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An Organic Origin for the Carbonate Concretions of the Ohio Shale

An Organic Origin for the Carbonate Concretions of the Ohio Shale

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I • 'I An Organic Origin for the Carbonate Concretions of the



U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Dallas L. Peck, Director

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Library of Congress Cataloging In Publication Data Criss, R.E. An organic origin for the carbonate concretions of the Ohio Shale (U.S. Geological Survey bulletin ; 1836) Bibliography: p. Supt. of Docs. no.: I 19.3:1836 1. Concretions-Ohio Valley. 2. Rocks, Carbonate- Valley. 3. Organic geochemistry-Ohio River Valley. 4. Ohio Shale. 5. , Stratigraphic-. I. Cooke, G.A. II. Day, S.D. Ill. Title. IV. Series. QE75.89 no. 1836 557.3 s[552'.5] 87--600470 [QE471.15.C58] CONTENTS

Abstract 1 Introduction 1 Acknowledgments 2 Methods 3 Field and petrographic relations 3 and 3 Time of growth of the concretions 6 Stratigraphic zonation of the carbonate concretions 9 Isotopic and chemical relations 9 Chemical composition 9 and isotope data 12 Interpretation of the o13 C values 13 Interpretation of the o18 0 values 14 Discussion and conclusions 17 References 18

FIGURES 1. Map showing outcrop belt of Devonian in Ohio 2 2. Photographs of typical concretions from the Huron Member of the Ohio Shale near Worthington, Ohio 4 3. Schematic diagram showing mineralogical zonation in the concretions from the Huron Member of the Ohio Shale 6 4. Gray shale dike crosscutting the Huron Member of the Ohio Shale along the Huron River near Milan, Ohio 7 5. Concretions incorporated in clastic dike and complex, along the Huron River near Milan, Ohio 8 6. Graphs showing radial distribution of chemical contents and o180 and o13C values in concretions from Worthington, Ohio 10 7. Graph of o180 vs. o13C values of carbonate concretions from the Huron Member of the Ohio Shale 13 8. Photographs of concretions with fish from several localities 15

TABLES 1. X-ray spectrochemical data for concretions from the Huron Member of the Ohio Shale 11 2. Isotopic composition of concretions from the Huron Member of the Ohio Shale, Worthington, Ohio 12 3. o180 determinations of coexisting vug in concretions of the Huron Member 13 4. Concretions from other localities-This study and others 14

Contents Ill

An Organic Origin for the Carbonate Concretions of the Ohio Shale

By R.E. Criss, 1 G.A. Cooke,2 and S.D. Day3

ABSTRACT hydrostatically supported the large, rapidly grown concre­ tions, which now have pee3 g/cc. Furthermore, as is typical of -rimmed carbonate concretions of the low­ carbonate concretions worldwide, the o13C values of the carbonate Huron Member of the Ohio Shale are distin­ are strikingly different from those of normal guished by their large size (to 3-m diam.), their high degree marine but are similar to those of organic carbon of sphericity, and their common association with the remains and diagenetic carbonates. We demonstrate that the of arthrodire fish. Field relationships and the high ratio of observed o13C values are similar to those of fish-bearing authigenic to detrital components in the concretions indicate concretions from several other marine sequences, and we that they underwent rapid, early diagenetic growth as soft, propose, along with Berner (1968), that such concretions low- bodies that cemented the void space of extre­ may have originated as bodies of adipocere (low-density mely porous (81 < t < 94 percent) sediment near the organic soap) that formed rapidly during decay of proteinac­ -water interface. This early growth phase (stage 1) eous matter in the sediment. was probably associated with precipitation of small amounts of barite and whewellite and was followed by a protracted interval that featured (stage 2) formation of the pyrite rims INTRODUCTION and of small pyrite concretions, concurrent with of the shale and with replacement of the concretions by The Upper Devonian Ohio Shale crops out along a , followed by replacement of the calcite by Ca- and north-south band through central Ohio (fig. 1). In the Fe-rich (except within the central zones of the lower part (Huron Member) and upper part (Cleveland largest concretions); (stage 3) formation of joints in the shale, Member) of this black shale, there are several horizons followed by intrusion of clastic dikes, severe deformation of that contain carbonate and pyrite concretions, as well as concretions incorporated in the dikes, and continued com­ a few cone-in-cone layers. These large, unusual, and paction of the shale; and (stage 4) complex recrystallization and replacement of the concretions, represented by partial commonly fossiliferous concretions (fig. 2) were dissolution and recrystallization of the calcite centers, growth described by the earliest geologic investigators in Ohio, of , dolomite, and calcite in vugs and veins, and and several proposals were made for the conditions ana approximately concurrent growth of cone-in-cone layers in causes of their formation. Much disagreement arose over the shale. Oxygen isotope data (-5.5

Introduction 1 dent on the environment of deposition of the enclosing sediment. The carbon isotopic data of Hodgson (1966) demonstrated that organic matter was typically involved in the formation of carbonate concretions, and his find­ ings have had significant influence on recent models

I explaining origin (Berner, 1968; Raiswell, ···t-- 1976; Irwin and others, 1977). Although some concre­ 1 tions are known to form in freshwater environments

I (Degens and others, 1962), oxygen isotope data from i carbonate concretions from numerous localities are simi­ I I lar to those of normal marine limestones and indicate I I that growth commonly occurred at relatively low but ~f-- progressively increasing temperatures in marine pore 1 I I fluid (Irwin and others, 1977; Coleman and Raiswell, I I 1981; Hennessy and Knauth, 1985). However, the com­ I mon existence in such concretions of late-stage calcites I I 18 I that are rather strongly depleted in 0 relative to normal marine limestones has led to varied interpretations, including substantial changes in pore fluid o180 values during (Coleman and Raiswell, 1981; also see Lawrence and Geiskes, 1981), or precipitation during subsequent incursion of meteoric water (Hudson and INDEX MAl' OF OHIO Friedman, 1976) or basin-derived connate water (Dix I I II II I II I ' I ~00 MILES 0 !10 IDD KILOMET[RS and Mullins, 1987), or a combination of all the above Figure 1. Map showing the outcrop belt of Devonian shales (Siegel and others, 1987). in Ohio, modified after Bownocker (1965). Localities dis­ This study attempts to determine the conditions of cussed in text are as follows: W, Interstate 270 freeway cut in formation of the concretions of the Huron Member of the Huron Member of the Ohio Shale at Worthington; M, the Ohio Shale and to determine how their character in Huron Member along Huron River near Milan; B, mine shaft at Barberton; P, Pugh in Devonian dolostone. relates to the environment of deposition and to the Another sample was collected along the Interstate 71 freeway subsequent diagenetic modification of the host shale. We cut in the Cleveland Member of the Ohio Shale near Cleve­ direct particular attention to correlating concretion land, Ohio. occurrence and growth to stratigraphic relations and to diverse stages that occurred during of the enclosing shale. We also attempt to resolve the condi­ that decay of proteinaceous material led to rapid preci­ tions of formation of late-stage vug and vein minerals in pitation of carbonate and hence to the remarkable pre­ the concretions with o180 measurements of coexisting servation of the . Lippmann (1955) proposed that phases (quartz and dolomite or calcite), and we compare the ratio of acid-soluble to acid-insoluble components in these data with that of vug calcite from a well-known concretions may be used to estimate the sediment ­ -collecting locality in Devonian dolostone at Pugh ity at the time of concretion growth and argued that his Quarry, County, Ohio. Our results also disclosed a results demonstrated extremely high (t=:;;75 need to test Berner's (1968) adipocere model for concre­ percent) in some instances. Oertel and Curtis (1972) tion growth, and we accordingly made a comparative provided novel structural data that generally substantiate stable isotope study of selected fish-bearing concretions Lippmann's (1955) deductions, but they also presented from several other localities in the world. evidence that a stage of slow, protracted growth followed the initial stage of rapid growth of their concretions. Girin (1967) and Galimov and others (1968) suggested ACKNOWLEDGMENTS that concretions preserve a sequential record of the diagenetic processes to which the host was subjec­ This study originated in 1972 as an undergraduate ted. Raiswell (1971) outlined criteria that distinguish the research project at Case Western Reserve University. relative ages of diagenetic concretions. Professors Samuel M. Savin and the late John Hower Application of stable isotopic techniques to concre­ contributed abundant and much-needed advice and tions has shed much new light on their origin and instruction. Elizabeth Kurowski, Mark Hower, Hsueh conditions of formation. Weber and others (1964) pro­ Wen Yeh, Thomas Durst, Matt Stairs, and Karl Criss posed that the o13C values of nodules are depen- provided instruction and assistance in the laboratory. We

