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PARFLECHES How Native Women Pushed the Envelope of Abstraction

PARFLECHES How Native Women Pushed the Envelope of Abstraction

PARFLECHES How Native Women Pushed the Envelope of Abstraction

By America Meredith (Cherokee Nation)

EFORE PIET MONDRIAN the senior curator of American Indian helped found the De Stijl move- art at the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, ment, before Kazimir Malevich Torrence curated The American Indian Bpenned The Non-Objective Parfleche: A Tradition of Abstract Painting World, before Wassily Kandinsky at the Des Moines Art Center, with a cata- painted Composition I, even before logue, back in 1994. Torrence strives to the rise of modernism, there was the teach new generations to appreciate this parfleche. Indigenous women from the once widespread art form. Great Plains, Plateau, Great Basin, and While closely associated with the Southwest painted abstract imagery onto Great Plains, parfleches come from rawhide to create bold, graphic other areas including the Plateau, Great artworks meant to be seen from a distance Basin, Southwest, Subarctic, and Prairie and meant to be seen in motion. Using cultural regions. Tribes as far south as a visual vocabulary of simple shapes and the Lipan Apache of Southern Texas and a limited palette, they created a corpus as far north as the Tsuu T'ina of Alberta of paintings that continue to amaze and made parfleches, as did tribes as far west confound audiences today. as the Wasco, Wishram, and Tenino of Unlike those early 20th-century Washington and Oregon. European abstract painters, the Native While parfleches predated the women who painted parfleches did not 16th-century Spanish reintroduction of create “art for art’s sake.” Indigenous the horse, the art form flourished with the artists, like the overwhelming majority rise of horse culture in the Western United

of artists throughout world history, above Lakota artists, Parfleche States and Canada. The horse enabled did not separate art from daily life. A Cylinders, Flat Cases, Boxes, agrarian Great Lakes tribes to move west and Envelopes, collection of and interact with tribes already there, and parfleche is eminently utilitarian. Art the National Museum of the historian Gaylord Torrence wrote, “The American Indian, Smithsonian to create the new nomadic cultures that containers were lightweight, unbreakable, Institute. Photo: Taoboy49 (CC epitomize American Indians in popular and weather-resistant, and their creation BY-SA 3.0). imagination. Prior to the reservation era afforded women an important means of opposite artist, of the mid- to late 19th century, this was Parfleche, ca. 1890, rawhide, artistic expression. The superb utility of pigment, collection of the a time of great wealth. Parfleches simul- these objects, their compelling beauty National Cowboy and Western taneously stored precious material goods as works of art, and their inseparable Heritage Museum, 1981.28.4, and displayed a family’s skill at hunting gift of Mrs. Doane Farr. Image association with the horse all contributed courtesy of the National and creativity. Torrence writes that “great to their importance in Plains culture.”1 Cowboy and Western Heritage numbers must have been required; Torrence is the champion of Museum, Oklahoma City. they were undoubtedly one of the most parfleches in the field of art history. Now commonly produced aesthetic forms.”2

1. Gaylord Torrence, “Parfleche Envelope,” in The : Artists of the Earth and Sky, ed. Gaylord Torrence (New York: Skira Rizzoli, 2014), 90. 2. Gaylord Torrence, The American Indian Parfleche: A Tradition of Abstract Painting (Seattle: University of Washington Press in association with the Des Moines Art Center, 1994), 24.

