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Volume 9 5 , Number 3 · May I June 2016




8 NEWS FROM THE AHS AHS recognizes show exhibits with its Environmental Award, new initiative launched ro encourage interest in honicultural careers, highlights ofAHS Travel Study ro Ponugal.

I2 AHS NEWS SPECIAL Preview of 2016 National Children & Youth Symposium in Columbia, .

42 GARDEN SOLUTIONS Tackling mites.

44 TRAVELER'S GUIDE TO Betty Ford Alpine Gardens in Vail, .

46 HOMEGROWN HARVEST Good-for-you . 14 PERENNIAL VINES FOR TEMPERATE GARDENS BY ANDREW BUNTING 48 'S NOTEBOOK New plant Woody-stemmed vines bring their attractive foliage and discovered, citizen to eye level and beyond. scientists needed for tick research, bees get a break 20 A SYMPHONY OF GEUMS BY MARTY WINGATE from a of , Orchestrate a harmonious garden with the colorful blooms and cacti used ro purify water, National Association reconfigured, 2016 tidy foliage of geums. Arrhur Hoyt Scott Medal and Award winner announced, in memoriam for 24 HEDGEROWS BY KRIS WETHERBEE garden communicarors Suzanne Frutig Bales and Mel Banholomew. By adapting the traditional hedgerow concept, it's easy to create habitat for wildlife in gardens of any size. 52 GREEN GARAGE Handy hand . 3 0 NATIVE FERNS BY C. CO LSTON BURRELL 54 BOOK REVIEWS Endemic to , these adaptable species add texture All the Presidents' Gardens, The Cabaret of and quiet grace to shady spots and contemplative nooks. , and Planting in a Post-Wild World.

3 6 WIN THE WAR ON BY THOMAS CHRISTOPHER 56 REGIONAL HAPPENINGS Get a grip on garden interlopers with these proven, ecological­ 60 PRONUNCIATIONS AND HARDINESS ly-based strategies to control weeds. AND HEAT ZONES

62 PLANT IN THE SPOTLIGHT ON THE COVER: and Chrisrmas fern combine to create a serene vignette in this Bush ( californica). designed by MaryJo Messenger. Photograph by Neil Soderstrom

MAY I JUNE 2016 3 Free App AMERICAN HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY HOMEGROWN Making America a Nation of , a Land of Gardens With Bonnie Plants

Board of Directors CHAIR Amy Bolton Falls Church, FIRST VICE CHAIRMAN Jane Diamantis McDonald, SECOND VICE CHAIRMAN Mary Pat Matheson Atlanta, SECRETARY Nancy Hargroves Manakin Sabot, Virginia TREASURER J. Landon Reeve, IV Woodbine, Maryland IMMEDIATE PAST CHAIR Harry A. Rissetto, Esq. Falls Church, Virginia EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE Henrietta Burke Alexandria, Virginia Marcia Zech Mercer Island,

Skipp Calvert Alexandria, Virginia Q Tim Conlon Dubuque, Q Gay Estes Houston,

Tom Johnson Washington, D.C. Q Louis B. Lynn Columbia, South Carolina Nancy Ross Englewood,

Holly Shimizu Glen Echo, Maryland Q Ed Snodgrass Street, Maryland Q Erich Veitenheimer Alexandria, Virginia


President’s Council The President’s Council is comprised of dedicated members whose annual support makes many of the Society’s programs possible, from youth gardening activities to horticultural awards programs.

FOUNDER’S CIRCLE ($25,000+) Mr. and Mrs. George Diamantis Q Ms. Katy Moss Warner Q Mr. and Mrs. Klaus Zech

LIBERTY HYDE BAILEY CIRCLE ($10,000-$24,999) Mr. and Mrs. Richard Davison Q Mrs. Elisabeth C. Dudley Q Mr. and Mrs. Neil Morris Q bonnieplants.com/app Mr. and Mrs. Harry A. Rissetto, Esq.

HAUPT CIRCLE ($5,000-$9,999) Ms. Amy Bolton and Mr. Philip Schoene Q Mr. and Mrs. Leonard Calvert, III Q Mr. James R. Cargill, II Q Mr.

and Mrs. Timothy Conlon Q Mr. Joseph Errington and Mr. William Pullen Q Ms. Catherine M. Hayes Q Mr. and Mrs. Thomas E. Johnson Gifts by Will or Trust Q Mr. Olson Q Mr. and Mrs. J. Landon Reeve, IV benefit you and the SUSTAINER’S CIRCLE ($2,500-$4,999) Mrs. Leslie S. Ariail Q Mrs. Lynda A. Bachman Q Mr. and Mrs. Andy Daniel Q Ms. Julie Ernest Q Mr. and Mrs. Carl Estes Q Dr. Amy Goldman Fowler Q Mr. and Mrs. Joel Goldsmith Q Mr. Thomas Gibian and Ms. Christina Grady Q Dr. and American Horticultural Mrs. William O. Hargrove Q Mr. and Mrs. Albert Huddleston Q Ms. Erika Huddleston Q Dr. and Mrs. Louis B. Lynn Q Mr. and Mrs. Frank Society. Nicolai Q Mr. David D. Parrish Q Dr. Erich E. Veitenheimer and Mr. Andrew Cariaso Q Ms. Katherine J. Ward

COUNCIL MEMBER’S CIRCLE ($1,000-$2,499) Ms. E. Pauline Adams Q Ms. Kathleen W. Arnold Q Mr. and Mrs. Robert Baillie Q Mrs. Sallie S.

Barnes Q Dr. and Mrs. William E. Barrick Q Mr. Robert A. Bartlett, Jr. Q Mrs. Ritchie Battle Q Mrs. Katherine M. Belk Q Dr. Sherran Blair

Q Mr. and Mrs. Michael Bradshaw Q Mrs. Henrietta Burke Q Mr. and Mrs. Allen W. Bush Q Mrs. Torrey Matheson Cooke Q Dr. Karen

Davis and Mr. Richard Davis Q Ms. Catherine Eberbach Q Ms. Katherine B. Edwards and Mr. John A. Ronveaux Q Dr. Carol K. Emerson

Q Ms. Megan Evans and Mr. Howard M. Tucker Q Ms. Inger Fair Q Mr. and Mrs. A. Michael Gellman Q Mr. Gerald T. Halpin Q Mr. and

Mrs. Herbert F. Hargroves Q Mrs. Martha Harris Q Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Heiler Q Mr. and Mrs. Paul A. Hess Q Ms. Nancy Hockstad Q Ms.

Jadwiga Hoffmann Q Ms. Patricia Kitchings Q Mr. Charles J. and Dr. Dancy Kittrell Q Mrs. Virginia Korteweg Q Ms. Mary A. Lambert Q

Mrs. Carolyn Marsh Lindsay Q Mrs. Mary T. McConnell Q Mr. and Mrs. John A. McMurtrie Q Ms. Elizabeth D. Miller Q Mr. and Mrs.

Peter Morris Q Mr. and Mrs. Robert Murray Q Mr. Arnold Orr Q Mr. and Mrs. Al Osman Q Ms. Julie Overbeck Q Mrs. Lynn C. Rhomberg

Q Ms. Stephanie L. Rodden and Mr. John Cienki Q Mr. and Mrs. Donald H. Ross Q Mr. and Mrs. James A. Runde Q Mr. and Mrs. Osamu

Shimizu Q Mr. and Mrs. Charles Henry Smith, Jr. Q Mr. Howard M. Tucker and Ms. Megan Evans Q Mr. and Mrs. Tom Underwood Q Mr.

Joe Viar, Jr. and Ms. Bonnie Christ Q Mrs. Angela M. Vikesland Q Mr. and Mrs. Robert D. Volk Q Mr. and Mrs. Charles F. Walton Q Ms.

Elizabeth M. Wehrle Q Mrs. Dudley B. White Q Mrs. Corinne Winburn

HONORARY PRESIDENT’S COUNCIL (in memoriam) Ms. Louise Fruehling Q Mrs. Enid Haupt Q Mrs. John A. Lutz Q Mr. and Mrs. Bruce Miller Ms. Wilma L. Pickard

Corporate Members

Bonnie Plants Q The Care of Q Chapel Valley Landscape Company Q Corona, Inc.

The Espoma Company Q Osmocote Q OXO For more information, please contact us at Horticultural Partners [email protected] America In Bloom Q Bellingrath Gardens & Home Q The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation Q Cox Metropark or (703) 768-5700. Q Friends of Fellows Riverside Gardens Q The Gardeners of America/Men’s Garden Clubs of America Q The Omni Homestead

Q Inniswood Garden Society Q Wegerzyn Gardens Foundation

4 the American Gardener The American NOTES CFROM RIVER FARM GARDENER

EDITOR David J. Ellis MANAGING EDITOR AND ART DIRECTOR Mary Yee ASSOCIATE EDITOR Viveka Neveln ATIONAL WEEK is June 20 to 26, which is a great time EDITORIAL INTERN to stop and think about what we as gardeners can do—individually Mary Chadduck and collectively—to counteract the current decline in the number and CONTRIBUTING EDITOR N health of . Last summer, the American Horticultural Society became a Rita Pelczar part of the National Network (NPGN). The NPGN represents CONTRIBUTING WRITER the interests of the garden, pollinator, and conservation communities, which are Carole Ottesen

collaborating to combat this trend. EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD One proven way to reverse the dwindling pollinator is to increase the CHAIR Ethne Clarke number of pollinator-friendly gardens. Each new garden, whether big or small, across Colorado Springs, Colorado the country means more and Linda Askey sources, more welcoming habitat areas, Birmingham, and more people dedicated to pollina- Julie Chai View, tor-friendly sustainable gardening practic- Mary Irish es. It’s a simple way to make a difference. San Antonio, Texas A signature program of the NPGN is Panayoti Kelaidis the Million Pollinator Garden Challenge, Denver, Colorado which was launched last June. Since then, Charlie Nardozzi tens of thousands of pollinator gardens Burlington, have been created, including our very own Denny Schrock here at River Farm, thanks Ames, Iowa to our 2015 interns Sam Guc- 2015 interns Sam Guccione and Stacee Jessica Walliser cione and Stacee Snyder. These two young Snyder in River Farm’s wildlife garden Pittsburgh, people spent the summer researching and Kris Wetherbee Oakland, locating the most appropriate plants to include, creating a design, and putting in the

sweat equity to bring their plan to fruition. This garden has been registered as one of CONTACT US The American Gardener the million pollinator gardens in this country, and I encourage you to also create and 7931 East Boulevard Drive register your own pollinator gardens at www.millionpollinatorgardens.org. Alexandria, VA 22308 There are many ways to embrace pollinators in your garden; the good news (703) 768-5700 is they don’t require a huge amount of room or a big investment. Pollinator gar- EDITORIAL E-MAIL: [email protected] dens are easy to create, and they are attractive as well as functional. To help get ADVERTISING E-MAIL: [email protected] you thinking, take a look at the article in this issue of The American Gardener on habitat hedgerows. In it, you’ll find advice from wildlife gardening authority Kris The American Gardener (ISSN 1087-9978) is published bimonthly Wetherbee for designing a welcoming home for a diverse range of pollinators with (January/February, March/April, May/June, July/August, September/ a of plants. October, November/December) by the American Horticultural Soci- ety, 7931 East Boulevard Drive, Alexandria, VA 22308-1300, (703) Also in this issue you’ll get expert suggestions for using woody vines to add tex- 768-5700. Membership in the Society includes a subscription to The American Gardener. Annual dues are $35; international dues ture and structure in your garden; effective yet earth-friendly tips for controlling are $55. $10 of annual dues goes toward magazine subscription. Periodicals postage paid at Alexandria, Virginia, and at additional weeds; and advice on some of the best native ferns for American gardens. And mailing offices. Postmaster: Please send 3579 to The American don’t miss the preview on page 12 of our annual National Children & Youth Gardener, 7931 East Boulevard Drive, Alexandria, VA 22308-1300. Botanical is based on The American Horticultural Garden Symposium this summer in Columbia, South Carolina—a sure place to Society A–Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants, on A Synonymized Check- get some tips for inviting pollinators into school, , or home gardens. list of the Vascular of the , Canada and and on the Royal Horticultural Society Index of Garden Plants. Opinions With that, I wish you the best of success with your gardening pursuits this expressed in the articles are those of the authors and are not necessar- ily those of the Society. Manuscripts, artwork, and photographs sent summer—whatever direction they may take. We always love to hear what our for possible publication will be returned if accompanied by a self-ad- members are up to in their gardens, so please share your efforts with us on social dressed, stamped envelope. We cannot guarantee the safe return of unsolicited material. Back issues are available at $8 per copy. media or drop us an e-mail. ©2016 by the American Horticultural Society.

Printed in the U.S.A. Happy gardening!

Tom Underwood


May / June 2016 5 Get Social with the AHS MEMBERSC’ FORUM

FACEBOOK: www.facebook.com/american horticulturalsociety CORRECTION Q Find seasonal gardening tips, beautiful Unless taxonomists recently did a major HAVE A HOLDING BED? gardens around the world, photos of change, biloba is not a , as If you have a holding bed or other native plants blooming in our members’ gardens, and more. stated by Carl Hahn in “Ancient Trees space in your garden to temporarily Message us with photos of for Contemporary Gardens” (March/ store plants, please let us know. We your home garden. April 2016). Rather, it is in a (or have an author working on an article ) of its own, Ginkgophyta, one about holding beds and are looking of 11 divisions of the Plant . Co- for people she can interview. Contact TWITTER: www.twitter.com/AHS_Gardening nifers are in the division Coniferophyta. us at [email protected] if you are inter- Dale Sievert, ested in participating in the article Q Follow @AHS_Gardening for Waukesha, and sharing your experience with our breaking garden news and eye-catching photos. Join us here once a readers. Please include your name, month for #plantchat, when Editor’s response appears location, phone number, and a brief we host a one-hour open more closely related to than to description of your holding bed and discussion with an expert any other group of , so at one time it how you use it. garden guest, along with our corporate was classified in Coniferophyta. You are member, Corona Tools. If you miss a #plantchat, read the transcripts on our quite right, however, that do have website at www.ahs.org/plantchat. their own division now. It would have PLEASE WRITE US! Address letters to Editor, The been more accurate if we had used the American Gardener, 7931 East Boulevard Drive, Alexandria, VA 22308. Send e-mails to editor@ term “” when referring to ahs.org (note Letter to Editor in subject line). INSTAGRAM: the group of trees the article discussed. Letters we print may be edited for length and clarity. www.instagram.com/am_hort_society QEnjoy photos from our travels around the U.S., along with year-round views of the gardens at River Farm, our headquarters in Virginia.

PINTEREST: www.pinterest.com/amhortsociety Q We’re always creating new boards with images and information to supplement our articles in The American Gardener. Check out the boards about native ferns and geums while reading the articles about these plants in this issue! Other popular boards include Container Gardening, Gardens to Visit, and Upcycling.

FLICKR: www.flickr.com/groups/ photo_of_the_month Q Enter our monthly, themed garden photo contests. The winning photo is featured in our e-newsletter and on our Facebook page. Join the Conversation!


Find your green thumb at our In The Garden Weekend

over the dates of August 19-21, 2016 at The Omni

Homestead Resort. You will learn time-honored gardening

tips from top professionals and enjoy hands-on garden- 1Ƅƅƀ*ƆƋżƃƊźƆƄ6ſż*ƆƄżƊƋżŸŻ 800-838-1766 themed classes amid our resort’s breathtaking scenery. CONTACTS FOR AHS PROGRAMS, News from the AHS MEMBERSHIP BENEFITS & DEPARTMENTS May / June 2016 PROGRAMS • EVENTS • ANNOUNCEMENTS For general information about your membership, call (800) 777-7931. Send change of address notifications to our membership department at 7931 East Boulevard Drive, Alexandria, VA 22308. If your magazine is lost or damaged in WINNING FLOWER AND GARDEN SHOW EXHIBITS the mail, call the number above for a replace- ment. Requests for membership information EACH YEAR, the American Horticultural Society (AHS) presents its Environmental and change of address notification can also be Award to worthy exhibits at select flower and garden shows across the country. This award e-mailed to [email protected]. recognizes displays that demonstrate the bond between horticulture and the environment, while inspiring viewers to use appropriate plants and design to beautify their own homes THE AMERICAN GARDENER To submit a letter to the editor of The American Gardener, write to and communities. Each entry is judged in four categories: design, aesthetics, plant materi- The American Gardener, 7931 East Boulevard al, and environmental . Here are a few of the winners so far this year. Drive, Alexandria, VA 22308, or send an e-mail to [email protected].

DEVELOPMENT To make a gift to the Ameri- can Horticultural Society, or for information about a donation you have already made, call (800) 777-7931, or send an e-mail to devel- [email protected].

E-MAIL LISTS To subscribe to specific e-mail lists for updates on programs and events, visit http://americanhort.ahs.org/email.

INTERNSHIP PROGRAM The AHS offers in- ternships in communications, horticulture, and membership. For information, send an e-mail to [email protected]. Information and application forms can also be found in the Gardening Programs area of www.ahs.org.

NATIONAL CHILDREN & YOUTH GARDEN SYMPOSIUM For information about the Society’s annual National Children & Youth Garden Sym- posium, e-mail [email protected], or visit www. ahs.org/ncygs.

RECIPROCAL ADMISSIONS PROGRAM The AHS Reciprocal Admissions Program offers members Above: Plant Man landscape design firm free admission and other discounts to nearly 300 botanical gardens and other horticultural owner Elton Lyle’s playful “Wonder Tales of destinations throughout North America. A list Ancient Wales” exhibit won the AHS award at of participating gardens can be found on www. the Southern Spring Home & Garden Show in ahs.org/rap. For more information, call (800) 777-7931 ext. 119. Charlotte, , in February. Left: This display by W.B. Saul High School received the RIVER FARM The AHS headquarters at River Farm is open 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. weekdays year- award at the Philadelphia Flower Show in March. round (except Federal holidays), and 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. Saturdays from April through Septem- ber. For information about events, rentals, and At the Northwest Flower & Garden directions, visit the About River Farm section of Show in February in Seattle, Washing- www.ahs.org. ton, the AHS Environmental Award went to TRAVEL STUDY PROGRAM Visit spectacular “The Hoh: America’s Rain ,” created private and public gardens around the world by Washington Park Arboretum and the Ar- through the Society’s acclaimed Travel Study Program. For information about upcoming boretum Foundation. The display reflected trips, call (703) 768-5700 ext. 127, e-mail the show’s theme of celebrating the National [email protected], or visit the Gardening Park Service’s centennial by using numerous Programs section of www.ahs.org. native plants that do well in home gardens. WEBSITE: www.ahs.org The AHS website is A playful, -themed naturalistic a valuable source of information about the Society’s programs and activities. Users must display created by Earth Tones Native set up a username and password to access the Plant Nursery took home the award at member’s-only sections. the Flower & Garden Show


8 the American Gardener At the Philadelphia Flower Show in March, a student team from SYF will officially roll out in 2017. In the meantime, it con- W.B. Saul High School, led by teachers Lisa Blum, Scott Geller, tinues to fundraise and develop subsequent phases with its part- and Garth Schuler, created the award-winning exhibit “Wander nering organizations. Inn to the Valley.” The display included a two-storey replica of Phil- adelphia’s historic Valley Green Inn as well as a vast array of plants INCREASE GARDENING APP-TITUDE WITH TECHNOLOGY and a “river” water feature to evoke the surrounding parkland. HOW CAN gardening information be made more accessible, especially for younger generations and new homeowners begin- YOUR FUTURE INITIATIVE ning to dabble with plants? One answer is “Armitage’s Greatest DESPITE EVER-GROWING career opportunities in horticulture Perennials & Annuals,” an app created by and gardening, surveys have shown a marked decline in Americans renowned garden book author and speak- seeking the requisite professional training. Several organizations, er Allan M. Armitage. The app includes including the AHS, have partnered to address the problem with information about, and photos of, more the Seed Your Future (SYF) initiative. This new, multi-year effort than 1,000 plants, searchable by plant will promote awareness of horticulture as a rewarding and interest- type, light exposure, USDA zone, plant ing career through educational programs aimed at middle school height, and bloom times. through college students. “This colorful and user-friendly app Led by in Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, is like having one of Allan’s insightful and the American Society for Horticultural Science, SYF has raised and opinionated books at your fingertips sufficient funds to complete initial audience research and develop wherever your gardening endeavors take you,” says River Farm its website, www.seedyourfuture.org. The site describes the diverse Manager and Horticulturist Sylvia Schmeichel. “It provides and critical roles horticulture plays in our daily lives. It also presents a great introduction to tried-and-true plants and encourages career options and provides resources such as an extensive list of two- gardeners to be more adventurous.” and four-year schools with horticulture programs. The app also contains information on gardening groups such as “Horticulture departments have been disappearing from col- the AHS, which Armitage describes as one of the organizations “I lege campuses because of low enrollment numbers,” says Tom respect and who are well respected in the horticultural communi- Underwood, AHS executive director. “Seed Your Future aims to ty.” Another handy feature is the ability to search for independent reverse this trend so that not only will these departments re-open, garden centers nationwide that stock plants of interest. Find more but new ones will need to be created to accommodate the influx.” information about the app at www.allanarmitage.net.

