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Cambridge University Press 978-1-107-02620-9 - The Neuropsychiatry of Headache Edited by Mark W. Green and Philip R. Muskin Index More information

Index

abreaction 153 cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) meta-analysis 60 acetazolamide 77 14, 36, 48–51, 112–114 stress management 60, 110–112 acupuncture 18, 115, 138 defined 42 thermal 49 addiction 63 generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) 43 training 49 confirmed or suspected, relaxation training 48, 49 biofeedback-assisted management of 70 screening and assessment 47–48 (AT) 109 defined 63 triggers 50 bipolar affective disorders 30–39 pseudoaddiction 64 types 42 associated with migraine 31–32 addiction-related problems, chronic appraisal 106 prevalence 33 noncancer pain (CNCP) 64 concept 55 suicide attempts 32 adrenocorticotropic hormone argininosuccinate synthetase and with/without aura 31 (ACTH) 54 argininosuccinate lyase 88 classification 30 stress, beta-endorphin ACTH 54 Argyll Robertson pupils 87 hypomania episodes 30 aerobic exercise 102, 135–136 Ask–tell–ask question sequence 126 I and II 30 affective/anxiety disorders 4 aspartame 14 switching phenomenon 37 alexithymia 121, 136, 150 aspirin 25, 38 treatment 37 allodynia, cutaneous allodynia (CA) astrocytes 13 see also depression 5, 100 ATP7B gene 83 bipolar spectrum disorders 3 Allodynia Symptom Checklist attachment style 123 blood flow, brain changes 13 (ASC-12) 5 dismissive attachment style 124 borderline personality disorder 122 alpha-lipoic acid 135 fearful attachment 124 botulinum toxins 5, 18, 26, 98, 101 alternative medical systems 137–141 preoccupied attachment 124 A18 amitriptyline 16, 17, 26 attachment system 123–124 medication overuse headache AMPA antibodies 81 auras 10, 12, 31 (MOH) 98, 101 analgesics, over-the-counter 100 sensory 10 onabotulinum, side effects 18 anticonvulsants 26, 58, 155 autogenic training (AT) 108 bradykinin 12 antidepressants 26, 58 autoimmune disease, limbic brain dose range 33 encephalitis (LE) 81 deep brain stimulation (DBS) 141 insufficient response 35 avoidance (feared stimuli) 42 hyperexcitable cortex 12 pain disorder 154 systemic disease involving brain 78 side effects 34 barbiturates brain injury (TBI) 86 switch into mania 37 dependence 68 brain tumors 78 and testosterone 36 see also butalbital intracranial hypertension 78 see also tricyclic antidepressants basilar migraine 13 butalbital 16, 26, 68 antiepileptics 122 Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II dependence 68 antiepileptics (AEDs) 17 32, 35 butalbital-containing compounds 26 suicide risk 39 behavior, nonverbal 125 butorphanol, dependence 67–68 antipsychotics 35 behavior therapy (BT) 36 butterbur (Petasites) 18, 134 anxiety and chronic headache 45 behavioral headache management 47–51 connections between 46 Behçet’s disease 79 CACNL1A4 gene 77 interconnectedness 45–47 intracranial hypertension 79 caffeine 14, 26, 99, 100 MOH 47 benzodiazepines, dependence 68 MOH 69 neurobiological connections 46 beta-blockers 16, 35 calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) psychological connections 46 biofeedback 110–112 12, 14 anxiety disorders, defined 42 blood-volume–pulse feedback BP calcium channel blockers 16 anxiety and (primary) headache 2, 4, (BVP-FB) 60 CANA1A gene 14 42–51 electromyographic (EMG) candesartan 17 biofeedback training 49 biofeedback 49, 109, 111 cannabis 68

