Fall 1996 Los Alamos National Laboratory • A U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory The Research T55A Quarterly o f t h e N u c l e a r M a t e r i a l s T e c h n o l o g y D i v i s i o n

In This Issue NMT's Contributions to the Cassini Saturn Mission Follow Division's Space Exploration Tradition 1 NMT's Contributions Some of NMT Division’s handiwork will longer thereafter at reduced levels. For the to the Cassini Saturn be soaring across the solar system on its way Cassini mission, radioisotope thermoelectric Mission Follow to Saturn in the near future. Many NMT generators (RTGs) will provide the electrical Division's Space members, primarily in Actinide and energy needed, while lightweight radioisotope Exploration Tradition Fabrication (NMT-9), have produced special heating units (LWRHUs, or RHUs for short), heat and energy sources to help keep things will keep equipment warm enough to 2 running aboard the Cassini orbiter and function. Managing and Huygens probe, which will be launched in Cassini will use three RTGs, which con- Minimizing Radioac- October of 1997 toward the Saturnian system vert thermal energy from decay tive Waste Continue to explore the giant, its mysterious rings, into electrical energy. Each RTG contains 72 to Challenge the DOE and some of its frigid moons. small pellets of plutonium-238 dioxide, each Complex Because Saturn is so far away from the about the size of a marshmallow and weigh- sun, solar rays there are only a small fraction ing 150 grams. Each pellet is encased in many 4 as strong as they are on . To gain enough layers of protective materials, and the com- Electrodialysis electrical energy and warmth to operate, plete unit is called a general purpose heat Reduces Waste in the Cassini would need solar panels so large that source (GPHS) module. All together these 72 Treatment of it would be nearly impossible to launch and heat sources put out 4400 watts of thermal Pyrochemical maneuver. Hence, the orbiter and probe must energy at an operating temperature of 1200˚C Residues carry their own thermal and electrical to 1300˚C. Using a set of thermocouples, the generators to run the scientific RTG converts this heat energy to 6 experiments and other equip- about 285 watts of electricity. Volatile ment aboard. A conventional To maintain operating Get the Treatment in battery cannot be used because temperatures, the Cassini a One-Step Process of the mission’s long duration orbiter and Huygens probe and the prohibitive weight will use 157 RHUs distri- 8 of such an energy source. buted in various locations. Researchers Perform Long-lasting energy Each unit contains a Rapid, On-Line, without excess weight 2.7-gram pellet of

Elemental Analysis can be provided by PuO2 encased in a Using -Induced the natural radio- - Plasma active decay of alloy, which, in turn, plutonium-238. is protected inside a With a half-life shell. This 11 of approximately 87 multilayer casing, as Recent Publications, years, this material Figure 1: 100-watt plutonium-238 heat well as that for the Presentations, and will reliably produce source used in the 1970s space missions. GPHSs, is designed

Reports a constant flow of The source is about 250 g and about 3 cm to keep the PuO2 energy for at least 25 in diameter. safely contained 12 years and for even when subjected to NewsMakers accidental continued impacts on page or10

Nuclear Materials Technology Division/Los Alamos National Laboratory 1 The Actinide Research Quarterly Guest Editorial Managing and Minimizing Continue to Challenge the DOE Complex

Over the past five decades, the Congress high-level wastes at two sites (Savannah River of the has promulgated numer- and West Valley) are being vitrified for ous environmental statutes applicable to all eventual geologic disposal. Ongoing environ- sectors of the U.S. economy. In 1969 the mental restoration, decontamination, and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) decommissioning of DOE facilities coupled initiated revolutionary changes to reduce with future operations within the weapons waste generation and prevent environmental complex, even though they will be limited, are . A series of laws and regulations expected to generate another 78,000 m3 of TRU following NEPA has increased pressure on wastes during the next two decades. Current both and the government to be plans are to place all TRU wastes, both contact- responsible managers of the environment. handled and remote-handled, in the WIPP K.K.S. Pillay, After extensive public debate resulted in the facility in Carlsbad, New Mexico, when the Project Leader Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, there have facility becomes available. It is now scheduled for Waste been many positive developments directed at to open in April 1998, almost 19 years after Management, long-term management of radioactive wastes WIPP construction was authorized by the U.S. NMT-DO in the U.S. Although several amendments to Congress. The opening of WIPP is contingent 1982’s landmark legislation have changed the upon DOE receiving EPA’s certificate of scope of the efforts, the ultimate goal conti- compliance and a favorable Resource Conser- nues to be isolation from the biosphere of vation and Recovery Act-related decision by long-lived radioactive in wastes. the State of New Mexico. Waste management of plutonium (and other Although many programs specifically actinide) processing is a subset of these and address the legacy wastes at the DOE sites, other regulatory requirements. The specific facilities that routinely generate wastes from topic addressed in this editorial is the manage- continued operation have been placed in an ment of primary waste generated from pluto- awkward position. In conformance with all nium processing. applicable mandates from the U.S. Congress During the past 55 years, the plutonium and the President, all federal facilities are inventory in the U.S. increased from half a required to reduce waste generation by 50% by microgram to nearly 400 M . The U.S. 1999, using baselines established several years defense sector produced an estimated 111.4 M ago. However, corrective actions mandated by tons of plutonium between 1944 and 1988, and the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board for about 4% of that now exists in numerous safety issues, as well as insufficient financial waste forms. This estimate does not include resources, have limited their ability to comply the plutonium that was released to the envi- with the above laws and regulations in the ronment during nuclear explosions and is now near term. part of the natural background worldwide. It An unexpected new source of TRU wastes is estimated that the 100,000 m3 of transuranic headed for WIPP will result if one of the DOE wastes now stored at six DOE sites contain 3.4 sites declares a large portion of its actinide M tons of plutonium. Approximately 2 M tons residue inventory as waste. The alternatives of plutonium and other are present proposed for managing the plutonium in high-level liquid wastes currently stored at residues at Rocky Flats have a common three DOE sites. A significant positive inven- feature: packaging and shipping from 3.1 M tory difference of nuclear materials within the tons to 6.3 M tons of plutonium from Colorado DOE complex includes an additional 2.8 M to New Mexico in the most expeditious tons of plutonium. At least some of this manner. This approach, if it takes place, will plutonium is likely to end up in transuranic merely transfer the problems of material (TRU) waste streams. The majority of TRU chemistry, confinement, and storage from the wastes is expected to be transferred to the present location to another location outside Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), and the Colorado. It seems that the only criterion used