May / June 2016 9 AHS NATIONAL EVENTS CALENDAR Gifts of Note Mark your calendar for these upcoming events In addition to vital support through membership dues, the American that are sponsored or co-sponsored by Horticultural Society relies on grants, bequests, and other gifts to the AHS. Visit www.ahs.org or call support its programs. We would like to thank the following donors for (703) 768-5700 for more information. gifts received between February 24 to April 30, 2016. JUNE 2. Great American Gardeners and AHS Book Awards $1,000+ Gifts Ceremony and Banquet at River Farm. Alexandria, Virginia. Mr. and Mrs. Nathan Bachman Ms. Jadwiga Hoffmann JULY 13–15. The Gardeners of America/Men’s Garden Club of Dr. Sherran Blair International Junior Master America annual convention. Green Bay, Wisconsin. Beyer Subaru Gardener Program (AHS partner event.) Bonnie Plants Moore Farms JULY 13–16. National Children & Youth Garden Symposium. Mr. and Mrs. Leonard Mr. and Mrs. Peter Morris Columbia, South Carolina. Calvert, III Mr. and Mrs. Robert Murray SEPT. 1–10. Italy: Architecture and Gardens of the Veneto, Dolo- District II, National Capital National Garden Clubs, Inc. mites, and Venice. AHS Travel Study Program. SOLD OUT Area Garden Clubs OXO International SEPT. 17. AHS Annual at River Farm. Alexandria, Virginia. Mr. Thomas Gibian and Mr. and Mrs. Donald H. Ross SEPT. 22–OCT. 1. Italy: Architecture and Gardens of the Veneto, Ms. Christina Grady Ms. Rachael A. Rowland Dolomites, and Venice. AHS Travel Study Program. SOLD OUT Mr. and Mrs. Herbert F. Ms. H. Shimizu Hargroves Terra Design Studios, LLC OCT. 6–8. America in Bloom Symposium. Arroyo Grande, Ms. Catherine M. Hayes Mrs. Angela M. Vikesland California. (AHS partner event.) Mr. and Mrs. Paul A. Hess Mr. and Mrs. Klaus Zech DEC. 1–23. Indoor Holiday Display at River Farm. Alexandria, Virginia. DEC. 10. Holiday Open House at River Farm. Alexandria, Virginia. In honor of Heathwood Hall In memory of Alison Jasper Honn Episcopal School gardeners Dr. William Hawkey Dr. Walter B. Edgar AHS TRAVELERS EXPLORE PORTUGAL In memory of Betty Smalley THE GRAND GARDENS of Portugal welcomed enthusiastic In honor of Jane Diamantis Mr. John G. Grill AHS travelers in April. Accompanied by AHS hosts Jane and Mr. and Mrs. Klaus Zech George Diamantis, the group explored Lisbon, Sintra, and the In memory of Lawrence Davis In honor of Katy Moss Warner subtropical island of Madeira. The itinerary included visits to Ms. Linda Davis Mr. and Mrs. Peddy botanical gardens, historic gardens, the private gardens of plant In memory of Fogg collectors, and architecturally significant sites. “It’s a gorgeous In honor of Lee Lovett Mr. Joseph Daigneault country with amazing gardens,” says Jane Diamantis. Mrs. LaTrelle B. Oliver This excursion was part of the AHS’s Travel Study Program, which offers exceptional garden experiences in countries around In honor of Robert Bowden the world. For more information about upcoming trips, visit Mr. and Mrs. Peddy www.ahs.org/gardening-programs/travel-study. If you would like to support the American Horticultural Society as part of your estate planning, as a tribute to a loved one, or as part of your annual charitable giving plan, please call (703) 768-5700.

GARDEN GALA IN SEPTEMBER ON THE EVENING of September 17, the AHS will hold its an- nual gala at its 25-acre River Farm headquarters overlooking the Potomac River in Alexandria, Virginia. This black-tie-optional event will feature honored guest Dean Norton, director of hor- ticulture at George Washington’s Mount Vernon. Enjoy fine dining while surrounded by enchanting, moonlit gardens. A silent auction will feature one-of-a-kind artwork, tour packag- es, plants, jewelry, and other items. Proceeds from the gala support the stewardship of River Farm and the Society’s outreach programs. For more information about the gala, including sponsorship opportunities, call (703) 768-5700 ext. 127 or send an e-mail to [email protected]. Both the architecture and grounds of the Monserrate Palace in

Sintra, Portugal, enthralled AHS travelers this spring. News written by AHS staff. COURTESY OF JANE AND GEORGE DIAMANTIS



• Explore topics ranging from curriculum to program Join us at the only national management to and maintenance event of its kind for educators, during three dynamic days of educational sessions, field trips, and expert keynote presentations. garden designers, community leaders, program coordinators, • Experience the gardens and programs making plants a vital and accessible part of children’s life and others dedicated to experiences in this quickly growing southern hotspot.

connecting kids to the • Share ideas, success stories, and inspiration natural world. with like-minded colleagues from across the nation.


E-mail: [email protected] Call: (703) 768-5700 ext. 121 Follow us on Twitter: @AHS_NCYGS (#ncygs16) AHS NEWS SPECIAL: National Children & Youth Garden Symposium in Columbia,South Carolina

by Ping Honzay

VERY SUMMER since 1993, the American Horticultural Society Ehas held the National Children & Youth Garden Symposium (NCYGS), an annual forum for hundreds of educa- tors, garden designers, program leaders, and others from across the country who are passionate about connecting kids with plants and the natural world. To show- case the exciting projects taking place in various corners of the country, and to provide access to different audiences, the symposium moves to a different location every year. This year for the first time in its history, the symposium will travel to Columbia, the capital of South Carolina, from July 13 to 16. EXPLORING THE PALMETTO STATE The symposium’s local co-hosts Clem- son University Extension, Heathwood In addition to a new three-acre space designed for children, the Riverbanks Zoo & Garden Hall, and Riverbanks Zoo & Garden offers a variety of themed displays and extensive plant collections. exemplify the richness and diversity of youth gardening efforts taking place programs such as 4-H are exclusively dedi- digging in the dirt, designing garden struc- throughout the city and state. cated to serving children and their families, tures, taking photos, or whatever may draw Through its Cooperative Extension and provide important education both in their curiosity.” program, Clemson University serves resi- and out of school.” The symposium’s ed- On July 14, the symposium will take a dents throughout the entire state of South ucational sessions will cover topics such as trip to Heathwood Hall for educational Carolina by providing research-based agri- garden management, curriculum develop- sessions, dinner, and a keynote presenta- cultural, horticultural, and environmental ment, and growing practices. In addition, tion from Kai- education. “Almost all of our Extension sessions led by Clemson staff will delve into ulani Lee, who programming impacts youth in some way,” relevant Extension programs and offer tips will perform her says Ellen Vincent, environmental land- gathered from years of experience. play, A Sense of scape specialist at Clemson. “Extension Heathwood Hall is a pre-K through Wonder. Based on 12th grade school boasting an impressive the life of School Environmental Education program Rachel Carson (SEED). A large part of this program is the and her experi- themed gardens spread throughout the cam- ences following pus, created by each year’s fifth-grade class. the 1962 publi- SEED Director and science teacher Todd cation of Silent Beasley works with his students to select a Actress Kaiulani Lee Spring—Carson’s theme, make a plan, and plant the garden to groundbreaking use for classwork and research. It’s not only exposé of the ecological damage caused by For more details about the 2016 an exercise in horticulture but also in long- pesticides—the play has been touring the symposium and to register, visit the term planning, creativity, teamwork, and country for more than 20 years. Through AHS website at www.ahs.org/ncygs. cross-curricular learning. “These gardens of- the story of Carson’s inspirational legacy, Plus get updates by following fer every student structured opportunities to the play explores our deep bond with the @AHS_ncygs on Twitter. explore the outdoors in ways that genuinely natural world and the value of taking a

engage them,” says Beasley, “whether that’s stand to protect it. TOP: COURTESY OF RIVERBANKS ZOO & GARDEN. BOTTOM: KAIULANI LEE

12 the American Gardener On the afternoon ofJuly 15, symposium attendees will have a chance to explore Riv­ PRE- AND POST-SYMPOSIUM TRIPS FOR FURTHER EXPLORATION erbanks Zoo & Garden and its new Wa­ terfall Junction children's garden, which opened in April. The three-acre site features a life-size replica of a Tyrannosaurus rex, gi­ ant tree houses, a 25-foot waterfall, a wading , and a grassy meadow. It is nestled within the larger living classrooms of River­ banks' s renowned botanical garden and wo. Amanda Segura, children's garden manager at Riverbanks, describes Waterfall Junction as "a place where kids can come to be kids.

efore and after the main symposium, optional trips will give attendees a chance to Bexperience even more stellar gardens and programs that call the South Carolina Midlands home. A full-day trip on July 13 will focus on two hidden gems outside of Columbia. The first stop will be the Pearl Fryar Garden in Bishopville. Fryar, a hobby gardener, began creating many of the fantastical on his three-acre Fifth-grade students created this garden decades ago from discarded plants rescued from local nursery at Heathwood Hall promoting the Certified piles. His garden is recognized by the South Carolina program. Garden Conservancy as an exceptional and inspirational landscape. Then the They can , play, climb, dig up artificial trip will head to Moore Farms Botanical dinosaur bones, explore tree houses, discover Garden in Lake City. Located on what cool edibles, and pretend to be butterflies all was once farmland, the site has been within a safe environment." transformed into a horticultural marvel boasting innovative and breathtaking EDUCATION WITH SOUTHERN HOSPITALITY gardens that serve as a for A garden can seive many functions, such as a research and educational programs. hands-on learning lab, a source of fresh and Another pre-symposium trip the delicious , a place to play, a foundation morning of July 13 will take sym­ for a business, and a place to connect with posium attendees to school gar­ . Columbia abounds with examples dens throughout Columbia that are of all of these and more, sure to inform and involved with South Carolina Green inspire NCYGS participants this summer. Steps, a statewide program that Most importantly, the model gardens "recognizes schools who take annual and programs that will be featured are run by sustainable steps toward becoming experts who are excited to share their knowl­ more environmentally responsible." edge with symposium attendees. As Ethan Teachers at Catawba Trail Elementa­ Kauffman, garden director at Moore Farms ry School, St. John Neumann Catholic Botanical Garden puts it, "You would be School, and the Barclay School at Farm will share insights into their hard pressed to find a warmer, more enthusi­ school gardens and how they fit into daily school life. astic reception than right here in the Palmet­ A post-symposium trip on July 16 will visit Clemson University's Sandhill Research to State, where Southern hospitality flows as & Education Center (REC), a 600-acre natural haven in northeast Columbia. After freely as the sweet tea." ~ touring the on-site Carolina Children's Garden, attendees will enjoy a reception in the scenic Sandhill REC Lake House to cap off their symposium experience. ~ Ping Honzay is Member Programs Associate -P.H. for the American Horticultural Society.

M A Y I J U NE 201 6 13 Perennial Vines

for temperate gardens BY ANDREW BUNTING

These hardy, woody-stemmed vines offer attractive, long-lasting INES BRING a vertical element to a garden’s design, and their vertical accents. V colorful flowers also attract hummingbirds and other pollinators. I have a particular affinity for woody- stemmed vines that do not die back to the ground in the winter. In many cases, the foliage on these vines is as important, if not more so, than the flowers in terms of the overall ornamental effect. In this way they differ greatly from non-woody vines, which tend to be grown primarily for their spring or summer floral display. As a group, woody vines are quite di- verse. They are native to a wide range of , from dense woodland to forest edges and even open meadow, so they vary greatly in their tolerance for light expo- sures and temperatures. Thus in choosing vines for a garden, site selection is partic- ularly important for long-term success. And while some gardeners may be wary of woody-stemmed vines because of bad experiences with plants such as Japanese (), there are plenty of options that won’t attempt a hostile take-over. During my career as a horticulturist and gardener, I have mostly grown tem- perate species—many in a garden I created over the course of 17 years in Swarthmore, Pennsylvania—so I will focus on those in this article. In selecting which vines to in- clude here, I’ve intentionally left out two major groups—clematises and climbing —primarily because both genera are large and complex enough to merit an ar- ticle in their own right. VINES The hydrangea family is best known for , but it includes several excellent woody-stemmed vines suited to part or dappled shade. If I could grow only one woody-stemmed , it would be

The large pinkish- flowers of Chinese trumpet creeper attract hummingbirds. ‘Moonlight’, a selection of Japanese hy- JOSH MCCULLOUGH

14 the American Gardener drangea vine (Schizophragma hydrangeoi- vine. It needs reasonably good sunlight climbing hydrangea (Hydrangea anomala des, USDA Hardiness Zones 5–8, AHS to flower, but not so much sun that the ssp. petiolaris, Zones 4–8, 8–4). Native to Heat Zones 8–5). The heart-shaped foliage loses vibrancy. ‘Moonlight’ in and Japan, this self-clinging vine are dark green with silver veins, which cre- particular seems to thrive in the Pacific will grow 30 to 50 feet tall over time. It ate a somewhat variegated appearance. In Northwest, where the sunlight is less in- differs from Japanese hydrangea vine in a July, flat-topped clusters of single-bracted tense and the silver veining on the leaves few ways, notably in its stems, which have pure white flowers seem to hover above does not get washed out as it does in peeling, cinnamon-orange that adds the foliage. Richard Hawke, manager of regions with warmer summers. Japanese winter interest. In summer, flat-topped plant evaluations at the Chicago Botanic hydrangea vine will grow to 30 or 40 clusters of fragrant, four-bracted white Garden in Glencoe, , recommends feet if given space, attaching directly to flowers, resembling those of lacecap hy- a selection called ‘ ’. The stone, brick, or tree bark with tiny adhe- drangeas, bloom above the foliage. In the leaves have a more incised margin, giving sive rootlets. fall, the leaves can turn a vibrant yellow. the vine an interesting textural dimension. Tom Clark, curator at the Polly Hill A good selection is ‘’, which was Finding just the right spot seems crit- Arboretum on Martha’s , Mas- introduced by Dan Benarcik, a horticul- ical to the success of Japanese hydrangea sachusetts, is a fan of the closely related turist with Chanticleer garden in Wayne, VINES TO BEWARE Certain woody vines, unfortunately, are among the worst invasive weeds in temperate North America. These include Japanese honeysuckle (Lon- icera japonica), English and Irish ivy ( helix and H. hibernica), and porcelain (Ampelopsis brevipe- dunculata). Other vines to be wary of are Asian bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), and the Asian ( sinensis and W. floribun- da). Chocolate vine (Akebia quinata), which can spread aggressively and naturalize where hardy, is consid- ered weedy in some mid-Atlantic and Southeast states. Some vines native to North Amer- ica also can be aggressive in the garden, especially trumpet creeper (Campsis radicans), maypop (Passi- flora incarnata), and Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia), so be sure to find out how these species be- have in your region or pick your site carefully before planting them. —A.B.

Pennsylvania, who selected it for its strong chartreuse and green variegation. It is not as vigorous as the species, but this can be an advantage in smaller gardens, where it offers a splash of color in a shady corner. Another , ‘Mirranda’, sometimes listed as ‘Miranda’, has variegation similar to that of ‘Firefly’. Flying a bit under the radar is vamp (Decumaria barbara, Zones 6–9, 9–5), a native of moist woodlands in the

JOSH MCCULLOUGH ‘Moonlight’, a cultivar of Japanese hydrangea vine, has silvery foliage and hydrangealike flowers. southeastern United States that will grow

May / June 2016 15 Sources Brushwood Nursery, Athens, GA. www.gardenvines.com Forestfarm at Pacifica, Williams, OR. (541) 846-7269. www.forestfarm.com. Lazy S’s Farm Nursery, Barboursville, VA. www.lazyssfarm.com. Plant Delights Nursery, Raleigh, NC. (919) 772-4794. www.plantdelights.com. Resources Armitage’s Vines and Climbers by Allan M. Armitage. Timber Press, Portland, OR, 2010.

30 or 40 feet up a tree or drape itself over rocks or a fence. Its glossy, rounded foli- age turns a vibrant butter yellow in fall. The slightly rounded domes of pure white flowers, which bloom in July, are sweetly scented. I planted this vine on the east side of my house to the right of the front door.

PARTHENOCISSUS Native to , Boston ivy (Parthenocissus tricuspidata, Zones 4–8, 8–3) has glossy leaves with three sharp-pointed lobes. This species—which should more cor- rectly be called Boston creeper because it is not related to ivy—will grow almost indefinitely if given space. Like other Parthenocissus vines, it attaches with a tracery of minute suction cups at the ends of that cling to stone and brick. I have never found this mode of at- tachment to be destructive to any type of construction material, but I have heard complaints that it can leave dark mark- Virginia creeper shines in autumn, when its leaves turn incandescent shades of yellow to red. ings on painted surfaces or siding. At my house in Swarthmore, I plant- 7–9, 9–6), which is probably the least million red, and it also can be adorned by ed ‘Fenway Park’, a chartreuse-leaved se- aggressive of the Parthenocissus species. clusters of fleshy blue-black that lection, on the shadier north facade. The Also an Asian native, silvervein creeper’s attract birds. It is a bit wilder than its rel- newly emerging foliage is a striking lem- leaves are comprised of five oblong leaflets atives, growing rapidly to 30 feet or more ony yellow color, but too much sun will rounded at the tip. The emerging foliage and spreading by seed, so is perhaps best cause the leaves to scorch, while too much is shiny green on top and purple under- in a naturalistic garden. shade can cause the leaves to fade to green. neath, highlighted by prominent silver ve- In regions with cool , such as the nation. In fall, the foliage turns a striking , the leaves may remain red to burgundy. Japanese honeysuckle, which has invaded vibrant throughout the summer, whereas The foliage of native Virginia creeper natural areas and roadsides from Pennsyl- in regions with warmer summers they will (P. quinquefolia, Zones 3–9, 9–1) also has vania south to the Gulf Coast, may have often fade to green. five oblong leaflets, but the tips come to tarnished the reputation of this , On the east side of the house, I planted a sharper point than those of silvervein but there are vining honeysuckles worth

the silvervein creeper (P. henryana, Zones creeper. In the fall, the leaves turn a ver- growing. Chinese honeysuckle (Lonicera JANET LOUGHREY

16 the American Gardener COMBINE VINES TO ADD OOMPH Grouping two or three different species of vines in a garden can lead to spectacular results. For instance, you could have three periods of flowering and, better yet, overlapping displays by growing a cultivar of with the climbing rose ‘Chevy Chase’ and ‘Etoile Violette’. I have seen native Dutchman’s pipe ( macrophylla) effectively grown in combination with the yellow- flowering Lonicera sempervirens f. sulphurea ‘John Clayton’ and the pinkish- flowered selection ‘Major Wheeler’. In my Swarthmore garden, one very successful combination was ‘Longwood Purple’ with Lonicera sempervirens ‘Cedar Lane’. Also, nearby shrubs can dramatically set off vines. Chartreuse-leaved ‘Fenway Park’ Boston ivy (Parthenocissus tricuspi- data) makes a stunning contrast to plants with purple foliage such as ‘Velvet Cloak’ smoke bush ( coggygria) or any of the purple-leaved Japanese culti- vars. At my home, silvervein creeper (Par- thenocissus henryana) intermingles nicely with adjacent shrubs like Japanese Wood vamp, right, and silvervein creeper, left, flank a doorway on the east side of the (Clethra barbinervis) and Japanese maho- author’s former house in Swarthmore, Pennsylvania. nia (). —A.B.

tragophylla, Zones 6–8, 8–5), for instance, behaves well on a pergola adjacent to my Swarthmore home. In May, whorls of yel- low-orange tubular flowers are borne in profusion at the ends of each branch. As with other vines with tubular flowers, it attracts hummingbirds. Another good option is goldflame honeysuckle (L. heckrottii, Zones 5–9, 9–5), a between the American na- tive trumpet honeysuckle (L. sempervirens, Zones 4–9, 9–4) and L. americana. This twining vine has blue-green foliage. The fragrant flowers are pink in , but when open they are a combination of deep pink, yellow, and soft pink. Though it is a vig- orous grower, it is easy to keep in check with judicious . One of my favor- ite trumpet honeysuckles is ‘Cedar Lane’, which has attractive, narrowly elliptic fo- liage and tubular, dark brick-red flowers. VINES FOR SUNNY, HOT SITES At my Swarthmore house, I needed a vine that could withstand the hot and sunny conditions on the southern side of the house. I picked ‘ Beauty’ native

TOP: ANDREW BUNTING. BOTTOM: SUSAN A. ROTH crossvine (Bignonia capreolata, Zones 6–9, Goldflame honeysuckle’s fragrant flowers turn from pink into a mix of yellow and pink shades.

