Upstream Oil & Gas Glossary

Total Page：16

File Type：pdf, Size：1020Kb

Recommended publications
• VISCOSITY of a GAS -Dr S P Singh Department of Chemistry, a N College, Patna
Lecture Note on VISCOSITY OF A GAS -Dr S P Singh Department of Chemistry, A N College, Patna A sketchy summary of the main points Viscosity of gases, relation between mean free path and coefficient of viscosity, temperature and pressure dependence of viscosity, calculation of collision diameter from the coefficient of viscosity Viscosity is the property of a fluid which implies resistance to flow. Viscosity arises from jump of molecules from one layer to another in case of a gas. There is a transfer of momentum of molecules from faster layer to slower layer or vice-versa. Let us consider a gas having laminar flow over a horizontal surface OX with a velocity smaller than the thermal velocity of the molecule. The velocity of the gaseous layer in contact with the surface is zero which goes on increasing upon increasing the distance from OX towards OY (the direction perpendicular to OX) at a uniform rate . Suppose a layer ‘B’ of the gas is at a certain distance from the fixed surface OX having velocity ‘v’. Two layers ‘A’ and ‘C’ above and below are taken into consideration at a distance ‘l’ (mean free path of the gaseous molecules) so that the molecules moving vertically up and down can’t collide while moving between the two layers. Thus, the velocity of a gas in the layer ‘A’ ---------- (i) = + Likely, the velocity of the gas in the layer ‘C’ ---------- (ii) The gaseous molecules are moving in all directions due= to −thermal velocity; therefore, it may be supposed that of the gaseous molecules are moving along the three Cartesian coordinates each.
[Show full text]
• Viscosity of Gases References
VISCOSITY OF GASES Marcia L. Huber and Allan H. Harvey The following table gives the viscosity of some common gases generally less than 2% . Uncertainties for the viscosities of gases in as a function of temperature . Unless otherwise noted, the viscosity this table are generally less than 3%; uncertainty information on values refer to a pressure of 100 kPa (1 bar) . The notation P = 0 specific fluids can be found in the references . Viscosity is given in indicates that the low-pressure limiting value is given . The dif- units of μPa s; note that 1 μPa s = 10–5 poise . Substances are listed ference between the viscosity at 100 kPa and the limiting value is in the modified Hill order (see Introduction) . Viscosity in μPa s 100 K 200 K 300 K 400 K 500 K 600 K Ref. Air 7 .1 13 .3 18 .5 23 .1 27 .1 30 .8 1 Ar Argon (P = 0) 8 .1 15 .9 22 .7 28 .6 33 .9 38 .8 2, 3*, 4* BF3 Boron trifluoride 12 .3 17 .1 21 .7 26 .1 30 .2 5 ClH Hydrogen chloride 14 .6 19 .7 24 .3 5 F6S Sulfur hexafluoride (P = 0) 15 .3 19 .7 23 .8 27 .6 6 H2 Normal hydrogen (P = 0) 4 .1 6 .8 8 .9 10 .9 12 .8 14 .5 3*, 7 D2 Deuterium (P = 0) 5 .9 9 .6 12 .6 15 .4 17 .9 20 .3 8 H2O Water (P = 0) 9 .8 13 .4 17 .3 21 .4 9 D2O Deuterium oxide (P = 0) 10 .2 13 .7 17 .8 22 .0 10 H2S Hydrogen sulfide 12 .5 16 .9 21 .2 25 .4 11 H3N Ammonia 10 .2 14 .0 17 .9 21 .7 12 He Helium (P = 0) 9 .6 15 .1 19 .9 24 .3 28 .3 32 .2 13 Kr Krypton (P = 0) 17 .4 25 .5 32 .9 39 .6 45 .8 14 NO Nitric oxide 13 .8 19 .2 23 .8 28 .0 31 .9 5 N2 Nitrogen 7 .0 12 .9 17 .9 22 .2 26 .1 29 .6 1, 15* N2O Nitrous
[Show full text]
• Specific Latent Heat
SPECIFIC LATENT HEAT The specific latent heat of a substance tells us how much energy is required to change 1 kg from a solid to a liquid (specific latent heat of fusion) or from a liquid to a gas (specific latent heat of vaporisation). �����푦 (��) 퐸 ����������푐 ������� ℎ���� �� ������� �� = (��⁄��) = 푓 � ����� (��) �����푦 = ����������푐 ������� ℎ���� �� 퐸 = ��푓 × � ������� × ����� ����� 퐸 � = �� 푦 푓 ����� = ����������푐 ������� ℎ���� �� ������� WORKED EXAMPLE QUESTION 398 J of energy is needed to turn 500 g of liquid nitrogen into at gas at-196°C. Calculate the specific latent heat of vaporisation of nitrogen. ANSWER Step 1: Write down what you know, and E = 99500 J what you want to know. m = 500 g = 0.5 kg L = ? v Step 2: Use the triangle to decide how to 퐸 ��푣 = find the answer - the specific latent heat � of vaporisation. 