2 An Organic Origin for the Carbonate Concretions of the Ohio Shale also thank M.E. Williams, the late D.H. Dunkle, and (1980), no corrections have been made for the different Virginia Heisey of the Cleveland Museum of Natural acid-extraction fractionations of calcite and dolomite History for their valuable discussions and samples of (Sharma and Clayton, 1965). Four a180 analyses of fish-bearing concretions. S.M. Savin, J.R. O'Neil, Elliott quartz samples were made using the technique of Taylor Spiker, and W.L. Peterson made helpful critical com­ and Epstein (1962) and are reported in table 3 relative ments. The Marathon Oil Company and the U.S. Geo­ to the SMOW standard. Precision is ±0.1 and ±0.2 per logical Survey supplied financial support. mil for the carbonate and the silicate analyses, respecti­ vely. Most samples were collected from a roadcut along METHODS Interstate 270 about 2 km north of Worthington, Ohio. The locations of samples collected elsewhere are given in Samples for x-ray spectrochemical studies were the text and tables (also see fig. 1). preignited at 1100 °C and then fused with Li2B4 0 7 (sample: ratio 2:1 by weight; Hower and others, FIELD AND PETROGRAPHIC RELATIONS 1964). Standards approximating the sample compositions were made from Fe2 0 3 , silicic acid, Al20 3 , CaC03 , MgO, KN03 , and Ti02 • Analyses were performed on a Lithology and Petrology wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence unit using standard methods. The analyzed elements are reported The Huron Member of the Ohio Shale is a grayish­ as oxides and are K, Ca, Mg, AI, Ti, Si, and Fe (reported black, fissile shale that generally contains pyrite and more as Fe2 0 3 ). Corrections were made for matrix absorption than 10 percent organic matter (Hoover, 1960). Carbo­ effects, but enhancement effects were assumed to be nized fossils of marine algae and terrestrial plants are negligible (Hower and others, 1964). common, but other fossils are notably scarce with the of selected samples was determined exception of conodonts and occasional using standard x-ray diffraction (Grim, 1968; Carroll, (Westgate, 1926; Wells, 1947). The rank of the shale in 1970) and petrographic techniques. The mineralogy of the area of study is rather low. Observed HJC ratios in clays was determined on samples that had been acid phytoclasts and Protosalvinia (Foerstia) from the Wor­ washed and H20 2-treated to remove calcite and organic thington locality are similar to those of high-volatile matter; oriented slides of the < 21!-m material were then bituminous coals (Romankiw and others, in press). Con­ prepared by centrifugation. X-ray diffractograms were odont coloration ( < 1.5 CAl) also indicates a history of made of these slides before and after they were treated by rather low temperature conditions in the upper Devonian KCl saturation, glycolation, and heating to 550 °C and rocks of central Ohio (Epstein and others, 1977). 650 °C. Nelson (1955) determined that the dominant mine­ for mass spectrometic analysis was ralogy of the Huron Member is quartz, , and chlo­ extracted from the calcite and dolomite of concretions by rite, and that is normally absent. Hosterman reaction with 100 percent phosphoric acid at 25 °C and Whitlow (1983) report that, in drill holes represent­ (McCrea, 1950). In most cases where both carbonates ing a large area of the Appalachian basin, the lower unit were present in the same sample, collection of the C02 of the Huron Member has an average composition of 25 from each mineral was attempted by the method of percent quartz , 15 percent chlorite, 60 percent illite, Epstein and others (1964). Using the latter technique, 20 percent mixed-layer illite-smectite, 5 percent kaoli­ C02 from the predominant phase of the mixture is not nite, and a trace of mixed-layer illite-chlorite. However, significantly contaminated by that from the minor phase, kaolinite was found in only about half the samples, being but if the carbonates are not present in approximately most abundant within and east of eastern Ohio and, equal proportions, the opposite is not true (Epstein and accordingly, indicating an eastern and northeastern others, 1964). The matrix of the concretions in all cases source for this detrital (Hosterman and Whitlow, comprises either calcite with minor dolomite or dolomite 1983). Our x-ray diffractograms of the shale at Worthing­ with minor calcite. The most accurate analyses will ton generally confirm these results, but our observations therefore be the "calcite cut" of a dominantly of a continuous spectrum between 10 A and 14.4 A rock and the "dolomite cut" of a dolomitic rock; the suggest that mixed-layer illite-chlorite is more abundant. complementary analyses of the minor phases are of lower We did not observe significant changes of this material on reliability and are accordingly reported in brackets. The glycolation, on heating to 550 °C, or on saturation with isotopic measurements have all been corrected using the KCI. Carbonate minerals were not detected in our x-ray method of Craig (1957), and are reported relative to the study of untreated shale samples except in regions adja­ PDB standard (unless otherwise stated) in the usual cent to concretions. We also found that the clay frac­ delta notation. Following a recommendation by Land tion from the center of the large concretions is

Field and Petrographic Relations 3 Figure 2. Photographs of typical concretions from the Huron Member of the Ohio Shale near Worthington, Ohio. A. Concretion from the Huron Member, Interstate 270 cut, Worthing­ ton, Ohio, broken along the stratifica­ tion plane through centerline. Dark, angular material in center is an arthro­ dire plate (apatite). Enclosing material is predominantly calcite spar (light­ colored inner zone), in sharp contact with surrounding, weathered, ochre­ colored dolomite zone. Most concre­ tions also have a thin ( < 1-cm thick) pyrite rim. B. Huron Member concre­ tion, approximately 1 m in diameter, broken in vertical section. Note the irregular but sharply defined boun­ dary between the light-colored calcite zone and the surrounding dolomite zone, which formed by replacement. Also note that the calcite zone, although bounded laterally, extends from the top to the bottom of the concretion. C. Huron Member concre­ tion, about 1.5 m in diameter, at the Narrows near Worthington, Ohio. Note the stratification planes passing through the concretion. Shale layers are wrapped around the concretion due to differential compaction, as dis­ cussed in the text. D. Typical concre­ tion in the Huron Member, Interstate 270 freeway cut, Worthington, Ohio. Painted, 5-foot (1.5-m) rod shows scale. Note the ellipsoidal form, the stratification planes passing through concretion, and the •tunnel-shaped• depression in top. E. Small dolomitic concretions from the Huron Member at Worthington, Ohio. One sample has been broken to reveal the rim of radially oriented pyrite . F. Unusually large pyrite concretion from the Huron Member at Worthington. Note that the bedding in the shale, highlighted by pyrite, can be readily traced into the granular pyrite zone that constitutes the interior of the con­ cretion. Also note the decreased width of the layers peripheral to the concre­ tion (as compared to the inside), and the well-developed, symmetrical com­ paction features in the shale peri­ pheral to the concretion. All these fea­ tures indicate preservation of original pore space by concretion formation during progressive compaction of the sediment (see text). However, the perimeter of the concretion comprises larger, euhedral, radially oriented pyrite crystals that incorporated little or no sediment, but rather displaced it mechanically. Sample is 12 em long.

4 An Organic Origin for the Carbonate Concretions of the Ohio Shale lllljllllllllljllllllllljllllllllljllllllllljllllllllljllllllll ljlllll""l""l""l""l''lljllllllllljllllllllljllllllllljll lll'"'l''' l em 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ll 12 13 11


Field and Petrographic Relations 5 CENTRAL ZONE which cracks and joints preferentially develop. Most coarse ~rained coldhl qiKirtZ concretions also have a thin ( < 2-cm thick) outer layer clay minerals barltt comprising radially oriented pyrite crystals ~ithin a cla~­ !NTERMEQ!AIE ZONE fine ~rained dolomite carbonate matrix. Exterior to the concretions there IS (with some groins having colette centers) generally an indistinct zone of dolomite-cemented shale clay minerals quartz that grades continuously into the carbonate-poor shale. pyrite OUTER LAYER Large (up to 10 em long) euhedral crystals of bar!te, ~s pyrite clay minerals well as our single whewellite sample, were found m this carbonate minerals quartz < IOcm indistinct zone, which is principally developed as an Figure 3. Schematic diagram showing mineralogical zon~­ annular "girdle" (pressure shadow?) about the concre­ tion in the concretions from the Huron Member of the Ohio tion centerline. These barite crystals are again completely Shale. Compare figures 2A, 2E, and 2F. enclosed by the shaley matrix material and are commonly outlined by pyrite. We found delicate calcite boxworks of the cleavage cracks of former, large barite crystals in mineralogically similar to that of the shale, except that some concretions. Clifton (1957) reports that cone-in­ the 7.2 A110 A peak-height ratio is somewhat larger in the cone structure occurs in the peripheral zone of some concretion clays. concretions. The large (0.25- to 3-m diam) concretions are Small (5 to 25 em diam) concretions in the Huron nearly spherical, with minor elongation along the hori­ Member consist only of the dolomitic "intermediate" zontal axis, and are composed primarily of calcite, dolo­ zone with an exterior shell of pyrite; also present are mite, quartz, pyrite, barite, clay minerals, and organic small ( < 10 em diam), slightly ellipsoidal to disc-shaped matter (Westgate, 1926; Hoover, 1960; see fig. 2). concretions composed almost entirely of pyrite and shale "Funnel-shaped" depressions occur at the tops and bot­ components (figs. 2E,2F,3). In a few cases we found both toms of some concretions (Newberry, 1873; Clifton, types of these small concretions enclosed wit~in the outer 1957; fig. 2D). Veins and vugs in the concretions are most parts of the dolomite zone of large concretions, a rela­ commonly lined with calcite and less commonly contain tionship indicating partial temporal overlap of the growth dolomite or quartz; pyrite and barite are not present in of large and small concretions. . these late-stage features. Selenite (; Stauffer and Several lines of evidence indicate that the dolomite others, 1911 ), fluorite and celestite (Clifton, 1957), and zones were formed from preexisting calcite by replace­ fine-grained magnetite (Cooke, 1976) have also been ment. The boundary between the central and interme­ reported in the concretions. Hyde and Landy (1966) diate zones of the large concretions is extremely sharp reported whewellite (CaC 0 .H 0) in the concretions at 2 4 2 and therefore consistent with replacement. This boun­ Milan Ohio and we found this oxalate mineral in one ' ' dary is nearly circular along horizontal sections through concretion at Worthington. Fossils of arthrodire plates the concretions (fig. 24) but is rather irregular and (fig. 24) and terrestrial plants commonly occur in the elongate on vertical sections (fig. 2B), commonly extend­ centers of the concretions (Newberry, 1873). Foreman ing to the "funnel-shaped" depressions that commonly (1959) reported that some concretions contain abundant, occur at the top and bottom of the concretions. This well-preserved . shape clearly indicates that the calcite core zones are We observe three distinct mineralogical zones with remnant, having been replaced by dolomite at a sta~e abrupt boundaries in the large concretions (figs. when sufficient compaction had ensued to produce sig­ 24,2B,3). The central zone is predominantly ( > 60 nificant anisotropy in the permeability of the shale. weight percent) coarse-grained (==I em) calcite, with Stained thin sections provide equally clear-cut evidence quartz, clay minerals, and small amounts of barite and for replacement in that the dolomite grains of the inter­ pyrite. This barite occurs either as clear euhedral crystals mediate zone often have centers of calcite. The replace­ or as dendritic forms that are completely enclosed within ment of calcite by dolomite might be associated with and are probably replacing the matrix. These barite superimposed, more reducing conditions ~hat are ~vi­ crystals probably originated in the rapid growth stage or denced by the pyrite rims, insofar as dolomite formation in the earliest part of the subsequent replacement stage is strongly inhibited by aqueous sulfate (Baker and (see below). This center is surrounded by an interme­ Kastner, 1981). diate zone that is more than 80 weight percent fine­ grained (==0.1 mm) dolomite with appreciable pyrite, quartz, clay minerals, and minor calcite (Westgate, Time of Growth of the Concretions 1926). This zone commonly has a weak radial structure, which, together with relict stratification planes in the The temporal relations of the concretions in the concretion (see below), defines planes of weakness along Huron Member of the Ohio Shale were first investigated