2 Nuclear Materials Technology Division/Los Alamos National Laboratory Fall 1996

in developing the strategies is a reduction in pollution prevention through major process the mortgage for on-site storage. The relative changes, and recycling, and abundance of plutonium in these residues investments in new technologies. Because the would also pose serious nuclear material DOE was late in adopting the mission of safeguards concerns. The alternatives environmental management, a new strategy “Governments presented by Rocky Flats have the potential to is necessary to hasten progress in waste mini- may regulate, increase the plutonium content of WIPP mization within the DOE weapons complex. wastes by at least 100% (possibly 200%) of the According to recent reports by the General environmental- previous estimates. This dramatic change in Accounting Office and the National Research ists may agitate, the role of WIPP to that of a dump for excess Council, the ambitious plan now pursued by but it is only plutonium has the potential to create addi- DOE for waste minimization and pollution the technology tional problems and delays for opening WIPP. prevention is eclipsed by internal organiza- experts who Although there are large allocations of tional problems and unrealistic expectations. can innovate resources to manage legacy wastes, the An operating facility such as the Plutonium management of newly generated wastes has Processing Facility at Los Alamos must to solve the been relatively neglected in DOE’s planning. comply with all environmental regulations problems The present and future operating plans for and other mandates. However, the Defense of waste plutonium facilities within the DOE complex Program Office of DOE, which uses the generation.” require compliance with all existing environ- facility, has invested very little in new mental regulations and the special regulations technologies needed to meet these mandates. that are applicable only to federal facilities. Governments may regulate, environmentalists Following the passage of the 1990 Pollution may agitate, but it is only the technology Prevention Act, both the EPA and DOE have experts who can innovate to solve the proposed a variety of waste minimization and problems of waste generation. Let us hope that pollution prevention goals. The U.S. industry they will be listened to and their advice taken. has demonstrated significant progress in

Division Entices Students with Overview of Actinide Research

On August 28, 1996, NMT Division opened its doors to all Laboratory postdoctoral researchers and graduate research assistants for its first one-day seminar on “Careers in Actinide Sciences.” Thirty-five current Laboratory “postdocs” and students participated in exciting, unclassified discussions of plutonium-related programs at TA-55. This event, supported by the Laboratory upper management, was intended to inform attendees of our work and interest them in careers in actinide sciences. Allen Hartford discussed the Laboratory postdoctoral and student recruiting program and the opportunities that NMT presents to the new work force. Nuclear Materials and Stockpile Management Program Director Paul Cunningham talked about national and international nuclear materials issues and the program’s long- and short-term goals. NMT Division Director Bruce Matthews presented his vision for the disposition of nuclear materials, the division’s mission, and our scientific and technological opportunities to help reduce the nuclear danger. Leaders of NMT-2, NMT-5, NMT-6, and NMT-9 discussed their individual groups' specific programs, activities, and potential growth areas. Anyone interested in any of NMT’s programmatic activities are encouraged to contact NMT group leaders or project leaders about their specific areas.

Nuclear Materials Technology Division/Los Alamos National Laboratory 3 The Actinide Research Quarterly

Electrodialysis Reduces Waste in the Treatment of Pyrochemical Salt Residues

Wayne H. Smith, Many of the processes used to treat resi- As part of a research effort to find more and Douglas E. dues from plutonium recovery and purifica- efficient processes that generate less waste, we Wedman of NMT-6, tion operations require the addition of large have been investigating the use of electrodialy- are the principal quantities of reagents. The result is substantial sis to treat process residues. Electrodialysis researchers. volumes of waste solutions that require addi- uses an applied electrostatic field coupled with tional treatment before they can be disposed exchange membranes to split salts into their of. Examples of such processes include aque- respective and base components. This pro- ous treatment methods for pyrochemical salt cess is shown schematically in Figure 2. The residues. Typically, the -based salts electrodialysis process has a very high effi- and other residues are dissolved in concen- ciency and can be run until essentially all of the trated , additional reagents have been stripped from the feed solution. are added to adjust Its major industrial application is to create po-