99500 퐽 퐿 = 0.5 �� = 199 000 ��⁄�� Step 3: Use the figures given to work out 푣 the answer. The specific latent heat of vaporisation of nitrogen in 199 000 J/kg (199 kJ/kg) Questions 1. Calculate the specific latent heat of fusion if: a. 28 000 J is supplied to turn 2 kg of solid oxygen into a liquid at -219°C 14 000 J/kg or 14 kJ/kg b. 183 600 J is supplied to turn 3.4 kg of solid sulphur into a liquid at 115°C 54 000 J/kg or 54 kJ/kg c. 6600 J is supplied to turn 600g of solid mercury into a liquid at -39°C 11 000 J/kg or 11 kJ/kg d.
[Show full text]
• Chapter 3 3.4-2 the Compressibility Factor Equation of State
Chapter 3 3.4-2 The Compressibility Factor Equation of State The dimensionless compressibility factor, Z, for a gaseous species is defined as the ratio pv Z = (3.4-1) RT If the gas behaves ideally Z = 1. The extent to which Z differs from 1 is a measure of the extent to which the gas is behaving nonideally. The compressibility can be determined from experimental data where Z is plotted versus a dimensionless reduced pressure pR and reduced temperature TR, defined as pR = p/pc and TR = T/Tc In these expressions, pc and Tc denote the critical pressure and temperature, respectively. A generalized compressibility chart of the form Z = f(pR, TR) is shown in Figure 3.4-1 for 10 different gases. The solid lines represent the best curves fitted to the data. Figure 3.4-1 Generalized compressibility chart for various gases10. It can be seen from Figure 3.4-1 that the value of Z tends to unity for all temperatures as pressure approach zero and Z also approaches unity for all pressure at very high temperature. If the p, v, and T data are available in table format or computer software then you should not use the generalized compressibility chart to evaluate p, v, and T since using Z is just another approximation to the real data. 10 Moran, M. J. and Shapiro H. N., Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, Wiley, 2008, pg. 112 3-19 Example 3.4-2 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- A closed, rigid tank filled with water vapor, initially at 20 MPa, 520oC, is cooled until its temperature reaches 400oC.
[Show full text]
• Bop) Control System
RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE DEEPWATER HORIZON BLOWOUT PREVENTER (BOP) CONTROL SYSTEM April 2000 - Final Report Prepared for: CAMERON CONTROLS CORP. EQE INTERNATIONAL Confidential Treatment Requested by Transocean Holdings LLC TRN-HCEC-00056391 Deepwater Horizon BOP Control System Risk Assessment April 2000 • 4. EVALUATION RESULTS As discussed in the introduction, the evaluation of the fault trees by boolean reduction results in the identification of the minimal cutsets, or the minimum combinations of failures that will result in the occurrence of the undesired event. Each of these cutsets is composed of one or more failures and each of the failures is assigned a probability of failure as discussed in Section 3. The product of the failure probabilities for all failure events in a cutset represents the probability of occurrence of the cutset. The sum of the cutsets for each fault tree model represents the probability of occurrence of the associated undesired event. In addition to these quantitative results, potential problem areas are often identified durmg the development of the model. These are discussed in Section 5. Table 4·1 summarizes the probability of occurrence of each of the undesired events. The number of cutsets shown in the table are those with a probability of occurrence greater than 1E-1 O. The overall potential for any of the events occurring which lead to the failure to perform the EDS function is 3.1 2E-4 (1183 cutsets). which is less than the sum of the individual events in Table 4-1. This is due to the fact that some of the cutset combinations result in failure of more than one of the functions but are correctly only counted once when looking at the overall likelihood.