34 | WWW.FIRSTAMERICANARTMAGAZINE.COM The term parfleche, as early conser- vationist and ethnographer George Bird Grinnell wrote, derives from the French terms parer, “to parry” or deflect, and flêche, “arrow,” referring to rawhide shields. The term broadened over time to include a range of embellished containers crafted from rawhide.3 One reason why parfleches have not received more scholarship is they have historically been a women’s art. Among Plains and neighboring tribes, painting historically was a gendered practice, with men typically painting figu- rative and narrative works while women painted abstract geometric works—on hides, textiles, and bodies. Instead of 6 acknowledging the two genders’ painting containers ubiquitous in the Great Lakes but rather overlapped them. Later the practices, I have often heard the senti- region, where the Dakota, Cheyenne, and painting aligned with the folded flaps, so a 4 ment voiced that “Plains women didn’t other Plains tribes once lived. They also unified image would be created when the paint.” Why does women’s geometric share aesthetics with painted hide robes, parfleche was folded into its final shape. painting get so easily dismissed? Just as widespread across the continent, and in By 1840, distinct tribal styles emerged. the abstract painters of early 20th-century turn with Indigenous tattooing and body Parfleches were sculpted from Europe challenged public perception, the painting. “This fundamental vocabulary of rawhide, which is processed but not abstraction of parfleches continues to visual forms consisted of geometric motifs, tanned, so instead of being soft and challenge the public. One could engage both straightedged and curved, organized supple, the hide is tough and water-resis- with this geometric abstraction on a into complex compositions with some type tant and holds its shape. Bison was the purely aesthetic level or delve deeper into of rectangular frame,” Torrence wrote. “The preferred hide until American merce- a quest to understand its symbolism, but images were based on highly elongated naries decimated their herds in the late it takes the to embrace uncertainty triangles, hourglass shapes, diamonds, 1860s and early 1870s; after 1880, it was and engage with Indigenous perspectives rectangles, lines, and circular forms.”5 seldom found. A bison hide is darker from different tribes. It may take more Some of the earliest parfleches brown than other hides and develops a effort and time to explore Indigenous in museum collections are unpainted craquelure over time. Besides bison, it aesthetics, but the rewards are great and or incised. Thick bison hides had dark is difficult to determine exactly which the art helps us understand the artists’ epidermal surfaces that could be etched animal hide was used. Elk, deer, horse, worldviews—to hear voices of Indigenous with fine lines and crosshatching to cow, and even moose hide was used, and women who have too often been silenced reveal a lighter layer of hide. Many all were off-white to beige. The unpainted in the past and today. early 19th-century parfleches combine surfaces provided the lightest parts of the Few historical parfleches can be incising with painting. Exclusively parfleche design. Typically a single hide attributed to named artists because they incised containers began to disappear in could yield a pair of parfleche envelopes. were collected with little accompanying the 1860s and it is doubtful that any were Ute and Jicarilla Apache artists made large information. However, based on made after 1880. Incising shared aesthetic pouches three to five feet wide that took studying 1,500 specimens in more qualities with woodcarving. It was up an entire hide. than 100 collections by 1994—and far particularly popular among Mescalero Men typically hunted and skinned more since—Torrence developed a Apache parfleche makers who may have the animals, while women prepared the diagnostic methodology for attributing been influenced by Spanish colonial hides in a complex process requiring tribal affiliations to the many historical leatherwork. strength and skill. The artist staked a parfleches scattered in museum collections The earliest painted parfleches hide about six to ten inches above the across the globe. Rawhide disintegrates reflect “a transitional form between ground, with its hair side facing down, rapidly, so it is extraordinary than any robes painted geometrically and the then defleshed the hides by scraping off 18th-century examples are still intact final development of the parfleche the muscles, tissue, and fat with bone or, in museum collections today. They may envelope,” in which the painted design later, metal hide scrapers. The hides shrank have been modeled on folded birchbark did not conform to the folding surfaces as they dried and were doused with water

3. George Bird Grinnell, The Cheyenne Indians: Their History and Ways of Life, Vol. 1 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1923), 244. 4. Grinnell, The Cheyenne Indians, 245; Torrence, The American Indian Parfleche, 30, 57. 5. Torrence, The American Indian Parfleche, 30. 6. Torrence, “Parfleche Envelope,” 90.