Aq.NaOH Aq.HNO3 the plutonium oxi- table from water by lowering the salt dation state, then the concentration in the feed solution down to the plutonium is sepa- parts-per-million level. rated from the re- Electrorefining (ER) salts, because of their C.E.M. A.E.M. mainder of the ma- relatively uncomplicated chemical composi- H2 O2 trix via tion, were the first materials chosen to demon- and/or ex- strate the applicability of electrodialysis to the traction. While the treatment of plutonium process residues. These plutonium is col- salts are predominantly a 1-to-1 mixture of so- lected in concen- dium and chloride salts containing

- trated form, the small quantities of plutonium in the form of OH H+ (-) (+) original dissolver and salts, and lesser amounts of ameri- solution, rinse solu- cium and other heavy salts. + - Cathode Na NO3 tion, eluant solution, A proposed flow sheet for treating ER salts and/or back-extrac- by electrodialysis is shown in Figure 3. The salt tion solution remain is first dissolved in a minimum amount of ap- to be treated before proximately 1 M hydrochloric acid. The result- disposal. ing solution is then passed through a three- compartment cell. As the feed solution flows through the cathode compart- ment of this cell, the acidic solution is slowly neutralized as is generated at the cathode. As the pH increases, the , NaNO3'H2O Feed including plutonium, undergo a homogeneous Figure 2. Electrodialysis of a nitrate solution. The posi- precipitation and can be collected on a filter tively charged sodium ions in the feed solution migrate through configured into the recycle loop. At this point the cation exchange membrane toward the negatively charged the relatively small amounts of heavy metals cathode. The electrochemical reaction taking place at the cathode and actinides will have been separated from is the reduction of water to form gas and hydroxide the large residue matrix and can be further ions. The net result is formation of sodium hydroxide in the treated in concentrated form for disposal or catholyte strip solution. The negatively charged nitrate ions in recovery of the actinides. the feed solution migrate through the anion exchange membrane The feed solution, which now contains only toward the positively charged anode. The electrochemical reaction trace quantities of actinide elements, is then taking place at the anode is oxidation of water to form and sent to the central compartment of a conven- free protons. The net result is formation of in the tional electrodialysis cell for a salt-splitting op- anolyte strip solution. eration. Here hydrochloric acid is generated in one strip solution while a mixture of potassium

4 Nuclear Materials Technology Division/Los Alamos National Laboratory Fall 1996

Figure 3. Proposed Electrodialysis/ER Salt Flow Sheet.

Water The proposed electrodialysis flow sheet was demonstrated in a “cold” experiment us- ing as a surrogate for plutonium, and as a representative for all heavy met- ER Salt Dissolution als that might be present in an actual ER salt residue. In the first electrolysis stage greater than 99.99% of the neodymium and iron were stripped from the feed solution and collected on the filter. In the second electrolysis stage Electrodialysis the salts were stripped from the feed solution Precipitation down to the parts-per-million level, and the “The net result final compositions of the strip solutions were (of using the approximately 6 M mixed sodium/potassium Pu(OH) /Fe(OH) electrodialysis 3 2 hydroxide and 3 M hydrochloric acid. The con- process) is a centration of the alkaline solution is sufficient HCI tremendous Electrodialysis to use “as is” in the final polishing step of the Salt Splitting waste stream solution. The acid solution is decrease in more concentrated than necessary to recycle to the quantity the head end of the process to dissolve the next of reagents NaOH/KOH) ER salt, but it could be diluted with a quantity used and a of the deionized feed solution. Other aqueous- corresponding chloride-based processes use much more con- decrease in the and sodium is generated in centrated hydrochloric acid solutions, requir- another. The hydrochloric acid stream can be ing a preconcentration of the strip solution quantity of waste recycled to the head-end process for dissolu- before use. A separate process to accomplish generated.” tion of the next ER salt to be processed and/or this task is currently under development. to be used for other chloride processes. Before Future work planned for this project calls it is finally disposed of, the electrogenerated for performing “hot” tests on actual ER salt sodium/ solution can be residues. Once the electrodialysis technology used as a final polishing agent for both chlo- has been demonstrated on this chemically ride- and nitrate-based waste solutions for noncomplex system, more chemically complex further removal of actinides. residues will be investigated. Of particular In the electrodialysis flow sheet the only interest are the -based direct oxide re- reagent added is water; dissolution of the salt duction salts, which contain many more heavy is accomplished by hydrochloric acid recycled metal impurities and in greater concentrations from the electrodialysis operation. Separation than in the ER salts. However, a greater chal- of plutonium from the salt solution is carried lenge than removing the actinides may reside out by homogeneous precipitation using in developing a flow sheet that can handle the electrogenerated hydroxide ions. No addi- calcium ion, which has only limited tional oxidizing or reducing agents, washing, in alkaline media. or eluent solutions are required. The net result In summary, preliminary investigations is a tremendous decrease in the quantity of have demonstrated the applicability of reagents used and a corresponding decrease electrodialysis to the treatment of selected in the quantity of waste generated. Also since plutonium process residues. The net benefits a majority of the solutions generated are re- in the use of this technology are a tremendous cycled back into the system, there will be a decrease in the quantity of reagents used and greater probability for removal of the actinides corresponding decrease in volumes of waste from the process solutions with each succes- generated compared to the aqueous recovery sive cycle. processes currently in use.