May / June 2016 17 9–5) with soft-orange flowers and ‘Dragon a selection of common jasmine (Jasminum burgundy foliage of var. Lady’ with deeper-orange flowers. In May, officinale, Zones 7/8–10, 10–1) called ‘Fro- dissectum ‘Crimson Queen’. a profusion of tubular flowers are borne. jas’ (Fiona Sunrise™), which grows 10 to Another showstopper at the Scott Ar- They are a great attraction to the earliest 15 feet tall. He originally planted this as boretum is ‘Margarita’ Carolina jessamine ruby-throated hummingbirds. In fall, the an annual, but has been happily surprised (, Zones 6–9, 9–5) elliptic foliage can turn purple and in re- that it has overwintered for the last several growing on a split rail fence as well as on gions with mild winters, the foliage can re- years. The small compound leaves with some wire supports on a stone . In main semi-. I also like a selection tiny leaflets give it a fine textural quality. early spring, the semi-evergreen twining called ‘Athens’ that has vibrant yellow flow- The foliage is bright yellow and remains vine is covered in beautiful, yellow, tubu- ers with a peachy-orange inner and outer this color all summer long. Blooming lar flowers. This native vine tolerates part throat. Paul Cappiello, executive director of from spring into early summer, the high- shade but flowers best in full sun. Yew Dell Botanical Gardens in Crestwood, ly fragrant flowers have pink stems but Dan Long of Brushwood Nursery in , is also a big fan of the crossvine. open pure white. One year at the Scott Athens, Georgia, likes the fragrant star “In the wild in Kentucky, you’d never give Arboretum, it made an eye-catching jasmines ( spp.). The this one a second look—it’s so scraggly and combination when it twined through the confederate or star jasmine (T. jasminoi- weak,” says Cappiello. “But sited in full sun, it is amazing. It’s the best and earliest of the hummingbird vines for our area.” Related to crossvine and also suitable for hot, sunny sites is Chinese trumpet creeper (Campsis grandiflora, Zones 6–9, 9–6). The species grows 10 to 20 feet tall with com- pound leaves and is less prone to spreading by suckers than our native trumpet creep- er (C. radicans). I grow a selection called ‘Morning Calm’, on a stone wall, where it

bears arching sprays of large, tubular, pink flowers in late summer. At the Scott Arboretum, there is an upright pillar with a beautiful specimen of ‘Morning Calm’. Each winter, all the wayward branches are pruned back to the column. Because trum- pet vines flower on new wood, this type of hard pruning is warranted because new flowering branches are produced and a tidy is maintained on a vine that can oth- erwise become unruly.

JASMINES Star jasmine, above left, is evergreen where hardy and bears clusters of fragrant, starlike Josh Coceano, horticulturist at the Scott flowers in spring to early summer. Above: ‘Margarita’, a cultivar of Carolina jessamine,

Arboretum of Swarthmore College, likes mingles with trumpet honeysuckle on a wood fence. LEFT: LYNNE HARRISON. RIGHT: DIANNE MATTIS

18 the American Gardener OTHER GARDEN-WORTHY WOODY VINES Height Ornamental Attributes Exposure Origin USDA Hardiness, (Common Name) (feet) AHS Heat Zones kolomikta 15–25 Foliage has white and pink Sun to Eastern Asia, 4–8, 8–4 (Variegated kiwi) variegation in spring part sun western * 15–40 Sprays of bright pink flowers Sun to Mexico 10–11, 12–4 (Coral vine) from mid- to late summer part sun Aristolochia californica 8–20 Pipe-shaped purple and cream Part sun California/ 8–10, 10–6 (California pipe vine) flowers bloom in late winter to shade Southwest Aristolochia macrophylla 20–30 Small yellowish-green flowers bloom Sun to Southeastern 4–8, 8–1 (Dutchman’s pipe) in mid- to late summer shade U.S. caerulea 20–30 Large purple and blue flowers Sun South 6–9, 10–4 (Blue passionflower) summer to fall America * 6–10 White and purple flowers bloom Sun to Eastern U.S. 5–9, 9–4 (Maypop) from to fall part sun *Considered potentially weedy or invasive in Florida and other subtropical climates

ed States, is festooned with long, pendant clusters of bluish-white flowers in late May. A selection called ‘Blue Moon’ has flowers with a more intense violet-blue color than the species. American wisteria is native to scat- tered areas of the Eastern United States from Connecticut to Florida and west as far as and Texas. It can reach 30 feet or more at maturity with stocky clusters of lilac to pale purple flowers. Scott McMahan, horticulturist at the Atlanta Botanical Garden in Georgia, favors ‘Amethyst Falls’, a selection that won the Georgia Gold Medal in 2006. In May, this vine is adorned by clusters of fragrant, lilac-purple flowers.

FINE VINES The well-behaved, woody-stemmed vines in this article can be used to create long-lasting focal points in the garden, whether clambering up tree trunks, adorn- Blooming in early summer, ‘Amethyst Falls’, a selection of American wisteria, bears ing the side of a building, draping over an drooping clusters of pale purple flowers that have a fragrance reminiscent of soda. arbor, or combined with other vines. Plus, improved are being selected all des, Zones 8–11, 12–7), is a small evergreen Japanese wisteria (W. floribunda)—grow the time and new species are still finding vine with five linear white that give rampantly and are prone to escape into nat- their way into cultivation. Woody vines each flower a starlike quality. Asian star jas- ural areas. If you have your heart set on a wis- can be grown in nearly all regions of the mine (T. asiaticum, Zones 7–10, 11–6) has teria, try instead one of the American species: United States and in a wide variety of sites, creamy-yellow to white flowers and can be American wisteria (W. frutescens, Zones 5–9, so you can surely find a spot for one or grown as a vine or a sprawling . 9–4) or Kentucky wisteria (W. macrostachya, more to grace your own garden. Zones 3–9, 9–3). They bloom slightly later WISTERIAS and are not as floriferous as their Asian coun- Andrew Bunting recently moved from There are few things to beat a wisteria in full terparts, but have similar compound leaves Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, to the Chicago bloom on a trellis or pergola, but the two and growing habit. area. He is assistant director of gardens and Asian species most commonly available— Growing 15 to 25 feet tall, Kentucky curator of plant collections at the Chicago

CATRIONA T. ERLER Chinese wisteria () and wisteria, native to the south central Unit- Botanic Garden in Glencoe, Illinois.

May / June 2016 19 BY MARTY WINGATE a symphony of Geums

These rose relatives resonate with warm tones that will have you asking for an encore.

OMETIMES I like to think of the range of warm flower colors that harmonize garden as an orchestra, in which with any garden grouping. Depending on Seach plant is an instrument, and the selection, geums can play counterpoint the seasons make up a symphony. Spring to taller neighbors, serve as groundcover and summer are the more up-tempo under shrubs, or sparkle as a front-of-the- movements, with their riot of color, border fringe. And although most may be texture, and form. These can become on the floral stage for a relatively brief peri- overwhelming without a few plants to od, the plants add a pleasing backdrop with provide sweet, clear tones that weave the their attractive foliage as other plants take composition together like the flute in a over the show. full orchestra. The loveliest flutes in my garden belong to the genus Geum. MEET THE GEUMS Commonly known as avens or geums, About 50 species belong to the genus, found these adaptable perennials offer a wide in the wild on every continent except Ant-

Geum flowers offer warm tones such as the clear yellow of ‘Lady Stratheden’, bright red of ‘Mrs. J. Bradshaw’, and peachy pink of ‘Wet Kiss’ shown from top to bottom on the left, and


20 the American Gardener Chilean avens (G. magellanicum) signals spring with bright pops of color that will continue long into the season with deadheading.

Geums will reseed, but not aggressive- ly. Because species readily cross with one another, seedlings likely will show some variability. The plants also will produce rosettes from rhizomatous . These new rosettes stay close to home; this is not a genus that runs hither and yon. Most geums will grow anywhere in the United States except for southern regions with hot and humid summers. Cold seldom is a bother—particularly with smoke, which is hardy to USDA 3. They grow best in full sun to part shade and most prefer a well-drained with regular watering. Diseases and pests rarely cause trouble, and and rabbits tend to leave them alone. The basal rosettes may remain through winter but need to be tidied up before spring growth. If di- vided every three or four years, they will continue year after year in the garden. GARDEN-WORTHY SPECIES The most ornamental geums are derived from just a handful of species, which would

Sources Annie’s Annuals and Perennials, Richmond, CA. (888) 266-4370. www.anniesannuals.com. Bluestone Perennials, Madison, OH. (800) 852-5243. www.bluestoneperennials.com. arctica. They form a basal of light- beetles, bees, and flies. The flowers them- Forestfarm, Williams, OR. (541) ly hairy, lobed leaves that vary in length, selves—especially the semi-double and 846-7269. www.forestfarm.com. even on the same plant. “They have great double cultivars—resemble miniature Jelitto Perennial , foliage,” says Warren Leach, landscape roses. Little wonder, given that Geum Louisville, KY. (502) 895-0807. horticulturist and co-owner of Tranquil belongs to the rose family. www.jelitto.com. Lake Nursery in Rehoboth, , If spent flowers are deadheaded, you Klehm’s Song Sparrow, where he says they have “a semi-evergreen may be rewarded with a second, though Avalon, WI. (800) 553-3715. quality.” In warmer areas, they may even possibly smaller, bloom. However, if left www.songsparrow.com. remain evergreen through winter. alone, the flowers produce seedheads that Blooming begins in April in warm- are fluffy and brownish, like small clematis Resources er climates such as the California coast, seedheads. These can be as ornamental as Essential Perennials by Ruth Rogers and May for regions that heat up later. the flower, especially in two species native Clausen and Thomas Christopher. Tim- Slender floral stems with a few leaves rise to North America: prairie smoke (Geum ber Press, Portland, Oregon, 2015. above those basal rosettes; in many cul- triflorum) and water avens (G. rivale). Perennials: The Gardener’s Reference tivars, the stems themselves color up to The single flowers of those species nod by Susan Carter, Carrie Becker, and a reddish-pink. Each flower displays a and remain almost closed, opening fully Bob Lilly. Timber Press, Portland, central ring of densely clustered only when the flowers fade. Then they Oregon, 2007.

MARK TURNER for pollinators, which include butterflies, turn their feathery seedheads skyward.

May / June 2016 21 seem to make them fairly simple to sort out. Richard Hawke, plant evaluation manager at the Chicago Botanic Garden in Illinois, who trialed geums for several years, is quick to quash that assumption. “Geum nomen- clature is a mess,” he says. The currently accepted names in botanical circles are used in this article, but you may find them listed under an assortment of synonyms. Much nomenclatural confusion seems to surround Geum coccineum (USDA Har- diness Zones 5–8, AHS Heat Zones 8–1), commonly called avens. For instance, G.

On flowering stems up to a foot tall, Geum coccineum ‘Borisii’ bears orange-red, upward- facing blossoms above rosettes of lobed leaves.

borisii, a well-known garden perennial, is The nodding pink flowers of native prairie smoke now included in G. coccineum as the cul- (G. triflorum) appear in spring, above. They are tivar ‘Borisii’. It produces upward-facing, followed by up-turned, wispy seedheads, left, orange-red flowers instead of the brick- that inspired the common name. red ones of the straight species. Native to mountainous areas of the , this spe- fers a clue to its preferred habitat—dry, sun- cies forms six-inch mounds of irregularly ny, open areas. It also evocatively describes lobed leaves and its flowering stems reach its most striking feature: the aforementioned about a foot in height. wispy seedheads. “If you can plant it where it Geum magellanicum (syn. G. chilo- is backlit by the setting sun,” says Mary Ann ense, Zones 5–8, 8–1) hails from Chile so Newcomer, co-author of Rocky Mountain its common name is Chilean avens. Its Gardener’s Handbook (Cool Springs Press, mounds of foliage reach about a foot tall 2012), “you can see why it’s called prairie and wide, with toothed leaves that resem- smoke.” Both of these Geum species pro- ble those of strawberry plants. When in duce pinkish-red, nodding flowers. bloom, wiry stems topped with upward- The two North American species, water facing, bright reddish orange blossoms avens (G. rivale, Zones 3–8, 8–1) and prairie CAPTIVATING CULTIVARS reach about three feet tall. “It’s kind of smoke (G. triflorum, 3–7, 7–1), have a wide The majority of geums found at nurseries wildflowery looking,” says Mary Te Selle native range, but prefer very different eco- and in catalogs are hybrids and cultivars owner of Quite Contrary Garden Design logical niches. The former is called water of avens and Chilean avens. However, as in San Rafael, California, who describes avens because it thrives in and edges of Hawke points out, “they’re usually only list-

them as “suitably meadowy.” waterways. The latter’s common name of- ed at the cultivar level, which implies they are FAR LEFT: COURTESY OF JELITTO PERENNIAL SEEDS. TOP RIGHT: ROB CARDILLO. BOTTOM DONNA KRISCHAN

22 the American Gardener hybrids of unknown origin.” These cultivars broaden the hues of geum flowers from or- DESIGNING WITH GEUMS ange, yellow, scarlet, and occasionally white Geums mingle nicely with other warm-hued spring-bloomers such as yarrows to , red, deep pink, sunny yellow, ( spp.) and columbines such as red-and-yellow eastern red columbine and gold. Some selections look much like ( canadensis) in more northern regions and golden spur columbine (A. shot silk, with an almost iridescent sheen. chrysantha) in Western regions. For longer-blooming geums and those that can be Chilean avens is the source of many coaxed into producing a second flush of blooms later in the season, try them with older selections including the single ‘Dolly the maroon blooms of great burnet ( officinalis), sunny black-eyed North’ with peachy-orange, ruffled petals; Susans ( spp.), or tickseeds ( spp.). double, bright yellow ‘Lady Stratheden’; Flowers on the opposite side of the color wheel from the warm hues of geums give and the stalwart, double, scarlet ‘Mrs. J. a zing of contrast. For example, the bright orange hue of ‘Totally Tangerine’ pops even Bradshaw’. Te Selle holds ‘Blazing Sun- more with the cool blue flowers of catmints such as ‘Six Hills Giant’ or peren- set’, a newer variety with double, large, red- nial such as wood sage ( sylvestris ‘Mainacht’). Blue-flowered hardy dish-orange blooms, in high regard. In her USDA Zone 10 garden, it blooms from April into November (with deadheading) with flowering stems up to four feet high. The Cocktails from Brent Horvath at Intrinsic Perennial Gardens in Hebron, Illinois, is well named, matching that five o’clock quaff with appropriate names and hues, such as ‘Tequila Sunrise’ with its bright yellow petals edged in a color described as “grenadine” and yellow-and-pink ‘Wet Kiss’. “Brent has brought romantic colors into these cultivars,” Hawke says. Most were developed from crosses made between Chil- ean avens and its cultivars, but offer greater hardiness (to USDA Zone 5) and heat-toler- ance than their parents. Leach from Tranquil Lake Nursery grows ‘Flames of Passion’, a selection of wa- Warm orange geum flowers blend with the yellow of columbines and vivid purples of ter avens. This cultivar ramps up the show salvia spikes to create a cheerful, carefree display that is accented by stately white . with single, intense red flowers that do not hang their heads. He also favors ‘Totally such as wallichianum ‘Buxton’s Variety’ that begin blooming in Tangerine’, a cross between prairie smoke early summer and continue into fall could catch ‘Totally Tangerine’ at either end of the and ‘Mrs. J. Bradshaw’. This apricot-orange, growing season. Early-blooming irises and also would make good companions. single-flowered selection stands head and The water avens, with its preference for damp soil, plays well with masterwort ( major), either the species’ typical white flowers or one of its many pink or red cultivars, such as ‘Hadspen Blood’ and ‘Claret’. Or plant it in front of taller, water-loving irises. —M.W.

shoulders above the crowd, both physically den in Boise “in the entry garden, in a and in its duration of bloom. Unlike many very waterwise planting.” After giving it of the other cultivars that go in and out of a try, she was duly impressed. “I will keep flower in the span of only a few weeks, ‘To- adding more until I find another cultivar tally Tangerine’ begins blooming in May that does as well,” she says. and continues, in many regions, until Octo- ber or November. FINAL NOTES It may be the prairie smoke genes that Whether your garden ensemble is large or make this selection particularly suitable small, you can enrich your own sympho- to gardens in colder and drier climates. “I nies by finding a place for geums. They will failed with every geum cultivar I tried to add long-lasting notes with their tidy foliage, grow,” says Newcomer, who gardens in graceful blooms, and attractive seedheads. ‘Blazing ’ offers brilliant scarlet USDA Zone 6 but is no stranger to Zone blooms on robust plants over a longer period 5. But then she spotted ‘Totally Tanger- Marty Wingate is a garden writer who lives

LEFT: COURTESY OF JELITTO PERENNIAL SEEDS. RIGHT: GRAHAM , GARDENPHOTOS.COM than many other popular geum cultivars. ine’ growing at the Botanical Gar- in Seattle, Washington.

May / June 2016 23 Habitat Hedgerows

Attract and sustain beneficial wildlife in your garden with a versatile hedgerow composed of plants that provide and cover year round.


A variety of shrubs and small trees intermingled with perennials creates a multilayered hedgerow

that offers a continuous supply of food and shelter for wildlife through the seasons. MARY YEE

24 the American Gardener TOP: NEIL SODERSTROM AT ADKINS ARBORETUM. BOTTOM: NEIL SODERSTROM AT U.S. BOTANIC GARDEN H species, including Americanrobins.  Brilliance’ serviceberry( Right: -producingplantslike this‘Autumn foreground workwellinhabitat hedgerows. background andtheflowering arrowwood eastern juniper(Juniperusvirginiana)inthe Top right:Nativeplantssuchastheevergreen and bufferstrongwinds. imize erosion,reducesoundpollution, erty lines,screenunsightlyviews,min- hedgerows tocreateprivacy,defineprop- nature’s wonderfuldesignwhileusing plant selection,gardenerscanreplicate as shelter,nestingsites,andfoodsources. different habitatfunctionsforwildlifesuch mimic awoodlandorforestedge,fulfilling spaced row.Theresultinglayersofplants made upofasinglespeciesinclosely as opposedtohedges,whichareusually of treeandshrubspeciesthatvaryinheight, they grow.Theytypicallyincludeavariety to meanasoldierly,neatly-clippedrow blogger inLangley,Washington. mer horticulturallibrarianandgarden west gardens,”saysValerieEaston,afor- —less formalhedgingsuitsmostNorth- hedgerows replacingmoreformalhedging urban landscapesisgrowing.“I’mseeing pollinator habitat,”sheadds. with wildflowerspeciesthatprovidevital shrubs, forbs,grasses,andsedges,enhanced complex woodlandmarginswithtrees, Vermont. “Theyrepresentdiverseand landscape design/buildfirminShelburne, Linden L.A.N.D.Group,anecological says RebeccaLindenmeyr,co-principalof on theoutskirtsofalandscapedesign,” more manicuredpartsofthelandscape. formal, wildlife-friendlyperimetertothe smaller treesandshrubstocreateanin- adapted tosuburbansettingsbyselecting contain livestock.Butahedgerowcanbe typically usedtolinefieldbordersand rope andNorthAmerica,wheretheyare Eu- Hedgerows aremostoftenseenin FROM THEBACKFORTYTOBACKYARD grandiflora) willcaterto several bird With alittleplanningandcareful “Screening forprivacydoesn’thave Interest inhabitathedgerowsforsub- “Hedgerows canprovideasliceofwild a long list of benefits wherever a longlistofbenefitswherever mal cousinsofhedges,provide EDGEROWS, (Viburnum dentatum)inthe those less-for- May /June 2016 25 As part of a habitat hedgerow, this native staghorn () not only supports wildlife with its nectar-rich spring flowers and conelike clusters of red berries that follow, it offers a pop of orange to red fall color to the landscape. of shrubs,” says Linda Lehmusvirta, shrubs, while juncos, sparrows, towhees, of her local Wild Ones chapter in central producer of “Central Texas Gardener” and doves are primarily ground feeders. , observed this in her own gar- for KLRU-TV (PBS), Austin, who has The depth of your hedgerow is another den after she and her husband replaced observed the same trend in her region. consideration; it should be between 10 and their backyard flowerbeds several years “In Texas, more gardeners are going for 20 feet deep. Wider spaces allow for more ago with a habitat hedgerow of shrubs un- habitat plantings to shield views or create plants, which means greater habitat poten- derplanted with native perennials. conversation nooks.” tial. If you have a like-minded neighbor with “What we didn’t realize at the time was an adjacent property, you can maximize the that our hedgerow provided much more PLANNING YOUR HEDGEROW depth of your hedgerow—and its wildlife than just berries,” notes Allen. “Ornamen- Start by deciding how you want your value—if each of you plants a hedgerow on tal flowers also provided nectar and pollen hedgerow to function aside from sup- either side of the property line. for pollinators. Some of the denser shrubs, porting wildlife. For example, if it will such as gray dogwood ( racemosa) serve as a windbreak, site it so that it will PLANT SELECTION and silky dogwood (C. amomum) are ex- block prevailing winds. If you want a The key to creating a successful habitat cellent cover and nesting areas for birds. screen, select shrubs and trees with dens- hedgerow is choosing the right plants for More recently, we learned that many of er growth habits or are evergreen. your space and . This means that these native shrubs are host plants for - Next, figure out the ultimate height that the growing requirements of the plants you erpillars—essential food for baby birds.” will work best within your space. If you select should be compatible with the soil, Be sure the mature size of plants you want a hedgerow that doesn’t block your water, and light conditions of your site. select suits your space. “Hedgerows al- view, for instance, select smaller shrubs that Focus on trees and shrubs that produce ways seem to grow larger than expected naturally top out at five feet or less. edible fruit, nuts, seeds, or berries. Include here in the Northwest,” says Easton, who Keep in mind that your hedgerow a mix of flowering plants that will attract advises suburban gardeners to “stay away should include a mix of layers and dif- pollinators and other beneficial . For from the larger conifers, elderberries, and ferent heights. This is important because best results, select plants that flower and fruit other big, rangy plants.” wildlife exists at all levels of the vertical at different times of the year. Allen agrees, advising that those with space. For example, some birds, such The greater the diversity of plants, the more limited space choose “native species as chickadees, titmice, nuthatches, and more needs of wildlife your hedgerow will that provide the most benefit for wildlife and

finches, forage for food in trees or taller meet. Janet Allen, president and founder forego those that tend to get out of bounds.” MARK TURNER

26 the American Gardener RECOMMENDED HEDGEROW PLANTS The plant palette for a hedgerow is somewhat different for each region of the country. For example, Linda Lehmusvirta in Aus­ tin, Texas, suggests gardeners in her region "let the natural forms of native evergreen yaupon holly (!lex vomitoria) and Texas mountain laurel (Sophora secundiflora) gracefully enchant your borders in sun while attracting birds and pollinators. In shade to part sun, choose drought-tough that can be shaped or not, and in spring attract native bees and wasps to nectar." "Here in the Northwest," says Valerie Easton of Langley, Washington, "we have the luxury of lots of hardy to choose from, so our hedgerows tend to have at least as many evergreens (mahonias, evergreen blueberries, native rhododen­ drons) as plants like our native flowering currant, , and native Nootka roses." The following are just a few of the many wildlife-friendly small trees and shrubs that can be used in many regions to form the bones of a backyard hedgerow. Underplanting shade tolerant perennials, , and grasses will increase wildlife benefits. - K.W.