SPRING 2020 | 35 Standing Rock Reservation, was ground into powder then heated to become a deep red: “The baking of this ocherous substance—a process which requires skill—is done by the women.”9 Clark Wissler, who conducted field research among Northern Plains tribes from 1902 to 1905, transliterated Blackfoot terms for their paints: “Yellow earth. Buffalo yellow (buffalo gall stones). Red earth (burned yellow earth). Red earth (as found). Rock paint (a yellowish red). Many-times-baked-paint (a yellow earth made red by exposure to the sun). Red many-times-baked (a similar red, as found). Seventh paint (a peculiar ghastly red-purple). Blue (a dark blue mud). White earth (as found). Black (charcoal).”10 Native black, made from iron oxide, lignite, charcoal, walnut hulls or roots, or sunflowers, leaned toward brown. Native artists used natural blacks long after commercial pigments were available. Reds, the most common natural pigment, were primarily made from red ocher, that is clay with iron oxide, but also from buffalo berries, pussy willows, or cactus fruit. Yellows were mostly yellow ocher but could also be made from bison gallstones or wolf lichen. Green came from copper carbonate or dried green algae. Blue came from earth or even duck excrement. These natural pigments were dried and ground with stone mortars. Each color was stored separately in its own hide pouch. as needed to clean them and keep them artist’s hand is lost in schematic drawings The first trade pigment available in workable. Drying needed to be slow of parfleche designs. the West was mercury vermilion from and steady, and the hides were painted Prior to 1850, parfleches had a China. Introduced in the 18th century, it is found even in the earliest surviving while still staked. Prior to painting, the limited palette of red, green, and black. parfleches. Commercial pigments were artist often coated the hide with sizing, As styles evolved, Torrence wrote, “Green commonplace by 1875. Colored crayons which sealed the hide. Sizes came from became an important color within the were occasionally used in the late 19th numerous animal and plant sources, compositions, essentially replacing black and early 20th century to enhance the particularly prickly pear juice. as the predominant color counterbal- depth of a color field. To compose a design, women ancing red. Black, in turn, became the To apply the paint to a parfleche, often used straight, peeled willow sticks color used for the fine outlines delineating artists relied on styluses shaped from that could be pressed into the wet hide major motifs and for small units within smoothed-down stone, wood, mountain 8 to leave a mark for painting. “The finest the designs.” From 1850 to 1880, yellow sheep horn, or, most commonly, bone. parfleche painting always transcends the and blue were added. Torrence writes, “The porous bone soaked static, mechanical quality that would Natural pigments could be sacred, up and held the paint, and allowed it to be imparted by too great a reliance on and some required great skill to make. flow smoothly when the tool was applied to measuring devices,” writes Torrence,7 who Ethnomusicologist Frances Densmore the surface of the hide. Held in one direc- also points out that the character of the wrote that yellow ocher, mined on the tion, it produced a sharp, thin line; turned

7. Torrence, The American Indian Parfleche, 51. 8. Torrence, 35–36. 9. Frances Densmore, Teton Sioux Music (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1918), 116n1. 10. Clark Wissler, Material Culture of the Blackfoot Indians, Volume 5, Parts 1-2, 133. 11. Torrence, The American Indian Parfleche, 47.