6 An Organic Origin for the Carbonate Concretions of the Ohio Shale by Newberry (1873), who noted the pronounced arching of the shale above and below the concretions (fig. 2C). Newberry (1873) reasoned that the concretions formed in incompletely consolidated sediment, and that the arching resulted from subsequent compaction that deformed the but not the rigid concretion. Daly (1900) noted similar arching of shale around the carbonate concretions at Point, , but pro­ posed that the fully compacted shale had been deformed during epigenetic growth of the concretions. Stauffer and others (1911) noted that the bedding planes of the shale could commonly be traced into the concretions, and Westgate (1926) observed that the width between any two such bedding planes increases from the edge to the center of the concretions (fig. 2F). Westgate (1926) proposed that these layers had been physically pushed apart during the deposition of the concretionary mate­ rial; thus his view is similar to Daly's (1900). Clifton (1957) concluded that concretion growth was penecon­ temporaneous, reasoning that compaction of the sedi­ ments progressed as the concretions grew outward and filled the pore space. According to Clifton's (1957) hypothesis, the width between enclosed bedding planes would progressively decrease from the center to the periphery of the concretion; eventually, when growth stopped, the shale would warp around the concretion as suggested by Newberry (1873). Several independent lines of evidence support the interpretations that Newberry (1873) and Clifton (1957) Figure 4. Gray shale dike crosscutting the Huron Member of the Ohio Shale along the Huron River near advanced for the Huron Member concretions. First, Milan, Ohio. This part of the dike occupies one of the Clifton (1957) noted that uncrushed Tasmanites occur in prominent, NE-trending joints in the host black shale; the concretions but not in the shale, and Foreman (1959) however, a major sill-like offshoot of the dike (not shown) made similar observations about radiolaria. Second, our is only locally, but clearly, discordant. The dike and sill chemical data demonstrate that a significant shale com­ complex contains fragments of the black shale as well as ponent is present within the concretions and that the small, rotated and deformed, pyrite-rimmed concretions (see fig. 5). fractional amount of this component increases radially outward in the concretions, as described below. Further­ more, the high porosities indicated by our data (81 to 94 mation and intrusion occurred before compaction was percent) are in accord with observed values for recent complete. The concretions were obviously formed before uncompacted argillaceous (generally 70 to 90 their incorporation in the dike, and thus the warping percent; MUller, 1967). could not be the result of concretionary growth. Severe In addition, we found several small, rotated and deformation of most of the concretions in the dike (fig. sometimes severely crushed, pyrite-rimmed, Huron 5A,5B) indicates that they still retained some degree of Member-type concretions in a clastic dike near Milan, their inferred initial soft character; moreover, their Ohio (figs. 4,5). This unique locality permits many deformable nature was apparently retained (1) after the important temporal relations to be discerned. Part of the pyrite rims were formed, and (2) after much of the matrix dike occupies joints with the same NE orientation as the material had become, or was destined to become, dolo­ principal set in the area (fig. 4). However, a major mite. Even so, the density of the concretions at that time offshoot of the dike is nearly concordant with the enclos­ probably exceeded that of the intrusive material, insofar ing black shale; note that the joints in the black shale do as at least one specimen (fig. 5C) had sunk to the bottom not cut the clastic intrusion (fig. 5A). The intrusive of the subhorizontal part of the dike. Calcite overgrowths material is lithologically similar to the light grey shale occur on several of these incorporated concretions (fig. (Olentangy Shale?) that underlies the Huron concretio­ 5B). nary zone. In one case the dike material is visibly warped On the other hand, there is also some petrographic around a concretion (fig. 5C), indicating that joint for- evidence for small-scale, mechanically displacive growth

Field and Petrographic Relations 7 Figure 5. Concretions incorporated in clastic dike and sill complex, along the Huron River near Milan, Ohio. A. Highly deformed, 50-em-long concretion within sill-like part of clastic dike. Note that the prominent, nearly vertical joints in the black shale do not cut the intrusive mate­ rial. B. Highly sheared (U-shaped), pyrite-rimmed dolomitic concretion at lower interface of clastic sill and host black shale. A prominent calcite over­ growth occurs along the concave part of the concretion perimeter. Quarter dollar shows scale. C. Rotated, slightly deformed, pyrite-rimmed dolomite con­ cretion in clastic sill. Weak, differential compaction features are developed in the dike peripheral to the concretion. This concretion appears to have sunk to the bottom of the sill. Quarter dollar shows scale.

8 An Organic Origin for the Carbonate Concretions of the Ohio Shale of authigenic minerals. Examples are the large, perfectly carbonate concretions in a 670-m-deep mine shaft at clear, barite crystals within and immediately outside the Barberton, Ohio, approximately 90 km downdip from the concretions, and the euhedral, 1-cm pyrite crystals on the outcrop belt (see fig. 1). The latter concretions occur outside of some small concretions (fig. 2F). Cone-in-cone within the middle part of the Huron Member (==145m layers in the formation provide another example of above the base), and none were described in lower levels possible displacive growth (Brown, 1954). It is therefore of the formation (Stauffer, 1944). Furthermore, the reasonable to infer that at least some displacive growth Barberton concretions occur only ==30 m below the base occurred in the Huron Member concretions, and this of the Foerstia zone identified by Hass (1956) and might partly explain why the "porosities" calculated from Winslow (1962). Thus, the available evidence suggests our chemical data are so high (also see discussions in that the large carbonate concretions have a much closer spatial relationship to the presumably synchronous Foer­ Raiswell, 1971, and Hennessy and Knauth, 1985). stia zone than to the diachronous base of the Huron Member. This evidence implies that a temporal factor, Stratigraphic Zonation of the Carbonate perhaps a decrease in the rate of , or Concretions large-scale stagnation of bottom waters, is responsible for the stratigraphic distribution of the carbonate concre­ Several workers have noted that the large carbo­ tions. nate concretions tend to occupy definite stratigraphic horizons that generally occur in the lower part, perhaps ISOTOPIC AND CHEMICAL RELATIONS the lowermost 10 to 30 m, of the Huron Member of the Ohio Shale (Newberry, 1873). This feature led Westgate (1926) to suggest that channelized fluid circulation above Chemical Composition the underlying "impervious" Olentangy Shale played a role in concretion development. However, all the original X-ray spectrochemical analyses made of samples observations were made along the extensive Devonian from traverses across two large concretions (fig. 6) are outcrop belt in Ohio and do not necessarily have any given in table 1. Also included are wet chemical analyses bearing on the distribution of concretions in the subsur­ of a concretion and a shale sample from the Huron face to the east, insofar as the outcrop belt is approxima­ Member of the Ohio Shale (Westgate, 1926) that for tely parallel to the original shoreline (Barrell, 1913). If comparison purposes have been recalculated to 100 the concretions always occur near the base of the Huron percent for the indicated constituents. The analyses gen­ Member, then the concretions occupy a diachronous erally confirm that the concretions consist predominantly stratigraphic zone, because the Ohio Shale is widely of carbonate minerals and shale constituents, and they regarded to be part of a transgressive sequence related to clearly demonstrate the chemical zonation of the bodies. the Catskill delta (Barrell, 1913; Allen and Friend, 1968; Because volatile constituents were not determined Schwietering, 1977; Dennison and Textoris, 1977). How­ (except by Westgate, 1926), mineralogic interpretation of ever, a comparison of the concretionary horizons with a the oxide concentrations can be made only in conjunction biostratigraphic zone suggests that the concretions with petrographic data. occupy an interval that is at least approximately synchro­ Analyses of three central zone samples (T3A-1, -2 nous. and T3C-1) indicate a predominance of calcite, but the

