TOXICITY AND ANTITUMOR EFFECT OF 5- (FU) THE SYNTHESIS OF PHOSPHORIBOSYLPYROPHOSPHATE FROM 157 AND ITS RESCUE BY (UR) . 160 GLUCOSE DECREASES DURING STARVATION OF G.J. Peters, J. van Dijk, C. van Groeninqen,E.J. HUMAN LYMPHOBLASTS . Laurensse, A. Leva, J. Lankelma, H.M. Pinedo; Dept. Oncology, Renate B. Pilz and Gerry R. Boss. University of California, San Free Univ. Hospital, PO Box 7075, 1007 MB Amsterdam, Netherlands Diego, Department of Medicine, San Diego, California, USA. The application of FU in the treatment of colon is When cultured human lymphoblasts are starved for an essential limited because of myeloid and gastrointestinal toxicity. It has amino acid for 3 h, rates of synthesis de- been demonstrated that UR is able to rescue mice from the toxic crease markedly because of a decrease in the intracellular phos- effects of FU, which precludes the use of higher FU doses. Anti- phoribosyl concentration (J. Biol. Chem. 257:4242- tumor effect and toxicity were studied in two murine colon car- 4247, 1982 and J. Biol. Chem. =:2936-2941, 1984). amino cinomas, both sensitive and resistant, which also show marked acid-starved cells, glucose transport was not changed whereas differences in FU (e.g. uridine phosphorylase is 10 total glucose consumption and lactate production decreased by times higher in Colon 26 than in Colon38). Mice received FU approximately 25% and lo%, respectively. Carbon flow through weekly. Colon 38, grown in C57B1 mice, was sensitive to FU; at the oxidative pathway decreased by 18% during 100 mg/FU kg 70% of the tumors disappeared. UR administration amino acid starvation. Kinetic studies of ribulose 5-phosphate (3500 mg/kg) after 2 and 20 hr, decreased the number of complete 3-epimerase and phosphoriboisomerase suggested that the ribulose responders. Colon 26, grown in Balb/c mice, was not sensitive to 5-phosphate produced by this pathway is converted mostly to xy- 100 mg FU/kg. FU was lethal at 300 mg/kg, but UR increased the lulose 5-phosphate instead of to 5-phosphate, and thus -span, while a significant tumor growth delay was observed. that this pathway produces little phosphoribosylpyrophosphate. 100 mg FU/kg caused a severe leucopenia which reached a nadir of The activity of the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway, mea- 10% after the second dose. UR administration prevented this leu- sured by HPLC following the incorporation of fl-14~]glucose into copenia and a faster recovery was observed. UR was not lethal, phosphori bosyl pyrophosphate and ATP and GTP, decreased by ap- although, a sharp fall in body temperature was observed after 1 proximately 60% during amino acid starvation. None of the en- hr (2 10°C). However, this hypothermia was not observed with pa- zymes of either pathway changed in specific activity during tients in a Phase I trial with UR. In conclusion: hematological amino acid starvation. We conclude that the nonoxidative pen- toxicity caused by FU can be prevented by delayed administration tose phosphate pathway is the major source of phosphori bosyl- of UR; the antitumor activity seems to be affected, but this was pyrophosphate for purine nucleotide synthesis and that this not significant; the side-effects of UR seem to be acceptable to pathway is regulated by a metabolite which changes in concentra- proceed Phase I trials. tion during amino acid starvation.