36 | WWW.FIRSTAMERICANARTMAGAZINE.COM to the side, the board edge could be used to this purpose. We never used these cases were unpainted. These flat cases may spread the paint over a wide area.”11 Artists or cases to pack meat or foods in, as we have evolved from twined pouches. Flat had a dedicated stylus for each color. They wanted to keep our clothes clean.… There cases without often stored women’s also made brushes by chewing the edge of was just one for the man’s suit and that tools, sewing items, and foods. willow or cottonwood sticks to loosen the of his wife. The war bonnet and trail were Cylinder-shaped parfleche always cellulose into separate fibers. The rounded kept in the bag, along with the clothes.”13 contained sacred objects, including end of a stick was ideal for painting dots. Form followed function, and “medicine bundles, ceremonial clothing, Paint is pigment with a binder. parfleche uses varied from tribe to tribe. feathers, and rolled feather headdresses.”15 Pre-reservation parfleche artists commonly The most common forms that parfleches and other tribes rolled up feather used bison or other animal fat as their took were folded envelopes, flat cases, headdresses and safely stored them in binder. With a little binder, pigments cylinders, and boxes. cylinders. Crow artists, in particular, added were sometimes formed into cakes, which Folded envelopes were by far the fringe up to 36 inches long. Cylinders in turn could be applied directly to wet most numerous, and a family might own ranged from 10 to 30 inches long and rawhide, much like an oil pastel. Otherwise, six to eight parfleches just for storing food. often tapered at the bottom. Artists typi- powdered pigments were mixed with hot Horses carried matched pairs hanging cally painted a four-part design on the disk water and animal glue to create liquid from both sides of their saddles. Envelopes at the top of the cylinder. “Painted in this paint. Each color was stored in its palette, were usually vertically oriented, except manner, the simple piece of rawhide was often made from a tortoise or mussel shell. Plateau envelopes that were horizontally transformed into a cosmological diagram; After a painting was finished, the oriented. Made from a single sheet of hide, it defined the circle as a universal symbol artist could coat it with more sizing or envelopes had interior and exterior flaps of the unity and continuity of all life and a tree-gum varnish such as wild cherry, laced together and could expand at the evoked the four sacred directions and the piñon, or tamarack. Finally, the hide was center for more storage capacity. supernatural powers with which they were pulled off its stakes, flipped over, and the Flat cases were made by every tribe identified,” observed Torrence.16 hair was removed by pounding it with a that made parfleches. Blackfeet and Crow “The final evolution of parfleche stone or the back of an axe, scraping it tribes used heavily fringed cases with containers was the painted rawhide with an elk antler scraper, or a combina- strands as long as 45 inches for ceremo- box, a form developed during the early tion of these techniques. The parfleche nial items, while Cheyenne people used reservation period and produced almost was folded, any corners pounded into cases without fringe. “The addition of exclusively by Lakota women,” Torrence place, and weights were used to form the fringes significantly transformed summarizes.17 Boxes grew in popularity the desired shape as the dried. the visual emphasis of the case from as people traveled more by horse-drawn Tanned hide thongs were most commonly the painted image to a balance between wagons than horseback. Artists painted used to lace the parfleches. Artists burned surface ornamentations and sculptural five sides of the boxes but left the holes with heated metal since these held form,” wrote Torrence.14 In transit, cases bottom plain. These served as tool cases up better over time than cut holes. Any hung from the swell (front curve) or cantle and may have evolved from rawhide fringe cut from single sheets of tanned (back curve) of a woman’s saddle; while at trunks. Dhegiha and Chiwere Siouan- hide or other embellishments, such as camp, they hung from wooden tripods. speaking tribes collected Lakota boxes. jingles or hawk bells, were sewed in. Some very early Wichita bison-rawhide Potawatomi, Kickapoo, and Meskwaki Parfleches held everything from sacred bundles to everyday household goods. Grinnell recorded that parfleches below Sicangu Lakota artist, Pair of Parfleches, 1880–1885, rawhide, pigment, Native-tanned skin held “ornaments, wooden bowls and ties, 22½ × 133/8 and 22¼ × 127/8 in., collection of dishes, small horn spoons, and any the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Ralph T. Coe odds-and-ends. In fact, the contents of a Collection, Gift of Ralph T. Coe Foundation for the Arts, 2011.154.152.1, .2 (CC0 1.0). parfleche were a perpetual surprise, for it might contain anything from an elk’s opposite Cheyenne artist, Parfleche, ca. 1890, rawhide, pigment, collection of the National 12 tooth to a twenty-dollar gold piece.” Cowboy and Western Heritage Museum, One of the few known 19th-cen- 1981.28.4, gift of Mrs. Doane Farr. Image courtesy of the National Cowboy and Western Heritage tury parfleche makers, Maxi'diwiac, or Museum, Oklahoma City. Buffalo Bird Woman (Hidatsa, ca. 1839– 1932), said, “Our clothes we put away in parfleche bags which were used only for

12. Grinnell, The Cheyenne Indians, 244. 13. Torrence, The American Indian Parfleche, 62. 14. Torrence, 66. 15. Torrence, 69. 16. Torrence, 70. 17. Gaylord Torrence, “Parfleche Box,” in The Plains Indians: Artists of the Earth and Sky, ed. Gaylord Torrence (New York: Skira Rizzoli, 2014), 90.

