the examples of Sanskrit where it is known indirectly via air or steam, the infrared by 33 names namely Achyutavas, sauna of the Peepal tree is absorbed Ashvatha, Bodhidru, Bodhidruma, directly into the body and provides Chaityadru, Chaityavriksha, Chaladala, a large number of benefits including better Chalapatra, Devatma, Dhanurvriksha, circulation and increased energy as the Gajabhakshaka, Gajapatra, Gajashana, sauna s radiant energy penetrates deeply Guhyapushpa, Kapitana, Kesavalaya, into joints, muscles and tissues, speeding Krishnavass, Kshiradruma, Kunjarashana, oxygen flow, increasing circulation and Mahadruma, Mangalya, Nagabandhu, improving metabolism. Pavitraka, Pippala, Sevya, Shrimana, (http://www.bodhitreeyogacentre.ca/Bodhi Shubhada, Shuchidruma, Shymala, Vipra, %20Tree%20Yoga%20Kemptville.swf). Vishala, Vriksharaja, Yajnika. In Tamil, people call it Aswartham, Achuvattam, The effect on the CNS is also scientifically Arasu, Atti, Arayal, Asuvattam, Attiru, studied and is reported as the nootropic Attugamani, Ilanai, Kanavam, (Vinutha et al., 2007; Kaur et al., 2010; Kunjarasanam, Magadurumam, Mare, Devi et al., 2011), anti-convulsant Narayanam, Padaroganam, Panai, (Vyawahare et al., 2007; Patil et al., 2011; Pittalam,Saladalam, Saranam, Suvalai, Singh et al., 2012, 2013) and memory Tanavam, Tiru or Vanagandi. And even in enhancing properties (Devi et al., 2011; French, it has around 6 names that are Rao et al., 2011) of various parts of the Allemaron, Aoa, Arbre des conseils, Arbre tree.The botanical classification of Ficus du diable, Arbre des pagodes, Figuier des religiosa (modified from Chandrasekar et pagodes (Kirtikar and Basu, 1993; Panda, al., 2010) is as follows: 2005; Kunwar and Bussmann, 2006; Pullaiah, 2006; Khare, 2007; Singh et al., 2011). Domain Eukaryota Kingdom Plantae The present review has been undertaken Phylum Tracheophyta during the antimicrobial activity studies Subphylum Euphyllophytina conducted and the literature survey carried Infraphylum Radiotopses out with different solvent extracts of Ficus Class Magnoliopsida religiosa using both in vivo plant parts and Subclass Dilleniidae in vitro regenerated tissues. There are Superorder Urticanae numerous pharmacological, phytochemical Order Urticales and ethnomedicinal studies carried out on Family Moraceae this tree and many recent reviews have Tribe Ficeae mentioned these studies (Chandrasekar et Genus Ficus (FY-kus) al., 2010; Makhija et al., 2010; Singh et Linnaeus al., 2011; Panchavat, 2012). Recently Specific epithet religiosa L. many reports have been published on the antimicrobial activity of this medicinally