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Index

carbamazapine 17, 38, 122 prospective or cohort studies, dopamine antagonists 77 carbamyl phosphatase synthetase 88 defined 2 dopamine deficiency, link with CASPR2 autoantibodies 81 psychiatric comorbidities 2–3 depression 5 catechol-O-methyl transferase complementary/alternative medicine drug dependence 63–71 (COMT) 122 (CAM) 115, 131–141, 155 defined 63 cerebrovascular disease 78 acupuncture 115 management of 70 post-partum 78 approaches to headache 131–141 see also medication overuse headache Charles Bonnet syndrome 79 hypnosis and imagery 109 (MOH) Chinese medicine 137 meditation 109 drug-induced psychosis and chiropractic 140 scope 132–133 headache 83 chocolate 14 yoga 114 DSM-IV, somatization disorders 151 cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) compliance-enhancing strategies DSM-IV organization 119 replenishment 133 113 DSM-IV trait domains 120 chronic cluster 97 conversion disorder 151–153 DSM-V, revision 119 chronic daily headache (CDH) 95–103 abreaction 153 classification and diagnosis 96–98 clinical features of headache 152 eating behaviors 102 clinical presentation 99–100 course 152 electrical stimulation of the brain default diagnosis 103 definition and clinical features 151 (ESB) 141 defined 95 epidemiology 152 electroencephalogram feedback diagnostic pearls 97 treatment 152–153 (EEG-FB) 60 epidemiology 98 cortex, hyperexcitable 12 electroencephalography (EEG) 90 new daily persistent headache 97 cortical spreading depression (CSD) electromagnetic stimulation 141 opioids 64 11–13 electromyographic biofeedback pathophysiology 98–99 corticosteroid binding globulin (EMG-FB) 49, 60, 109, 111 primary vs. secondary headache 95 (CBG) 55 emotion 150 risk factors 96 corticotropin releasing hormone emotional freedom technique (EFT) 137 secondary headaches mimicking (CRH) 54 endocrine disorders, thyroid disease 80 primary CDH 96 cortisol 54 epidemiology short-duration vs. long-duration 97 production 85 Berkson bias 1 tension-type headache 97, 98 countertransference reactions 125 chronic daily headache (CDH) 98 transformed migraine 97, 98 cranial electrotherapy stimulation comorbidities of headache 1–6 chronic migraine (CM) 1 (CES) 141 defined 1 defined 6 craniosacral manipulation 140 mood disorders 31–32 chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) 64 curcumin 133 tension-type headache (TTH) addiction-related problems 64 Cushing’s syndrome 85 23–24 chronic tension-type headache cutaneous allodynia (CA) 5 epilepsy 77 (CTTH) 21 cyclothymic disorder 31 post-ictal psychosis 77 coenzyme Q10 18, 134 cytokines 14 episodic headaches, chronification (CT) 36 98, 106 cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) 14, deception syndromes 157–159 episodic migraine (EM) 1, 23, 57 36, 48–51, 58–60, 112–114, deep brain stimulation (DBS) 141 chronic daily headache and PTSD 57 160–161 delusional disorder 75, 76 defined 6 clinician–patient relationship 112 of guilt 30 episodic tension-type headache coping skills 114 depression (ETTH) 21, 23 motivation for change 112 and /or panic attacks/anxiety/stress 56 pain thresholds 25 psycho education 112 bipolar, evidence-based treatments 37 prevalence 23 requiring trained personnel 59 episode 30 vs. migraine headache 23 self-efficacy 113 major depressive disorder with ergotamines 12, 15, 38 stress management 49, 112–114 migraine 31 exercise 102, 135–136 communication strategy 126 benefits 36 exposure 48 co-morbidity screening tools 32 eye movement desensitization and bidirectional causal model 3 see also bipolar affective disorders reprocessing (EMDR) 137 case controlled studies 2 depressive and anxiety disorders 2 clinical importance of 5–6 dextromethorphan 17 factitious disorder 157–159 cross-sectional studies 2 diffuse axonal injury 86 false beliefs, medications 36 defined 1 diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) 86 familial hemiplegic migraines (FHM) 77 depressive and anxiety disorders 2 diffusion tensor tractography 86 fears 122 epidemiology 1–6 dihydroergotamine (DHE) 15 annihilation 123 mechanisms 3–5 divalproex 16, 122 injury 123