SPRING 2020 | 37 symbolized the buffalo, central to the wellbeing of the historical and all Plains tribes.… Women designed, made, and wore robes with this abstract config- uration, visibly connecting themselves to the bison.” She continues, “Box-and- border robes are expressive works of art, carrying symbolic meaning related to the bison and aspects of spiritual life that imbue these robes with significance transcending the aesthetic.”22 Made from bison, carrying bison meat, many designs honored this life-giving animal. “The ideas from the abstractions oftentimes came from the dream world, but they were also influenced by what and above, top Arapaho artist, Parfleche Bag, ca. 1900, rawhide, pigment, 26½ × 15½ × 1 in., collections who the abstractions were for. The paint- of the Brooklyn Museum Collection, X1111.3, Brooklyn, New York (CC-BY). ings on the outsides of these containers opposite Cheyenne artist, Parfleche Envelope, 1870, bison rawhide, pigment, 12 × 21 × 20 in., spoke to what was inside them; they collection of the Oklahoma Historical Society, ID 00162, M. L. Andrews Collection. The artist was a spoke to the human being that they were female companion of Philip Block. created for; even the pigments themselves contained the life of the earth, plant, people repurposed Lakota and other continued, “I began to see into the and animal worlds and interacted with Plains tribes’ envelopes into trunks to negative space—its fluctuation between the animal life the container was made hold sacred items. The Meskwaki painted merely background and the definition from,” wrote Greeves.23 The artist clan designs on these. of abstraction itself. What were these continues, “These women were not just Artists used parfleche techniques women painters saying? What rules were following a prescribed design or pattern, and designs for other rawhide items they following? What was their language they were deliberately working in the 20 including “burden straps, knife sheaths, of space, color, and line?” language of abstraction, and each artistic quivers, horse cruppers and saddle Bold and striking, parfleche choice held significant personal and trib- ornaments, and sun visors.”18 Worn- paintings were meant to be seen from ally specific meaning.”24 down parfleches were recycled. “The a distance and, like so much horse Parfleche artists created complex usual fate of a gift parfleche is to be cut culture–era artwork, in motion. “In the designs from deceptively simple elements: into moccasin soles,” wrote Wissler.19 most effective and carefully balanced lines, dots, circles, quadrangles, frets, Remnants of parfleches became cradle- designs, the visual reversal of figure and curves, crescents, and hourglass shapes. board hoods, knife sheaths, toy cases, or background constantly changes according These might be filled with color, cross- any range of items still bearing traces of to the shifting perception of the viewer,” hatching, or parallel lines. These highly painted designs. writes Torrence.21 symmetrical designs were by a These designs are the enduring Parfleche painting shared a visual strong border. “The commonest feature legacy of parfleches. Kiowa beadwork vocabulary possibly with basketry and in the designs is a double line extending artist Teri Greeves said her sister Keri twined pouches but definitely with hide longitudinally through the middle of Ataumbi (Kiowa) taught her to appreciate painting. “Women across the Central and the flap,” observed anthropologist Leslie the aesthetics of parfleche painting. “My Northern Plains had shared this style” Spier, who studied , Shoshone, sister helped me see the perfect, delicate long before Europeans documented it, Ute, and Paiute parfleches.25 The Tsuu lines, gorgeous muted colors of the natural wrote art historian Jenny Tone-Pah-Hote T’ina term for this central column on pigments, and even the golden veneer of (Kiowa) when describing a particular parfleche envelopes, mi na wusa, trans- the cactus-juice stabilizer, which added to bison robe. “Though the exact meanings lates to “vertical column, spine.”26 This their visual depth—like looking through of these robes elude contemporary audi- vertical axis also can represent a pathway, water to see the river bottom.” Greeves ences, many scholars believe the design physically or metaphorically.

18. Torrence, The American Indian Parfleche, 74. 19. Wissler, Material Culture of the Blackfoot Indians, 81. 20. Teri Greeves, “The Women Were Busy Abstracting the World,” in Hearts of Our People: Native Women Artists, eds. Jill Ahlberg Yohe and Teri Greeves (Minneapolis: Minneapolis Institute of Arts, 2019), 99. 21. Torrence, The American Indian Parfleche, 78. 22. Jenny Tone-Pah-Hote, PhD, “Robe,” in The Plains Indians: Artists of the Earth and Sky, ed. Gaylord Torrence (New York: Skira Rizzoli, 2014), 178. 23. Greeves, “The Women Were Busy Abstracting the World," 99. 24. Greeves, 101. 25. Leslie Spier, An Analysis of Plains Indian Parfleche Decoration (Seattle: University of Washington, 1925), 100. 26. Torrence, The American Indian Parfleche, 252.