Studies by Hass (1956), Winslow (1962), Winder high Si02 :Al2 0 3 ratios suggest that authigenic quartz is (1966), Schopf and Schwietering (1970), and Murphy present. Most of the reflects the presence of pyrite,

(1973) have established that a relatively thin ( < 45-m and the clay-related oxides (Al20 3 , 0, Ti02 ) represent thickness) Foerstia zone occurs at widely distributed shale components incorporated in the concretion. localities in the Huron Member (Ohio and ), Our analyses of six samples from the "intermediate Chattanooga Shale (), (Ohio), zone" (T3A-3, -4, -5 and T3C-2, -3, -4) agree closely Kettle Point Shale (Ontario), and Ellicot Shale (Pennsyl­ with the concretion analysis by Westgate (1926), and all vania and New York). Where comparisons are possible, are significantly different from those of the central zone. the published descriptions indicate that the carbonate The markedly greater MgO and Fe20 3 contents prima­ concretions occur near and not more than 30 m below rily reflect the presence of ferroan dolomite and a radial the base of the Foerstia zone (see Hass, 1956; Winder, increase in pyrite. Westgate's (1926) complete chemical 1966; Schopf and Schwietering, 1970; also see figure 6 of analysis in fact suggests that the composition of the

Broadhead and others, 1980). Unfortunately, the pres­ dolomite is (Ca.56Mg_ 39Fe. 05 )C03 , although the calcula­ ence or absence of the concretions east of the Devonian ted Ca content may be slightly high because small outcrop belt cannot be inferred from drill-hole data. amounts of calcite are also commonly present in the However, Stauffer (1944) noted large (to 0.6-m diam) intermediate zone. However, a Ca- and Pe-rich compo-

Isotopic and Chemical Relations 9 100 40

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10 An Organic Origin for the Carbonate Concretions of the Ohio Shale Table 1. X-Ray Spectrochemical Data For Concretions From the Huron Member of the Ohio Shale (in weight percent)

Radial Distance Wt.,., Vol.% Saq>le Zone on Si~ AltJJ Fet>3 WI' Cal K,fJ Ti~ Total Ce1Ent Ce1ent T3A-l Central u 43.42 3.57 1.96 2.33 46.93 .81 .19 99.21 87.9 85.3 2 Central 25 36.14 8.81 1.55 1.86 45.32 .69 1.19 9.>.56 69.2 66.0 3 lntem81i ate 3) 9.41 3.29 8.69 28.00 48.79 .55 .15 99.68 91.1 89.1 4 lntenredi ate 45 11.?6 4.Z3 8.23 29.

TJC-1 Central 0 11.52 2.35 1.35 3.04 76.72 .34 .24 95.56 93.0 92.0 2 Intenredi ate aJ 2.71 1.97 7.70 32.49 57.73 .35 .rJl 99.rrl 94.8 94.1 3 lntennedi ate 3J 6.04 1.98 6.88 29.47 50.02 .36 .09 94.84 94.5 93.7 4 Intemaii ate 40 B.ffi 2.79 9.8J 26.52 48.56 .65 .14 (/1.31 92.2 91.1 5 ~rite 45 2.24 1.89 fi8.73 5.58 15.03 .26 .11 gJ.84 93.8 ~.8

Concretion* Int? 15.ffi 3.7.7 8.RJ 24.13 47.7l. 0.21 (100.) 9).9 89.6 {Westgate, 1926)

lllio Shale* Shale 63.64 ?2..77 6.30 1.71 0.48 5.10 (100.) 0 0 (Westgate, 1926)

*Wet chelrical analvses recalaJlate:t to 100 percent for the indicated constituents.

sition (apparent CaC03 content= 56 to 57 mole percent) uniform clay composition was subsequently modified by for the dolomite would be consistent with the 2.906 A diffusional influx of potassium from a chemically evolving spacing of the 104 peak that we have observed in several pore fluid. samples (see Murata and others, 1972). Of all the An analysis of "shale" immediately outside one of intermediate zone samples, only T3A-5 and Westgate's the concretions (T3A-6) shows the expected higher

(1926) concretion have Si02 :Al2 0 3 ratios sufficiently concentrations of the clay-related oxides, but comparison large, relative to Westgate's shale, to suggest that signif­ with Westgate's (1926) shale analysis strongly suggests icant authigenic quartz is present. Furthermore, the that authigenic dolomite, quartz, and pyrite also occur in clay-related oxides, in this case including most of the this sample. Last, an analysis of the thin pyrite shell on

Si02, all show a clear-cut radial increase in the interme­ one of the concretions (T3C-5) indicates that dolomite diate zone. Note that Ti02 :Al20 3 is essentially constant and shale constituents are present, in addition to pyrite. (:;:0.05) in all but one of these samples (T3A-2). How­ An important feature of our analyses is that they ever, there is some evidence for a radial increase in permit approximate computation of the relative propor­ K20:Al20 3, indicating either that a record of progressive tions of authigenic constituents and incorporated shale diagenetic fixation of potassium by clays is preserved material in radial traverses through the concretions. within the concretions or that an (assumed) initially Although there is no completely satisfactory way to make such computations, particular~y from our partial che­ mical analyses, we propose that it is reasonable to (1) ~ Figure 6. Graphs showing radial distribution of che­ assume that the oxide ratios of shale constituents in the mical contents and o180 and o13C values in concretions concretions are exactly the same as those in Westgate's T3A (solid line) and T3C (dashed line, in part inferred) (1926) complete analysis of the shale; (2) determine the from Worthington, Ohio. Open circles represent central­ quantity of incorporated shale in the concretion samples zone samples, solid circles represent samples of the from the Al 0 contents and the above assumption; and dolomitic intermediate zone, solid triangle represents 2 3 pyrite band, and x represents carbonate-cemented (3) recalculate any unaccounted CaO, MgO, Fe2 0 3 and shale immediately peripheral to concretion. The data Si02 as authigenic carbonates and quartz. Note that indicate the marked differences in the chemical and computation of all authigenic iron as carbonate is accept­ isotopic compositions of different zones in the concre­ able for our purpose because siderite has nearly the same tions. Except for the calcite centers and the thin pyrite formula weight as pyrite. shell, the amount of shale incorporated in the concre­ tions increases radially outward, while the proportion of The results of the calculations are given in table 1. authigenic constituents decreases. See text and tables 1 The proportion of the authigenic constituents in most and 2. concretion samples ranges from 83 to 95 weight percent,

Isotopic and Chemical Relations 11 and would translate to approximately 81 to 94 volume Table 2. Isotopic composition of concretions from the percent, given reasonable assumptions of the mineral Huron Member of the Ohio Shale, Worthington, Ohio

ltxlule ~le ~lcite" . Furthermore, there appears to be a progressive 1 ~ lb. 1Jescr1 pti Cl'l Mlneral!J1Y( ) &lJc &1!\J radial decrease in authigenic constituents, particularly if I. !..Mil: KlULS the central zone samples are excluded. This result 1 centra1 zone u:(O'i'Z,rnn) -19.5 -1D.4 ( -18.0 -9.3; accords with the observations of Lippmann (1955), Rais­ 2 Central zone CC(OTZ,JU.O) -19.4 -10.:i 3 Inteme:l1ate zone rnJ1((1TZ,CC) (-11.2 - 3,6) -12,5 -2.6 well (1971 ), and Oertel and Curtis (1972), who interpre­ 4 Jnt:enmd1ate zone IXl..fi(OTZ,CC) (-12.2 - 4,1) -13,2 -2.5 ted similar data in terms of concretion growth by cemen­ 5 Intenrediate zone rn.Jl(QTZ,CC) -13.5 -3,9 2 Jntenred1ate zone tiio (-1?~6 - 3.~) -13,3 -2.5 tation of pore space during progressive compaction of the 3 Interm:liate zone IXlO (-13.4 - 3,3) -13.4 -3.7 host shale. The relatively low contents of the 4 Intenra11ate zone rno ( -11.4 - 4.8) -11.0 -4.6 1 central zone, with it(QfZ) -Mo -W:t calcite centers might indicate late-stage dissolution of fa;sil wood nucleus calcite. Such dissolution might ultimately have been i! lntenrediate zone IXl.O -12.1 -4.1 1 Central zone, With it(Q'ft) ::ro:4 -to.2 responsible for the septarian cracks and the peculiar arthrodfre plate rucleus "funnel-shaped" depressions at the top and bottom of 2 Intenrediate zone rno -12.8 -3,3 some concretions. Last, in partial support of our calcu­ I I. 9-WJ. fUU.fS lations we point out that Westgate (1926) recalculated T2A 1 Imer inteliiildlate ZCTe 00.0 (- 7.7 - 5.4) - 9.3 =5.3 his complete chemical analysis in terms of 85.2 weight 2 Mer 11"ternm 1ate zme Dl.O - 9.2 -5.3: percent carbonate, and this, along with the small amount 1 l"ner i ntenredi ate zone IJl.O (- 9.0 - 5.7) - 9,3 -5.1 ?. ()Jter 1nternl'd1ate ZCTe 00..0 (- 8.4 - 5.6) - 9.2 -6.5 of authigenic quartz and pyrite in the sample, would t:t 1 lmer 1ntemed1ate zone rn.J) (- 8.8 - 5.5) - 9.4 -5.3 approximately equal the value of 91 weight percent that 2 lllter 1nteme:li ate zone lll.O (- 1.(.1 - 5.5) - 11.3 -5.1 we calculated by our method for all authigenic compo­ 1 Imer 1ntet1red1 ate zone iiiO(IlTZ,oc> t-1204 - 4,9) -12." -?-R nents (table 1). 2 ~r 1ntemlldiate zone lll..O(OTZ) (-12.9 - 3.9) -1?~6 -3.0