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Index

fears (cont.) lifestyle, exercise and dietary ona, side effects 18 loss of love and fear of loss of considerations 133 preventive treatment 16 control 123 limbic encephalitis (LE) 81, 91 triptans 14, 15 punishment 123 lisinopril 17 triggers 14 strangers 123 lithium 37, 38 types feverfew 18, 133 basilar 13 foods, common migraine magnesium 18 chronic or transformed 97 triggers 14 deficiency 133 episodic vs. chronic 95 fortification spectra 12 malingering 69–70 hemiplegic 14, 77 management 159 unusual forms 13 GABA antibodies 81 opioids 70 with/without aura 9, 10, 31 GABA-nergic function 46 Personality Assessment Inventory 69 migraine disability assessment scale gabapentin 17 prevalence 159 (MIDAS) 65 galvanic skin response training malingering factitious disorder migraine madness 77 (GSR-FB) 60 157–159 mind/body-centered medicine 135–137 generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) 43 malpractice complaints 126 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality CBT 48 manual therapies 140–141 Inventory (MMPI) 69 Germany, West Germany Headache medical interactions, psychodynamic mirtazapine 26 Center 61 issues 124–125, 127 mitochondrial disease 81–83 giant cell arteritis (GCA) 79 medication overuse headache (MOH) mitochondrial oxidative metabolism 134 Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) 135 47, 63, 64, 95, 98–99 monoamine oxidase inhibitors 17 central sensitization 99 monosodium glutamate 14 hallucinations clinical presentation 99–100 mood disorders 30–39 Charles Bonnet syndrome 79 default diagnosis 103 classification 30 tactile 85 defined 64 effective treatments 37 visual 85 differential diagnosis 100 epidemiology 31–32 headache, IHS classification 150 onabotulinum toxin A 98, 101 medications and interactions 38 hemicrania continua 9, 10, 95, 97 pathophysiology 98–99 patients 39 hemiplegic migraine 14, 77 preventives 98 screening and diagnosis 32–33 hepatolenticular degeneration prognosis 102–103 treatment 33–39 83–85 rescue medications 98 see also specific disorders homeopathy 139–140 serotonergic pathways 98 mood stabilizers 37, 77, 90 5-HT1 receptors 15 treatment 100–102 doses 37 5-HT2 receptors 98 medications MRSI 83 hydrocephalus 87, 90 false beliefs 36 multiple sclerosis 87 hyperexcitable cortex 12 non-adherence 36 muscle contraction headache 24, 75 hypnosis and imagery 109, 136–137 meditation 109 myofascial activity, tension-type hypochondriasis 156–157 MELAS 81–83 headache (TTH) 25 hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis memantine 17 (HPA) and cortisol axis 54, 55 metabolic disorders 88 naloxone, and tramadol dependence 67 metals, toxic exposure to 87 naproxen 25 ibuprofen 25, 38 methysergide 13 narrative knowledge 126 idiopathic intracranial hypertension migraine 9–19 nausea 15 (IHH) 86 anxiety disorders in 42 neurobiology of personality 121–122 immunosuppressants 81, 91 background 9 neuroimaging 90 Indian medicine 139 diagnosis and clinical features 9 neurokinin 12 infectious disease 87 dysphrenic 77 neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists 13 inflammation 133 pathophysiology 10 neuroleptics 90 information gathering 126 photophobia 9 neurosarcoidosis 79 internet-based relaxation 110 precipitating factors 14 neuroticism 121 interpersonal psychotherapy theory prodromal symptoms 9 schizotypal patients 122 (IPT) 36, 37 risk for first-onset major new daily persistent headache 95, 97 intracranial hypertension 78 depression 56 non-responders 131 isotretinoin (vitamin A) 86 and stress, risk for first-onset major non-steroidal antiinflammatory depression 56 medications 15 Kayser–Fleischer ring 83 transformed 97, 98 nonverbal behavior 125 treatment 14 noradrenergic-serotonin reuptake lamotrigine 38 acute treatment 14 inhibitor 26 LGI1 antibodies 81 non-medication therapies 14 NSAIDs 15, 25