[Show full text]
• &EPA Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Toluene
United States Cffice of Water EPA 440/5-80-075 Environmental Protection Regula.ions and Standards O,:tober 1980 Agency Criteria and Standards Division Washington DC 20480 c.). & EPA Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Toluene tz r AMBIENT WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR TOLUENE Prepared By U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Office of Water Regulations and Standards Criteria and Standards Division Washington, D.C. Office of Research and Development Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office Cincinnati, Ohio Carcinogen Assessment Group Washington, D.C. Environmental Research Laboratories Corvalis, Oregon Duluth, Minnesota Gulf Breeze, Florida Narragansett, Rhode Island DISCLAIMER This report has been reviewed by the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. AVAILABILITY NOTICE This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, (NTIS), Springfield, Virginia 22161. El~TAL l'R~e1'!tjf A~ ii FOREWORD Section 304 (a)(1) of the Clear Water Act of 1977 (P.L. 95-217), requires the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to publish criteria for water quality accurately reflecting the latest scientific knowledge on the kind and extent of all identifiable effects on health and welfare which may be expected from the presence of pollutants in any body of water, including ground water. Proposed water quality criteria for the 65 toxic pollutants listed under section 307 (a) (1) of the Cl ean Water Act were deve loped and a notice of thei r availability was published for public comment on March 15, 1979 (44 FR 15926), July 25, 1979 (44 FR 43660), and October 1, 1979 (44 FR 56628).
[Show full text]
• Introduction to Alkenes and Alkynes in an Alkane, All Covalent Bonds
Introduction to Alkenes and Alkynes In an alkane, all covalent bonds between carbon were σ (σ bonds are deﬁned as bonds where the electron density is symmetric about the internuclear axis) In an alkene, however, only three σ bonds are formed from the alkene carbon -the carbon thus adopts an sp2 hybridization Ethene (common name ethylene) has a molecular formula of CH2CH2 Each carbon is sp2 hybridized with a σ bond to two hydrogens and the other carbon Hybridized orbital allows stronger bonds due to more overlap H H C C H H Structure of Ethylene In addition to the σ framework of ethylene, each carbon has an atomic p orbital not used in hybridization The two p orbitals (each with one electron) overlap to form a π bond (p bonds are not symmetric about the internuclear axis) π bonds are not as strong as σ bonds (in ethylene, the σ bond is ~90 Kcal/mol and the π bond is ~66 Kcal/mol) Thus while σ bonds are stable and very few reactions occur with C-C bonds, π bonds are much more reactive and many reactions occur with C=C π bonds Nomenclature of Alkenes August Wilhelm Hofmann’s attempt for systematic hydrocarbon nomenclature (1866) Attempted to use a systematic name by naming all possible structures with 4 carbons Quartane a alkane C4H10 Quartyl C4H9 Quartene e alkene C4H8 Quartenyl C4H7 Quartine i alkine → alkyne C4H6 Quartinyl C4H5 Quartone o C4H4 Quartonyl C4H3 Quartune u C4H2 Quartunyl C4H1 Wanted to use Quart from the Latin for 4 – this method was not embraced and BUT has remained Used English order of vowels, however, to name the groups
[Show full text]
• Thermal Properties of Petroleum Products
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE BUREAU OF STANDARDS THERMAL PROPERTIES OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATION OF THE BUREAU OF STANDARDS, No. 97 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE R. P. LAMONT, Secretary BUREAU OF STANDARDS GEORGE K. BURGESS, Director MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATION No. 97 THERMAL PROPERTIES OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS NOVEMBER 9, 1929 UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON : 1929 F<ir isale by tfttf^uperintendent of Dotmrtients, Washington, D. C. - - - Price IS cants THERMAL PROPERTIES OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS By C. S. Cragoe ABSTRACT Various thermal properties of petroleum products are given in numerous tables which embody the results of a critical study of the data in the literature, together with unpublished data obtained at the Bureau of Standards. The tables contain what appear to be the most reliable values at present available. The experimental basis for each table, and the agreement of the tabulated values with experimental results, are given. Accompanying each table is a statement regarding the esti- mated accuracy of the data and a practical example of the use of the data. The tables have been prepared in forms convenient for use in engineering. CONTENTS Page I. Introduction 1 II. Fundamental units and constants 2 III. Thermal expansion t 4 1. Thermal expansion of petroleum asphalts and fluxes 6 2. Thermal expansion of volatile petroleum liquids 8 3. Thermal expansion of gasoline-benzol mixtures 10 IV. Heats of combustion : 14 1. Heats of combustion of crude oils, fuel oils, and kerosenes 16 2. Heats of combustion of volatile petroleum products 18 3. Heats of combustion of gasoline-benzol mixtures 20 V.