Nuclear Materials Technology Division/Los Alamos National Laboratory 5 The Actinide Research Quarterly

Volatile Halocarbons Get the Treatment in a One-Step Process

Jerry Halogenated hydrocarbons or Today, many halocarbons are listed as Foropoulos, Jr., "halocarbons" are alien to our natural hazardous or as -depleting compounds. NMT-6, is the environment. They have varying effects on Biologically, several chlorocarbons are suspect principal plant and animal , and little is . CFCs supply atoms to researcher known of their ultimate effect on biological the stratosphere, and such atoms have been for this project. life in general. This lack of knowledge is shown to disrupt the ozone production cycle. partly because halocarbons have been used Moreover, chlorinated hydrocarbons have in quantity only during this century, most contaminated thousands of sites both above notably since World War II. Virtually all and below ground throughout the world. halocarbons are man-made. They have many applications where their unique chemical and The general chemical physical properties are desirable: lack of inertness of these flammability and chemical reactivity, high compounds precludes , and volatility. Halocarbons are the basis of remarkably an easy solution to their strong and inert ; Teflon® and polyvinyl cleanup and destruction. chloride are two familiar examples. Another type of , the In nuclear technology, the presence of these (CFCs), were essentially an outgrowth of our compounds in nuclear waste classifies the early nuclear industry. Materials were sought entire lot as “mixed waste” (waste containing that were inert to hexafluoride, and both radioactive and hazardous materials, e.g., wartime research and production led to the plutonium and CCl4). The work described in manufacture of large quantities of CFC-based this article presents a simple solution to the plastics and refrigerants. Highly volatile and halocarbon destruction problem and promises quite chemically inert, CFCs were expected to many attractive advantages in dealing with last indefinitely once produced, and these mixed wastes. properties were to eventually cause the At TA-55 and other places, soda lime has difficulties of cleaning up CFC-contaminated been used to scrub gas from the materials. fluorination systems. Similar scrubbing of Most halocarbons originate from reaction chlorine, dioxide, HCl, and phosgene of a (chlorine, , fluorine) and has also been done by soda lime. Prior a hydrocarbon. Industrially, chlorine and research in plutonium chlorination revealed bromine are obtained by the electrolysis of that soda lime, when added to a chlorination . The most reactive halogen, fluorine, is flow loop using CCl4, apparently trapped or obtained from reacting fluorine-containing destroyed the CCl4 along with the acid . with . The resulting Later, when heat was applied to a similar soda hydrogen (HF) is then used “as is” lime reactor, CCl4 was completely and or electrolyzed to produce fluorine. Chlorine reproducibly destroyed. Subsequently, other reacts with hydrocarbons to form chloro- compounds similar to CCl4 were successfully and (HCl). Totally destroyed in this fashion. As experiments chlorinated hydrocarbons are common starting progressed, it appeared that CFCs were also species for CFCs. For example, carbon destroyed completely by this method at tetrachloride (CCl4) reacts with pure HF in the temperatures somewhat higher than those for presence of a catalyst to produce refrigerant-11 the chlorocarbons. and refrigerant-12.

6 Nuclear Materials Technology Division/Los Alamos National Laboratory Fall 1996

In all cases, the reactions are exothermic. Tube Furnace with Reaction Chamber If the halocarbon vapor is sufficiently Soda Lime (Ca, Na Oxide/Hydroxide) concentrated and is delivered constantly, the Off reaction self-sustains. Reactor core Gaseous Gases temperatures rose to 600°C during runs with Halogenated Water vapor that was continuously fed into the Volatile Vapor reactor. This phenomenon is very controllable Organic and can maximize process efficiency by using Compound the latent heat produced. Retained Solids The advantage of this process is particularly noteworthy in the nuclear Ca, Na , industry; it has great potential in destroying , Carbonates, the hazardous components of mixed waste. Carbon Halocarbons are particularly tough to remediate because of their resistance to Figure 4. The system uses soda lime conventional means of treatment. For to convert hazardous halocarbons to example, burning or of nonhazardous gases and solids. halocarbons is difficult to perform totally, and it is necessary to scrub the off-gases of the produced, such as HCl and HF. Thermal desorption of the hazardous component is the preferred method to use in tandem with the soda-lime-based system. The halocarbon species listed here The destruction of halocarbons in a soda react with soda lime to form solids lime system may be applied in many (carbon, calcium , calcium industries: automotive, aviation, carbonates) and volatile products semiconductor, dry cleaning, refrigeration, (water, carbon monoxide, and ) waste treatment, and environmental The reaction mechanisms are not yet restoration. The system can not only destroy fully understood; however, the net halocarbons from liquid inventories and result is formation of solid products forms, it can be used as a and mostly H 0. scrubber for off-gases from semiconductor 2 etching and cleaning and for destroying residual gases from dry cleaning and halocarbon refrigeration systems. For waste and the like, the soda lime system may treat vapors directly from a storage vessel. There is trichloromethane a patent pending for this destruction system, dichloromethane and an industrial partner is being sought to trichloroethene, TCE complete development and marketing. tetrachloroethene 1,1,1-trichloroethane, TCA