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Index

obesity 14 Personality Assessment Inventory, new onset psychosis and headache obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) malingering 69 78–91 44, 121 personality disorders 119–129 post-ictal 77 occipital nerve stimulator 141 10 types 120 primary neurological with episodes ocular pathology 79 borderline personality disorder 122 of psychosis and headache 77 olanzapine 18, 37 countertransference reactions 125 primary psychiatric w. episodes of omega-3 135 defined 119 psychosis and headache 76 onconeural antibodies 81 diagnosis 119–121 required work-up 88–90 onobotulinum toxin A 5, 18, 98, 101 interpersonal difficulties 122–124 seizure disorders 77 side effects 18 interpersonal management 125 treatment considerations 90–91 opioids 16, 26, 64, 154 management 127–129 work-up for patients with headache chronic daily headache (CDH) 64 consistency 127 and psychosis 88 chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) 64 sympathetic limit setting 127 psychoticism 121 Current Opioid Misuse Measure treatment contract 127 public health programs 2 (COMM) 66 medical causes of personality dependence 65–67 pathology 121 Qigong 138–139 malingering 70 neurobiology 121–122 quetiapine 18 opiate addiction in pain disorder 154 self functioning 121 Opioid Risk Tool 66 trait domains 120 radio-iodine imaging, thyroid 90 opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) 65 personality traits and psychiatric rebound headache 101 Screener and Opioid Assessment disorders, co-morbid regression 124 for Patients with Pain conditions in migraine and reiki 140 (SOAPP-R) 66 mediators of stress 55 relapse risk factors 101, 102 oral contraceptives 55 pesticides, organophosphate relaxation therapy (RT) 108–109 organophosphate poisoning 87 poisoning 87 autogenic training (AT) 108 ornithine transcarbamylase 88 Petasites hybridus 18, 134 hypnosis and imagery 109 osteopathy 140 phenytoin 17 meditation 109 phobias 44 progressive muscle relaxation pain phosphenes 12 (PMR) 108 chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) 64 PHQ-2 screening 32, 33, 47 relaxation training 48, 49 neurobiological connections 46 physicians riboflavin 18, 134 pain disorder 153–155 emotional attunement 126 role abuse 123 antidepressants 154 emotional responses to patients 125 role bias 123 definition and clinical features 153 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) 135 role disagreement 123 epidemiology 154 post-partum cerebrovascular disease 78 role discord 123 and headache 154 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) opiate addiction 154 44–45, 56 sarcoidosis 79 treatment 154–155 diagnosis, precipitating traumatic SCN1A gene 14 panic disorder 43–44, 48 event 56 secondary headaches 21, 95 paraneoplastic syndrome 81 in EM and CDH 57 mimicking primary CDH 96 parthenolide 133 pralidoxime 87 selective norepinephrine reuptake patients primary vs. secondary headache 95 inhibitors (SNRIs) 13, 17, 18, angry patient 126 progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) 108 26, 34, 155 clinician – patient relationship 112 propranolol 16, 38 use with triptans 34 dependent clingers 128 prostanoids 12 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors devaluing patients 127 psychogenic headaches, first use of (SSRIs) 13, 17, 18, 33, 155 entitled demander 129 term 75 action 33 help-rejecting complainer 128 psychosis and headache as antidepressants 33 manipulative 128 diagnosis 75 side effects 33 motivation for change 112 differential diagnosis 75, 76 switching 35 narcissistic patient 125 psychotherapeutic approaches 136–137 use with triptans 34 needy patients 127 psychotherapy, interpersonal self-functioning 121 readiness to make change 113 psychotherapy theory (IPT) sensory auras 10 seductive patients 127 36, 37 serotonergic pathways 98 self-destructive denier 128 psychotic disorders 75–91 serotonin 4, 12 self-efficacy 113 brain tumors and 78 selective agonists (i.e., triptans) 4 suspicious patients 127 case study 75 serotonin antagonist 13 withdrawing 127 differential diagnosis 75, 76 serotonin syndrome 18, 34 see also personality disorders laboratory testing 89–90 Hunter Serotonin Toxicity Criteria 34