[Show full text]
• Managing Exposure to Benzene and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons at Two Oil Refineries 1977–2014
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Article Managing Exposure to Benzene and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons at Two Oil Reﬁneries 1977–2014 Tapani Tuomi *, Henna Veijalainen and Tiina Santonen Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Topeliuksenkatu 41 B, P.O. Box 40, Työterveyslaitos, FI-00032 Helsinki, Finland; henna.veijalainen@ttl.ﬁ (H.V.); tiina.santonen@ttl.ﬁ (T.S.) * Correspondence: tapani.tuomi@ttl.ﬁ; Tel.: +358-9-4747-2926 Received: 15 December 2017; Accepted: 18 January 2018; Published: 24 January 2018 Abstract: Air concentrations of and inhalation exposure to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and benzene was monitored separately at two oil reﬁneries from 1977 to 2014. Prevention policies and control measures that may explain changes were surveyed. The aim was to evaluate how the application of of Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series OHSAS 18001.04 principles as well as Environmental protection Agency EPA and European Oil Company Organisation for Environment, Health and Safety CONCAWE practices have inﬂuenced air concentrations. Benzene air concentrations declined in 11 of 17 units, six of which were associated with declining exposures. Benzene air concentrations declined across all units on average by 46%. This amounts to an average yearly decline of 1.7%. TPH air concentrations declined in 10 of 17 units, seven of which were associated with declining exposures. The average decline in TPH air concentrations was 49%, corresponding to 1.3% per year. As a result, average working day exposure in 10 of 17 units have declined signiﬁcantly and today, benzene and TPH exposure in most units are well below 10% of the current Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL8h:s).
[Show full text]
• 25WORDS ETHYLENE Ethylene, C2H4 ,Is an Unsaturated
25WORDS ETHYLENE Ethylene, C2H4 ,is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that is used in industrial plants and sometimes as a hormone in an average medicine cabinet. It also is the most globally produced organic compound in the world. Ethylene, C2H4, is a hydrocarbon gas that is widely used in the world's industry for purposes like ripening fruit, making detergents, and for making soda. It is also highly flammable and colorless. Ethylene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon, composed of four hydrogen atoms bound to a pair of carbon atoms by means of a double bond. Ethylene has a molar mass of 28.05 g/mol Ethylene is the simplest member of the class called alkenes. It is a colorless, quite sweet- smelling gas. This gas is very reactive and burns with a very bright flame. ethylene (C2H4); Ethylene is known as the simplest alkene and an important hormone in organic chemistry. Over 80% of ethylene is used as a main component of polyethylene and to ripen fruit faster. Ethylene, C2H4, is a colorless gas that can be used as an inhalation anesthetic. This gas is also commonly used to keep fruit ripe as well as to cut and wield metals. Ethylene, C2H4, is an unsaturated hydrocarbon. It is used in anesthetic agents and in detergents. It is the most widely produced organic compound in the world. Ethylene (C2H4): Ethylene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that is used in the production of polyethylene, a widely used plastic. It can be modified to become ethylene glycol (an antifreeze) and ethylene dichloride (used in creating polyvinyl chloride Ethlyene; Ethylene, C2H4, is a colorless, odorless gas that can be produced in nature as well as man-made processes.
[Show full text]
• Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (Pahs)