Nuclear Materials Technology Division/Los Alamos National Laboratory 7 The Actinide Research Quarterly

Researchers Perform Rapid, On-Line, Elemental Analysis Using Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy

Pamela K. Introduction time-resolved spectral analysis, obtaining Benicewicz of As a result of increased regulations, DOE spectra of the plasma only during a specified NMT-6 is the orders, and the Laboratory’s own commitment time , allows one to discern atomic principal investigator to safeguarding the environment, scientists are emissions from ionic emissions. We can further of this project. increasingly being tasked with developing and characterize the laser-generated plasma by Additional contribu- modifying their techniques and procedures in studying its spatial evolution. The study is tors to this work order to reduce the amount of waste they accomplished using a gated, two-dimensional include Thomas K. generate. We are developing an analytical detector, which allows the time-resolved Gamble of CST-1 technique, based on optical emission spectro- spectroscopic image of the plasma plume to and Vicente D. scopy, that promotes this goal of waste mini- be captured. Because the f-elements, such as Sandoval, James mization and can be used in situ to provide a actinides, have unique physical properties, we T. McFarlan, and rapid determination of the elements in expect that the temporal and spatial evolution D. Kirk Veirs of actinide-containing materials. of f-element plasmas will differ significantly NMT-6. Atomic emission spectroscopy of laser- from the temporal and spatial evolution of induced plasmas can be used to detect other elements, such as the transition metals. elements analytically, at ppm concentrations, The goal is to use this technique for the analysis in harsh or radioactive environments. With of trace amounts of actinides in a variety of this technique a laser beam is focused onto actinide-containing materials. the surface of a sample. A tiny portion of the This particular method of actinide and sample is vaporized, and a high-temperature hazardous material analysis has significant plasma is formed. Spectral analysis of the advantages over other, well-established plasma light shows the elemental content of analytical techniques. It is a fairly straight- the original sample. Because the forward method that requires little or no constituents of the laser-created chemical preparation of the sample, and only a Computer Detector Controller plasma are not constant in time, very small amount of material, on the order of nanogram or microgram quantities, is required for analysis. Thus, this technique approaches Buffer Gas the ideal from the perspective of waste minimization. Measurements can be carried out rapidly and on-line, thereby avoiding the long lag times associated with some other analytical Sample Vacuum techniques. In fact, elements can be identified Spectrometer Chamber Pump Detector Imaging in minutes once a reference database has been Lens established and calibrations have been made. Focusing Because the laser beam is focused to a small Lens spot (1µm–50 µm), the technique provides spatial resolution of the sample composition Pulse Generator for the evaluation of inhomogeneities. This method can also be adapted for remote analysis, which is particularly useful in radioactive environments. Nd: YAG Laser Although laser-induced plasma spectro- scopy has been in use for decades, recent improvements in the instrumentation support- Figure 5. A schematic diagram of the experimental setup used for ing this technique have been substantial. The laser-induced plasma spectroscopy. Atomic emission spectros- pulse-to-pulse stability of the output of current copy of laser-induced plasmas can be used to analyze small is much better than the output of lasers samples on-line for elements at ppm concentrations in harsh made only a few years ago, resulting in greater or radioactive environments, even remotely. accuracy and reproducibility of analytical