MEDIUM TO SMALL SHRUBS Beautyberries (Callicarpa spp .) Bush and ( spp.) Chokeberries ( spp.) ( spp.) bush (Larrea tridentata) Currants ( spp.) Evergreen ( ovatum) Highbush cranberry (Viburnum edule) Junipers ()uniperus spp.) Mahonias (Mahonia spp.) Natal (Carissa macrocarpa) Native roses (Rosa spp.) Red huckleberry () Salal (Gaultheria shallon) (Rhus spp.) Sweetspire (!tea virginica) Texas silverleaf ( frutescens) Western sand (Prunus besseyiJ

SMALL TREES AND TALL SHRUBS Alder buckthorn (Frangula a/nus 'Columnaris') American arborvitae ( occidental is) American hornbeam (Carpi nus caroliniana) Common spicebush (Lindera ) Crabapples (Ma/us spp.) Dogwoods (Camus spp.) Hawthorns ( spp .) (Cory/us americana, C. avellana) (l!exspp.) Juneberries/serviceberries (Amelanchier spp.) Mountain ash ( americana) Viburnums (Viburnum spp.) Vine maple (Acer circinatum) Wild cherries and plums (Prunus spp .)

MAY / J UNE 2016 27 That said, plants in a hedgerow are that span the seasons. Plants that flower meant to overlap, so you can space them and fruit at different times of the year not Resources about 75 percent closer together than you only help sustain wildlife, they add pops The Living Landscape: Designing for would if they were being grown as speci- of seasonal color. Many wildlife-friendly Beauty and in the Home mens. For a list of trees and shrubs suitable plants contribute textural contrasts to the Garden by Rick Darke and Douglas for hedgerows, see page 27. landscape, while others offer colorful fall W. Tallamy. Timber Press, Portland, foliage or attractive bark for winter interest. OR, 2014. DESIGN TIPS Repetition—repeating plants or colors National Wildlife Federation: Attract- Hedgerows certainly will have a natural, within the hedgerow, or using hedgerow ing Birds, Butterflies & Other Back- informal look, but it’s still important to plants in other parts of the landscape— yard Wildlife by David Mizejewski. keep aesthetics in mind. “To be acceptable helps create visual flow and harmony with- Fox Chapel Publishing, East Peters- in residential landscapes, habitat - in the landscape. Mass plantings or large burg, PA, 2004. rows need to strike a balance between sci- drifts of color also help unify the space. Wild Ones: Native Plants, Natural ence and good design, between our desire “We prefer rather Landscapes, www.wildones.org. to be good stewards and still maintain a than the manicured look, but we’ve fol- sense of order,” says Lindenmeyr. lowed some conventional design guide- When including habitat hedgerows her lines,” says Allen. For example, she and more groomed or wilder, depending on in designs, Lindenmeyr strives to develop her husband have planted odd-numbered plant choice and pruning style,” says gar- landscapes that include both intentionally groups of plants, placing taller plants to- den consultant Jeanie Taylor of Yamhill designed areas and wild areas—“some for ward the back and shorter plants in front. County, Oregon, who adds, “An annual review and trimming is a good idea.” It will take a few years for your habitat hedgerow to become established; during this time, keep young plants watered and mulched. “When we first planted, we mulched the area, but now that the plants have matured, we simply let the fallen leaves remain on the ground,” says Allen. “We prune some shrubs each spring, and we monitor plants such as gray dogwood or native roses that try to escape the area we’ve designated for them,” she adds. Weeding is important. “Birds drop a complete laundry list of invasive or irri- tating weedy species, but there might be some natives in there to you as well,” says Taylor, who advises, “Weed early and weed often.” FINISHING TOUCHES Your wildlife visitors will appreciate the addition of water sources, such as a bird bath or saucer of moist sand on the ground, to your habitat hedgerow. Nest- When designing this hedgerow in her central New York garden, Janet Allen followed ing boxes and feeders encourage birds to traditional design tenets to achieve a “wild” yet aesthetically pleasing look. visit the area before your plants have be- gun flowering and fruiting. us and some for them.” She encourages her “We don’t plant in rows but at random. As your hedgerow matures, you can clients to “accept a side order of messy with We make sure that we fill the area not just enjoy not only your garden’s plants but their main entrée of eco-neat-and-tidy.” with shrubs but with other plants, such as also the life those plants support. As Allen One technique Lindenmeyr uses to in- moss (), to minimize says, “We’ve grown to appreciate a dif- tegrate habitat hedgerows into the greater the opportunity for weeds to take hold.” ferent kind of beauty and have benefited landscape is “by edging the wildness with mind, body, and soul from reconnecting ribbons of order—simplified plantings MAINTENANCE NEEDS with nature right in our own yard.” and bold brushstrokes of color.” Deciding on the look you want—more or- Year-round landscape interest can be derly or more natural—will impact your Garden writer Kris Wetherbee lives in Oak-

achieved by selecting plants with attributes maintenance chores. “Hedgerows can look land, Oregon. COURTESY OF JANET ALLEN


MORE INFORMATION ON THESE TRIPS COMING SOON ," explains Moran. 'That is basically why the plant species that occur in these regions are similar today." In this article, I am focusing on the North American range ofeach species. FERN TERMINOLOGY Ferns are grown for their foliage; in fact, they produce no flowers at all (see "Fern ," opposite page). They also have their own taxonomic terminology. A is a complete leaf, composed of a stalk, called a , and the blade, which is often dissected into leaflets called pinnae (singular, pinna). The unfurling are called crosiers or . DIVERSE HABITATS Ferns grow wild in varied settings, from open woodlands, swamps, and dappled banks, to bare cliff faces, shel­ tered overhangs, and along the margins of pounding waterfalls. Among the ground-dwellers are the best all-around garden ferns. Most are readily obtained and easy to grow. Many of the choic­ est rock ferns are best left to experts, al­ though a few are good garden performers (see the chart on page 33). By far the most popular garden ferns are those with evergreen foliage. So much so that veteran fernophile, Judith Jones, who owns Fancy Fronds Nursery in Gold Bar, Washington, laments that it is impossible Adapted to diverse regions of North America, native ferns draw to sell a deciduous fern. That is a shame, as deciduous and semi-evergreen ferns are gardeners into the shade with their soothing green hues and standouts in the spring and summer gar­ den. They maintain good foliar constitu­ intricately patterned foliage. BY C. COLSTON BURRELL tion with minimal care as long as the soil stays moist. During severe drought, plants may defoliate but will re-sprout when suf­ RIZED FOR their filigreed foli­ eastern North America, eastern Asia, and ficient water is restored. Many species pres­ age, ferns add texture and grace­ western Europe," says Robbin C. Moran, ent russet, yellow, or straw-colored fronds Pful motion to gardens and glades. curator of botany at New York Botanical once nights become frosty. Some gardeners may equate their dainty Garden and author of A Natural History appearance with a fussy nature, but plen­ ofFerns (Timber Press, 2009). MOISTURE REQUIREMENTS ty of native species adapt well to garden This overlap resulted from the migra­ While some ferns require consistently culture. When properly chosen and sited, tion offlora southward from high northern moist, or even wet soil to look their best these ferns will enliven shady spaces with latitudes some 55 million years ago. "As the throughout the growing season, the ma­ their forms and subtle hues. earth's climate cooled and became more jority of ferns, once established, are quite In discussing ferns native to North seasonal in the latter half of the T ertiaty drought tolerant. That said, prolonged America, it's important to understand Period, the once-continuous circumbore­ water deprivation will induce that many of our "natives" are also found al flora migrated southward and became or can even be fatal. in other parts of the world. "There is a fragmented into three great blocks: eastern Plant ferns in water-retentive soil lot of overlap of the same species between North America, eastern Asia, and western amended with compost. The addition of a light organic helps conserve mois­ The stately fronds of Goldie's wood fern may reach three or four feet in length. ture, but a heavy bark mulch may deprive

30 THE AMERICA N GARDENER The western counterpart of this species is A. aleuticum (Zones 3–8, 8–1), which has asymmetrical fronds with elongated pinnae that resemble fingers. Jones says that many commercial growers do not differentiate between A. pedatum and A. aleuticum. “I find the latter to be a more variable species that occurs in a wider range of environ- ments, making it an excellent choice for a wide climate range. It is well worth the time to establish it,” says Jones. For adaptability, you can’t beat Christ- mas fern ( acrostichoides, Zones 3–8, 8–1), whose stiff evergreen fronds form dense, dependable clumps in a variety of settings. “There are few truly evergreen ferns hardy in the Northeast, but Christ- mas fern comes awfully close,” says Wil- FERN REPRODUCTION Most ferns flourish in moist , not simply because they require constant moisture, but because they demand water for reproduction. Ferns reproduce from , not seeds. Unlike seeds, spores germinate not into seedlings, but into an intermediate stage called

Maidenhair ferns like these flanking a water feature at the Butchart Gardens on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, thrive in a shady, consistently moist site.

the shallow roots of sufficient nitrogen for If you weigh beauty, adaptability, and healthy growth. Ferns take a year or two ease of culture in a variety of garden situ- to become established, and this period is ations, the cream rises quickly to the top. critical to the success of plantings. Consis- The crème de la crème has to be North- tent moisture is needed until young trans- ern maidenhair fern ( peda- plants develop enough roots and tum, USDA Hardiness Zones 3–8, AHS to tolerate drought. Heat Zones 8–1), which presents elegant Rather than seeds, ferns reproduce with sea-green, horseshoe-shaped fronds atop spores like these rust-colored ones on TOP CHOICES ebony stipes. The one- to two-foot decid- the undersides of Christmas fern fronds. The characteristics of some of the most uous fronds dance in the slightest breeze. tough, indestructible ferns are thick wa- Plant it in groups or drifts in woodland the generation, that pro- ter-storing rhizomes, leathery evergreen gardens, under shrubs and flowering duces a small, filmy , which fronds, and a tenacious system. trees or with other ferns as a foundation bears both the male and female or- These qualities are typical of many ferns planting. When allowed to cascade down gans. It is here that water is critical to in two genera— and Polys- a slope, it looks like a green waterfall. The the survival of the fern, as fertilization tichum—which I will be highlighting delicate pink fiddleheads combine well can only occur when the cells along with other good garden ferns on with spring-flowering and wild- can swim freely on a film of water to the following pages. (For regional rec- flowers. It prefers moist, nearly neutral reach the egg cells. After fertilization, a ommendations for native ferns, visit the (pH between 6.5 and 7.5), humus-rich young plant is produced that eventually AHS website and follow the link to the soil in part to full shade, and is native to grows into a fern. —C.C.B.

LEFT: MARK TURNER. RIGHT: SAXON HOLT web special for this article.) eastern North America.

May / June 2016 31 liam Cullina, executive director of Coastal Botanical Gardens and author of Native Ferns, Moss & Grasses (Houghton Mifflin, 2008). The cast- character of this eastern and central North American native adapts to clay soil or humus. Giv- en a little shade, it is well behaved, long lived, and increases in beauty with time. “In bright light, the narrow, 12- to 16-inch fronds are carried nearly vertically, while in deep shade they splay out horizontally,” says Cullina. The stiff fronds remain erect until hard frost or heavy snow pushes them over. Combine Christmas fern with other ferns in foundation plantings, along walks and steps, or in woodland gardens with bulbs, wildflowers, and groundcovers. At first glance, silvery glade fern (De- paria acrostichoides, Zones 4–8, 8–1) may look like many other ferns, with its decid- uous, moderately dissected fronds, but a second look reveals a tidy, medium green Christmas ferns have coarsely textured fronds that remain evergreen through winter. clump with arching fronds clustered on a slow-creeping . The fronds open erable sun if the soil stays moist. Silvery looks stunning in the shade garden among chartreuse and fade to green with age. glade fern is native from Nova Scotia and drifts of wildflowers or bold-leaved plants Since fronds are produced in succession Ontario, south to Georgia and . such as . The fronds turn russet in through early summer, clumps always With its elongated pinnae arranged like autumn. Plant in constantly moist, near- look fresh. They turn straw-colored in fall. stair steps up the arching fronds, the nar- ly neutral, humus-rich soil in part to full In the garden, plants form robust two- row glade fern ( pycnocarpon, shade. Fronds will turn brown quickly if to three-foot-wide clumps. They require Zones 4–8, 8–1) evokes the tropics. Found the soil gets too dry. constant moisture and neutral to acidic on limy soils throughout eastern and cen- Another native of eastern and central soil for best growth. They tolerate consid- tral North America, this architectural gem North America, Goldie’s wood fern

Left: Silvery glade fern will slowly form colonies in evenly moist sites. The three- to four-foot-long fronds emerge chartreuse and turn green with age. Its common name refers to the silvery appearance of its spores. Above: The long, slender fronds of narrow

glade fern have a tropical appearance. TOP: SUSAN A. ROTH. BOTTOM: C. COLSTON BURRELL (2)

32 the American Gardener FERNS FOR WET SOILS A small group of desirable ferns tolerate or demand constant moisture, and a few will even grow in standing water.

Name Height/Spread Ornamental Attributes Native Range USDA Hardiness Zones, (inches) in North America* AHS Heat Zones Adiantum capillus-veneris 12–24/12–18 Deciduous, cascading triangular, Southern U.S., west 7–10, 11–7 (Southern maidenhair fern) fronds chartreuse to sea green, to California fan-shaped pinnae 18–30/18–30 Glossy, semi-evergreen fronds Canada, northern U.S., 2–7, 7–1 (Spinulose wood fern) are deeply dissected, emerging south to South Carolina in a tall arching vase from a and west to Missouri stout rhizome Dryopteris ludoviciana 24–48/24–36 Stiff, erect narrow fronds, Southeastern coastal 6–9, 9–5 (Southern wood fern) tapered at both ends, are plains west to Texas evergreen in mild climates sensibilis 12–30/24–48 Deciduous chartreuse sterile Eastern and central North 4–9, 9–1 (Sensitive fern) fronds form carpet; fast-creeping America, from Labrador rhizomes; beaded fertile fronds and Manitoba, south to persist through winter Florida and Texas cinnamomea 24–60/24–48 Statuesque deciduous fern with Eastern North America 3–9, 9–1 (Cinnamon fern) arching sterile fronds that emerge Labrador to Ontario, after the cinnamon-colored south to Florida -bearing fronds and Texas 24–60/24–48 Tall, deciduous fronds emerge Newfoundland and 2–10, 9–1 (Royal fern) purple-tinged and fade to green; , south partially fertile fronds bear clusters to Florida and Texas of rusty-brown sporangia

FERNS FOR ROCK GARDENS These ferns can grow in the crevices of rock outcroppings or atop boulders with only a veneer of humus or moss.

Asplenium rhizophyllum 2–6/6–12 Evergreen fern spreads over moist, regions from 4–8, 8–3 (Walking fern) mossy limestone rocks by rooting Quebec and Ontario, at tips of the fronds to form to Georgia and new plants 3–6/3–6 Evergreen or semi-evergreen tufted Throughout North America 3–9, 9–2 (Maidenhair spleenwort) rosettes of slender deep-green fronds with rounded pinnae and black stipes lanosa 6–10/8–15 Dense cluster of -green, Eastern and central U.S., 5–8, 8–4 (Hairy-lip fern) deer-resistant, evergreen fronds south to Florida and Texas atropurpurea 8–15/8–10 Forest-green fronds bear sparse linear Much of the U.S. and 4–9, 9–3 (Purple cliff brake) pinnae; winter fronds turn purple eastern Canada triangularis 5–10/5–12 Dark green triangular fronds, ebony Western U.S., 6–9, 9–5 (Goldback fern) stipes; backs of spore-bearing fronds British Columbia are dusted with yellow powder virginianum 8–12/12–24 Leathery, deep olive-green fronds Newfoundland to Manitoba, 5–8, 8–5 (Rock fern, rock polypody) arise from a wandering rhizome; south to Georgia and forms evergreen carpet Arkansas obtusa 6–15/8–18 Loose clusters of lacy, deep green Eastern and central North 3–9, 9–3 (Blunt-lobed cliff fern) fronds from slow-creeping rhizomes America, south to Georgia, and Texas

* In addition to the North American regions listed, many of the ferns included in this chart are native to other temperate or tropical areas of the world.