462 Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2014) 3(1): 461-475 important tree species (Ramakrishnaiah out on the isolation of other bioactive and Hariprasad, 2013; Supriya and molecules active against different diseases, Harshita, 2013; Tambekar et al., 2013; which can, in future, be used as Salem et al., 2013; Manimozhi et al., constituents of drugs. Different parts of the 2012; Rajiv and Sivaraj, 2012). We have tree also are known to promote wound done a thorough literature survey of these healing (Bairy et al., 2011; Murthi et al., studies that have been published till date. 2011; Charde et al., 2010; Jain et al., There is a noticeable change in the area of 2009; Roy et al., 2009; Nayeem et al., research in this field since last two to three 2009; Choudhary et al., 2006). Ficus years. More attention is being drawn to the religiosa was also found to have various antimicrobial properties of the anticancer (Gulecha et al., 2011; Lansky tree, compared with pharmacological et al., 2008; Mousa et al., 1994) , antiulcer studies using models that used to (Gregory et al., 2013; Thorat et al., 2013; be the main focus till then. Bairy et al., 2011; Khan et al., 2011; Saha et al., 2010), anti-asthmatic (Kapoor et al., Pharmacological studies for different 2011), dermatoprotective (Waheed et al., diseases 2013), hepatoprotective (Chourasia et al., 2013), antihelmenthic (Iqbal et al., 2001) Since time immemorial, different parts of and antioxidant properties (Yadav et al., this tree like bark, leaves, etc. have 2011; Gupta et al., 2011; Pandit et al., been used as medicine by human and 2010; Preethi et al., 2010; Kirana et al., alike. It has proven to be a cure 2009; Sultana et al., 2009; Sreelekshmi et for over more than 50 diseases and more al., 2007; Sharma and Gupta., 2007). than 65 pharmacological studies have been reported. The therapeutic of Presently, there is an increasing interest F.religiosa have been indicated in worldwide in herbal medicines traditional systems of medicine like accompanied by increased laboratory Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, etc. (Singh et investigation into the pharmacological al., 2011). A large number of reports have properties of the bioactive ingredients and been published till date dealing with the their ability to treat various diseases pharmacological studies done on animal (Makhija et al., 2010). Preliminary models using different extracts of various phytochemical analysis of various parts of parts of the medicinally important tree Ficus religiosa have shown the presence species. These include Ficus religiosa as a of a large number of phytochemicals source of bioactive molecules that have including tannins, saponins, flavonoids, antidiabetic properties (Elavarasi et al., steroids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides 2013; Khan et al., 2012; Shukla et al., (Babu et al., 2010; Jiwala et al., 2008). Its 2012; Verma et al., 2012; Choudhary et bark showed the presence of bergapten, al., 2011; Pandit et al., 2010; Kirana et al., bergaptol, lanosterol, ß-sitosterol, 2009; Deshmukh et al., 2007; Ambika and stigmasterol, leucoanthocyanin, Rao, 1967; Brahmachari and Augusti, leucoanthocyanidin etc. ( and Bisht, 1962). Also for the first time an 1996; Swami et al., 1989; Ambike and antidiabetic biomolecule named Rao, 1967; Hussain et al., 1992). Leaves stigmasterol was isolated from Ficus were found to yield campesterol, religiosa leaves (Vedulla et al., 2013). In stigmasterol, isofucosterol etc (Panda et the similar way, research is being carried al., 1976; Verma and Bhatia, 1986; Behari

463 Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2014) 3(1): 461-475 et al., 1984). The fruits were found to be molecules that have an inhibitory effect on rich in amino like asparagines and the growth of such pathogens. (Grison et al., 2002). Alanine, threonine, tyrosine have been reported in Owing to some of these bioactive seeds of F.religiosa (Ali and Qadry, molecules, various parts of Ficus religiosa 1987). The crude latex showed the are found to exhibit antimicrobial activity presence of a serine protease, named both against various species of religiosin , an acidic which plays and fungi. A large number of studies an important role in production and dealing with the microbial assay (which has detergent activity (Kumari et al., measures the activity of antibiotics that is 2010). the extent of ability to inhibit the growth of microorganism) have been done and Figure. 2 shows the popularity of Ficus numerous reports have been published till religiosa on the basis of published papers date (Table. 1). upto the year 2006 (http://www.newcrops.uq.edu.au/listing/sp Ramakrishnaiah and Hariprasad (2013) ecies_pages_F/Ficus_religiosa.htm). investigated the antimicrobial activity of Ficus religiosa by measuring the zone of Antibacterial and antifungal activities inhibition (ZoI) produced by two types of solvent extracts namely methanol and Medicinal plants are rich source of a wide diethyl ether extracts of bark and leaves, variety of secondary metabolites, such as on three bacteria (two Gram negative tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, and bacteria (E.coli and Pseudomonas flavonoids. These phytochemicals are aeruginosa), one Gram positive bacteria responsible for the numerous (Staphylococcus aureus) and one fungus pharmacological and antimicrobial (Aspergillus niger). The different activities shown by the plant. There is concentrations of methanol and diethyl found to be an increasing antibiotic ether extractions (100, 200, 300 and 400 resistance exhibited by various pathogens mg/ml) of both bark and leaves of to commonly used synthetic antibiotics. F.religiosa were used for the assay. Disc This has led to the search and screening of diffusion method was used to carry out several medicinal plants for their potential the assay. The methanol extracts of leaves antimicrobial activity so as to overcome and bark showed antimicrobial activity various diseases caused by these resistant against three bacteria. At lower pathogens. Consider the example of concentrations methanol extracts showed diarrhoea which is a common cause of less antimicrobial activity and showed morbidity and mortality among and higher activity at 400 mg/ml concentration children in developing countries. Most of against the three tested bacteria. Both leaf the intestinal flora of is non- and bark methanol extracts gave ZoI 2.8 pathogenic. However, certain strains like and 2.2mm respectively in S.aureus and Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) are highly 2.4 and 1.8mm respectively in E.coli. pathogenic. ETEC is the most prevalent P.aeroginosa gave a small ZoI (2.2 and among the various types of diarrhoeagenic 1.1mm) in methanol extracts of leaves and E. coli in India (Uma et al., 2009). Hence, bark. But at lower concentrations no there is a great search for medicinal plants activity was observed whereas at higher which contain various natural drug concentrations (40mg/ml) very less