8 Nuclear Materials Technology Division/Los Alamos National Laboratory Fall 1996

Trace Cu (20ppm) in Gd

8 Gd II results. Detector advancements are also different pressures contributing to the improvements in this (100, 300, and 500 6 Gd I technique. Data collection can be accomplished torr) were compared. using a personal computer, and mathematical The intensity of the Gd I software is available for rapid analysis of the atomic Gd emissions 4 Gd I Gd I Gd I Cu I ? data and manipulation of the spectra. Finally, in He was over a Gd I Gd I very compact lasers now produce the pulse factor of 30 less than ? Gd II Gd I energy required for this technique. Thus, it is the intensity observed 2 Gd II Intensity (arbitrary units) feasible to develop portable instrumentation to in Ar. Although the Gd II Cu I detect and analyze actinides and hazardous intensity of the Gd 0 materials on-site. emissions in Ar is 795 800 805 810 greater than the Wavelength (nm) Results to Date intensity in N at all Experiments were conducted to study the three pressures, at 500 torr the intensity in time-resolved emission spectra and images of both gases is essentially the same. Because air Figure 6. A spec- laser-generated plasma plumes from a target is composed primarily of and because trum obtained of (Gd). We chose Gd for our 500 torr is approaching atmospheric pressure using a 5-µs experiments because many of its physical (at Los Alamos), it is reasonable to suggest integration time µ properties (e.g., ionization potential, vapor that these experiments can be performed 4 s after the pressure, heat of vaporization, etc.) that are successfully in air with no special control of laser hit the target. All of the important to the processes of laser ablation and the pressure. known Gd lines plasma formation and evolution are similar to We also wanted to determine whether any were observed. those of plutonium (Pu). The objective of this of the trace elements present in the Gd rod The ultimate goal work was to determine the initial conditions could be detected. Figure 6 is a spectrum of the research is to be used for future experiments with Pu by obtained using a 5 µs integration time 4 µs to optimize this optimizing signal detection and element after the laser hit the target. All of the known method to detect identification by varying laser energy, buffer Gd lines published in the National Bureau of trace amounts of gas, and buffer gas pressure. The ultimate goal Standards (now National Institute of Stan- actinide elements of our research is to optimize this method to dards and Technology) wavelength tables in and determine detect trace amounts of actinide elements and the wavelength range of 792 nm to 812 nm relative actinide determine relative actinide concentrations. were observed, as indicated in the figure. concentrations. A schematic of the experimental setup is Unknown peaks above 2000 most likely given in Figure 5. A 0.25-in. Gd rod containing represent Gd emissions. Both strong Cu I known quantities of trace elements (200 ppm emissions that occur in this wavelength range Tb, 50 ppm Zr, 20 ppm Cu, 20 ppm Cr, 10 ppm were observed, suggesting detection limits of Ca and 1 ppm–3 ppm Al, Fe, Si, Mn and Mg) Cu of at least 20 ppm. was housed in a sample chamber, which was evacuated and backfilled with a flowing buffer Future Directions gas. The 1.064-mm, 5-ns output of a Nd:YAG We are currently in the process of setting laser, having 15 mJ/pulse was focused onto up our laser spectroscopy system inside the the Gd target by a single lens. The plume, Plutonium Facility of Building PF-4. We will formed at a right angle to the target, was begin characterizing actinide materials by imaged onto the front entrance slit of the their atomic emissions from laser-induced spectrometer. The results of single-shot spectra plasmas in the near future, and emphasis will and images taken of the plasma plume show be on detecting trace amounts of actinide that both temporal and spatial evolution are elements. In addition, we are developing a highly dependent on buffer gas and buffer gas technique based on laser-induced fluorescence pressure. Ar rather than He enhances atomic of laser-created plasmas that uses a second, emissions in the red wavelength range. Three tunable solid-state laser to determine different buffer gases (Ar, He, and N) at three individual .

Nuclear Materials Technology Division/Los Alamos National Laboratory 9 The Actinide Research Quarterly

NMT's Contributions to the Cassini Saturn Mission Follow Division's Space Exploration Tradition (cont.)

the heat of reentering the earth’s atmosphere. Cassini will not be the first space mission Each RHU weighs only 40 grams and generates for which Los Alamos has made heat and/or one watt of thermal energy through radioactive electricity sources. In the mid-70s, before This article was decay, operating at about body temperature TA-55 or NMT Division existed, Los Alamos contributed by (35˚C–40˚C). That may not seem like much, but developed and tested heat sources for Laura Linford. it is a vast difference from the subzero temper- Voyager I and II. The heat source used for atures of space. these missions was known as the multi- Originally, Savannah River was to produce hundred watt, or “MHW,” which was about the GPHSs for the Cassini mission, but since the size of a golf ball. The new RHUs and their plutonium fuel forms facility was not GPHSs reflect a move toward a more modular operational, Los Alamos was selected by the approach; these heat sources are more like DOE in 1990 to produce the heat sources. After small building blocks that can be used in performing the necessary operational readiness varying quantities depending on specific reviews, NMT Division began producing needs. These newer heat sources (both RHUs plutonium-238 heat sources in 1993. All 157 and GPHSs) were designed here at TA-55 in RHUs necessary for Cassini and the Huygens the late 70s for the Galileo mission to Jupiter, probe, plus 23 spares, were completed in about and while the GPHSs were fabricated at two years. Just recently, the 216 GPHSs were Savannah River, the RHUs were made here. also completed. During the last few months of RTGs were also used in the Ulysses mission production, workers were on the project seven to orbit the poles of the sun. days a week and were able to complete The future holds still more opportunities approximately 25 GPHSs in one month. NMT-9 for Los Alamos to contribute heat and energy will make from 20 to 30 more GPHSs for spares, sources to space missions. The upcoming safety testing, etc. In July GPHSs were sent to Mars Pathfinder mission, set to launch in EG&G/Mound Technologies, where they will December of 1996, will be using three RHUs be installed on the three RTGs for the Cassini from TA-55 on a small rover that will explore orbiter. The RHUs will be shipped directly to the Mars surface, and a Pluto fast fly-by the Kennedy Space Center in April 1997. mission set to launch around the year 2000 A large group of scientists, engineers, and will probably use around 50 RHUs, which technicians has been working on this project. NMT Division plans to produce. Los Alamos Beside the 45 people dedicated to the project scientists and engineers from NMT and other from NMT-9, many others throughout NMT divisions are also considering the possibilities and other Laboratory divisions have contri- of other energy sources beside the RTG that is buted to the effort. NMT-9 Group Leader Tim standard today. Some of these possibilities