May / June 2016 33 (Dryopteris goldiana, Zones and central North America. 3–8, 8–2) is a giant among Marginal wood fern wood ferns. Upright, arch- (, Zones ing fronds between three and 3–8, 8–1) is a tough, adaptable four feet long arise three to fern that deserves a place in four feet from a stout rhizome every garden. “Being one of with an elevated . The the most dry-tolerant ferns, flattened pinnae are pale it is often found in the wild green along the margins, giv- growing on rock walls and ing young fronds a two-tone slopes,” says John Manion, effect. Fronds turn pale yel- curator of the Kaul Wild- low in autumn. Use Goldie’s at Birming- fern singly or in small groups ham Botanical Gardens in for a tall, vertical accent, or Alabama. The stiff, one- to combine it with strap-leaved two-foot arching fronds are plants such as irises. Plant it olive-green and arise in a vase in moist, neutral to acidic, shape from a central crown. humus-rich soil in part to full shade. Top: Ostrich fern makes a bold focal point in Pair this fern with rocks along steps or Fancy fern, also known as intermediate this mixed bed. Above: Despite its delicate in a rockery. Plants grow in moist, well- wood fern, (, Zones appearance, fancy fern is a durable species. drained, neutral to acidic, humus-rich soil 3–8, 8–1) is durable and beautiful. The in part to full shade. Established plants common name refers to the finely dissect- not creep and spread.” It’s great for mass- are drought tolerant and thrive in rocky ed fronds, which grow one-and-one-half to ing in a glade, as an accent among rocks, or soil or perched on boulders. It is native to two-and-one-half feet tall and are reliably at the base of a stump. It tolerates drier sites eastern and central North America. evergreen. “This fern has lacy foliage with than other ferns, but grows to perfection Standing a head above most others, the the leaves arranged in a basket shape,” says in moist, humus-rich soil in light to deep Dixie wood fern (Dryopteris australis,

Moran, who adds, “It stays put, and does shade. It is common throughout eastern Zones 5–9, 9–5) sports broad, glossy, three- TOP: JANET LOUGHREY. BOTTOM: C. COLSTON BURRELL

34 the American Gardener to four-and-one-half-foot-tall fronds that thrives in moist, neutral, humus-rich soil remain evergreen in mild climates. This in light to full shade. Sources natural hybrid between log fern (D. celsa) Interrupted fern (Osmunda claytoni- Fancy Fronds Nursery, Gold Bar, WA. and Southern wood fern (D. ludovici- ana, Zones 2–10, 9–1) is similar in appear- (360) 793-1472. ana) has a vigorous growth habit. It makes ance to cinnamon fern (O. cinnamomea) www.fancyfrondsnursery.com. a stunning foundation plant, or can be but the pinnae are broader and pale green Fern Ridge Farms, Cedar Bluff, AL. massed among shrubs or anywhere you in color. The fertile fronds are distinctly (256) 779-6351. want to add a vertical accent. Although different, bearing both sterile and fertile www.fernridgefarms.com. it thrives in rich, moist, organic soil, it is pinnae on the same frond. The congested, Prairie Nursery, Westfield, WI. widely adaptable to garden conditions and ephemeral fertile pinnae occur half way (800) 476-9453. somewhat drought tolerant once estab- up the frond with sterile pinnae above and www.prairienursery.com. lished. It has a scattered distribution in below, thus creating an “interruption” in southeastern and Gulf Coast states. the frond when the spore-laden parts fall Resources Native to northern North America, off in summer. The one- to five-foot-long American Fern Society, south to Virginia and west to Nebraska, fronds emerge from a wiry, crown-form- www.amerfernsoc.org. The Hardy Fern Foundation, www.hardyferns.org. Native Ferns, Moss & Grasses: From Emerald Carpet to Amber Wave, Serene and Sensuous Plants for the Garden by William Cullina. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA. 2008. A Natural History of Ferns by Robbin C. Moran. Timber Press, Portland, OR. 2004. The Plant Lover’s Guide to Ferns by Sue Olsen and Richie Steffen. Timber Press, Portland, OR. 2015.

autumn. Choose southern beech fern as an open groundcover under shrubs and small flowering trees. Combine them with tall wildflowers such as baneberries and black cohosh. Plant southern beech fern in moist, neutral to acidic, humus-rich soil in shade. In fertile garden soils, plants grow rapidly and need dividing to control their spread. HARD CHOICES Only the pinnae in the middle of the fronds of interrupted fern bear spores. The fronds get Wading through the vast array of beguil- their characteristic “interruptions” when the fertile pinnae wither and fall off. ing ferns vying for a spot in your garden can be daunting. Fronds of every de- ostrich fern ( , ing rhizome. Plants grow best in moist, scription wave seductively from wooded Zones 2–8, 8–1) is the most popular de- neutral to acidic, average to humus-rich dells and the pages of glossy catalogs. The ciduous fern in cultivation throughout its soil in sun or shade. They are native ferns in this article are only a few of the range and beyond. The three- to four-foot throughout much of eastern and central wonderful options available. plants produce tall, plume-shaped, sterile North America. These native species contribute to any fronds that arise in a narrow vase shape Southern beech fern ( garden vignette where the site conditions from a creeping, crown-forming rhizome. hexagonoptera, Zones 4–9, 9–1) is native match their cultural needs; plant them The persistent fertile fronds stand through throughout eastern North America. It and you will be rewarded. the winter and release their spores in the sports broad, triangular fronds held hori- spring. Use ostrich fern as a foundation zontally on thin stipes. The one-and-one- C. Colston Burrell is a lecturer, author, pho- plant or in drifts in the woodland garden, half to two-foot-long fronds are produced tographer, and specializing combined with spring-flowering bulbs, in a row or in loose clusters along creep- in native designs and the creation of environ-

JOSEPH G. STRAUCH JR. wildflowers, and garden perennials. It ing rhizomes, and turn pale yellow in the mentally sound landscapes.

May / June 2016 35 Win the War on Weeds Revolutionize your approach to keeping unwanted plants at bay by working with your garden instead of fighting it. BY THOMAS CHRISTOPHER PHOTOGRAPHS BY LARRY WEANER

OO OFTEN, weeds are the gar- colonize the bare spot. They serve as a their neighbors and spreading into adja- dener’s nemesis when they really bandage, holding the soil in place until cent areas of formerly intact vegetation. do not have to be. But to cope slower-growing but longer-lived vegeta- T SNIP, DON’T RIP with weeds successfully, to control them tion can re-assert itself. This is a valuable without excessive inputs of time or chem- service in a natural setting. What does this mean for the ? icals, you do have to understand the way In a garden, though, where the dis- First, it means that the traditional prac- they function in the garden . turbance is more likely to be some aspect tice of uprooting weeds to control them In general, weeds are fast-growing, of routine maintenance such as cultivat- is most often a mistake. Ripping a weed often short-lived, opportunistic plants; ing the soil or renovating a bed, the rank out of the ground may satisfy a primal they are commonly examples of a group growth of these pioneers is less welcome, desire for retribution, but the very act that ecologists describe as “pioneer especially if the pioneers belong to some creates an area of soil , which species.” When a disturbance—in the exotic, . Because invasive invites more weeds. wild this may be a flood or fire, or the weeds didn’t co-evolve with the native Try, instead, snipping weeds off at blow-down of a tree—creates a gap in vegetation, they tend to short-circuit the ground level. This is not applicable to all the vegetation, pioneer species rapidly restoration process by out-competing weeds; some multi-stemmed, ground-hug-

36 the American Gardener When creating a meadow, think of it as a relay . The young meadow, above, was seeded with a mix of species that would naturally succeed each other without leaving room for weeds. Early-stage species such as the short- lived, yellow-flowered black-eyed Susan (), above, gradually gave way to later-stage species such as purple coneflower ( purpurea), left. ging types aren’t susceptible to this treat- such measures cause disturbances and ment. But where snipping is practical, it environmental imbalances that favor is more efficient than pulling the weeds. weed growth. Nor should irrigation be In an informal test, Larry Weaner, a land- necessary after new plants have rooted scape designer and my coauthor of Garden in; again, the extra water will more likely Revolution: How Our Landscapes Can Be a benefit weeds rather than your locally Source of Environmental Change (see box at adapted plants. right), found that he could snip four weeds in the time that it took him, on average, to PLANT FOR SUCCESSION pull one. Although a single decapitation is Often, human actions have impover- unlikely to kill a weed, it will weaken it and ished the local ecosystem by eliminating prevent it from setting seed to propagate it- some or many of the plant species that self. Weaken the weed a couple more times once flourished there. This leaves space while allowing the more desirable plants and resources unclaimed, which is an around it to flourish. The uncut plants will invitation to invaders. Enriching your overshadow and crowd out the invader. landscape with a diversity of native plants is one way to correct this problem. DO NOT DISTURB When planting a meadow, for exam- This article is adapted from Garden Another way to discourage weed inva- ple, it is essential to include fast-growing Revolution: How Our Landscapes Can sion is to minimize disturbance within plants such as black-eyed Susan (Rud- Be a Source of Environmental Change your garden. Deep digging and “amend- beckia hirta), a biennial that will quick- by Larry Weaner and Thomas Chris- ing” the soil with organic matter or top- ly cover the ground and flourish during topher, published in 2016 by Tim- soil and fertilizer is unnecessary if you the first couple of years after planting, ber Press, Portland, Oregon. Used have selected plants, preferably natives, but you should also include short-lived with permission of the publisher. that are adapted to your soil conditions. perennials such as lanceleaf tickseed Rather than benefiting your plantings, (Coreopsis lanceolata) that will take over

May / June 2016 37 as the fast-growing species fade, and slow-growing but enduring perennials such as white wild indigo (Baptisia al- ba), which may persist for 100 years or more, provide long-term stability. Plant- ing such a relay race of desirable spe- cies helps to ensure that your landscape doesn’t allow opportunities for invasion as it develops. BAD THUGS VERSUS GOOD THUGS If your landscape is already infested with invasive weeds, consider planting aggres- sive-though-desirable species that can hold their own in such a competitive environment. This is an especially useful technique if you don’t have a lot of time or resources to devote to , as your plantings will fight your battles for you. Aggressive natives such as sumacs (Rhus spp.) and brackenferns (Pteridium spp.) are commonly disparaged as “garden thugs” and certainly aren’t suitable to the more refined areas of the garden, but their expansive, irrepressible habits may be just the thing for an outskirt afflicted with Jap- anese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) or Japanese barberry ( thunbergii). Even if such bare-knuckle tactics do not

This woodland area was once overgrown with . back the brambles allowed desirable ferns and Canada mayflower (Maianthemum canadense) to flourish and naturally fill in the without having to bring in additional plants.

eliminate the invasives on their own, they should slow or stop their spread, giving you a chance to get ahead of the situation. STARVATION DIET Often it is easier to attack existing weeds before you develop an area. Mark any ex- isting vegetation that you want to pre- serve, then smother everything around it with sheets of black plastic, cardboard, or multiple thicknesses of newspaper. The cover must be left in place for a full grow- ing season to a year to be effective. If the weeds are largely annuals and biennials, you can starve them by repeated cutting with a mower or ; in this case, consistency is crucial, for if you al- low the weeds to regrow and keep their leaves for a significant period between cuttings, this technique won’t work.

38 the American Gardener Repeated cuttings are not an effective treatment, incidentally, for weeds with a OLD HABITS AND THEIR UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES large capacity to store food in their roots, or A dedicated home gardener who I’ll call Rose had a compulsion for pulling for rhizomatous or tap-rooted species such weeds. This had perhaps served her well at a former house where she had created as mugwort () or Japa- sophisticated (if traditional) ornamental gardens. Her new home was different, nese knotweed (Fallopia japonica). More- however: here she had commissioned Larry Weaner to design the landscape, and over, this treatment, by itself, is actually that included a native garden outside the house’s front entrance. This called for a counter-productive for woody plants that different style of care in line with the principles discussed in this article. spread by suckers, such as tree-of-heaven Yet Rose found it hard to stop pulling weeds; she did most of her own mainte- () and oriental bitter- nance and she had high standards. The pulling worked reasonably well when the sweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), as these spread even more vigorously when cut back. To eradicate these woody plants, combine cut- ting and then painting the stumps with an appropriate ; more than one treat- ment is likely to be needed. EXPLOIT DIFFERENCES One of the most efficient methods for deal- ing with weeds is to exploit the differences between them and the desirable species, and

In this mixed planting of wildflowers, pulling out weeds rather than snipping them created an opportunity for native red columbines to seed themselves into the area.

planting was young and still composed of isolated specimens. But by the time Weaner came to inspect three years after planting, the space was filling in. It had developed into a lush expanse of woodland wildflowers, including heartleaf foam- flower () and American alumroot ( americana), that was close to forming an unbroken carpet. Now that the ground layer had become dense Pulling up an unwanted sapling appearing and competitive, he advised Rose to stop pulling the weeds and start snipping them. among shrubs and perennials would disturb By reducing the level of disturbance, this practice would increase the ecological the soil and give weeds a chance to replace it. stability of the garden and reduce the opportunities for new weeds to invade. Instead, cut it at the base and let the surrounding When Larry returned seven years later, however, he found something unex- vegetation shade out any regrowth. pected. The foamflower and alumroot were thriving, but they were engulfed in a cloud of pink and red. These colors were supplied by the blossoms of foxglove even planting to accentuate this. For exam- beardtongue ( ) and red columbine (Aquilegia canadensis), ple, to help control tall-growing weeds, you neither of which Weaner had planted by the entryway, although he had inserted can underplant with a shorter species and them into an adjacent rock outcrop. then set your mower blade high enough that The explanation for this migration lay in Rose’s maintenance: she had continued it passes over the desirable plants but severs pulling the weeds. Neither the beardtongue nor the columbine had persisted on the the weeds. This is an especially effective strat- outcrop; both are short-lived, if prolific, plants and had been displaced by a lon- egy in woodland settings, where the natural ger-lived, more competitive fragrant (Aster oblongifolius). But the myriad seeds groundcover of wildflowers and ferns tends borne by the beardtongue and columbine had found opportunities in the areas of to be low. Make such cutting a regular part disturbed soil Rose had created with her weeding. In the early days of the landscape, of your garden maintenance and you will this disturbance would have most likely provided opportunities for more weeds, but put the weeds at a disadvantage. now that the area had been infiltrated for a decade by the natives and the soil filled You can also exploit differences in sea- with their seeds, they were the ones benefiting from the disturbance. This, surely, is sons of growth. When caring for an infant the very best—and most attractive—cure for unsightly weeds. —T.C. meadow, I recommend mowing a couple

May / June 2016 39 Vigorous native groundcovers help to crowd out invading weeds, as golden groundsel (Packera aurea, syn. Senecio aureus) has done in this woodland garden. Groundsel’s low-growing foliage allows the use of string trimmers to cut back any weeds that occur. of times in spring for the first couple of years after planting. Timing the mowing in this way has little effect on the “warm-sea- son” grasses and flowers (native species that make most of their annual growth during the warm weather of summer) that are the backbone of North American grasslands. But a spring mowing inflicts maximum damage on the exotic “cool-season” grasses (Old World species that make their prin- cipal growth in the cool, moist weather of spring) that can invade and even over- whelm a young meadow. Weaner successfully used timed mow- ing for a project in Dutchess County, New tuation as well as cover for birds—and all In a traditional garden, the gardener York. Hired to address a 14-acre opening in without sowing new seed or disturbing the seeks to control every aspect of its growth a woodland, he found remnants of native soil. Indeed, his minimization of such dis- and development. In an ecologically-based little bluestem grass (Schizachyrium scopar- turbances was crucial to the ultimate suc- garden, by contrast, the goal is to work with ium) emerging amid thickets of shrubby cess of the project and its minimal demands and enhance the course of events natural to gray dogwood (Cornus racemosa). Just for maintenance. the plot. This includes a recognition that by mowing repeatedly in the spring over not every volunteer seedling is a threat. a period of a few years, he beat back the LET NATURE TAKE ITS COURSE Indeed, the desirable species that appear dogwood (which makes most of its annual Finally, there is the question all eco- spontaneously may be regarded as particu- growth in springtime) while allowing the logically-oriented gardeners should ask larly valuable. Because they are native in the little bluestem to re-assert itself. The upshot themselves periodically through the life most local sense of the word, such plants was a meadow landscape with occasional of their garden and landscape: “If I do are likely to flourish to a greater degree islands of shrubbery to provide visual punc- nothing, what will happen?” than introduced ones. However, if the de- sirable, and ideally native, species that you planted propagate spontaneously, seeding themselves around your property on their own, that is also a sign of success, and you should take advantage of this process rath- er than fight it. Even undesired volunteers may not re- quire a response in an ecologically-based garden. If the weeds are of a short-lived, pi- oneer species—such as Pennsylvania smart- weed ( pensylvanicum)—and have appeared in modest numbers amid lon- ger-lived perennials characteristic of a later stage in the landscape’s development—say, a drift of pink turtlehead (Chelone lyonii)— then you can let nature take its course. As the disturbance subsides, and the vegetation knits, the weeds lose their foothold.

Thomas Christopher is the author of several Spring mowing of this meadow in New York’s Dutchess County effectively controlled thickets gardening books, the most recent of which is of gray dogwood and allowed endemic little bluestem to take over instead, all without Garden Revolution (Timber Press, 2016), needing to sow new seeds, use harsh , or disturb the soil. co-written with Larry Weaner.

40 the American Gardener Gifts by will or trust benefit you and the American Horticultural Society.

Gifts through your estate can provide important benefits to you and the Society. Gifts may be made by will or trust, through which you may direct either a specific dollar amount (e.g. $250,000), a percentage (e.g. 25%), or the remainder after provisions for your loved ones. Through your gift you can:

• Preserve current assets. • Reduce or eliminate estate taxes. • Leave a legacy of a greener, healthier, more beautiful America. • Become a member of the Horticultural Heritage Society.

We will be pleased to discuss ways to make a gift through your estate to benefit the Society. Contact us at [email protected]. GARDENC SOLUTIONS

Staying Ahead of Plant-Feeding Mites by Scott Aker

LTHOUGH THEY are among white paper under a branch of any plant the smallest garden pests, mites and tap it vigorously. Mites that are pres- A can be highly destructive of all ent will fall onto the paper, where you types of plants both indoors and out- can see them slowly crawling around. doors. These tiny relatives of spiders and They are about the size of the period at ticks can’t be readily seen without magni- the end of this sentence. A strong mag- fication, so most often it is their damage nifying glass or jeweler’s loupe will make that betrays their presence. By that time, them much easier to see. A small number they can be difficult to eradicate because of mites, perhaps 10 or 15 on the sheet of they reproduce rapidly—some species paper, is no cause for alarm. If you see can go from egg to egg-laying adult in just more than that, particularly if hot, dry seven days—and they can also be carried weather—which is most favorable for from plant to plant on air currents. mite reproduction—is forecast, some There are numerous species of control measures will need to be taken. plant-feeding mites. One of the most Check for mites that move faster than common are spider mites in the genera the others on the paper. If they are trans- Tetranychus and Oligonychus. The mites lucent and orange or amber in color, feed by piercing plant leaves to extract nu- they are likely beneficial predatory mites trients. The holes, which are apparent as Leaves infested by spider mites usually that are feeding on the pest mites. Other yellow specks, create a fine stippling on the exhibit a speckled appearance due to the leaves. In severe infestations, leaves can be pests piercing the surface for nutrients. covered with webs. All stages of a mite’s life cycle—eggs, larvae, nymphs, and adults— Other eriophyids cause a variety of WATT; UNIVERSITY OF MAINE; BUGWOOD.ORG are generally present at any given time. galls, scabbing, blisters, witches’ brooms, and other growth abnormalities in plants. When they begin feeding, they inject sub- stances into the plant that mimic the ef- fects of plant growth regulators. The galls and other growth abnormalities provide a protected site for them to feed. Eriophyid mites can also transmit plant pathogens, such as rose rosette The reddish galls on these black cherry virus and the that causes witches’ leaves are caused by eriophyid mites. brooms on hackberry (Celtis sp.). Most eriophyid mites don’t threaten long-term mite predators that you might see are plant health, but broad mites (Polyphag- tiny, round, jet-black ladybird beetles or A greatly magnified view of a spider mite otarsonemus latus) and mites their larvae, which are oval and covered (Phytonemus pallidus) are very damaging with tufts of white , lacewing larvae, Mites from the eriophyid family are to African violets and cyclamen. Both and multi-colored, sluglike syrphid even smaller, about the size of a pollen feed near the growing point of plants, cre- larvae. If you see any of these insects on grain. Many species of eriophyids feed ating hardened, thickened leaves that are the paper, you needn’t worry about the just as spider mites, but because they are small and cupped; in severe cases, growth plant-feeding mites. smaller, they are difficult to detect without of new leaves may cease entirely. Since mite populations grow quickly, magnification. Eventually the foliage of in- timing is crucial. Start looking for spruce fested host plants such as , priv- EARLY DETECTION IS ESSENTIAL spider mites (Oligonychus ununguis) on ets (Ligustrum spp.), and hemlocks ( The easiest way to check for spider mites conifers as early as the first warm days

spp.) takes on a rusty brown appearance. and eriophyid mites is to hold a sheet of of spring. Two-spotted or red spider LEFT TO RIGHT: COURTESY OF CHARLES OLSEN; USDA APHIS PPQ; BUGWOOD.ORG; JOHN RUTER; UNIVERSITY GEORGIA; BRUCE

42 the American Gardener mites (Tetranychus urticae) often be- Gardening Q&A with Scott Aker come problematic in early summer and may continue through the hottest part TAKE-OVER of summer. Southern red mites (Oligon- My bluegrass seems to be taken over with clover. I’ve sprayed weed killer ychus ilicis) are most active in the cooler on it, but it always comes back. Do I need to plant new clover-free ? conditions of spring and fall. Crypto- meria red mites (Oligonychus hondoensis) Clover in your lawn is a sign of poor soil fertility, and may also indicate that you are build up late in the season on Japanese cutting your lawn too short. Often increasing nitrogen fertility in the soil is more cedar, and are most active in late fall. effective than herbicides in controlling clover. Apply three pounds of nitrogen per Hemlock rust mites, privet rust mites, 1,000 square feet of lawn in early autumn, using a slow-release fertilizer such as and rust mites are most prevalent sulfur-coated urea. If you normally bag your clippings, switch to mulching them into in cool weather, so begin looking for them the grass instead. Clover fixes nitrogen, so as the clippings decompose they will as soon as weather warms in early spring. gradually improve the fertility of your soil. Mow as high as your mower will allow to Microscopic broad mites and cycla- give the grass a competitive edge over the clover, which grows close to the ground. men mites, which are not cold-hardy and are mainly pests of indoor plants, feed BROWN AND MUSHY ROSES near the growing points of plants like cy- The flowers of my old-fashioned roses are turning brown and mushy just as clamen, African violet, and a wide range they are reaching their prime. I have noticed some long black beetles in the of other plants. They are well protected flowers. Is this the pest causing the damage?

The insect you describe is not a pest. It is most likely a rove beetle species feed- ing on the thrips that are causing the damage. Thrips are tiny, winged insects that range in color from yellowish to blackish brown. Break open a flower bud on an infested plant to see if they are present. Although rove beetles do a good job eliminating thrips, they aren’t active early enough in the season to prevent the thrips from attacking your plants. Treat your roses with spinosad just as the first begin to show color. Spinosad is based on compounds found in bacteria that naturally occur on cane, and since it rapidly degrades, it has little ill effect on pollinators and beneficial insects, including the rove beetles. —S.A.

