Estimations of Total Mass and Energy of the Observable Universe
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Physics International 5 (1): 15-20, 2014 ISSN: 1948-9803 ©2014 Science Publication doi:10.3844/pisp.2014.15.20 Published Online 5 (1) 2014 (http://www.thescipub.com/pi.toc) ESTIMATIONS OF TOTAL MASS AND ENERGY OF THE OBSERVABLE UNIVERSE Dimitar Valev Department of Stara Zagora, Space Research and Technology Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria Received 2014-02-05; Revised 2014-03-18; Accepted 2014-03-21 ABSTRACT The recent astronomical observations indicate that the expanding universe is homogeneous, isotropic and asymptotically flat. The Euclidean geometry of the universe enables to determine the total gravitational and kinetic energy of the universe by Newtonian gravity in a flat space. By means of dimensional analysis, we have found the mass of the observable universe close to the Hoyle-Carvalho formula M∼c3/(GH ). This value is independent from the cosmological model and infers a size (radius) of the observable universe close to Hubble distance. It has been shown that almost the entire kinetic energy of the observable universe ensues from the cosmological expansion. Both, the total gravitational and kinetic energies of the observable universe have been determined in relation to an observer at an arbitrary location. The relativistic calculations for total kinetic energy have been made and the dark energy has been excluded from calculations. The total mechanical energy of the observable universe has been found close to zero, which is a remarkable result. This result supports the conjecture that the gravitational energy of the observable universe is approximately balanced with its kinetic energy of the expansion and favours a density of dark energy ΩΛ≈ 0.78. Keywords: Flat Universe, Dimensional Analysis, Total Mass of the Universe, Total Energy of the Universe 1. INTRODUCTION scale. The recent results show that Ω ≈ 1 ±∆Ω , where the error ∆Ω decreases from 0.10 (De Bernardis et al ., 2000; The problem for the average density of the universe Balbi et al ., 2000) to 0.02 (Spergel et al ., 2003), i.e., the ρ acquires significance when it has been shown that the density of the universe is close to the critical one and the General Relativity allows to reveal the geometry and universe is asymptotically flat (Euclidean). evolution of the universe by simple cosmological models The fact that Ω is so close to a unit is not accidental (Friedman, 1922; Lemaitre, 1927; Einstein and De Sitter, since only at Ω = 1 the geometry of the universe is flat 1932). Crucial for the universe appears dimensionless and the flat universe was predicted from the inflationary Ω = ρ total density / pc where ρc is the critical density of theory (Guth, 1981). The total density Ω includes the universe. In the case of Ω<1 (open universe) the matter density ΩM = Ωb + Ωc, where Ωb≈0.05 is global spatial curvature is negative and the geometry of density of baryon matter and Ωc≈0.22 is density of the universe is hyperbolic and in the case of Ω>1 (closed cold dark matter (Peacock et al ., 2001) and dark universe) the curvature is positive and the geometry is energy ΩΛ≈0.73 (Hinshaw et al ., 2009) producing an spherical. In the special case of Ω = 1 (flat universe) the accelerating expansion of the universe (Riess et al ., curvature is zero and the geometry is Euclidean. Until 1998; Perlmutter et al ., 1999). The found negligible δT − recently scarce information has been available about the CMB anisotropy ~ 10 5 indicates that the early density and geometry of the universe. The most T trustworthy total matter density Ω has been determined by universe was very homogeneous and isotropic measurements of the dependence of the anisotropy of the (Bennett et al ., 1996). Three-dimensional maps of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) upon the angular distribution of galaxies corroborate homogeneous and © 2014 Dimitar Valev. This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 3.0 license which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. DOI: 10.3844/pisp.2014.15.20 Dimitar Valev / Physics International 5 (1): 15-20, 2014 isotropic universe on large scales greater than 100 obtained by means of the fundamental constants c, G and Mps (Shectman et al ., 1996; Stoughton et al ., 2002). ħ. This is the famous Planck mass Usually, Einstein pseudotensor is used for −8 mPl ~h c / G ~ 2.1710 kg , whose energy equivalent-the 2 19 determination of the total energy of the universe (Rosen, Planck energy EPl = m Pl c ~ 10 GeV appears unification 1994; Johri et al ., 1995). This approach is general for energy of the fundamental interactions. open, close and flat anisotropic models, but The fundamental parameters as the gravitational pseudotensorial calculations are dangerous as they are constant G, speed of the