George and Deputy Group Leader Liz Foltyn include the conversion of PuO2 heat to elect- have headed up the GPHS project, and Gary ricity through a dynamic engine with moving Rinehart is project leader for the LWRHU parts, such as a Brayton or Stirling motor. Program. Egan McCormick and Mike Lopez Such motors would greatly increase the have been leading the fabrication effort of efficiency of Pu energy sources (from about

processing the PuO2 and hot-pressing it into 7% efficiency to 20%), but the use of moving pellet form. Bob Mathews has been in charge parts presents problems in the event of of the special cladding and shipping breakdown. Other possibilities include the use containers for the heat sources. Becky Guillen of infrared photovoltaic cells or the nondestructive safety testing of thermoelectric conversion. RHUs and GPHSs, such as checking for leak- The Cassini project is nearing its close at age and correct thermal output, Mary Ann TA-55, but NMT scientists and engineers will Reimus oversees the nondestructive safety continue to play their traditional role in space testing, and Jim Jones provides critical systems exploration, advancing mankind’s efforts to maintenance support. understand our solar system and the universe beyond.

10 Nuclear Materials Technology Division/Los Alamos National Laboratory Fall 1996

Publications, D. E. Wedman, T. O. Nelson, and K. R. Weisbrod, “Some Chemistry of the Presentations, and Reports Electrolytic Decontamination process,” the 212th National Meeting of the (April 1996–June 1996) American Chemical Society, Orlando, Florida, August 25–29, 1996.

J. R. Hurd, F. Hsue, and P. M. Rinard, “Shuffler Measurements of Previously Unverified and Unconfirmed Inventory Items,” LA-UR-96-341, 37th Annual Conference Presentations Meeting of the Institute of Nuclear Materials management (INMM), Naples, FL, The following were presented at The Com- July 28–31, 1996. bined 45th Annual X-Ray Conference and Powder Diffraction Satellite Meeting of the XVII Congress L. R. Avens, D. D. Padilla, L. W. Worl, F. C. Prenger, and D. D. Hill, “Use of of the International Union of Chrystallography, High Gradient Magnetic Separation for Actinide Applications,” NATO Ad- Denver, CO, August 3–8, 1996: L. D. Calvert vanced Study Institute on Actinides and the Environment, Crete, Greece, (deceased), P. L. Wallace (LANL), T. C. Huang July 7–19, 1996. (IBM), J.A. Kaduk (AMOCO), J. N. Dann (Osram Sylvania), M. H. Mueller (ANL), and A. C. Roberts L. Morales and J. M. Haschke, “Investigation of the Plutonium Oxide-Water (Geological Survey of Canada), “Test Data for the Reaction,” High Temperature Chemistry Gordon Research Conference, Tilden Calculation of Powder Patterns for Intermetallic School, New Hampshire, July 21–26, 1996. Phases”; J. N. Dann (Osram Sylvania), A. C. Roberts (Geological Survey of Canada), P. L. Wallace M. A. Williamson, “Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Waste: Should High (LANL), and M. H. Mueller (ANL), “Use of Calvert’s Temperature Scientists Be Interested,” Gordon Research Conference: High Test Data for the Evaluation of Powder Pattern Temperature Chemistry, Tilton, NH, July 21–26, 1996. Caluculation Programs”; and L. D. Calvert, P. L. Wallace, T. C. Huang, J. A. Kaduk, J. N. Dann, T. O. Nelson, D. E. Wedman, and H. E. Martinez, “Electrolytic Methods for the M. H. Mueller, and A. C. Roberts, “Test Data for the Decontamination of Metal Surfaces,” 23rd national Meeting of the Federation of Calculation of Powder Patterns for Intermetallic Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Societies (FACCS), Kansas , Phases,” LA-UR-96-2547, published in Advances in Missouri, Sept. 29–Oct. 4, 1996. X-ray Analysis, Vol. 40, 1996. L. A. Foster, D. G. Langner, and L. O. Ticknor, “Performance of the waste Crate The following were presented at the American Assay System at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility,” Glovebox Society Conference, San Diego, CA, July Proceedings of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management Conference, Naples, FL, 22–25, 1996: T. O. Nelson, L. E. Bronisz, R. F. Hinde, July 1996. J. Y. Huang, L. S. Kreyer, R. Laskie, H. E. Martinez, R. F. Meehan, P. Sayka, A. R. Schake, and Reports L. H. Stapf, “Design of a Glovebox Conveyor J. M. Macdonald, H. L. Nekimken, R. E. Hermes, J. M. Castro, M. E. Evans, and System”; T. O. Nelson, D. A. Romero, J. Berg, J. D. Olivas, “A New Glove for Glove Box Workers,” Los Alamos National D. Ford, J. Y. Huang, H. E. Martinez, W. R. Romero, Laboratory report LA-UR-96-2366 (August 1996). A. R. Schake, L. H. Stapf, R. Vaughn, and D. E. Wedman, “Removal of Radioactive Material “94-1 Research and Development Project Laboratory Support Status Containers from a Glovebox Using Electrolytic Report, April 1–June 30, 1996,” (compiled by Mark Dinehart). Decontamination”; D. W. Gray, S. M. Dinehart, W. D. Smyth, W. B. Smith, Bryan Howell, and Journal Publications G. Fisher, “Evaluation of an Alternative Adhesive B. Cort and P. G. Klemens, “Thermodynamic Properties of Bubbles in System for Lined Gloveboxes Using Rare Earth Aged Plutonium,” submitted to J. Alloys and Compounds, July 1996. Oxides to Enhance Radiation Shielding”; T. O. Nelson, H. E. Martinez, J. Y. Huang, R. F. Meehan, L. H. Stapf, W. G. Brough, and D. K. Dennison, “Retrofit of Existing Gloveboxes to Address Shield- ing Concerns”; M. A. Chavez, M. S. Palmer, W. B. Smith, and W. Smyth, “Expanded Roles for New NMT Web Pages Lined Gloveboxes at LANL”; L. E. Bronisz, R. F. Hinde, J. Y. Huang, L. S. Kreyer, R. Laskie, H. E. Look on the Los Martinez, R. F. Meehan, T. O. Nelson, P. Sayka, L. H. Alamos National Stapf, A. R. Schake, and D. K. Dennison (LLNL), Laboratory Web pages “Design of a Glovebox Conveyor System”; and for issues of Actinide V. D. Sandoval, Y. M. Rivera, M. A. Martinez, Research Quarterly R. A. Fernandez, and S. Pierce, “Methods for Leak and the new NMT Testing a Helium Atmosphere Glovebox.” Home Page! Click on Info by Organization, The following were presented to the American then on Divisions, then Chemical Society, I&EC Division Special Sympo- Nuclear Materials sium, Birmingham, Alabama, September 9–11, 1996: Technology Division, or go directly to http://www.lanl.gov/Internal/ K. K. S. Pillay, “Waste Minimization from Pluto- organizations/divisions/NMT/nmtdo. Look for many new links to division nium Processing”; and L. R. Avens and K. K. S. research in the future, and if you have any questions or any suggestions for Pillay, “Plutonium: It’s Past, Present, and Future.” these pages, please e-mail [email protected] (K. C. Kim).