Send your gardening questions to Scott Aker at [email protected] (please include your Stunted and distorted growth, such as that city and state with submissions). seen on these leaves, is a tell-tale sign of the presence of broad mites. ment that discourages their reproduction. a scorched appearance. If you need to use oil Severe infestations may require more in these conditions, cut the rate on the label by the layers of tiny developing leaves that drastic measures. There are pesticides spe- in half, and be sure to spray the plants very shelter them. You won’t be able to find cially formulated for mite control, although thoroughly. As long as you get a layer of oil them using a sheet of paper, but will in- the most effective ones are generally not on the mites and their eggs, you will be suc- stead need to use a jeweler’s loupe or mi- available to home gardeners. Avoid using cessful in killing them. Do not treat plants croscope to look at tiny leaves pulled from pesticides that contain imidacloprid, be- with oil late in the season; the disruption of the very tip of the new growth. Often cause mites of all kinds tend to be able to re- the cuticle caused by the oil can be deadly these tiny mites are diagnosed by their produce even more rapidly treated when followed by cold, dry winter winds. damage alone, since it is very distinctive. with this chemical, most likely because their Because broad mites and cyclamen predators and other beneficials are killed by mites feed near the growing points of STRATEGIES FOR CONTROL the systemic insecticide. plants, it is extremely difficult to get suffi- Because mites are so small, the weath- The best option against spider cient coverage with pesticides or horticul- er is their biggest enemy. A heavy rain mites and eriophyid mites is horticultural tural oil to control them. However, they shower can quickly remove mites from a oil. It smothers all stages, including eggs, are vulnerable to high temperatures. They plant, but some are likely to cling to the so a single, very thorough treatment may can be completely eliminated from house- underside of leaves and other sheltered resolve the problem. Care must be taken plants by soaking the entire plant—includ- locations. You can wage a very effective when using oil in hot, humid weather, ing the pot and soil—in water that is just war on mites by using a nozzle on your because the emulsifier that is added to the above 110 degrees Fahrenheit in tempera- hose to produce a pressurized stream that oil to enable it to be mixed with water for ture for a period of 10 to 20 minutes. you can direct at an infested plant to wash application to the plant needs to dry quick- them off. Be sure to hit the underside of ly. Otherwise, it can begin to work on the Scott Aker is head of horticulture and leaves. Hosing off plants both physically waxy cuticle on the leaf surfaces, disrupting education at the United States National

COURTESY OF GERALD HOLMES; CALIFORNIA POLYTECHNIC STATE UNIVERSITY AT SAN LUIS OBISPO; BUGWOOD.ORG removes mites and creates a wet environ- it and leading to desiccation of the cells and Arboretum in Washington, D.C.


Rising to a Gardening Challenge: Betty Ford Alpine Gardens by Uziel Crescenzi

Colorful plants adapted to alpine regions around the world entice visitors down a curving path at Betty Ford Alpine Gardens.

ESTLED AMONG the majestic thrive in these tough growing environ- es in topography, drainage, and soil type peaks of the Rocky ments and help residents learn how to provide opportunities to site species most Nin Vail, Colorado, the Betty successfully garden in alpine conditions. appropriately. Ford Alpine Gardens (BFAG) champions The city designated five acres within the Sometimes the challenges of growing the world’s alpine plants, while conserving town park for these purposes and for- at this elevation and in this climate are and researching their indigenous habitats. mer First Lady Betty Ford, who had once just what a plant needs to shine. Nico- Along with its spectacular mountain views lived in Vail, agreed to allow her name to la Ripley, BFAG’s executive director, comes an environment of extremes. Locat- be used for the garden. often hears visitors wondering, “I grow ed at 8,250 feet above sea level, the BFAG is Since then, the BFAG has flourished. this plant in my garden at home, but it the world’s highest public garden; its gar- More than 2,000 varieties of alpine plants doesn’t flower as well as it does in the al- dens thrive amid dramatic swings in daily grow throughout the garden, which in- garden. Why is that?” Ripley points high and low temperatures, shallow inor- cludes three waterfalls, , wood- out that plants’ exposure to ultraviolet ganic soils, and unrelenting wind. lands, and a new alpine house for winter light is more intense at the garden’s eleva- observation. The variety of micro-cli- tion, which enhances flowering. PLANTS AND GARDENS mates within its mountain landscape al- BFAG’s location may seem inhospita- lows the BFAG to showcase diverse plant EDUCATION AND RESEARCH ble to plant life, but when the gardens collections. For example, there is a “” Education is fundamental to BFAG’s mis- opened in 1986, the founders it as an garden, a dryland montane area, and an sion. The garden’s educational programs

opportunity to celebrate the plants that aspen and spruce forest. Subtle differenc- revolve around the Children’s Garden, PHOTOGRAPHS ON BOTH PAGES COURTESY OF BETTY FORD ALPINE GARDENS

44 the American Gardener Additional Information Betty Ford Alpine Gardens, Ford Park, 522 South Frontage Road, Vail, CO 81657. (970) 476-0103. www.bettyfordalpinegardens.org.

Q Open daily, year round, dawn to dusk. Q Admission: Free. Q Betty Ford Alpine Gardens participates in the AHS’s Reciprocal Admissions Program. AHS members with a current membership card receive discounts in the gift shop.

Other nearby sites to explore: Booth Creek Trail, White River National Forest. Vail, CO. www.fs.usda.gov/recrea/ whiteriver. Opened in 2015, the Education Center offers a wealth of information about alpine flora. The Children’s Museum at Beaver Creek Resort, Avon, CO. www.beavercreekkids. Kid’s Amphitheater, and the Schoolhouse (NAPCC) collection of Colorado alpine com. Museum and Gift Shop, tied together by flora. The NAPCC is a network of coor- Vail Nature Center, Vail, CO. a spectacular perennial border of more dinating botanical gardens and arboreta www.walkingmountains.org. than 1,000 plants. The Schoolhouse Gar- across the continent that focus on estab- den hosts horticultural therapy programs lishing plant collections that serve as a and the raised beds exhibit medicinal resource for plant germplasm, breeding, Program (CNHP), and the Colorado De- once grown by the Incas, Ute Indians, and evaluation, and research. partment of Transportation (CDOT) to the mountain people of the Himalayas. preserve, survey, and study threatened or The nearby Education Center contains a CONSERVATION EFFORTS endangered plants and . The state-of-the-art alpine house with plants BFAG is also committed to conservation. public can help by participating in the from all over the globe. This summer, it is “This isn’t just a pretty garden, there is Adopt a Rare Plant Program. In this joint hosting a traveling exhibit about the effects serious conservation going on in the back- initiative between BFAG and CNHP, of climate changes on Arctic landscapes. ground,” says Ripley. The garden cur- volunteers monitor and search for pop- The BFAG also curates the North rently partners with the Bureau of Land ulations of rare plants such as parachute American Plant Collections Consortium Management, Colorado Natural Heritage penstemon (Penstemon debilis) or the De- Beque milkvetch (Astragalus debequaeus), which is only found in Colorado. Habitat protection is also a priority. Garden volunteers built a boardwalk above the on the Shrine Pass Trail, a four-mile-long hiking trail through the mountains, to reduce disturbance from vis- itors. Volunteers also worked with CDOT to protect the unusual canyon bog orchid (Platanthera sparsiflora) from off-trail foot traffic by installing signs reminding hikers to stay on the path. Open year-round, the garden has some- thing for everyone, whether it’s a hike on the snowshoe trails, a stroll through the new alpine house, or simply enjoying mountain views as far as the eye can see.

A resident of the Bronx, New York, Uziel Crescenzi just completed an editorial A footbridge leads over an alpine pool that reflects picturesque mountain vistas. internship with The American Gardener.


Blueberries: A Delicious Native Fruit with a Healthy Punch by Keith Uridel

Rabbiteye blueberries (V. ashei, Zones 6–9, 9–4) tolerate heat well, so are a good choice for warmer climates. Although older varieties may grow 15 feet tall, most selections available today are in the four- to six-foot range with medium to large fruit. GROWING GUIDELINES Blueberries require at least six hours of sun per day and very well-drained, acid- ic soil with a pH of 4.5 to 5.0. Rabbit- eye and highbush blueberries should be spaced at least five to six feet apart from their centers; lowbush varieties can be spaced two to four feet apart. SOIL PREPARATION AND PLANTING roots are shallow and fibrous, so your planting area need not be as deep as it is wide. Dig a three-foot-wide hole that is 10 to LUEBERRIES ARE second only to southern hybrids have no chilling require- 12 inches deep. If the soil has less-than-excel- in berry consump- ment. Most varieties grow about five feet lent drainage, plant the on a mound so Btion in the United States—and tall with large berries. Half-high varieties it sits six to eight inches above grade. Because their popularity is well deserved. In ad- are crosses between highbush and lowbush such a planting will dry out fast, supplemen- dition to being delicious, they are load- types and combine traits of each species. tal watering may be required. ed with healthful and fiber. I have tried many strategies to amend They also are excellent sources of man- the less-than-fertile soil in my southern ganese and vitamins K and C. garden, and have found two meth- By selecting regionally appropriate ods that ensure regular yields. The first is varieties, this North American native can to create a soil mix based on a 1:1:1 ratio of be successfully grown in home gardens sphagnum moss, pine bark mulch or almost anywhere in the United States. mini-nuggets, and soil removed from the Their hanging clusters of bell-shaped hole. If you can’t find shredded pine mulch white spring flowers, deep-blue summer or mini-nuggets, spruce or fir bark mulch berries, and brilliant red fall foliage make should work as well. them useful ornamentals. For each shrub, add two pounds of al- Several species provide choices for a falfa meal to one half cup of soft rock phos- range of climates. Lowbush blueberries phate (SRP) or three cups of a balanced (Vaccinium angustifolium, USDA Har- organic fertilizer (5-4-5). Mix these amend- diness Zones 2–6, AHS Heat Zones 6–1) ments into the top eight inches of soil. If are well adapted to cold climates, but have you are planting after the end of August, little heat tolerance. Suited for containers, use the meal and SRP combo, but they grow about 18 inches tall with small, not the fertilizer because the nitrogen may intensely flavored fruit. Top: When ripe, the fruit of ‘Northsky’, a half- inhibit timely dormancy. Instead, wait Highbush blueberries (V. corymbosum, high blueberry suited to cold regions, turns until early spring to top-dress your plant. Zones 3–8, 8–1) include northern and deep blue. Above: Highbush blueberries—here The second method is great if your soil

southern varieties; the most heat-tolerant in spring bloom—grow about five feet tall. is heavy clay, alkaline, rocky, or sandy. After TOP: COURTESY OF MONROVIA. BOTTOM: ROB CARDILLO

46 the American Gardener excavating the hole, backfill with a one- recipe, applied every month during the Sources to-one mix of sphagnum peat moss and growing season: For each gallon of water shredded pine bark mulch or mini-nuggets add two ounces of Neptune’s Harvest Backyard Berry Plants, Nashville, IN. so that it is gently mounded and filled to fertilizer (2-4-1), one tablespoon of liquid (812) 340-1140. two to three inches above grade. Add the kelp concentrate, and one tablespoon of www.backyardberryplants.com. amendments as described in the previous blackstrap molasses. Apply one gallon of Hartmann’s Plant Company, method. I find that all the cultivars I grow this mix per mature plant (four years and Lacota, MI. (269) 253-4281. produce better yields with this mix. older) or a half-gallon on young plants. www.hartmannsplantcompany.com. Plant bare-root stock in late winter or Pruning is not usually needed for a Stark Bro’s, , MO. (800) early spring before growth begins. Con- few years, except for removing broken 325-4180. www.starkbros.com. tainer-grown stock can be planted any or damaged canes and twiggy, horizontal time the ground can be properly prepared. branches near the base of the bush. Once Set the blueberry bush so that the top of the bush has put on some size, usually by when selecting blueberries, so I have list- ed the recommended cultivars accord- ingly. It is advisable to plant more than GROWING BLUEBERRIES IN CONTAINERS one variety to increase cross- Blueberries adapt well to container culture as long as the pot is sufficiently large. and fruit set. Highbush and rabbiteye types will need a 20- to 25-gallon pot; lowbush and half-high types will thrive in a seven- to 10-gallon Q USDA Hardiness Zones 2/3–5 High- pot. For the planting mix, use equal parts bush type: ‘Bluegold’, ‘Bonus’, ‘Chippewa’, of sphagnum peat moss and shredded ‘Friendship’, ‘Huron’, ‘Nelson’, ‘North- pine bark mulch or mini-nuggets en- blue’, ‘Patriot’, ‘Polaris’. Lowbush type: riched with a balanced organic fertiliz- ‘Northsky’. er. Apply monthly applications of liquid Q Zones 5–8 Highbush type: ‘Arlen’, fertilizer during the growing season. In ‘Chanticleer’, ‘Elizabeth’, ‘Hannah’s USDA Hardiness Zones 6 and warmer, no Choice’, ‘ Creek’, ‘Legacy’, ‘Pio- special winter care is needed. For Zones neer’, ‘Stanley’. 3 to 5, I recommend covering bushes Q Zones 6–9 Highbush type: ‘Carter- with an opaque, three- to four-mil white et’, ‘Gupton’, ‘New Hanover’, ‘O’Neal’, polyethylene sheet available at home ‘Paloma’, ‘Robeson’. Rabbiteye type: ‘Co- improvement stores. The plastic seals in lumbus’, ‘DeSoto’, ‘Onlsow’, ‘Prince’. moisture and protects the plant during Q For no-chill Zone 10 Highbush type: the freezing, dry days of winter. ‘Biloxi’, ‘Colibri’, ‘Misty’, ‘Sharpblue’, Many blueberries grow well in containers. —K.U. ‘Sunshine Blue’. ENJOYING THE HARVEST the rootball sits just below the top of the year four or five, prune using the one- For the sweetest flavor, pick berries three mix prepared in the planting hole. Mulch in-six guideline: For every six canes, re- to four days after they have turned entire- with three to five inches of pine needles, move the oldest one—usually the biggest ly blue; they will not ripen further after shredded pine bark, or shredded oak or and most-branched. Best done in winter harvest. The store well for about a maple leaves. when plants are dormant, this practice in- week in the fridge. For longer storage, creases plant vigor and improves airflow, wash, dry, and freeze them in a single IRRIGATION, FERTILIZING, AND PRUNING which helps prevent disease. layer on a baking sheet; transfer them to a For the first two years, water your plants freezer-safe container or plastic bags after regularly during the growing season with PESTS AND DISEASES they are frozen. one good soaking weekly—about five gal- I’ve experienced no major pests or dis- A mature highbush plant can yield lons of water per plant. While blueberries eases on our organically grown plants. If between eight and 12 pounds per year; are drought tolerant when mature, regular Japanese beetles are an issue, repel them lowbush and half-high types between one- irrigation throughout the growing season with neem oil. Very wet springs and sum- and-a-half to four pounds. Blueberries can will increase yields the following year. mers can cause fruit rot, so a preventive be used in baked goods and salads, to make To feed established plants, pull back spray of copper or sulfur after bloom may jam and smoothies, and even star in savory the mulch and top-dress with two cups be beneficial. Deter birds with netting, dishes. Because they grow in nearly every re- of alfalfa meal or one cup of balanced suspended above the bushes and sealed gion, it’s easy to enjoy this native fruit from organic fertilizer (5-4-5) in spring at the along the ground. your own backyard harvest. time daffodils start to bloom; repeat one to two months later. I have also had great RECOMMENDED CULTIVARS Keith Uridel owns Backyard Berry Plants,

COURTESY OF FALL CREEK FARM & NURSERY results using the following liquid feeding Cold tolerance is a key consideration an organic nursery in Nashville, Indiana.


Horticultural News and Research Important to American Gardeners

NEW PLANT SPECIES DISCOVERED gus, is demonstrating exceptional hybrid GOOD NEWS FOR POLLINATORS New plant species are popping up world- vigor. Since its 10 years ago, S. Ortho, part of the ScottsMiracle-Gro cor- wide. Suetsugu Kenji, project associate ryanii has significantly increased its range, poration, has joined the list of garden-in- professor at the Kobe University Gradu- demonstrating potential for invasiveness. dustry businesses that are moving away ate School of Science in Japan discovered According to University of California, from the use of neonicotinoids, or neonic Riverside scientists Shanna R. Welles and for short, a widely used class of pesticides Norman Ellstand, S. ryanii has spread that researchers have implicated in con- to 15 of 53 surveyed sites in California. nection with the die-off of bees and other Wells and Ellstand conclude, “We are pollinators. Specifically, the brand plans not aware of any plant neospecies whose to eliminate the use of imidacloprid, clo- range spontaneously experienced such thianidin, and dinotefuran in its products a dramatic expansion. Salsola ryanii has every indication of being just as invasive as its highly invasive parents.” FREE TICK TESTING TO FIGHT LYME DISEASE Besides being bloodsucking pests, ticks can carry Lyme disease and other serious infec- tions that afflict humans. However, sci- entists know little about how widespread these diseases are, which makes avoiding them more challenging. The Bay Area Lyme Foundation (BALF), a leading non- Sciaphila yakushimensis is a newly discovered profit funder of innovative Lyme disease Voluntary restrictions on the use and sale of parasitic plant species that uses a fungal host research, is calling on citizens to help fill neonic pesticides by the garden industry is rather than for nutrients. this void of knowledge through its recently likely to benefit bees and other pollinators. launched tick-testing study. and named Sciaphila yakushimensis. The Gardeners and other outdoor recreation- by 2017. This decision follows Ortho’s ex- new species, found during a plant survey ists who encounter ticks of any kind may pansion of its line of non-neonic garden in Yakushima, Japan, is a subtropical send them in to Northern Univer- products earlier this year. “While agencies mycoheterotrophic plant. Mycohetero- sity in Flagstaff for free testing. In addition in the U.S. are still evaluating the overall trophic plants do not photosynthesize to Lyme, the ticks will be tested for six other impact of neonics on pollinator popula- but depend upon fungal hosts for nu- human diseases, tions, it’s time for Ortho to move on,” says trients. Spotting these species is difficult including Rocky Tim Martin, the general manager of the because they are small and only appear Mountain spot- Ortho brand. above ground when they flower or fruit. ted fever. All data Pollinators should also benefit from Orchid enthusiasts should be pleased by will be mapped, the recently announced partnership be- the discovery of Encyclia inopinata, a new categorized, and tween Ortho and the Pollinator Stew- orchid species. Found in deciduous for- recorded. The ardship Council (PSC), a pollinator ests along the Pacific slope of Oaxaca state, An adult female black- data will then advocacy organization, to educate the Mexico, it is a , a plant that grows legged tick can transmit allow physicians public concerning the appropriate use on rocks. It blooms between March and Lyme disease to humans. and the public to of pesticides to decrease their impact on July. Its name is from the inopinatus, be “appropriately pollinators. Part of this effort will involve meaning “unexpected,” for the surprise its vigilant to the symptoms of the disease,” ex- modifying pesticide labeling regulations discoverers felt upon seeing it in bloom and plains Laure , BALF president and so labels can more clearly indicate to con- realizing it was a new species. co-founder. sumers which products are neonic free. A less pleasant surprise is the discovery To participate or for more infor- “Straight-forward, easily understood that Salsola ryanii, a hybrid of the invasive mation, go to www.bayarealyme.org/ product labels help consumers make the

tumbleweed species S. australis and S. tra- lyme-disease-prevention/tick-testing. best choices to protect both their plants OF DAVID CAPPAERT, BUGWOOD.ORG LEFT: COURTESY OF KOBE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL SCIENCE. CENTER: SCOTT BAUER, USDA, BUGWOOD.ORG. RIGHT:

48 the American Gardener as well as honey bees and native polli- nators,” says Michele Colopy, PSC pro- gram director. Ortho’s decision follows in the wake of some other major U.S. companies—in- cluding home improvement stores Lowe’s and Home Depot—that have pledged to phase out neonic pesticides and label plants that have been sprayed with them. Sales of many neonics have been suspend- ed or banned in Europe and other coun- tries. A list of U.S. companies—including retail and wholesale nurseries—that have pledged not to sell or use neonics can be found on the website of the nonprofit at www.foe.org/bee action/retailers. A gelatinous substance extracted from the pads of prickly cacti can purify polluted water. PURIFYING WATER WITH CACTI Economically and efficiently removing plant in the early 1900s to turn muddy between the mucilage of and arse- contaminants from water is a significant river water into clear, potable water. nic. The mucilage also attracts sediments, challenge. An extract of prickly pear cacti Norma Alcanta, the woman’s grand- bacteria, and other contaminants.” ( -indica) may soon become daughter and a professor in the De- According to a presentation Alcantar’s a viable way to do so, offering a nontoxic, partment of Chemical & Biomedical team gave at the American Chemical So- and more sustainable alternative to cur- Engineering at the University of South ciety’s national meeting in March, the rent methods. It’s all thanks to a Mexican Florida in Tampa, decided to test this for cactus gel effectively helped clean water grandmother who recounted using the herself. “We found there is an attraction during the aftermath of the devastating


The OXO Good Grips is constructed of high-grade 420 stainless steel for strength and durability. It features a soft, non-slip handle with a gel insert that flexes to provide cushioning when digging into tough and compacted soil. Easy-to-read markings provide clear and convenient depth measurement and serrated edges tear through tough soil and weeds.