light c and the Hubble constant − − very coordinate dependent and thus, they may lead to H ≈ 70 km s 1 Mps 1 (Mould et al ., 2000) determine the ambiguous results (Banerjee and Sen, 1997). Newtonian global properties of the universe. Therefore, by means of gravity still works reasonably in practically all these parameters, a mass dimension quantity mx related gravitational problems, starting from earth gravity, space to the universe could be constructed: flights and star systems and ending to birth of stars and star clusters, with exception of extremely compact m= kcα G β H γ (1) objects like black holes and neutron stars possessing x strong gravitational field causing non negligible where, k is a dimensionless parameter of the order of curvature of the space. After recent CMB observations magnitude of a unit and α, β and γ are unknown discovered that the global geometry of the universe is exponents which have been found by means of analysis. flat, some cosmological problems could be solved by Taking into account the dimensions of the quantities Newtonian gravity in Euclidean space. This opportunity in Equation 1 we obtain the system of linear equations has been used in the paper to estimate total mechanical for unknown exponents Equation 2: energy of the observable universe. To determine gravitational and kinetic energy of the αβ+ =−− αβγ −=−= β observable universe, information of the size and total mass 30 2 0 1 (2) of the universe are needed. There are different estimations of the mass of the observable universe covering very large The determinant ∆ of the system is Equation 3: 50 60 interval from 3 ×10 kg (Hopkins, 1980) to 1.6 ×10 kg (Nielsen, 1997). Also the estimations of the size (radius) 1 3 0 of the universe are from 10 Glyr (Hilgevoord, 1994) to ∆=−1 − 2 − 1 =− 1 (3) more than of 78 Glyr (Cornish et al ., 2004). 0− 1 0 2. ESTIMATIONS OF THE TOTAL MASS AND SIZE (RADIUS) OF THE The determinant ∆≠0, therefore the system has a OBSERVABLE UNIVERSE unique solution. We find this solution by Kramer’s formulae Equation 4: Taking into account uncertainties of the estimations ∆ ∆ ∆ for the mass and size of the observable universe, an α=1 =3 β = 2 =− 1 γ = 3 =− 1 (4) original approach for cosmology, namely dimensional ∆ ∆ ∆ analysis, has been applied below for estimation of the mass and size of the observable universe. The Thus, we find the mass mx related to the universe: dimensional analysis is a conceptual tool often applied in physics to understand physical situations involving certain c3 m~ ~10 53 kg (5) physical quantities. It is routinely used to check the x GH plausibility of derived equations and computations. When the certain quantity, with which other determinative This value hits in the large interval for the mass of the quantities would be connected, is known but the form of universe mentioned at the end of Section 1 and coincides this connection is unknown, a dimensional equation was with Carvalho (1995) formula for the mass of the composed for its finding. Most often, the dimensional observable universe, deduced by totally different approach. analysis is applied in mechanics where there are many Thus, the quantity mx, obtained by means of analysis by problems having a few determinative quantities. The means of the fundamental parameters c, G and H, represents quantity of mass dimension in high energy physics is also acceptable estimation of the mass of the observable Science Publications 16 PI Dimitar Valev / Physics International 5 (1): 15-20, 2014 universe. It is worthy to note that this value is independent Any possible matter beyond the Hubble sphere from the cosmological model. First estimations of mass of recedes from the observer with superluminal velocity. the observable universe by means of dimensional analysis Therefore, it does not affect the observer and it has no have been made from Valev (2009a). contribution in the mass and energy of the observable The universe is flat and the total density, including universe, calculated in relation to the observer. dark matter and dark energy, is ρ= Ω ρ ≈ ρ where the c c Besides, we can estimate the total rest energy of the critical density of the universe ρc determines from observable universe from Equation 9 and Einstein equation: Equation 6 (Peebles, 1971): 5 2 21 c 70 3H −27 − 3 = = Ω ρ = ≈ 9.510kg m (6) E0 Mc~ 10 J (10) c 8πG 2 GH Since the observable universe is homogeneous and 3. DETERMINATION OF THE TOTAL isotropic, it appears 3-dimensional homogeneous sphere for an observer at arbitrary location. From Equation 5 MECHANICAL ENERGY OF THE and 6 we obtain: OBSERVABLE UNIVERSE The results of dimensional analysis and CMB 3H2Ω m 3 c 3 ρ=Ω= ρ =x = (7) observations suggest that the observable universe c π π 3 8G V 4 R GH appears homogeneous 3-dimensional sphere with −1 From Equation 7 we have estimated the size radius R close to Hubble distance cH .