Nuclear Materials Technology Division/Los Alamos National Laboratory 11 The Actinide Research Quarterly

NewsMakers ■ Thirteen NMT researchers received awards for their distinguished contributions of noteworthy publications, patents, technology transfers, major program developments, success- ful research proposals, or other technological innovations. The NMT Division’s Science and Technology Award Program is administered as part of the Los Alamos Award Program, approved by the DOE on a two-year trial basis, to recognize exceptional employee contributions and achievements. This year $4700 from NMT Division’s $16,700 awards program fund was earmarked for the science and technology awards. Three individual award winners are John M Haschke (NMT-5) for his publications and study of long-term storage of nuclear materials, Steven M. “Mark” Dinehart (NMT-6) for significant program development, and Jerry Foropoulos (NMT-6) for his new, innovative technology to treat volatile halocarbons (see article on page 6). There were three team awards: The salt distillation team members (NMT-2) are Vonda R. Dole, Eduardo Garcia, Walter J. Griego, and James A. McNeese for demonstrating waste- minimizing, innovative technology that can partition plutonium and clean salts. The team working on new separations technology development (NMT-6) includes members Gordon D. Jarvinen, Mary E. Barr, and Geraldine M. Purdy for developing selective extraction of actinides and novel anion exchange resins and . The third team (NMT-6) award was given to Arthur N. Morgan, Mary Esther Lucero, and Timothy O. Nelson for their work in electrolytic decontamination. ■ Karen W. Hench (NMT-4) has received her Ph.D. in Industrial Engineering from New Mexico State University. Her dissertation was entitled “Modeling Fabrication of Nuclear Components: An Integrative Approach.” It presents a two-stage approach to modeling the TA-55 foundry, one stage for optimizing foundry layout for reduced personnel exposures and the second for assessing the impact of different layouts on operational performance. The work was conducted under the supervision of David Olivas (NMT-5).

Plutonium Futures—The Science, a three-day topical conference on plutonium and the Plutonium Futures actinides is well into the planning stages for next August 25–27, 1997. It is sponsored by the Laboratory in cooperation with the American Nuclear Society. The conference will The Science address issues of national and international importance including the safe storage and ultimate disposal of surplus weapons materials and the management of large inventories of actinides from civilian nuclear power generation. The focus of the conference will be on the technical knowledge base necessary for addressing these issues. The conference will be held at the Santa Fe Hilton. For more information, please send e-mail to [email protected] or sign on to the conference Web page at http://www.lanl.gov/PuConf97/Welcome.html. This page is updated frequently with information about the conference.

Nuclear Materials Technology Division Los Alamos Mail Stop E500 NATIONAL LABORATORY Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 T55A Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 The Actinide Research Quarterly is published 505/667-2556 FAX 505/667-7966 quarterly to highlight recent achievements and ongoing programs of the Nuclear Materials Technology Division. We welcome your suggestions and contributions.

LALP-96-3 Director of NMT: Bruce Matthews Deputy Director: Dana C. Christensen Chief Scientist: Kyu C. Kim Writer/Editor: Ann Mauzy Design and Production: Susan L. Carlson

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12 Nuclear Materials Technology Division/Los Alamos National Laboratory