464 Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2014) 3(1): 461-475 activity was observed against fungi E.coli and 16 mm with S.aureus which is (A.niger). The diethyl ether extracts of more compared to methanol and water leaves and bark showed varied extracts. The petroleum ether extract did antimicrobial activity against tested three not show any activity (Supriya and bacteria and no activity against on A.niger Harshita, 2013). in all concentrations. In case of diethyl ether extract of bark E.coli ZoI was 1.0 Salem and his colleagues reviewed the and 0.9mm and S. aureus it was 1.4 and different antimicrobial activities and 1.2mm, bacteria showed inhibition and no phytochemical composition of extracts of activity on P. aeroginosa and A.niger. Ficus spp. To study the antimicrobial Diethyl ether extracts of leaves showed activities, different antimicrobial methods inhibitory activity on three tested bacteria such as disc and well diffusion, minimum and no activity on A.niger. The above inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum results indicated that the diethyl ether bacterial concentrations (MBC) were used extract of leaves and barks had no activity for the evaluation of different extracts. on A.niger in all tested concentrations. The This review gives the idea of which results showed that the methanol extracts solvent works potentially against different of leaves and bark extracts of Ficus pathogenic microorganisms. Aqueous religiosa had considerable inhibition extracts showed high antimicrobial activity on tested bacteria than diethyl activity against B.subtilis and multi drug ether extracts of leaves and bark of the resistant P.aeroginosa. Ethanolic leaves Ficus religiosa. extract was successful to inhibit wide range of microorganisms which mainly Another study was carried out by Supriya includes B.subtilis, S.aureus, and Harshita (2013) in which extracts of P.aeroginosa, E.coli but failed to show dried powdered leaves of Ficus religiosa any action against C.albicans and A.niger. in petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol The extracts have high potential and water was made. These extracts were towards antibacterial activity but no then subjected for in vivo antimicrobial antifungal activity. The 70% (v/v) activity against E.coli and S.aureus by cup Aqueous-ethanolic extracts was successful plate diffusion technique in which wells to inhibit Helicobactor pyroli completely were bore in the agar plates that were at the concentration 500 µg/ml in all flooded with the bacterial culture and the strains. Chloroform extracts showed high extract was filled into these wells, antibacterial activity against infectious Different dilutions of the four extracts S.typhi, S.typhimurium, P.vulgaris at the were made and the dried extracts were concentration 20 µg/ml. Different extracts dissolved in 5% DMSO to a concentration of bark (MeOH, Aqueous, Chloroform) of 200 mg/ml. Chloramphenicol (30 showed maximum inhibitory activity mcg/disc) was used as standard antibiotic. against 3 potential enteroxigenic E.coli The plates were incubated and the which were isolated from the patients with antimicrobial activity was recorded by diarrhoea, but bark extracts with solvent measuring the width of the clear inhibition system such as acetone, methanol, ethyl zone around the disc using zone reader acetate showed moderate antibacterial (Zone Size Interpretative Scale).It was activity against P. aeruginosa, E. coli, found that chloroform extract showed P. vulgaris , B. subtilis and S. aureus good activity giving a zone of 16 mm with (Salem et al., 2013).