May / June 2016 49 2010 earthquake in Haiti. The researchers PEOPLE and PLACES in the NEWS found it could break up oil slicks, too, and NURSERY FOUNDER RECEIVES SCOTT MEDAL has shown promise in filtering aquarium This year’s prestigious Arthur Hoyt Scott Medal and Award recipient is Dale and aquaculture water. They are currently Deppe, president and owner of Spring Meadow Nursery in Grand Haven, Mich- working on creating a synthetic version of igan. Presented annually by the the mucilage that could be manufactured Scott Arboretum of Swarthmore Col- rather than extracted from cacti. lege in Pennsylvania, this honor is given to an individual, organization, BIG CHANGES FOR NATIONAL GARDENING or corporate body who has made an ASSOCIATION outstanding national contribution to A leader in garden-based education for more the science and art of gardening. than 40 years, the National Gardening As- With his wife Liz, Deppe founded sociation (NGA) has undergone a radical Spring Meadow Nursery as a small reconfiguration. The NGA liner production company in 1981, brand and website was re- growing it into a 200-acre propaga- cently acquired by Dash tion nursery through the years. The Works, LLC, a Texas Dale Deppe with Claire Sawyers, Director of nursery has introduced numerous no- corporation owned and the Scott Arboretum of Swarthmore College table cultivars such as Hydrangea pa- operated by Dave and Trish niculata ‘Limelight’and Invincibelle™ Whitinger. The Whitingers state that, “Our Spirit hydrangea, the first smooth hydrangea (H. arborescens) with pink blooms. long-term goal is to continue to serve the Invincibelle Spirit is tied to Deppe’s philanthropic activities. Since its intro- gardening community with educational re- duction in 2009, one dollar from each plant sold is donated to the Breast Cancer sources, reference guides and informational Research Foundation. Sales of the plant and corresponding Pink Day fundrais- databases, social media features, and helpful ers hosted at garden centers across North America have raised over $900,000 tools and apps.” to date. The Deppes also created the Spring Meadow Nursery endowment fund, The part of the original NGA that fo- dispersed through the Horticultural Research Institute, to provide scholarships cused on youth and school gardening has for horticulture students and financial support for research projects. become a separate nonprofit, KidsGarden- To learn more about the Scott Medal and Award, visit www.scottarboretum. ing (www.kidsgardening.org). It is devoted org/programs/scottmedal.html. specifically to providing educational re- sources to support successful, self-sustaining IN MEMORIAM garden programs in educational settings. American horticulture has lost two insightful voices with the passing of Suzanne Another of the NGA’s original “Suzy” Frutig Bales and Mel Bartholomew this spring. components—widely cited market re- Bales wrote 15 books on gardening and nature. search—has been spun off into National She contributed to numerous garden publications and was a garden columnist for the New York Times and Newsday. She served as a garden editor for Bet- ter Homes & Gardens magazine and Family Circle for many years. She was also a gifted photographer, speaker, and garden designer. She received the Hor- ticultural Communication Award from the American Horticultural Society (AHS) in 1995. She served on the AHS Board of Directors for two terms (1990– Gardening Market Research Company, 1994 and 2006–2010). (www.gardenresearch.com). It will con- Bartholomew invented “.” tinue to produce and analyze this infor- The method of planting in square raised beds in- mation as a private business. stead of in traditional rows made gardening more Finally, the new, leaner NGA will con- efficient and revolutionized the way many people tinue producing Garden.org while giving it grew their food. His book, Square Foot Gardening, a makeover. “Our immediate task,” say the published in 1981, remains a bestseller. In addi- Whitingers, “is to update the website with tion to writing over half a dozen books, Bartholomew a new and improved software system, and hosted his own TV show based on his gardening to update the look of the site to give visitors method for eight years. His Square Foot Gardening a more up-to-date experience.” Foundation spreads this method around the globe in an effort to help end world hunger. News written by Editorial Intern Mary Chad-


50 the American Gardener Zion National Park

is the result of erosion, sedimentary uplift, and

Stephanie Shinmachi.

Join the community at nationalparks.org GREEN GARAGE®

Quality Hand Tools for Better Gardening by Rita Pelczar

OR ANY gardening activ­ are coated with a material that ity that involves detailed prevents sticking. F effort, quality hand tools A new from Fiskars make the job easier. Here are a (www2.fiskars.com) called a Bill­ few of my favorites. Saw is great for removing Transplanting seedlings into tough weedy roots and vines. the garden is best done with The nine-inch, rust-resistant sharp-pointed such as blade has a curved tip, or hook, the stainless steel trowels from for both pulling and cutting. Lee Valley (www.leevalley.com). The opposite side of the blade The 10-lnch Spear Point SS features a toothed edge that fun­ Trowel cuts through heavy soil cions as a coarse saw for severing with its long, sharp tip. The nar­ fibrous or woody branches. The row-bladed 12-lnch Transplant contoured handle allows you to SS Trowel can dig a bit deeper. Both are in handy for breaking up clumps of soil, hold it in different positions to suit the marked in imperial and metric incre­ cultivating along a row of , or job at hand. A smaller, six-inch Billhook ments to help with accurate depth and digging up deep-rooted weeds. blade is also available. spacing when planting. The Convertible Pruner + Lopper With Fiskars Garden Bucket Caddy, Also from Lee Valley is the Transplant from Corona (www.coronatoolsusa.com) you'll have all your hand tools available Knife, ideal for dividing or combines two tools in one package, which when you need them. Wrap the canvas perennials. The thin, stainless steel blade is handy when you need to flexes, so you can slide it along the inner cut branches a bit larger Garden wall of a container to loosen a plant from than expected. The forged Bucket its pot. For dividing plants, the five-and­ steel bypass pruners have Caddy one-half-inch serrated blade makes cuts an internal spring, and the through roots cleanly. handles fold down easily A good choice for cut­ for additional leverage, ting down annual weeds morphing the hand is the 17-inch-long Mini pruners into Hula from Planet Natu­ for two-handed oper­ ral (www.planetnatural.com). ation. It cuts through This short-handled version branches up to one­ of the original Hula Hoe is and-one-quarter inch­ the perfect length to use for es in diameter. cultivating raised beds. Both For larger jobs, edges of the stirrup-shaped Corona's Comfort­ blade are sharp, so weeds GEL+ ™ Extendable caddy around any five-gallon bucket, are cut off at ground level Bypass Lopper cuts secure it in place with its velcro tab, as you move the hoe back branches to one­ and use the pouches to stash your tools, and forth. and-three-q uarter gloves, seed packages, water bottle, bug Also from Planet Nat- inches with ease. It repellent, and other small items. Carry ural is a short-handled has comfortable plants, collect weeds, or gather harvested Mini Hula ComfortGEL + cultivating tool called the grips and the han­ vegetables in the bucket. ~ Hoe Extendable Bypass 3-Tined . It has ex­ Lopper, top, and dles extend to 29 cellent balance and sig­ Convertible Pruner + inches and lock in Rita Pelczar is a contributing editor for nificant heft that comes Lopper, bottom place. The blades The American Gardener.



Recommendations for Your Gardening Library

The Cabaret of Plants Planting in a Post-Wild World Richard Mabey. W.W. Norton & Company, New York and London, Thomas Rainer and Claudia West. Timber Press, Portland, OR, 2015. 2016. 374 pages. Publisher’s price, hardcover: $29.95. 272 pages. Publisher’s price, hardcover: $39.95.

IN HIS scholarly and often delightfully humorous new book, Brit- IN THIS award-winning book, landscape architect Thomas Rainer ish naturalist and science writer Richard Mabey explores the effects and landscape consultant Claudia West present a groundbreaking that plants have had on human history, lit- new philosophy of planting design erature, and art through the millennia. He inspired by the way plants work to- aims to show that while plants may play gether in the wild. Equal parts man- second fiddle to in most people’s ifesto and manual, the authors begin minds, they are just as fascinating and de- by acknowledging that a pure imi- serving of closer scrutiny. tation of nature is both aesthetically Mabey plumbs the depths of floral guile and functionally inappropriate in the to give readers the inside scoop on what average backyard, and instead advise plants are really up to while humans are us to draw inspiration from archetypal distracted by their beauty. “Flowers have natural settings such as grasslands and been shown to be as potentially busy and , and reinterpret them to create impatient as bees,” he writes. “Indeed, they designed plantings that function as evolving communities. could be said to make the first move in most flower–insect rela- The benefits are compelling: these powerhouses of biodiversity tionships,” considering plants’ capacity for “tempting pollinators… are better able to outcompete weeds, control erosion, and provide then imprisoning them with fantastic arrangements of trapdoors, year-round cover and food for wildlife. They also require less main- one-way tunnels, and chemical handcuffs.” tenance than traditional gardens, because plant communities are Revealed like any good mystery are some astonishing flo- usually managed as a whole with infrequent large-scale interventions ral facts of Charles Darwin’s “unraveling of the pollination like mowing. These exceptionally dense plantings are created by ver- procedures,” which previously had been rife with quaint fic- tically layering low groundcovers under perennials, interplanting tions that resulted, in part, from some cringe-worthy Victorian with bulbs and ephemerals, and punctuated with structural species views. When Linnaeus aspired to classify plants according to to provide design continuity. The result is an amplified version of their sexual organs (males being called “husbands” and females nature that has many of the benefits, but a more refined appearance. “wives” or “brides”), the Encyclopaedia Britannica castigated Though naturalistic gardening at its worst can look messy, him for “disgusting strokes of obscenity in a system of botany.” the authors offer tools for working with nature in ways that take Among other revelations are the strange beliefs of the garden- into account the human desire for an orderly space. They discuss ers of yore, including the purported existence of “plants capable of tricks for working with the so that we can changing into other beings.” One of the most famous is the half create a stylized version that looks appropriate next to architec- plant, half lamb” depicted in the frontispiece il- ture. Though their suggestions in this regard are both specific lustration of John Parkinson’s respected horticultural manual Sole and effective, the lack of photos of small urban and suburban Paradisus Terrestris, published in 1629. This extraordinary plant re- residential yards does the book a disservice. sembles a lamb growing like a peculiar flower perched on a tall stem. Designers and other landscape professionals will find this to be My only criticism is the unappealing title for the book. Mabey an indispensable guide on a journey towards thinking about plants justifies it by likening humans to “the participating audience in an in a whole new way. However, the frequent use of professional immense vegetable theatre in the round.” The performance, he terminology and limited depictions of residential spaces may make writes, is “full of and unexpected punchlines, and a long this a challenge for most amateur gardeners to put into practice. way from abiding by anyone’s stage directions,” so calling it a cab- Still, the payoff for persistence is great, as this new philosophy is aret seemed fitting. I’m still not convinced, but do agree this is a sure to inform the design world for years to come. botanical show that’s often funny and definitely worth attending. —Genevieve Schmidt —Linda Yang Genevieve Schmidt is a landscape designer in Arcata, California. Linda Yang, former New York Times garden columnist, is the author She writes for www.northcoastgardening.com, a website for of The City Gardener’s Handbook (Storey Publishing, 2002). gardeners in the Pacific Northwest.

54 the American Gardener All the Presidents’ Gardens Marta McDowell. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, 2016. 336 pag- es. Publisher’s price, hardcover: $29.95.

IN A PRESIDENTIAL election year, it is grounding (to say the least) to put politics aside temporarily and think back to pre- vious occupants of the White House and contemplate their contributions to the landscape and gardens of that special resi- dence. Marta McDowell allows Get a Dose of Nature us to do just that in this metic- No Measure. No Mess. ulously researched book. As one might expect, Mc- (DV\GRVH Dowell organizes her book $XWRILOOFDS chronologically: Washington to Obama. Then she weaves into her narrative the other players in the making of White House gardens: First Ladies and the gardeners, themselves. We meet John Watt, gardener for the Lincolns, who was notorious for the “Manure Fund” whereby he padded his invoices for garden expenses to help Mary Lincoln access money in the garden budget for her own use. Another gardener was Henry Pfister, whose career spanned 25 years and seven presidents in the late 1800s. Pfis- ter was an innovator who adorned the White House grounds with elaborate bedding schemes including tropical plants and ornamental grasses. Some presidents were involved to various degrees in the garden-making, such as Franklin D. Roosevelt, who com- missioned the garden plan still used today as a basis for the garden layout. Others were restricted by their own lack of interest, world events (for example, wars), or the economic situation that dictated what could be done, or not done, to enhance the White House grounds. McDowell effectively uses many period photographs to enhance her story and to demonstrate both the hardscapes and the plantings at the Presidents’ residence. When describing grounds maintenance, McDowell in- cludes a photo from the early 1900s showing sheep grazing The NEW Espoma Organic liquid plant foods are the White House lawn. Another period photo depicts Pau- loaded with natural ingredients and millions of line Wayne, a Holstein cow, who was the “last cow to graze beneficial microbes to grow bigger, more beautiful and fertilize the White House lawn.” plants. And with Espoma’s new Easy Dose cap, you’ll From the beginning, the White House gardens were em- blematic of the popular form, function, and fashion of each get a perfect pour every time. Just flip open the cap, era. McDowell ends her book by comparing the evolution of pour the pre-measured dose into your , those gardens whose purpose was to “beautify, nourish, and and feed. No measuring. No mess. memorialize” to the evolution of gardening in the United States in general and concludes, “Long may they wave.” Yes, and long may there be erudite and entertaining books like Espoma. A natural in the garden since 1929. All The Presidents’ Gardens to enlighten and educate about American garden history. —Denise Adams Watch our video to learn more www.espoma.com/liquids Denise Adams writes and gardens in Stony Point, New York. She is the author with Laura Burchfield of American Home Landscapes (Timber Press, 2013).


Horticultural Events from Around the Country

NORTHEAST Botanical gardens and arboreta that RAP JUNE 18. Rustic Garden Trellis or - CT, MA, ME, NH, NY, RI, VT participate in AHS’s Reciprocal Admis- niture. Workshop. Justin Morrill State Histor- RAP JUNE 4 & 5. Show. Buffalo Bon- sions Program are identified with the ic Site Gardens. Strafford, Vermont. (802) sai Society and Buffalo and Erie County Bo- RAP symbol. AHS members showing 765-4288. www.morrillhomestead.org. tanical Gardens. Buffalo, New York. (716) a valid membership card are eligible for 827-1584. www.buffalogardens.com. free admission to the garden or other JUNE 21. Roses. Lunch walk and talk. benefits. Special events may not be in- Roger Williams Park Botanical Center. RAP JUNE 4 & 5. Weekend. Cel- cluded; contact the host site for details Providence, . (401) 421-7740. ebration. New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, or visit www.ahs.org/rap. www.providenceri.com. New York. (718) 817-8700. www.nybg.org. JUNE 24–26. Newport Flower Show: RAP JUNE 11. Urban Gardening Series: Gilded Artful Living. The Preservation Container Gardening. Class. New England RAP JUNE 17. Cultivating Extraordinary Society of Newport County. Newport, Wild Flower Society. Garden in the Woods. Plants. Symposium. Coastal Maine Botani- Rhode Island. (401) 847-1000. Framingham, Massachusetts. (508) 877- cal Gardens. Boothbay, Maine. (207) 633- www.newportmansions.org. 7630. www.newenglandwild.org. 4333. www.mainegardens.org. Looking ahead JULY 8–17. Cape Cod Hydrangea Festival. Cape Cod Chamber of Commerce. Center- Flora Artwork Celebrates National Parks Service ville, Massachusetts. (508) 362-3225. Centennial www.capecodchamber.org. SINCE ITS FOUNDING in 1916, the National Park Service (NPS) has preserved the natural resources of the National Park System for future generations. As part JULY 16. Maine Home + Design Cape Elizabeth Garden Tour. Fort Williams Park of the celebration of its Foundation. Cape Elizabeth, Maine. 100th anniversary, an art (207) 767-3707. www.fortwilliams.org. exhibit, “Flora of the Na- tional Parks,” is on dis- MID-ATLANTIC play through October 2, DC, DE, MD, NJ, PA, VA, WV 2016 in the United States RAP MAY 27–JUNE 5. Art Blooms: Satsuki Botanic Garden (USBG) Bonsai. Exhibit. United States Na- in Washington, D.C. tional Arboretum and National Bonsai & The exhibit spotlights Penjing Museum. Washington, D.C. (202) the works of 78 artists that 245-4523. www.usna.usda.gov. represent the diversity and RAP JUNE 8. Cut Flowers at Home. richness of plant species Class. Norfolk Botanical Garden. and communities protect- Norfolk, Virginia. (757) 441-5830. ed throughout the more www.norfolkbotanicalgarden.org. than 400 national parks in Staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina), by artist Kellie Cox, RAP JUNE 10. Genius Loci: The Spirit of the care of the NPS. Vis- the Garden. Great Speaker Series. represents Virginia’s Shenandoah National Park at the itors will recognize iconic The Frelinghuysen Arboretum. Morristown, U.S. Botanic Garden’s “Flora of the National Parks” exhibit. plant species such as giant . (973) 326-7601. sequoias (Sequoiadendron www.arboretumfriends.org. giganteum) and cactus (Carnegiea gigantea), and be charmed by represen- JUNE 15–17. Native Plants in the Landscape. tations of rarer flora like the endangered Virginia spirea (). Entire Conference. Bowman’s Hill Wildflower plant communities, such as swamps, are also artistically rendered. Preserve. Millersville, Pennsylvania. (717) The works, executed in a range of media from water color to kirigami cut 842-0272. www.millersvillenativeplants.org. paper to quilts, are displayed with plants from the USBG to accent the experi- ence. Graphics on the floor in the exhibit show the ground from different nation- JUNE 19–24. Preserving Jefferson’s Gardens al parks to allow viewers to “stand in the parks” while viewing. and Landscapes. Course. Historic Land- scape Institute. Charlottesville, Virginia. More information is available at www.usbg.gov/floraofthenationalparks. (434) 984-9816. www.monticello.org. —Mary Chadduck, Editorial Intern JUNE 29. Conference. Scott COURTESY OF U.S. BOTANIC GARDEN

56 the American Gardener Landscape. Lecture. Memphis Area Master Extravaganza in Kentucky Gardeners Program. Memphis, Tennessee. TIMED TO coincide with peak daylily bloom season, the “Dazzling Festival (901) 752-1207. www.memphisareamaster with Balloons over the Garden,” will take place June 20 to 26 at the Western Kentucky gardeners.org. Botanical Garden (WKBG) in Owensboro, Kentucky. RAP JUNE 18. Waterlily Celebration. McK- The event spotlights WKBG’s extensive daylily collection ee Botanical Garden. Vero Beach, Florida. with a variety of activities throughout the week. High- (772) 794-0601. www.mckeegarden.org. lights include guided tours of the Daylily Display Garden, nationally recognized by the American Hemerocallis So- RAP JUNE 25. A Close Look at Oaks and ciety, as well as a daylily sale with hard-to-find varieties. . Class. Birmingham Botanical Gardens. Birmingham, Alabama. (205) Starting on June 24 and running through the rest 414-3950. www.bbgardens.org. of the event, hot air balloon rides will be offered. Those preferring earth-bound entertainment may Looking ahead enjoy “Balloon Glow,” a nighttime show by the balloonists that will follow JULY 13–16. National Children & Youth “Blooms, Balloons, Bar-B-Q & Bluegrass,” a food- and music-filled fête on June Garden Symposium. American Horticultural Society. Columbia, South Carolina. 25. This lively evening will culminate with a “Balloon Release” of sky lanterns. (703) 768-5700. www.ahs.org. For more information, visit www.wkbg.org. —Mary Chadduck, Editorial Intern JULY 20–23. Cullowhee Native Plant Confer- ence. Western Carolina University. Cullo- whee, North Carolina. (828) 227-7397. www.wcu.edu/engage. Arboretum of Swarthmore College. Swarth- RAP JUNE 3. Summer Tree Identification. more, Pennsylvania. (610) 388-1000 ext. Class. State Botanical Garden of Georgia. NORTH CENTRAL 507. www.woodyplantconference.org. Athens, Georgia. (706) 542-1244. IA, IL, IN, MI, MN, ND, NE, OH, SD, WI www.botgarden.uga.edu. Looking ahead RAP MAY 21–JUNE 24. Into the Woods by JULY 5–9. Gesneriads in the First State. RAP JUNE 5. at Mason Farm: Gary Engle. Exhibit. Cleveland Botanical Convention. Gesneriad Society. Celebrating Wild Flora. Lecture, walk. Garden. Cleveland, . (216) 721-1600. Wilmington, . (727) 796-5615. North Carolina Botanical Garden. Chapel www.cbgarden.org. www.gesneriadsociety.org. Hill, North Carolina. (919) 962-0522. www.ncbg.unc.edu. RAP MAY 28–SEPT. 5. Butterflies & Blooms. Exhibition. Chicago Botanic Garden. SOUTHEAST JUNE 6–10. Changing Perspectives, Planting Glencoe, Illinois. (847) 835-5440. AL, FL, GA, KY, NC, SC, TN for the Future. Conference. American Public www.chicagobotanic.org. RAP JUNE 3. Plant ID Workshop. Gardens Association. Miami, Florida. Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden. (610) 708-3010. www.publicgardens.org. JUNE 1–4. Urbs in Horto-City in a Garden. Coral Gables Florida. (305) 667-1651. Conference. Alliance for Historic Landscape www.fairchildgarden.org. JUNE 16. Controlling Diseases in Your Preservation. Chicago, Illinois. E-mail:


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May / June 2016 57 Fort Worth, Texas. (817) 392-5548. All Aboard the Garden Railway www.fwbg.org. THE HOBBY of garden railway combines two popular passions: gardening and model trains. One of the best ways to experience this world is at the National Garden Rail- JUNE 4. Plant Sale. New Orleans Botanical way Convention, taking place July 4 to 10 in the San Francisco Bay area of California. Garden. New Orleans, Louisiana. (504) 482-4888. www.neworleanscitypark.com. It features more than 80 self-guided tours, divided into 10 districts encompassing the entire San Francisco Bay area. RAP JUNE 8. Urban Gardening with Vege- tables. Walk and talk. Philbrook Museum of Art. Tulsa, Oklahoma. (918) 749-7941. www.philbrook.org.