Ill. 'tAft." QI.CntS

T3SV 1 Vug 1n large naille tt(QTZ) :Z0:2 -10.3 Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Data . j! • a: -15.2 -10.5 :i cc -23.0 -10.7 4 -17.3 -10.4 13 a: o C and o180 analyses were made of several large !l u: -&3 -10.7 and small concretions from the Huron Member of the m 1 crack. ff111rg 1n -16.7 - 9.8 Ohio Shale at Worthington, Ohio (table 2). The o13C large norule (-19.9±0.5) and o180 (-10.2±0.2) values of calcite cc -18.6 - g,q from the centers of the large concretions are strikingly tt =zu -m.9 uniform. The "late calcites" that fill cracks and vugs in tt(Qtt) -ilt9 - 9.6 the concretiol'is typically have similar values, as does one clc 1 cone:1n-cme l11115tone lt(QfZ) -21.5 - 9.7 sample of a 3-cm-thick, cone-in-cone layer in the shale (table 2). (1) Detennined by X-t"il)' diffraction; CC = calcite; tQ.O •

12 An Organic Origin for the Carbonate Concretions of the Ohio Shale -8 (==-30±0.2), and indicate the presence of both marine­ derived and terrestrially derived organic matter (Maynard, 1981). The o13C value of Foerstia collected a -10 few meters above the uppermost carbonate concretion horizons at Worthington was -25.4, typical of values of Devonian terrestrial organic matter (Romankiw and -12 others, in press). The o13C and o180 values of the Huron Member concretions are similar to those of diagenetic carbonate -14 ...J concretions from many other marine sequences i: a::: ~ (Hodgson, 1966; Tourtelot and Rye, 1969; Hudson and w a.. -16 CALCITE Friedman, 1976). Such concretions almost invariably :z ..... A have low o13C values that are much closer to those of ~ 6. [jjjil marine organic matter than to those of normal marine 18 ~ -18 WVA limestones, yet they typically have o 0 values that are A A either similar to, or a few per mil lower than, those of normal marine limestones, as demonstrated by Hodgson 6> 13 18 -20 DOLOMITE (1966). Interpretations of the o C and o 0 data from A€ LARGE CONCRETIONS e SMALL CONCRETIONS • the Huron Member concretions are discussed below in SAMPLE FROM MILAN + DOLOMITE IN VUGS [jjjil turn. CALCITE -22 CONCRETION CENTERS 0 VUG AND VEIN CALCITE A CONE IN CONE CALCITE 0 Interpretation of the o13C Values

-24 A variety of mechanisms has been proposed whe­ -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 reby the carbon in organic materials may become incor­ & uo. IN PER MIL porated in diagenetic carbonates (Cheney and Jensen, Figure 7. Graph of o180 vs. o13C values of carbonate 1965; Hodgson, 1966; Hathaway and Degens, 1969; concretions from the Huron Member of the Ohio Shale. Note Berner, 1968; Irwin and others, 1977). None of these 13 that the o C values are generally low and indicate an organic mechanisms can be completely ruled out as contributory source for the carbon. The o180 values of the dolomitic matrix of the large concretions are a few per mil lower than values to growth of the concretions in the Huron Member of the typical of unaltered marine limestones, and indicate concre­ Ohio Shale, because most are consistent with the low tion formation at low to moderate temperatures. Dolomite o13C values. Simultaneous operation of more than one samples from small concretions, including the sample from process could have occurred. However, when taken toge­ Milan, as well as dolomite crystals from vug WVB, lie on a ther, several characteristics of the Huron Member con­ trend line that includes samples of the dolomitic matrix of the 18 cretions point to Berner's (1968) suggestion that rapidly large concretions. o 0 values of calcite from concretion 13 centers, vugs, veins, and a cone-in-cone layer in the shale grown, low o C carbonate concretions may have are isotopically uniform, indicating that late-stage recrystalli­ originated as bodies of adipocere (organic soap; zation and isotopic reequilibration occurred at elevated tem­ Ca(RCOOh). peratures in the presence of infiltrating formation water. This Several investigators have described adipocere event may have been similar to that which produced calcite in vugs in dolostone at Pugh Quarry (sample P); however, the concretions that have formed about decaying proteinac­ o13C values of the concretionary carbonates are significantly eous organisms on short time scales (Bergmann, 1963; lower than sample P, probably reflecting exchange of the Sondheimer and others, 1966). Berner (1968) produced late-stage fluid with the abundant, 13C depleted organic this material in laboratory experiments of anaerobic 18 matter in the shale. Vug calcites WVC (o 0= -4.8; decomposition of fish in , although Jackson o13C= + 15.9) and WVD (o180=-5.2; o13C= + 16.4) are off­ scale, and probably formed at a very late stage. Data from (1973, p. 31) pointed out that organic gels can form when tables 2 and 3. samples that have not been treated to remove calcium

Table 3. o180 Determinations of coexisting vug minerals in o180= -5.6) and outer part (o 13C= -1.3; o180= -6.0) of concretions of the Huron Member 1-m-diameter calcite concretion from the Kettle Point SN-R.£ &lllo ()Jartzt !Mll &IBn 961 (PM) Carbonate &13c Carimate Relation Shale, Kettle Point, Ontario. Last, calcite from a vug in 'INA +:!.3.4 +?!2.0 ( -8.6) ruo -17.5 lli.U IU.O on Q1Z Devonian dolostone at Pugh Quarry, Ohio, had o13C= -11.2 and o180= -8.2. IoNS +;!5.3 +28.0 ( -Z.R) IXl.O -13.Z rno QTloniXl.O Published o13C values of organic matter in the WIK: +25.1 +:i5.9 ( -4.8) cc +15.9 cc t:C on QTZ Huron Member of central Ohio are quite low ww +24.4 +25.5 (-5.2) a: +16.4 oc

Isotopic and Chemical Relations 13 Table 4. Concretions from other localities-This study and (1964) and Sass and Kolodny (1972). Rapid concretio­ others nary growth is suggested by the excellent preservation of fish within samples MS-1, 10934, 8014, 8272, and 8325 ~1ello. !escription (fig. 8). Of particular note are sample 10934, which MS-1 E11ipsoida1, fish-hearing ca1cite -13,8 ..J.R concretion. LQoft!r Creta- (quartz?) resembles the extraordinary concretions described by cerus mr1 ne set1i111'11ts, 1\!hia Series, llah1a, Weeks (1957) in that the original, three-dimensional ~razil. external shape of the fish is preserved; and sample 8325, Im34 Ellipsoidal concretion calcite containing the fish in which the external form and trunk musculature of a lharmis 3!:.. Crel:aCA!oJs IIBMne (?) sedifl1!1lts. cladodont shark are preserved (fig. 8A,B; also see Dean, Santana Fm. , Ceara, Brazil. 1902). The o13C values of these samples are generally 66-229 "lill'eStone", fish-bearing -15,R -4.5 (Keith and concretim. Milrine Creta­ similar to one another and to those of the Huron Weber. 1964) cerus. Grizzly Bear l>t.ns. , Grt. Bear lake, Member concretions. Because an adipocere origin is N. W. T. , . probably quite likely for at least some of these concre­ ~14 :911111, e111pso1dal, fish calctteZ with -1!1.1 -6.2 t Man otus? > beaM ng con­ ca. 9 wt.% tions, and because all our samples have numerous petro­ cretion. Pleistocene ~in solid glacial clay [lmMne), sotn. (quartz, graphic and isotopic similarities, the available evidence is leda Clay Fl'lo, carlton, feldspar) eo., ~rio, canada. compatible with an adipocere origin for all fish-bearing 82/2 Ellipsoidal concretion dolerite, -22.5 -4.5 concretions examined thus far. containing hone of

Descriptions ~ these Slllples and formM:ions III1I.Y be foum in Weeks (1957), Gulnaraes (1964), RorEr bearing concretions described in table 4. Second, several (1971}, l:eith an:l Weber (1964), J'lilwson (1894), lblver (1960), Sass al1d Kolcmy (19n), and ~leon (1CJl2). investigators report that bone material associated with ~les IS-1, 10!134, 8Jl4, an:l 1!272 an:! 8325 ~ pn:wld!Jj ~ th@ Clevelam ltlsam of Nrtural History. To avoid f1aiiBge to fossils within specimens MS-1, 10034, an:lllll.4, 5111ples ~ :taken _near th@ exterior adipocere tends to dissolve or decalcify (Weigelt, 1935; of the cmci'P.f:lons. Sondheimer and others, 1966), but no definite evidence for this has been found in the Huron Member concre­ are treated with H 2 0 2 • Berner (1968) pointed out that the decomposition of adipocere to tions. We cannot fully account for these discrepant would necessitate considerable shrinkage of the concre­ observations, although it is noteworthy that reports of tions because of the large density difference between the bone decalcification are confined to freshwater environ­ two materials. ments and might not apply to marine environments The observational and inferential features of the because abundant calcium is available in the pore fluids. Huron Member concretions that are consistent with Last, our analyses clearly show that the isotopic compo­ Berner's (1968) hypothesis include (1) concretionary sitions of the Huron Member concretions do not seem to nuclei of arthrodire fish; (2) evidence for rapid growth of depend on the type of fossil nucleus present ( cf. T3R and the concretions near the sediment-water interface; (3) T3F, table 2). However, Sondheimer and others (1966) evidence for shrinkage and recrystallization of the con­ proved that most of the adipocere in the concretions he cretions; ( 4) evidence for low-oxygen fugacity in the black described was derived from sources external to the shale; and (5) low o13C values of the carbonate. Further­ nuclei, and this might account for the latter observations. more, a paradox that is associated with the second of the above features may be uniquely indicative of a low­ Interpretation of the o180 Values density precursor for the concretions; notably, the density of the extremely porous (~ > 80 percent) sediment near In general, the o180 values of carbonate minerals the sediment-water interface would have been much too reflect the temperature and isotopic composition of the low (p < 1.5) to hydrostatically support the large, rapidly fluid from which they precipitated (Epstein and others, grown carbonate concretions that now have p=3g!cc. 1953). The sequentially grown carbonate minerals in As a partial test of Berner's (1968) hypothesis, we concretions may therefore preserve a temporal record of analyzed fish-bearing concretions from several other diagenetic changes in pore fluid characteristics, as sug­ localities and present the isotopic data in table 4 along gested by Hudson and Friedman (1976). The isotopic with pertinent determinations made by Keith and Weber record of the concretions in the Huron Member of the