465 Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2014) 3(1): 461-475

Tambekar and his colleague carried out albicans with different concentrations. the studies on antimicrobial potential and Results obtained showed that methanol has phytochemical analysis of medicinal higher activity than chloroform and plants from Lonar Lake. Lonar lake is aqueous extract. Hexane extract did not situated in Buldhana district in show any antibacterial activity. Ethanolic Maharashtra (India) which is surrounded leaves extracts have more antibacterial by dense forest of many medicinally activity with less antifungal activity. This important plants including Syzigium work also showed that 70% percent cumini, Ficus bengalensis, Cynodon aqueous-ethanol extracts are very sensitive dactylon, Justicia adhatoda, Calotropis to Helicobacter pyroli at 500 µg/ml in all gigantea, Ficus racemosa, Tinospora strains. The chloroform extracts were cardifolia, Achyranthes aspera, Ficus found to be successful to inhibit the religiosa, Santalum ovatum and Ziziphus growth of S.typhi, S. typhimurium and P. oenoplia which have shown anti bacterial vulgaris at different concentrations. activity against some enteric bacteria Aqueous extracts showed good , Staphylococcus aureus, antimicrobial activity against borne Salmonella typhi, Salmonella enterica, pathogens with high activity on B.subtilis Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, with 24 mm inhibition zone (Rajiv and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella Sivaraj, 2012). pneumonia. Because of high alkalinity and diverse atmospheric conditions Lonar lake The acetone, methanol and the ethyl was selected to study antibacterial acetate extracts of the bark powder of potential and phytochemical analysis of Ficus religiosa were checked for these medicinal plants. The antibacterial antibacterial activity against some study was carried out by agar disc medically important bacteria diffusion method. Leaves extracts were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia prepared with water, acetone, ethanol, and coli, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis methanol. In case of Ficus religiosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The aqueous and ethanolic leaves extracts antimicrobial assay was performed by agar showed antibacterial activity against E.coli disc diffusion assay. It was observed that and P.vulgaris (Tambekar et al., 2013). methanol extracts had activity against B.subtilis, E.coli, P.vulgaris, S.aureus Rajiv and Sivaraj studied different parts of whereas acetone extracts showed more the Ficus religiosa mainly bark, fruit, antibacterial activity only against leaves, stem by making aqueous extracts. B.subtilis, E.coli. The ethyl actetate The aqueous extracts of selected parts extracts were found to have no activity were used to screen for their against any of the tested bacteria phytochemical and antimicrobial activity (Manimozhi et al., 2012). and showed presence of many important phytochemicals such as alkaloids, phenols, A lot of research has been done on the , terpenoids, glycosides, flavonoids antimicrobial and antiviral properties of and tannins. For antimicrobial activity disc various parts of Ficus religiosa since diffusion method was used to screen many 1994. In the past, several studies have common pathogens such as E.coli, been carried out that validated the P.aeroginosa, Aeromonas hydrophila, antimicrobial and antiviral potential of S.aureus, S. pyrogenes, A. niger, Candida F.religiosa. These studies up to 2010 have

466 Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2014) 3(1): 461-475 been compiled and reviewed earlier (Singh found that the aqueous and ethanol extract et al., 2011). Only the very recent reports of bark had activity against P.mirabilis, have been mentioned above in the present S.aureus, A.fecalis and S. typhimurium. review. The same team also conducted studies in 2006 to show the activity of the ethanolic Older reports include the investigation of leaf extract against two other strains the inhibitory effect of aqueous, ethanol namely B.cereus and S. agalactiae.The and methanolic extracts of leaves against activity of chloroform extract of fruits was four bacterial species and it was found that investigated against P.aureus, the aqueous extract had maximum effect A.chroococcum, K.pneumonia, S.lactic followed by methanolic and ethanolic and B.megaterium (Mousa et al., 1994). extract (Preethi et al., 2010). 70% The activity of aqueous and methanol ethanolic bark extract was tested against extracts of bark was shown against HIV-1 different H.pylori strains that were strain (Kusumoto et al., 1995). Swami and obtained from gastric antral biopsy of Bisht (1996) proved that the infected patients (Zaidi et al., 2009). Uma furanocoumarins (bergapten and and Prabhakar (2009) investigated the bergaptol) isolated from the bark of antimicrobial activity of aqueous, F.religiosa had activity against S.aureus, methanol, chloroform, petroleum ether E.coli, Penicillium gluacum and even a extracts of the bark of Ficus religiosa protozoan namely Paramecium. enterotoxigenic E. coli, which is a highly pathogenic strain of bacteria found in the Figure.3 shows the preliminary results human intestine that is responsible for obtained in this laboratory against E.coli causing diarrhoea in humans. The strain. inhibitory effect of the extracts was checked against three enterotoxigenic E. With this review, it has been found out coli, which were isolated from patients that assay methods namely disc and well suffering from diarrhoea. The chloroform, diffusion, MIC (Minimum Inhibitory methanol and water extracts of leaves Concentration) and MBC (Minimum were observed to have activity against a Bacterial Concentration) were used to range of bacteria and fungus namely study the antimicrobial activity of the S.typhi, S.typhimurium, P.vulgaris, various extracts from this tree. The K.pnemoniae, P.aeroginosa, A.niger, findings and results from them have been P.chrysogenum using methanol extracts, illustrated here. Ethnopharmacology and S.typhi, P.aeroginosa, K.pneumoniae, natural product drug discovery remains a P.vulgaris, A.niger, P.chrysogenum using significant hope in the current scenario chloroform extracts and S.typhi, A.niger, and the ethnopharmacology knowledge P.chrysogenum using water extracts. The which is supported by an experimental method of well diffusion was used for the base can serve as an innovative discovery assay (Hemaiswarya et al., 2009). Aqil system for affordable, safer and newer and Ahmad (2007) investigated the drugs (Patwardhan, 2005). With all the activity of 70% ethanol extracts of leaf studies and reports made regarding Ficus against nine bacterial species and found an religiosa, it can be rightly concluded that inhibitory effect against six of those the numerous ethnomedicinal properties strains including S.aureus and E.coli. Nair and Chanda (2007) conducted studies and


Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2014) 3(1): 461-475

Table.1 Different studies carried out for Antimicrobial activity in recent years in Ficus religiosa

Effective Reference Part used Extraction Conc. of Bioassay Active strains solvent extract method E.coli, 40 mg/ ml P.aeroginosa, Methanol S.aureus Ramakrishnaiah Bark and 40 mg/ ml Disc Diffusion A.niger and Hariprasad Leaves Diethyl 40 mg/ml E.coli, 2013 Ether P.aeroginosa, S.aureus Water, Not E.coli, Tambekar Ethanol specified P.vulgaris et al Leaves Methanol, Disc Diffusion 2013 Acetone -- No results B.subtilis, E.coli Acetone 100 µg/ml B.subtilis, Manimozhi E.coli, et al. Bark Methanol 100 µg/ml Disc Diffusion P.vulgaris, 2012 S.aureus Ethyl Acetate -- No results S.aureus, S.pyogens, Rajiv and Bark, Fruit, E.coli, Sivaraj Leaves, Water 100 mg/ml Disc Diffusion A.hydophila, 2012 Stem E.aerogens, P.aeroginosa Water, P.aeroginosa, Preethi et al. Leaves Ethanol, Not Disc Diffusion B.subtilis, 2010 Methanol specified E.coli,S.typhi Zaidi et al. 2009 70% 125- 250 Pylori agar Bark Ethanol µg/ml plates H. pyroli Methanol, Three Uma et al. Bark Water, 200 mg/ml Disc diffusion enteroxigenic 2009 Chloroform E.coli S.typhi, S.typhimurium, Hemaiswarya Leaves Chloroform Not P.vulgaris, et al. specified K.pnemoniae, 2009 P.aeroginosa, A.niger, P.chrysogenum


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Well diffusion S.typhi, P.aeroginosa, Methanol Not K.pneumoniae, specified P.vulgaris, A.niger, P.chrysogenum Water Not S.typhi, A.niger, specified P.chrysogenum S.aureus, E.coli, Aqil and Ahmad S.paratyphii, 2007 Leaves 70% 10 mg/ml Well diffusion S.typhimurium,S Ethanol .dysenteriae, P.aeroginosa Not Water specified Disc diffusion B. cereus Nair and B.cereus, Chanda Bark P.mirabilis, 2007 Ethanol Not Well diffusion S.aureus, specified A.foecalis, S.typhimurium Nair and Chanda Bark Ethanol Not Disc/Ditch B.cereus, 2006 specified diffusion S.agalactiae S.aureus, S.paratyphi, Aqil and Ahmad Leaves 70% 100mg/ml Well diffusion S.dysenteriae, 2003 Ethanol S.typhimurium,E .coli,S.typhi, C.albicans

Figure.1 A) Ficus religiosa tree trunk with twigs appearing from it B) Ficus religiosa tree trunk with adventitious roots



Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2014) 3(1): 461-475

Figure.2 Popularity of Ficus religiosa: showing papers published during the period from 1920s to 2006. *Source: http://www.newcrops.uq.edu.au/listing/species_pages_F/Ficus_religiosa.htm

Figure.3 Ficus religiosa antimicrobial studies with bark and leaf extract using Disc Diffusion and Well Diffusion Methods A) Zone of inhibition of standard antibiotic (1) and methanol bark extract (2) against E.coli by Disc Diffusion method. B) Zone of inhibition of standard antibiotic (1), methanol extract of bark (2) and leaf (4) against E.coli by Well Diffusion method

470 Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2014) 3(1): 461-475 along with the antimicrobial activity which Behari, M., K. Rani, M.T. Usha and Shimiazu, has been proven, shows that this tree has N. 1984. Isolation of active principles tremendous potential for isolating strong from the leaves of Ficus religiosa. Curr antimicrobial compounds or biomolecules Agric. 8, 73. which can be used in the near future in the Brahmachari, H.D., and Augusti, K.T. 1962. Orally effective hypoglycemic agents area of drug synthesis. from plants. J Pharm Pharmacol. 14, 254 255. For future studies, aqueous extracts should Chandrasekar, S.B., M. Bhanumathy, A.T. be used primarily for the above studies for Pawar and Somasundaram, T. 2010. antimicrobial activity against pathogenic Phytopharmacology of Ficus religeosa. microbes, so that direct bioactive Pharmacognosy. 4(8): 195-199. antimicrobial molecules could be isolated Charde, R.M., H.J. Dhogade, M.S. Charde and and will be used for making antimicrobial Kasture, A.V. 2010. Evaluation of drugs or ointments for patients suffering antioxidant, wound healing and anti- with these pathogen attacks. inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Ficus religeosa. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Acknowledgement Research. 1(5): 73-82. Choudhary, G.P., 2006. Evaluation of Authors wish to thank CSIR NCL for ethanolic extract of Ficus religiosa bark providing financial support for conducting on incision and excision wounds in rats. research on this medicinally important tree Planta Indica. 2, 17 19. species and National Collection of Choudhary, A.S., S. Suryavanshi, H. Ingle and Industrial Microorganisms (NCIM; CSIR- Kaul-Ghanekar, R. 2011. Evaluating the NCL) for providing the different micro antioxidant potential of aqueous and organism strains to carry out antimicrobial alcoholic extracts of Ficus religiosa using ORAC Assay and assessing their assays. cytotoxic activity in cervical cancer cell References lines. Biotechnol Bioinfo Bioeng. 1(4): 443-450. Ali, M., and Qadry, J.S. 1987. Amino Choudhary, S., A.K. Pathak, S. Khare and composition of fruits and seeds of Kushwah, S. 2012. Evaluation of anti- medicinal plants. J. Indian Chem. Soc. 64, diabetic activity of leaves and fruits of 230-231. Ficus religiosa Linn. IJPLS. 2(12): 1325- Ambike, S.H., and Rao, M.R. 1967. Studies 1327. on a phytosteroin from the bark of Ficus Chourasia, V., H. Nagar, H.S. Chandel and religiosa. Indian J. Pharmacy. 29, 91-94. Goswami, A. 2013. Evaluation of Aqil, F., and Ahmad, I. 2007. Antibacterial hepatoprotective activity of Ficus properties of traditionally used Indian religiosa on rats against CCl4 and medicinal plants. Methods Find Exp Clin paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. Pharmacol. 29, 79-92. Website: Babu, K., S.G. Shankar and Rai, S. 2010. http://www.pharmatutor.org/articles/evalu Comparative pharmacognostic studies on ation- hepatoprotective-activity-ficus- the barks of four Ficus species. Turk. J. religiosa- rats-paracetamol-induced- Bot. 34(3): 215-224. hepatotoxicity Bairy, K.L., P.M. D almeida, T. Mandal, S. Deshmukh T., B. Yadav, S. Badole, S. Kodidela and Adiga, S. 2011. Effect of oil Bodhankar and Dhaneshwar, S. 2007. extract of Ficus religiosa bark on wound Antihyperglycaemic activity of alcoholic healing activity in albino rats. Int J Pharm extract of Ficus religiosa leaves in alloxan Sci Rev Res. 10, 51-53. induced diabetic mice. J Herb Med 471 Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2014) 3(1): 461-475

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