RAP JUNE 14. Discover Madagascar: Plant Detectives. Lecture. Missouri Botanical Gar- den. St. Louis, Missouri. (314) 577-9118. www.mobot.org.

JUNE 14. Seed Saving and Insect ID. Lecture. The Botanic Garden, Oklahoma State Univer- sity. Stillwater, Oklahoma. (405) 747-8320. www.botanicgarden.okstate.edu.

RAP JUNE 18. Herbs for Summer. Work- shop. Garvan Woodland Gardens. Hot Springs, Arkansas. (501) 262-9300. www.garvangardens.org.

RAP JUNE 18. Vertical Succulent Garden. Lecture. Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Railway garden enthusiasts create intricate displays such as this one by combining Garden. Dallas, Texas. (214) 515-6500. model trains with miniature plants and hardscaping. www.dallasarboretum.org.

Hosted by the Bay Area Garden Railway Society (BAGRS), the event also will offer RAP JUNE 25. Pollinator Workshop. Myriad several landscape sessions that explore standard garden topics as applied to model rail- Botanical Gardens. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. roading. For example, plant selection is addressed in “Miniature & Dwarf Plants for (405) 445-7079. www.myriadgardens.org. RR,” while hardscaping is covered in “Stone & Cement Modeling.” Another highlight will be the BAGRS’ unique Roving Garden Railroad, based on SOUTHWEST the childhood classic, The Boxcar Children by Gertrude Chandler Warner. “We want- AZ, CO, NM, UT ed it to be a real garden,” says Russell Miller, BAGRS president and convention chair. JUNE 8. Water Wise Landscape and Drip Irri- To that end, the layout packs more than 30 plant species, 100 feet of track, natural gation Basics. Lecture. State Universi- ty Botanical Center. Kaysville, Utah. (435) rocks, and a real water feature onto a five-by-10 trailer bed. For more information 797-1251. www.usubotanicalcenter.org. about the convention, go to www.ngrc2016.org. —Mary Chadduck, Editorial Intern JUNE 11. Albuquerque Garden Tour. Council of Albuquerque Garden Clubs Albuquerque Garden Center. Albuquerque, . (505) 296-6020. [email protected]. www.ahlp.org. RAP JULY 23 & 24. Rhapsody in Bloom Arts www.albuquerquegardencenter.org. Festival. Luthy Botanical Garden. Peoria, RAP JUNE 3–5. Garden Fair. Green Bay Illinois. (309) 686-3362. www.peoriaparks. JUNE 11. Plant Con. Symposium. Conserva- Botanical Garden. Green Bay, Wisconsin. org/luthy-botanical-garden. tion Garden Park. West Jordan, Utah. (801) (920) 490-9457. www.gbbg.org. 256-4400. www.conservationgardenpark.org. AUG. 1–5. Symposium. RAP JUNE 4. Garden Spaces for Pollinators. Perennial Plant Association. Minneapolis, RAP JUNE 11 OR 12. Tough Plants for Tough Lecture. The Brenton Arboretum. Dallas . (614) 771-8431. Places. Tour. The Gardens on Spring Creek. Center, Iowa. (515) 992-4211. www.the- www.perennialplant.org. Fort Collins, Colorado. (970) 416-2486. brentonarboretum.org. www.fcgov.com/gardens. AUG. 4–7. Cleveland Growing Strong. Con- JUNE 5. Rose Day and Show. Lauritzen Gar- ference. American RAP JUNE 15. Introduction to dens. Omaha, Nebraska. (402) 346-4002. Association. Cleveland, Ohio. (877) 275- Principles. Class. Santa Fe Botanical www.lauritzengardens.org. 2242. www.communitygarden.org. Garden. Santa Fe, New Mexico. (505) 471-9103. www.santafebotanical Looking ahead garden.org. SOUTH CENTRAL RAP JULY 21. Art Fair in the Gardens. AR, KS, LA, MO, MS, OK, TX Munsinger Garden & Clemens Garden. RAP JUNE 25. Pollinator Festival. St. Cloud, Minnesota. (320) 257-5959. RAP JUNE 4. North Texas Daylily Society Denver Botanic Gardens. Denver, Colorado. www.munsingerclemens.com. Flower Show. Fort Worth Botanic Garden. (720) 865-3500. www.botanicgardens.org. COURTESY OF RUSSELL MILLER

58 the American Gardener Looking ahead retum & Botanic Garden. Arcadia, California. with Richie Steffen. Lecture. Northwest RAP JULY 9. Summer Plant Sale and (626) 821-3222. www.arboretum.org. Horticultural Society. Seattle, Washington. Penstemon Festival. The Arboretum at Flag- (206) 780-8172. www.northwesthort.org. staff. Flagstaff, Arizona. (928) 774-1442. Looking ahead www.thearb.org. AUG. 26–28. Festival of Fruit 2016. Central JUNE 24–26. Native Plants Matter. Confer- Coast Chapter of the California Rare Fruit ence. Native Plant Society, Amer- Growers. San Luis Obispo, California. (805) ican Penstemon Society. Fairmont Springs WEST COAST 668-7749. www.festivaloffruit.org. Resort. Fairmont Springs, Montana. (406) CA, HI, NV 498-6198. www.mtnativeplants.org. JUNE 11. Create Your Own Bonsai. RAP NORTHWEST Workshop. Santa Barbara Botanic Garden. RAP JUNE 24–26. Wildlife and Habitat AK, ID, MT, OR, WA, WY Santa Barbara, California. (805) 682-4726. Plants Sale. Kruckeberg Botanic Garden. www.sbbg.org. RAP JUNE 4. Weeds and Other Naughty Shoreline, Washington. (206) 546-1281. Plants. Class. Bellevue Botanical Garden. www.kruckeberg.org. RAP JUNE 11. Edible Landscaping. Bellevue, Washington. (425) 452-2750. Class. The Gardens at Heather Farm. www.bellevuebotanical.org. Looking ahead Creek, California. (925) 947-1678. AUG. 25–27. Farwest Show. Oregon www.gardenshf.org. RAP JUNE 5. Straw Bale Gardening. Association of Nurseries. Portland, Oregon. Presentation. Cheyenne Botanic Gardens. (503) 682-5089. www.farwestshow.com. RAP JUNE 11. Hanging Vertical Garden Cheyenne, . (307) 637-6458. Demonstration and Workshop. www.botanic.org. The Ruth Bancroft Garden. Walnut CANADA Creek, California. (925) 944-9352. RAP JUNE 7–AUG. 4. Gardening Day Camp. www.ruthbancroftgarden.org. Botanical Garden. Anchorage, Alas- JUNE 1–4. Grey to Green. Conference. ka. (907) 770-3692. www.alaskabg.org. Green Roofs for Healthy Cities and RAP JUNE 11. Plants of the Pecho Coast Green Infrastructure Foundation. and Diablo Canyon Lands. Presentation, RAP JUNE 13. Ecological Communities: Toronto, Ontario. (416) 971-4494. tour. San Luis Obispo Botanical Garden. Plants, Predators, and Food Webs. www.greytogreenconference.org. San Luis Obispo, California. Class. Washington Park Arboretum. (805) 541-1400. www.slobg.org. Seattle, Washington. (206) 325-4510. RAP JUNE 16. Bring Your Own Vessel www.arboretumfoundation.org. Terrariums. Workshop. Muttart Conservatory. RAP JUNE 18. Organic Fruit and Vegetable Edmonton, Alberta. (780) 496-8737. Gardening. Class. Los Angeles County Arbo- JUNE 22. Ferns for the Northwest Garden www.muttartconservatory.ca. Summer fun at Leu!


On Walnut Hill: The Evolution of a Garden Chronicling the garden of A.C. and Penney Hubbard as designed by Kurt Bluemel

By Kathy Hudson, Foreword by Allen Bush, Photography by Roger Foley BRING THIS AD TO RECEIVE $2.00 OFF onwalnuthill.com  ADULT DAYTIME GARDEN ADMISSION. Available now at Expires 12/31/16. Excludes classes, tours and special events.


Most of the cultivated plants described in this issue are listed here with their pronunciations, USDA Plant Hardiness Zones, and AHS Plant Heat Zones. These zones suggest a range of locations where temperatures are appropriate—both in winter and summer—for growing each plant. USDA Zones listed are still aligned with the 1990 version of the USDA’s map. While the zones are a good place to start in determining plant adaptability in your region, factors such as exposure, moisture, snow cover, and humidity also play an important role in plant survival. The zones tend to be conservative; plants may grow outside the ranges indicated. A USDA zone rating of 0–0 means that the plant is a true annual and completes its life cycle in a year or less.

A–C Gaultheria shallon gawl-THEER-ee-uh SHAL-lon P. quinquefolia P. kwin-kweh-FO-lee-uh Acer circinatum AY-ser sir-sih-NAY-tum (USDA (6–8, 8–3) (3–10, 9–1) Hardiness Zones 6–9, AHS Heat Zones 9–4) Gelsemium sempervirens jel-SEE-me-um P. tricuspidata P. try-kuss-pih-DAY-tuh A. palmatum A. pal-MAY-tum (5–8, 8–2) sem-pur-VY-renz (6–9, 9–5) (4–8, 8–1) ad-ee-AN-tum uh-LOO-tih- juh-RAY-nee-um wah- PEN-steh-mon kum (3–8, 8–1) lich-ee-AN-um (5–8, 8–1) dih-jih-TAL-iss (3–8, 8–1) A. pedatum A. peh-DAY-tum (3–8, 8–1) Geum coccineum JEE-um kok-SIN-ee-um Phegopteris hexagonoptera feh-GOP-tur-iss Amelanchier grandiflora am-eh-LANG-kee-ur (5–8, 8–1) hek-suh-guh-NOP-tur-uh (4–9, 9–1) gran-dih-FLOR-uh (3–7, 7–1) G. magellanicum G. maj-eh-LAN-ih-kum Phlox subulata FLOKS sub-yew-LAY-tuh Aquilegia canadensis ah-kwi-LEE-juh (5–8, 8–1) (3–8, 8–1) kan-uh-DEN-siss (4–9, 9–1) G. rivale G. rih-VAY-lee (3–8, 8–1) Polystichum acrostichoides pah-LIS-tih-kum A. chrysantha A. krih-SAN-thuh (3–8, 8–1) G. triflorum G. try-FLOR-um (3–7, 7–1) uh-kros-tih-CHOY-deez (3–8, 8–1) uh-STRAN-tee-uh MAY-jer Prunus besseyi PROO-nus BESS-ee-eye (4–7, 7–1) H–O (3–8, 8–3) Baptisia alba bap-TIZ-yuh AL-buh (3–9, 9–3) Heuchera americana HYEW-kur-uh Rudbeckia hirta rood-BEK-ee-uh HUR-tuh Bignonia capreolata big-NO-nee-uh uh-mair-ih-KAN-uh (4–8, 8–1) (3–9, 10–1) kap-ree-o-LAY-tuh (6–9, 9–5) Hydrangea anomala ssp. petiolaris hy-DRAN-juh Salvia sylvestris SAL-vee-uh sil-VES-triss Campsis grandiflora KAMP-siss gran-dih-FLOR- ah-NOM-ah-luh ssp. pet-ee-o-LAIR-iss (5–9, 9–3) uh (7–9, 9–7) (4–9, 9–1) san-gwi-SOR-buh C. radicans C. RAD-ih-kanz (3–9, 9–3) Ilex vomitoria EYE-leks vom-ih-TOR-ee-uh oh-fiss-ih-NAL-iss (3–8, 8–1) Carpenteria californica kar-pen-TAIR-ee-uh (7–9, 9–6) shiz-ah-KEER-ee-um kal-ih-FORN-ih-kuh (8–9, 9–8) eye-TEE-uh vir-JIN-ih-kuh sko-PAR-ee-um (3–8, 8–1) Carpinus caroliniana kar-PY-nus kair-o-lin-ee- (5–9, 10–6) Schizophragma hydrangeoides skiz-o-FRAG-muh AN-uh (3–9, 9–3) JAZ-mih-num hy-DRAN-jee-OY-deez (5–8, 8–5) Chelone lyonii chee-LO-nee ly-O-nee-eye oh-fiss-ih-NAL-ee (7/8–10, 10–1) Sophora secundiflora so-FOR-uh seh-kun-dih- (3–9, 9–3) joo-NIP-er-iss FLOR-uh (7–11, 12–7) Clethra barbinervis KLETH-ruh bar-bih-NUR-vis vir-jin-ee-AN-uh (3–9, 9–1) SOR-bus uh-mair-ih-KAN-uh (5–8, 8–5) Larrea tridentata LAR-ree-uh try-den-TAY-tuh (3–5, 6–1) Coreopsis lanceolata kor-ee-OP-sis lan-see-o- (8–11, 12–8) THEW-yuh ahk-sih-den-TAL- LAY-tuh (3–8, 9–1) loo-ko-FIL-um iss (3–7, 7–1) Cornus amomum KOR-nus uh-MO-mum froo-TES-enz (8–9, 9–8) Thunbergia alata thun-BUR-jee-uh ah-LAY-tuh (5–8, 8–5) lin-DAIR-uh BEN-zo-in (10–11, 12–10) C. racemosa C. ras-eh-MO-suh (3–8, 8–3) (4–9, 8–1) Tiarella cordifolia tee-uh-REL-luh kor-dih-FO- Corylus americana KOR-ih-lus uh-mair-ih-KAN- Lonicera heckrottii lah-NISS-er-uh hek-ROT- lee-uh (3–8, 7–1) uh (4–8, 9–1) tee-eye (5–9, 9–5) Trachelospermum asiaticum tray-kel-o-SPUR- C. avellana C. ah-vel-LAN-uh (4–8, 8–1) L. sempervirens L. sem-pur-VY-renz (4–9, 9–4) mum ay-zee-AT-ih-kum (7–10, 11–6) Mahonia japonica muh-HO-nee-uh T. jasminoides T. jaz-mih-NOY-deez D–G jah-PON-ih-kuh (6–8, 8–6) (8–11, 12–7) Decumaria barbara deh-kew-MAIR-ee-uh Maianthemum canadense my-AN-theh-mum Vaccinium angustifolium vak-SIN-ee-um BAR-bar-uh (6–9, 9–6) kan-uh-DEN-see (3–8, 8–3) an-gus-tih-FO-lee-um (2–6, 6–1) acrostichoides dee-PAR-ee-uh Matteuccia struthiopteris muh-TEW-key-uh V. ashei V. ASH-ee-eye (6–9, 9–4) uh-kros-tih-CHOY-deez (4–8, 8–1) strew-thee-OP-tur-iss (2–8, 8–1) V. corymbosum V. kor-im-BO-sum (3–8, 8–1) Diplazium pycnocarpon dih-PLAY-zee-um Osmunda cinnamomea ahz-MUN-duh V. ovatum V. o-VAY-tum (6–8, 8–6) pik-no-KAR-pon (4–8, 8–1) sin-uh-MO-mee-uh (4–8, 8–1) V. parvifolium V. par-vih-FO-lee-um (6–8, 8–5) Dryopteris australis dry-OP-ter-iss O. claytoniana O. klay-toh-nee-AN-uh Viburnum dentatum vy-BUR-num den-TAY-tum aw-STRAY-liss (5–9, 9–5) (2–10, 9–1) (3–8, 8–2) D. celsa D. SEL-suh (6–8, 8–6) V. edule V. ed-YEW-lee (2–7, 7–1) D. goldiana D. gol-dee-AH-nah (3–8, 8–2) P–Z V. trilobum V. try-LO-bum (2–7, 7–1) D. intermedia D. in-ter-MEE-dee-uh (3–8, 8–1) Packera aurea PAK-ur-uh OR-ee-uh Wisteria frutescens wis-TEER-ee-uh D. ludoviciana D. loo-doh-vik-ee-AN-uh (3–8, 8–2) FROO-tess-ens (5–9, 9–4) (6–9, 9–5) par-then-o-SISS-us W. macrostachya W. mak-ro-STAY-kee-yuh D. marginalis D. mar-jih-NAL-iss (3–8, 8–1) hen-ree-AN-uh (8–9, 9–1) (3–9, 9–3)

60 the American Gardener GARDENC MARKET

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Bush Anemone: A Beautiful Water-Efficient Western Native by Carolyn Singer

Y INTRODUCTION to the ra foothills east of the Central Valley near to grow them should first amend their soil dramatic bush anemone Fresno, and a few sites in Butte County, with a little aged compost or leaf mold. M(Carpenteria californica, just north of my own Coun- While bush anemone is reported to be USDA Hardiness Zones 8–9, AHS Heat ty. Bush anemone tolerates the seasonal deer-resistant, young and recently plant- Zones 9–8) was a mature specimen grow- moisture and periods of drought where it is ed specimens may need protection from ing on my neighbor’s property 40 browsing deer; a young plant in years ago. The evergreen native my garden has been a repeated shrub was over six feet tall with target. Newly installed plants also a five-foot spread. Breathtakingly will appreciate deep irrigation or beautiful in full bloom, its clus- rain every couple of weeks. Mulch ters of bright white, two- to three- will protect the upper layers of inch, fragrant flowers contrasted soil from too much moisture loss with glossy dark green foliage. I during dry periods. Established began to search for one of my plants may survive periods of own but was unable to find the drought without irrigation if they plant in the nurseries I explored. receive afternoon shade. Bush anemone was not readily Bush anemone blooms from available in the nursery trade late spring to early summer then and even at native plant under most growing condi- sales, it was seldom seen. tions, but flowering may be ex- tended slightly with irrigation UNCOMMON BEAUTY into May and June. Heat spells Explorer John Fremont noted the in early summer don’t seem to plant in 1845 as he made his way diminish the show. Honeybees, east through the southern region native bees, and butterflies all of the Sierra Nevada range, but revel in the wealth of pollen did not record its precise location. from the hundreds of stamens Three decades passed before Car- in each fragrant flower. penteria was rediscovered. Soon Bush anemone is natural- after, the plant became popular ly rounded and more upright in English gardens and other ar- than wide, with dense foliage, eas of Europe. Today, bush anemone can Bush anemone’s fragrant white flowers with so it rarely requires pruning. Spent be found in retail nurseries throughout the prominent yellow stamens attract pollinators leaves simply may be rubbed off the Western states, though it remains a bit of such as native bees and butterflies. branches. Removing a few lower limbs a rarity. A more compact form, ‘Elizabeth’, will reveal the ornamental, gray-brown, offers gardeners with smaller landscapes an endemic. Plants damaged by will flaking bark on the trunk. Whether you option for enjoying this uncommon native. re-sprout from the roots. wish to reveal the lower portion or shape In the wild, the natural range of bush the shrub, prune sparingly to avoid too anemone is limited to ravines in the Sier- FOR BEST RESULTS much stress to the plant. One reason my neighbor’s bush anemone If you can give this beauty what it looked so stunning is that it was planted in requires, it will reward you with showy, Sources ideal conditions. It had strong sunlight in scented flowers and its evergreen pres- Digging Dog Nursery, Albion, CA. (707) the morning tempered by afternoon shade ence for many years to come. 937-1130. www.diggingdog.com. from nearby deciduous oaks in the after- Joy Creek Nursery, Scappoose, OR. noon. Growing on a slope, it received excel- Carolyn Singer is the author of The Seasoned (503) 543-7474. www.joycreek.com. lent drainage. Because the plants are quite Gardener (Garden Wisdom Press, 2012). She

particular about drainage, gardeners wishing gardens in Grass Valley, California. SAXON HOLT



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