14 An Organic Origin for the Carbonate Concretions of the Ohio Shale CIRvelatui M uMurn of Naturol iilalory {)e~:t oi ?t4-or.toloqy

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imm-:mr,.n ~Lly C.t.c>•"' .....f~"J.l

..:....ll"'•-~...>1 ~.t- • ~ /.,..: ~ lr.tt'l>. v •.. 1 ·..:..~

0 ~ "'0a· CLEVELAND MUSEPM cw NATI'BAL lllSTOHY •:::J a. PalPllo+us "••l ···r 3 a· Horimn J 1 8 s tc. c e> n e !. ::0 CD Figure 8. Photographs of carbonate concretions with fossil fish from several localities. All samples are curated by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. c;·a :::J Scale bar is 10 em long on A, B, and D and 15 em long on C. See table 4 for isotopic analyses and additional information. A. Ellipsoidal dolomitic concretion from fl) the Cleveland Member, Cleveland, Ohio, containing shark (Ciadoselache sp.) with well-preserved trunk musculature (sample 8325). B. Ellipsoidal calcite .... concretion containing fish (Tharrhis sp.) with external, three-dimensional shape preserved, Ceara, Brazil (sample 10934). C. Ellipsoidal, fish-bearing calcite (1'1 concretion, Bahia, Brazil (sample MS-1). D. Ellipsoidal to irregular, fish-bearing calcite concretion, Ontario, Canada (sample 8014). Ohio Shale has been greatly modified by recrystallization ratures in fluid with a o180 value approximately 10 per and replacement and cannot be interpreted indepen­ mil lower than that of seawater, for example, from dently of field and petrographic data, but most of our meteoric waters (although -7 would probably be a samples record an overall pattern of progressive 180 better average value for modern meteoric waters in depletion in the concretionary carbonates. Such a tern­ Ohio); or (3) formation under many other combinations poral pattern has been found in concretions from several of temperature and fluid o180 values, with the restriction other localities (Sass and Kolodny, 1972; Coleman and that only one variable is independent. Raiswell, 1981) and probably represents the major and In an attempt to resolve this history, we made o18 0 most common trend, although complex patterns (Hen­ analyses of quartz crystals coexisting with either calcite or nessy and Knauth, 1985; Siegel and others, 1987) and dolomite from four vugs in the large concretions (table even reversed trends (Degens and others, 1962) can 3). Although the o180 values of the quartz samples are occur. quite uniform ( +23.4 to +25.3 rei. SMOW), in three of The isotopic similarity of almost all of the "late the four cases the carbonates have higher o180 values calcites" and of the calcite centers of the concretions, than the quartz; the marked isotopic disequilibrium in together with the coarse grain size of the latter, strongly these three vugs indicates that the minerals did not suggest that recrystallization and complete isotopic ree­ coprecipitate. Only quartz and dolomite from vug WVA quilibration of the calcite centers occurred at a late stage. can possibly be in oxygen isotope equilibrium; unfortu­ The original isotopic character of the concretions is nately, the temperature dependence of the isotopic frac­ therefore probably best preserved in the dolomite of the tionation between quartz and dolomite has not yet been intermediate zone, but this dolomite grew by replace• well determined. If it is assumed that the 180 fractiona­ ment of preexisting calcite, and this process will closely tion between dolomite and calcite at low to moderate (Degens and Epstein, 1964), but in general not perfectly temperatures is 3 to 4.5 per mil (see Land, 1980; also see (Land, 1980), replicate the o180 value of the precursor, fractionations compiled in Friedman and O'Neil, 1977), depending on the water/rock ratio during replacement. then the data from WVA translate to temperatures of 45 Furthermore, isotopic fractionations attendant on the oc to 95 oc and a fluid o180 value of -7.2 to +1.2, conversion of adipocere to calcite are not known, and utilizing the quartz-water fractionation curve of Clayton such a process may have occurred in the Huron Member and others (1972) with the calcite-water fractionation concretions, as previously discussed. In spite of these curve of O'Neil and others (1969). Note that the dolo­ complexities, it is probably not accidental that the o180 mite in WVA has an isotopic composition that is gener­ values of the matrix dolomites are either close to, or only ally compatible with that of most of the observed vug and a few per mil lower than, the values observed in Quater­ vein calcites (table 2; fig. 7). In contrast, the dolomite in nary marine limestones (Keith and Weber, 1964), and vug WVB is isotopically similar to that of the dolomitic that these dolomites appear to preserve a progressive matrix of the concretions (see fig. 7), but is quite diffe­ (radial) record of o180 depletion (see table 2). The o180 rent from that of the other vug and vein carbonates, and values of the dolomite zone are accordingly compatible probably precipitated much earlier than the quartz and with crystallization at low but progressively higher tern­ the other vug and vein minerals. peratures in the presence of a pore fluid with a o180 An additional surprise is that the o180 and o13 C value similar to that of seawater. values of the calcites in vugs WVC and WVD are both Similarly, the o180 values of the carbonates ( -0.9 dramatically different from the values observed in all the to -6.3) of fish-bearing concretions from other localities other vug and vein calcites (table 2). It is unfortunate that also suggest precipitation at low temperatures from temporal relations between these unusual calcites and fluids with o180 values similar to, or somewhat lower the other vug minerals could not be completely deter­ than, seawater (table 4). It is significant that the lowest mined, although calcite appears to postdate quartz in vug values in table 4 represent the carbonate from the WVC. Also, the observations of Siegel and others (1987) outermost part of the concretions and probably reflect strongly suggest that their calcite IV, which is isotopically growth at a late stage when temperatures were elevated similar to calcites WVC and WVD at Worthington, and pore fluid o180 values may have been somewhat formed during a late stage of diagenesis subsequent to lower than the seawater value. the precipitation of the main masses of vug carbonates. The geologic history of the "late calcites" and other Thus, our paragenetic and isotopic evidence, and especi­ vug minerals in the Huron Shale concretions would ally that of Siegel and others (1987), indicate that the seemingly be straightforward compared to that of the o180 record of sequentially precipitated vug minerals in matrix carbonates. The relatively low o180 values concretions is complicated in detail, and is not entirely c~-10) of most of these "late calcites" are compatible consistent with a simple pattern of progressive depletion with either (1) formation in seawater-like fluid at eleva­ of 180. Note that relatively high o180 values could occur ted temperatures (~75 °C); (2) formation at low tempe- in very late stage vug minerals that precipitated under