URIDINE MONOPHOSPHATE : A NEW GENETIC MARKER METABOLISM OF PURINE NUCLEOTIDE IN THE LIVER AND I!! 158 OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO HAEMOPHILUS INFLOENZAE TYPE B 16 1 THE KIDNEY OF CASTRATED RATS. DISEASE. Gloria M. Petersen, Diana R. Silimveri, Edward M. Scott, David R. Hall, Jerome I. Rotter, and Joel I. Maria Pizzichini, Anna Di Stefano, Giacomo Matteucci, -Ward. Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Enr~coMarinello. Torrance, CA; and Arctic Investigations Laboratory... Centers for university of Siena - Department of Biological Chemistry , Italy. Disease ~ont;ol, Anchorage, AK, USA Alaskan Eskimos have the highest known incidence of invasive The metabolism of purine has been Studied in the Haemo~hilusinfluenzae type b (Hib) disease, primarily liver and in kidney of adult male Glistar rats before and after meningitis, affecting 1-5% of all children in the first two castration.The overall rate of purine bios thesis was determined years of life. We examined potential genetic explanations for by following the incorporation of formate-"C into acid-soluble this unique susceptibility by studying 93 Eskimo Hib cases and cellular as well as those incorporated into RNA (l).After an equal number of healthy Eskimo controls matched for age and castration, the level of acid-soluble purines remains the same exposure (village). In this analysis, a polymorphic genetic variant of the pathway , both in the liver and in the kidney.The specific activity of the kinase-3 (UMPK-31, was positively associated with invasive Hib bases is only slightly enhanced in the kidney and significantly disease, with a relative risk of 3.3 (McNemar matched pair, increased (~(0.05) in the and in the of the P<.01). All UMPK 3-3 homozygotes in this study were Bib cases. 1iver,indicating an accelerated turnover. The G/A labeling ratio We also found that in cases and controls, there was no (counts per min in guaninelcounts per min in ),which is an differknce between UMPK phenotype and serum levels of total Rib as measured by radioimmunoassay. This suggests that index of the "IMP branch point regulationl',is slightly augmented UMPK-3 may play a role in mediating the non-humoral immunity to in both tissues. The RNA content is nchanged, both in the liver Hib. However, unlike other enzyme variants in the and in the kidney, but the formate-"C incorporation is enhanced synthesis pathways which result in syndromes of severe in liver RMA and decreases in kidney RNA.Results indicate that immunodeficiency, this appears to confer a more subtle the deficiency plays different and discordant roles disease susceptibility. Thus, the IIMPK-3 allele, although rare in purine nucleotide metabolism in the kidney and in the liver. in many human populations, is associated with an increased risk of invasive Hib infection in Alaskan Eskimos.

ADENOSINE TRANSPORT BY ISOLATED RAT LIVER MITOCHON- THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF PURINE . 159 DRIA. Keijo J. Peuhkurinen, Albert R. Collinson, 162 CONTROL OF THE INOSINICAcIo BRANCH POINT. and John M. Lowenstein, Dept. of , Bran- Maria Pizzichini , Anna Oi Stefano, Giuseppe Pompuccio, deis- Universitv.,- Waltham. MA 02254 Rat liver mitochondria were incubated with 3~-(ado) Enrico Marinello. and then separated from the medium and quenched by centrifuga- University of Siena, Department of Biological Chemistry, Italy. tion through silicone oil into perchloric acid. The radioactive university of Sassari, Oept. of ~hysiol.-and Biochem., Italyo. compounds in the mitochondria were analyzed by thin-layer chroma- tography. In the presence of 2 pM ado, 6 mM pyruvate and 2 mM Purine biosynthesis "de novo" in levator ani muscle (LAM) of malnte, ado was incorporated into mitochondrial nucleotides at a adult male Clistar rats has been studied before and after castra- 0.79 23 UM Carboxy- rate of pmol/mg mitochondrial proteinlmin. tion and after testosterone administration. The overall rate has atractyloside, 1 mM ADP, 5 mM ATP, and 0.1 mM p1,p5-di(aden0- sine-5')-pentaphosphate decreased the incorporation by 78%, 37%, been investigated determining the total pool sizes of free acid- 65%, and 67%, respectively. Conversion of adenosine to AMP + s74 uble nucleotides and by following the incorporation of formate ADP + ATP in the incubation medium (analyzed without separation - C into the acid-soluble purines (I), which were purified by of mitochondria from the medium) occurred at 3.8 pmol/mg pro- ion exchange chromatography and analyzed by HPLC. After castra- teinlmin. Addition of 5 mM ATP increased this to 4.8 pmol/mg tion,the levels of bases decrease,special ly the adenine, the spe- /min in spite of the decreased incorporation seen in the mitochondria, suggesting that externally added ATP stimulates cific activity (dpm/).imole) decreases ,while the guanineladenine the phosphorylation of adenosine and release of nucleotides into labeling ratio (counts per min in guaninelcounts per min in ade- the medium. The amount of adenosine associated with the mito- nine) remains unchanged.After testosterone administration (2.5 chondria was constant from 0 to 10 min of incubation under all mg/100 g b.w.) the normal level of the bases is restored and a experimental conditions. It was higher than predicted from slight increase of guanine concentration is evident.The specific sucrose-accessible and volumes determined activity of the bases increases, the G/A labeling ratio also in- under identical conditions, suggesting binding of adenosine to mitochondrial . Our results suggest that adenosine is creases. Me may conclude that testosterone plays a role in the converted to ADP and ATP in the intermembrane space and that ADP regulation of the " branch point". or ATP or both are then transported into the matrix by the ADPI ATP translocase located in the inner mitochondrial membrane.