38 | WWW.FIRSTAMERICANARTMAGAZINE.COM Jhon Goes in Center, an Oglala Dorsey recorded an interpretation of an Lakota jeweler, wrote that “the designs Arapaho parfleche: “Six rows of colored on parfleche containers and other accou- designs represented the whole appearance terments that were in essence maps that of the earth (rough). Two white lines depicted geographic features such as a traversing two center designs denoted the river as the circle of life and the moun- paths of the sun and moon. White and tains that hold us to a spiritual connection blue lines at [the] edge of the parfleche within our homelands.”27 mean the ‘Ocean’ and horizon. Blue paint, Symbols might be shared between the sky; red paint, the earth; green paint, a tribe or a family or only be known the glass; white field, water. This parfleche to the maker. Alfred Kroeber studied denotes the winter season.”33 Arapaho parfleches and observed that a Kroeber wrote, “When as many as single design carried multiple symbolic ten or a dozen symbols having reference meanings. Conversely, a single concept to each other are combined, a story can could be represented by a range of almost be told by them. In this way the different symbols. Placement and shape stiff embroideries on a moccasin or the influenced meaning. “In painted designs geometric paintings on a bag may repre- a flat isosceles triangle often represents sent the hunting buffalo, the acquisition a hill; an acute isosceles triangle, a tent,” of supernatural power by a shaman, a wrote Kroeber.28 “An equilateral triangle landscape or map, a dream, personal with the point downward may represent a experiences, or a myth.”34 heart; with its point upward, a mountain.” Over time, knowledge of this visual Lauren Good Day (Arikara /Hidatsa/ He continued, “Crosses and diamonds language faded. The slaughter of bison Blackfeet/Cree), Mike Marshall (Sicangu 29 often signify stars.” herds and confinement on reservations Lakota), and Debra Box (Southern Ute). “The Pawnee painted cosmic curtailed parfleche production in the late De Stijl painters such as Mondrian symbols on these containers—the moon 19th century. Some tribes were still able were idealists. They wanted to strip down and its rays, the sun, the dawn, and the to acquire hides through hunting, while painting to its essential elements of pure stars,” wrote Gene Weltfish, anthropolo- others used domestic cowhides. Northern geometry and primary colors. They gist and historian. “These cosmic designs Arapaho continued to make parfleches sought art as a means toward spiritual could be painted only by a person with until World War I, Blackfeet women harmony. They wanted to completely fuse 30 the necessary religious qualifications.” continued until the 1920s, and Lakota form and function. If only these European The Morning Star, or Venus, is portrayed artists continued into the 1930s. Tribes, men had studied the parfleches made by as a four-pointed star by numerous tribes. such as the Crow, Shoshone, and Nez generations of American Indian and First Dreams were powerful sources Perce, continued making parfleches into Nations artists before them, they would of imagery, and Lakota and Dakota the 1940s. In the Plateau, early 20th-cen- have realized their utopian dreams had women told Wissler “that such experi- tury wedding ceremonies included an already been achieved. ences were attributed to Double Woman, exchange of goods in corn husk bags from “These paintings were inseparable the feminine cultural heroine of that the bride’s family and parfleches from the from the worldview of their makers, t r i b e .” 31 Likewise, the spirit world shared groom’s family. As symbols of earlier, better formed from their collective experi- designs with Arapaho through dreams. times, parfleches were hung from horses ence and culture role as women,” wrote Whirlwind Woman, an immortal, created in Wild West shows and in Native horse Torrence, “from the details of their daily the earliest Arapaho designs and shared parades. Fringed ceremonial parfleches lives and the richness and love of family them with mortal women. “It was she were left empty as symbols of sacred life and tribal associations; from the invis- who first instructed Arapaho women in power. Among Dakota and , ible spirit forces that filled their world and all the phases of parfleche-making and parfleches were distributed at giveaways. the profound religions and traditions that planning,” wrote Torrence.32 Artists from a variety of tribes sustained their inner, sacred lives; and Tribes had symbolic systems in are dedicated to keeping this art form from their intimate relationship with which certain colors represented cardinal alive and evolving. Some of the leading nature and the sweeping, monumental directions and attributions associated with parfleche makers today include brothers landscapes and incomparable light of the those directions. Anthropologist George Juan and Shawn Espinosa (Oglala Lakota), American West, which was their home.”35

27. Jhon Goes In Center, “Native American and First Nations’ GIS,” Native American Geography (Redlands, CA: Environmental Systems Research Institute, 2000), web. 28. Alfred Louis Kroeber, Decorative Symbolism of the Arapaho (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1901), 308–09. 29. Kroeber, Decorative Symbolism of the Arapaho, 308. 30. Gene Weltfish, The Lost Universe: Pawnee Life and Culture (New York: Basic Books, 1977), 214–15. 31. Torrence, The American Indian Parfleche, 248. 32. Torrence, 247–48. 33. Torrence, 249. 34. Kroeber, Decorative Symbolism of the Arapaho, 309. 35. Torrence, The American Indian Parfleche, 253–54.

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