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Index

shunts, ventriculoperitoneal and personality traits and psychiatric substance abuse/dependence see drug ventriculoatrial 87 disorders, comorbid conditions dependence sigma R receptor agonists 17 in migraine and mediators of suicide attempts, associated with sinus headache 13 stress 55 migraine and bipolar affective sleep 101 posttraumatic stress disorder disorders 32 social anxiety disorder 44 (PTSD) 44–45, 56, 57 syphilitic infection 87 somatic pain 132 psychiatric modulators 56 systemic disease somatization 121 QEEG neurofeedback 61 involving brain 78 as a process 149–151 Self-Administered Behavioral personality change 121 somatization disorders 77, 90, 149–161 Intervention using Tailored systemic lupus erythematosus 78 classification 151 Messages (SEABIT) 59 clinical features 156 SMILE study 59 Tai Chi 138–139 DSM-IV 151 tension-type headache (TTH) 24 Tanacetum parthenium 18, 133 epidemiology 155 triggers 54, 55 technetium or radio-iodine imaging of and headache 156 stress management techniques 58–61, thyroid 90 psychodynamic theories 149–150 106–116, 108–114 telmisartan 17 somatic amplification theory acupuncture 115 temporal arteritis 79 150–151 autogenic training (AT) 108 temporomandibular disorders 24 treatment 156 behavioral management tension-type headache (TTH) 9, 13, and undifferentiated somatoform multidisciplinary approach, 21–27, 97, 98 disorder 155 results 61 chronic tension-type headache see also conversion disorder self-efficacy scale 58 (CTTH) 21, 25, 98 somatoform disorders and headache biofeedback 60, 110–112 classification and description 21 149–161 blood-volume–pulse feedback BP comorbidity 24 hypochondriasis 156–157 (BVP-FB) 60 diagnosis and investigation screening 159 meta-analysis 60 22–23 somatosensory amplification 150 cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) secondary headache 22, 24 SPECT 83 58–60 vs. migraine headache 23 stress requiring trained personnel 59 diagnostic criteria 22 behavioral management cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) EMG activity, pericranial muscles 25 home-based behavioral 49, 112–114 epidemiology 23–24 therapy 59 coping skills 114 episodic tension-type headache lay trainers 59–60 electromyographic biofeedback (ETTH) 21, 23, 24 chronic daily headache (CDH) 57 (EMG-FB) 109, 111 management 27 risk factors 57 galvanic skin response training acute therapies 26 defined 54, 106 (GSR-FB) 60 behavioral therapies 25 depression and /or panic attacks/ guidelines 107 caffeine 26 anxiety, co-occurrence 56 hypnosis and imagery 109 ibuprofen and naproxen 25 electroencephalogram feedback meditation 109 mirtazapine 26 (EEG-FB) 60 pharmacologic options 58 non-pharmacological preventive electromyographic feedback relaxation therapy (RT) 60, therapies 26 (EMG-FB) 60 108–109 NSAIDs 25 episodic migraine (EM), chronic self efficacy scale 58 pharmacological preventive daily headache and PTSD 57 support groups 114 therapies 26, 27 estrogen hormones 55 temperature feedback myofascial activity 25 gender roles in stress reactivity 55 (TEMP-FB) 60 pathophysiology 24–25 headache 54–61 thermal biofeedback 110 prognosis 27 hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal treatment goals 107–108 societal impact 23 axis (HPA) and cortisol axis yoga 114 stress 24 54, 55 stroke temporomandibular disorders 24 medication overuse 57, 102 post-stroke depression 78 testosterone, and antidepressants 36 Midlife Development in United post-stroke psychotic symptoms 78 therapeutic alliance 125 States (MIDUS) 56 study design thermal biofeedback 49, 110 migraine, risk for first-onset major bidirectional causal model 3 training guidelines 110 depression 56 case controlled studies 2 thyroid disease 80 National Co-morbidity Survey cross sectional studies 2 timolol 16 Replication (NCR-R) results 57 prospective or cohort studies, tizanidine 17, 26 neuroticism 56 defined 2 Todd’s paralysis 77 perception 106 subarachnoid hemorrhage 78 tolerance, defined 63

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Index

topiramate 16, 17, 38, 101 trigeminal ganglion, triptans 99 venlafaxine 26 trait domains 120 triptans 13, 14, 15, 18, 26, 38 ventriculoperitoneal and tramadol dependence 67 injectable 15 ventriculoatrial shunts 87 naloxone 67 and NSAIDs 58 verapamil 38 withdrawal 67 trigeminal ganglion 99 visual hallucinations 85 transcranial magnetic stimulation vitamin B2 134 (TMS) 141 ubiquinone 134 transference 125 urea cycle enzymes 88 Wilson’s disease 83–85 countertransference 125 US Headache Consortium ATP7B gene 83 transformed migraine 97, 98 grading system of non- copper chelators 83 transverse sinus thrombosis 78 pharmacological research 107 Kayser–Fleischer rings 83 traumatic brain injury (TBI) 86 guidelines 107 wine 14 trazadone 34 tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) 34 valproic acid 17, 37 yoga 114, 139 interactions and side effects 38 interactions and side effects 38 yohimbine 67 and stress management 38 vasoactive intestinal peptide trigeminal autonomic cephalgia 97 (VIP) 12 zonisamide 17

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