16 An Organic Origin for the Carbonate Concretions of the Ohio Shale conditions of elevated temperatures and low water/rock In summary, we believe that the rather low a1s0 ratios, provided that the a 1s0 value of the fluid was values of the vug minerals in the concretions of the substantially increased by interaction with the rock, for Huron Member of the Ohio Shale reflect their precipi­ example with the fine grained, high 180 matrix carbo­ tation at moderate temperatures from marine pore fluids nates. Irwin and others (1977) suggest that bacterial or formation waters. A formation water origin is suppor­ 1 13 fermentation reactions can form carbonates with unusu­ ted by the rather low as0 and a C values that we ally high 13C values. observed in vug calcite at Pugh Quarry, Ohio. Also, the a 18 13 Although our attempt to definitively resolve the a 0 and a C values observed by Hall and Friedman origin of the late-stage minerals met with some difficulty, (1969) in the late-stage calcites from Mississippi Valley we believe that the most likely possibility is a case only type ore deposits are quite similar to those of Pugh quarry calcite; Hall and Friedman suggested that these marginally different from (1 ), above. For example, if it is calcites precipitated from hot oil-field brine mixed with assumed that the vug quartz and the ordinary (ca. -10; meteoric water (their calculated fluid had 180= -3.0 to table 2) late calcites formed simultaneously, which is o +0.4). Under the low water/rock conditions at the latest probably not rigorously true because these minerals tend stages of diagenesis, vug calcites with high a13C values to precipitate under different acid-base conditions, both 18 the temperature and the also value of the fluid can be and with a 0 values approaching those of the fine­ 1 grained matrix carbonates could be formed. We do not calculated from the average as0 values of these mine­ concur with suggestions (Hudson and Friedman, 1976; rals. Thus, using available fractionation factors (O'Neil Hudson, 1978) that similarly low 1s0 values of "late and others, 1969; Clayton and others, 1972) and the a average a1s0 values, we calculate that crystallization of calcites" in concretions from many other localities prin­ cipally reflect growth in low 180 pore fluids derived from these minerals occurred at T=-105 °C in a pore fluid with 18 18 meteoric waters. a 0= +3.6. Alternatively, the largest observed 0 dif­ ference between any of these quartz and calcite samples would suggest a temperature of 55 oc and a fluid a180 value of -3.5, whereas the smallest quartz-calcite 180 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS difference would indicate an unreasonably high tempe­ rature of 225 °C and a fluid a1s0 value of + 12.8. The carbonate concretions of the Huron Member Because the quartz, dolomite, and calcite samples of the Ohio Shale are structurally and petrographically utilized in the above calculations cannot be proved to complex bodies that commonly contain well-preserved have coprecipitated, we cannot claim to have definitively fish remains. We concur with the opinions of Newberry calculated the conditions under which crystallization of (1873) and Clifton (1957) that the concretions originated the vug minerals occurred. However, we believe that our by rapid, early diagenetic growth near the sediment­ calculated conditions for the precipitation of these "ordi­ water interface. Presuming that the concretionary mate­ nary" late-stage minerals are mostly quite reasonable, In rial filled and preserved void space in the sediment, part because generally similar conditions have been chemical analyses can be used to calculate that the commonly inferred for the development of late-stage sediment originally had a of approximately 81 to carbonate in limestones (Choquette and James, 94 volume percent. Similarly large porosities are typical 1987). Also note that fluid inclusion measurements indi­ of modern marine sediments in the uppermost few cate elevated temperatures (50 °C) for late-stage calcite meters of the sediment column. Such values have also crystallization in septarian concretions from the Fayette­ been calculated for early diagenetic concretions from ville Formation, Arkansas; later stage fluids were as hot numerous other localities (Lippmann, 1955), but the as 100 °C (Burruss and Goldstein, 1980; see Zangerl and indicated sediment densities are extremely low and pose others, 1969, for description of concretions from this a problem for hydrostatic support of the large, dense formation). The calculated a1s0 value of the fluid in the concretions. It must be concluded that either (1) such latter case strongly suggests that it was either slightly porosity calculations are unrealistic, perhaps because modified marine pore fluid or formation waters. Marine much of the original sediment contained carbonate or pore fluids within 1 km of the sediment-water interface silica that dissolved, or perhaps because the crystals of almost invariably have a1s0 values only slightly less (by a the growing concretion have mechanically displaced few per mil) than seawater (Lawrence and Gieskes, much of the sediment; or (2) the concretions originated 1981). On the other hand, it is probably highly significant as some type of low-density material. However, even if that present -day formation waters from the Gulf Coast the porosity calculations are in error by a factor of two, and from the Illinois and Michigan basins generally have the paradox of hydrostatic support of the concretions a180 values of about -3 to +6 if temperatures are would remain. Also, only the second possibility can easily moderate, as our calculations suggest (see Clayton and account for the severe deformation observed in the others, 1966). concretions that were incorporated in the clastic dikes at

Discussion and Conclusions 17 Milan, Ohio. Observations at Milan also prove that joints of seawater. Because concretion growth and replacement and clastic dikes formed in the shale at a surprisingly processes are complex and appear to occur at different early stage, before compaction and carbonate precipita­ stages under varying conditions, we agree with Hodgson tion were complete. (1966) that paleoenvironmental conclusions derived The concretions have a closer spatial correspond­ from stable isotopic data of diagenetic carbonates must ence with the Foerstia biostratigraphic zone than they be viewed with skepticism. have with the diachronous base of the Huron Member. The concretionary horizons may therefore represent timelines in the formation. REFERENCES Complex recrystallization and replacement pheno­ mena have affected the carbonate concretions of the Huron Member. The concretions appear to have been, at Allen, J.R.L., and Friend, P.F., 1968, Deposition of the an early stage, composed principally of calcite, which, Catskill , Appalachian region: With notes on except for remnant cores in the largest bodies, was some other Old Red basins: Geol. Soc. subsequently replaced by Ca- and Pe-rich dolomite. America Special 106, p. 21-74. Euhedral crystals and dendrites of barite probably Baker, P.A., and Kastner, Miriam, 1981, Constraints in formed during or before this stage. The replacement the formation of sedimentary dolomite: Science, v. stage was accompanied by the growth of small pyrite 213, p. 214-216. Barrell, Joseph, 1913, The Upper Devonian delta of the concretions in the shale and the development of pyrite Appalachian geosyncline: Part 1. The delta and its rims on some of the large concretions. Subsequently the relations to the interior sea: Am. Jour. Sci., v. 36 (4th cone-in-cone layers in the shale formed. Concurrently or ser.), p. 429-472. subsequently the remnant calcite cores recrystallized and Bergmann, Werner, 1963, Geochemistry of lipids, in formed the "funnel-shaped" depressions in the top and Breger, I.A., ed., Organic Geochemistry: New York, bottom of the concretions. During the late stages of Pergamon, p. 503-542. development, crystals of calcite and, less commonly, Berner, R.A., 1968, Calcium carbonate concretions quartz and dolomite, filled vugs and veins in the concre­ formed by the decomposition of organic matter: tions. Science, v. 159, p. 195-197. o13C values indicate that the source of the carbon Bownocker, J.A., 1965, Geologic Map of Ohio, in carbonate in the Huron Member concretions, like that 1:500,000: Ohio Geological Survey. of early diagenetic carbonate concretions worldwide Broadhead, R.F., Kepferle, R.C., and Potter, P.E., 1980, (Hodgson, 1966), was dominantly derived from organic Lithologic descriptions of cores and exposures of matter. The values are similar to those of fish-bearing Devonian shale and associated strata in Ohio along concretions from many other marine sequences, and : U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Rept. these concretions might in many cases have originated as 80-719, 96 p. bodies of adipocere. An adipocere origin is compatible Brown, R.W., 1954, How does cone-in-cone become with the rapid early diagenetic growth of the concretions emplaced?: Am. Jour. Sci., v. 252, p. 372-376. and would explain the unique paradoxes related to the Burruss, R.C., and Goldstein, R.H., 1980, Time and low density and deformable nature inferred for the temperature of hydrocarbon migration: fluid inclu­ concretions during the early growth stages, but such sion evidence from the Fayetteville Formation, NW origin is seemingly incompatible with the excellent pre­ Arkansas: Geol. Soc. America Abs. with Prgms., v. servation of bone within the concretions. It is noteworthy, 12, p. 396. however, that descriptions of bone destruction by adipo­ Carroll, Dorothy, 1970, Clay minerals: A guide to their x-ray identification: Geol. Soc. America Spec. Paper, cere are confined to freshwater occurrences and might v. 126, 80 p. not apply in marine environments where abundant cal­ Chave, K.E., 1952, A solid between calcite and cium is available. 18 dolomite: Jour. Geology, v. 60, p. 190--192. o 0 values of the dolomitic matrix of the Huron Cheney, E.S., and Jensen, M.L., 1965, Stable carbon Member concretions are only a few per mil lower than isotopic composition of biogenic carbonates: Geo­ values for unaltered marine carbonates and are compat­ chim. et Cosmochim. Acta, v. 29, p. 1331-1364. ible with formation in marine pore fluid at low but Choquette, P.W., and James, N.P., 1987, Diagenesis #12. 18 progressively increasing temperatures. o 0 values of the Diagenesis in limestones-3. The deep burial envi­ recrystallized remnant calcite cores and most calcite ronment: Geoscience Canada, v. 14, no. 1, p. 3-35. veins and vugs in the concretions are low and uniform Clayton, R.N., Friedman, Irving, Graf, D.L., Mayeda, and most likely reflect late-stage recrystallization and T.K., Meents, W.F., and Shimp, N.F., 1966, The growth at moderate temperatures in the presence of origin of saline formation waters: Jour. Geophys. formation fluid with a o180 value reasonably close to that Res., v. 71, p. 3869-3882.

18 An Organic Origin for the Carbonate Concretions of the Ohio Shale Clayton, R.N., O'Neil, J.R., and Mayeda, T.K., 1972, Friedman, Irving, and O'Neil, J.R., 1977, Compilation of Oxygen isotope exchange between quartz and water: stable isotope fractionation factors of geochemical Jour. Geophys. Res., v. 77, p. 3057-3067. interest: U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 440-KK. Clifton, H.E., 1957, The carbonate concretions of the Galimov, E.M., Girin, Yu. P., and Vernadskiy, V.I., 1968, Ohio Shale: Ohio Jour. Sci., v. 57(2), p. 114-124. Variation in the isotopic composition of carbon Coleman, M.L., and Raiswell, R., 1981, Carbon, oxygen, during the formation of carbonate concretions: Geo­ and sulfur isotope variations in concretions from the chem. International, v. 5, p. 178-182. Upper Lias of N.E. : Geochim. et Cosmo­ Girin, Yu. P ., 1967, Geochemical stages during diage­ chim. Acta., v. 45, p. 329-340. nesis of middle sediments of the High Cooke, D.J., 1976, A paleomagnetic study of the concre­ Caucasus: Geochem. International, v. 4, p. tions of the Huron shale: Unpub. BS thesis, Dept. 1146-1158. Geol. and Mineralog., Ohio State University, Grim, R.E., 1968, Clay Mineralogy: New York, McGraw­ Columbus, OH, 36 p. Hill, 596 p. Craig, Harmon, 1957, Isotopic standards for carbon and Guimaraes, Djalma, 1964, Geologia do Brazil: Divisao oxygen and correction factors for mass-spec­ de Fomento da Producao Mineral: Mem. No. 1, 674 trometric analysis of carbon dioxide: Geochim. et _p. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Cosmochim. Acta, v. 12, p. 133-149. Half, W.E., and Friedman, Irving, 1969, Oxygen and Daly, R.A., 1900, "The calcareous concretions of Kettle carbon isotopic composition of ore and host rock of Point, Lambton County, Ontario": Jour. Geology, v. selected Mississippi Valley deposits: U.S. Geol. Sur­ 8, p. 135-150. vey Prof. Paper 650-C, p. C140-C148. Dawson, Sir J.W., 1894, The Canadian ice age: New Hass, W.H., 1956, Age and correlation of the Chatta­ York, The Scientific Publishing Company, 301 p. nooga Shale and the Maury Formation: U.S. Geol. Dean, Bashford, 1902, The preservation of muscle-fibres Survey Prof. Paper 286, 47 p. in sharks of the Cleveland Shale: Am. Geologist, v. Hathaway, J.C., and Degens, E.T., 1969, Methane­ 30, p. 273-278. derived marine carbonates of Pleistocene age: Sci­ Degens, E.T., and Epstein, Samuel, 1964, Oxygen and ence,v. 165,p.690--692. carbon isotope ratios in coexisting calcites and dolo­ Hennessy, Joel, and Knauth, L.P., 1985, Isotopic varia­ mites from recent and ancient sediments: Geochim. tions in dolomite concretions from the Monterey et Cosmochim. Acta, v. 28, p. 23-44. Formation, California: Jour. Sed. Petrology, v. 55, p. Degens, E.T., Pierce, W.D., and Chilingar, G.V., 1962, 120-130. 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References 19 Jackson, M.L., 1973, chemical analysis-advanced Protosalvinia (Foerstia). Submitted to course: Dept. Soil Science, Univ. of Wisconsin, Lethaia. Madison, Wisconsin. Romer, A.S., 1971, Vertebrate paleontology: Chicago, Keith, M.L., and Weber, J.N., 1964, Carbon and oxygen University of Chicago Press, 468 p. isotopic composition of selected limestones and fos­ Sass, Eytan, and Kolodny, Yehoshua, 1972, Stable iso­ sils: Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta, v. 28, p. topes, chemistry, and petrology of carbonate concre­ 1787-1816. tions (, ): Chern. Geology, Land, L.S., 1980, The isotopic and trace element geoche­ v. 10, p. 261-286. mistry of dolomite: the state of the art: SEPM Spec. Schopf, J.M., and Schwietering, J.F., 1970, The Foerstia Pub. No. 28, p. 87-110. zone of the Ohio and Chattanooga Shales: U.S. Geol. Lawrence, J.R., and Geiskes, J.M., 1981, Constraints on Survey Bull. 1294 H, p. Hl-H14. water transport and alteration in the oceanic crust Schwietering, J.F., 1977, Preliminary model of Catskill from the isotopic composition of pore water: Jour. delta in , in Schott, G.L., Overbey, Geophys. Res., v. 86, p. 7924-7934. W.K., Hunt, A.E., and Komar, C.A., eds., First Lewis, T.L., and Schwietering, J.F., 1971, Distribution of Eastern Gas Shales Symposium, Morgantown the Cleveland black shale in Ohio: Geol. Soc. Amer­ Energy Research Center, ERDA, p. 142-152. ica Bull., v. 82, p. 3477-3482. Sharma, T., and Clayton, R.N., 1965, Measurement of Lippmann, F., 1955, Ton, geoden und minerale des 0 18/016 ratios of total oxygen of carbonates: Geo­ Barreme von Hoheneggelsen: Geol. Rundschau, v. chim. et Cosmochim. Acta, v. 29, p. 1247-1353. 43, p. 475-503. Siegel, D.I., Chamberlain, S.C., and Dossert, W.P., 1987, McCrea, J.M., 1950, On the isotopic chemistry of carbo­ The isotopic and chemical of mineraliza­ nates and a paleotemperature scale: Jour. 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20 An Organic Origin for the Carbonate Concretions of the Ohio Shale Winder, C.G., 1966, Conodont zones and stratigraphic rocks of Ohio: U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 364, 93 variability in Upper Devonian rocks, Ontario: Jour. p. Paleontology, v. 40, p. 1275-1293. Zangerl, Rainer, Woodland, B.G., Richardson, E.S., and Winslow, M.R., 1962, Plant spores and other Zachry, D.L., Jr., 1969, Early diagenetic phenomena from Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian- in the Fayetteville black shale (Mississippian) of Arkansas: Sed. Geology, v. 3, p. 87-119.

References 21


Periodicals Coal Investigations Maps are geologic maps on topographic or planimetric bases at various scales showing bedrock or surficial geol­ Earthquakes & Volcanoes (issued bimonthly). ogy, stratigraphy, and structural relations in certain coal-resource areas. Preliminary Determlnadon of Epicenters (issued monthly). Oil and Gas Investigations Charts show stratigraphic information for certain oil and gas fields and other areas having petroleum potential. Technical Books and Repons Miscellaneous Field Studies Maps are multicolor or black-and­ maps on topographic or planimetric bases on quadrangle or ir­ Professional Papers are mainly comprehensive scientific reports of regular areas at various scales. Pre-1971 maps show bedrock geology wide and lasting interest and importance to professional scientists and en­ in relation to specific or mineral-deposit problems; post-1971 gineers. Included are reports on the results of resource studies and of maps are primarily black-and-white maps on various subjects such as topographic, hydrologic, and geologic investigations. They also include environmental studies or wilderness mineral investigations. collections ofrelated papers addressing different aspects of a single scien­ Hydrologic Investigations Atlases are multicolored or black-and­ tific topic. white maps on topographic or planimetric bases presenting a wide range Bulletins contain significant data and interpretations that are of last­ of geohydrologic data ofboth regular and irregular areas; principal scale ing scientific interest but are generally more limited in scope or is 1:24,000 and regional studies are atl :250,000 scale or smaller. geographic coverage than Professional Papers. They include the results ofresource studies and of geologic and topographic investigations; as well as collections of short papers related to a specific topic. Water-Supply Papers are comprehensive reports that present sig­ Catalogs nificant interpretive results of hydrologic investigations of wide interest Permanent catalogs, as well as some others, giving comprehen­ to professional geologists, hydrologists, and engineers. The series covers sive listings of U.S. Geological Survey publications are available under investigations in all phases of hydrology, including hydrogeology, the conditions indicated below from the U.S. Geological Survey, Books availability of water, quality of water, and use of water. and Open-File Reports Section, Federal Center, Box 25425, Denver, Cltculars present administrative information or important scientific CO 80225. (See latest Price and Availability List.) information of wide popular interest in a format designed for distribution "Publkations of the Geological Survey, 1879-1961" may be pur­ at no cost to the public. Information is usually of short-term interest. chased by mail and over the counter in paperback book form and as a Water-Resources Invesdgations Reports are papers of an interpre­ set of microfiche. tive nature made available to the public outside the formal USGS publi­ "Publications of the Geological Survey, 1962-1970" may be pur­ cations series. Copies are reproduced on request unlike formal USGS chased by mail and over the counter in paperback book form and as a publications, and they are also available for public inspection at set of microfiche. depositories indicated in USGS catalogs. "Publications of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1971-1981" may be Open-Flle Reports include unpublished manuscript reports, maps, purchased by mail and over the counter in paperback book form (two and other material that are made available for public consultation at volumes, publications listing and index) and as a set of microfiche. depositories. They are a nonpermanent form of publication that may be Supplements for 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985,1986, and for subsequent cited in other publications as sources of information. years since the last permanent catalog may be purchased by mail and over the counter in paperback book form. Maps State catalogs, "List of U.S. Geological Survey Geologic and Water-SupplyReportsandMapsFor(State),"maybepurchasedbymail Geologic Quadrangle Maps are multicolor geologic maps on and over the counter in paperback booklet form only. topographic bases in 7 1/2- or 15-minute quadrangle formats (scales main­ "Prke and Avallabillty List of U.S. Geological Survey Publica­ ly 1:24,000 or 1 :62,500) showing bedrock, surficial, or geol­ tions," issued annually, is available free of charge in paperback book­ ogy. Maps generally include brief texts; some maps include structure let form only. and co]umnar sections only. Selected copies of a monthly catalog "New Publications of the U.S. Geophysical Investigations Maps are on topographic or planimetric Geological Survey" available free of charge by mail or may be obtained bases at various scales; they show results of surveys using geophysical over the counter in paperback booklet form only. Those wishing a free techniques, such as gravity, magnetic, seismic, or radioactivity, which subscription to the monthly catalog ''New Publications of the U.S. reflect subsurface structures that are ofeconomic or geologic significance. Geological Survey" should write to the U.S. Geological Survey, 582 Many maps include correlations with the geology. National Center, Reston, VA 22092. ~lisc:ellaneous Investigations Series Maps are on planimetric or topographic bases of regular and irregular areas at various scales; they Note.--Prices of Government publications listed in older catalogs, present a wide variety of format and subject matter. The series also in­ announcements, and publications may be incorrect. Therefore, the cludes 7 1/2-minute quadrangle photogeologic maps on planimetric bases prices charged may differ from the prices in catalogs, announcements, which show geology as interpreted from aerial photographs. Series also and publications. includes maps of and the Moon. ( c c ( 0 ~ . ...t