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Editorial Ecosystem studies at Deception , : anoverview

1. Introduction Dunbar et al., 1989, 1998; DeMaster et al., 1992) environments. The SouthernOceanrepresentsoneof the most A study of the marine ecosystem associated with extreme marine environments on Earth, character- , DeceptionIsland,inthe South ized by low temperature throughout the water , Antarctica (Fig. 1), was under- column and extensive seasonal ice cover resulting taken with the intent of utilizing a long time-series inhigh temporal variability inprimary production approach to monitoring the unique marine com- (Smith and Nelson, 1986; Arrigo et al., 1997). This munities in this polar environment throughout an fluctuating production of organic matter heavily annual cycle. Such long time-series studies are impacts the marine ecosystem. Ship-based mea- essential to understanding the impact of global surements and observations during all seasons of warming in these highly temperature-sensitive the have provided a descriptionof ecosystems environments. Evidence is now accumulating that encompassing surface to benthic communities the Peninsula area has warmed over the (Ainley et al., 1991; Lancraft et al., 1991; Siegel past half century by as much as 2.5C along the et al., 1992; Hopkins et al., 1993; Grebmeier and westerncoastline( VaughanandDoake, 1996 ; Barry, 1991; Knox, 1994). However, seasonal ice Vaughanet al., 2001 ). Warming in the Antarctic cover has impeded year-round studies of how these Peninsula , including the South Shetland ecosystems function, especially under such extreme and South Islands, has been related to conditions. changes in marine populations ranging from Long time-series studies are critical in under- predators such as (Fraser et al., 1992) standing processes affecting marine ecosystems on seals and albatross to prey such as krill (Reid and seasonal and annual time scales (Austenet al., Croxall, 2001). 1991; Brodeur and Ware, 1992; Deuser et al., Port Foster, the sunken, seawater flooded 1995). Such studies are especially important in of DeceptionIsland,was chosenfor our geographic , such as the , studies because of its proximity to Antarctic that experience high annual variability in physi- stations located within the cally and/or chemically mediated processes (e.g., and along the northwestern side of the Antarctic Franklin, 1989). In situ long-term monitoring has Peninsula (Fig. 1) where long time-series climate beenemployed successfully inthe SouthernOcean and marine community data have been collected to document extreme temporal variability in the for decades. DeceptionIslandis also the site of sinking of particulate matter (e.g., Collier et al., several scientific stations occupied by British, 2000). Much of this variability appears related to Chilean, Argentine and Spanish contingents since seasonal ice cover and the production of organic the mid-1930s. This island also afforded a unique matter inthe surface waters of both open-ocean opportunity to work in a semi-enclosed environ- (Wefer et al., 1988; Fischer et al., 1988; Wefer and ment that could be monitored effectively with Fischer, 1991) and shelf (Fukuchi et al., 1988; long-term instrumentation while being free from

0967-0645/03/$ - see front matter r 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/S0967-0645(03)00081-X ARTICLE IN PRESS

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Fig. 1. Regional map: (A) southern tip of and the Antarctic , (B) South Shetland Island Chain with DeceptionIslandhighlighted. the damaging effects of the increasing prevalence of chain. This island chain parallels the northeastern icebergs due to warming in the peninsular region. curvature of the but is separated from the Antarctic continent by the 2. Area of investigation narrow Bransfield Strait (Fig. 1B). The volcanic activity of DeceptionIslandis attributed to its 2.1. Geological setting locationinthe confluenceof two tectonically active features, the southwesternsectionof Brans- is an active on the field Trough and the intersecting southern exten- southwestern end of the South Shetland Island sionof the Hero Fracture zone( Rey et al., 1995). ARTICLE IN PRESS

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The South Shetland Island formed in 1977; Drago, 1987). This transported material associationwith subductionof the Drake plate settles to the sea floor (Fratt and Dearborn, 1984) into the South Shetland trench (Barker and resulting in a relatively flat expanse of sand and silt Austin, 1998). Barker and Austin (1998) suggest across the caldera that ranges in water depths from that tectonic crustal extension in the back-arc 130 to 160 m. Bathymetric records between1949 region behind the South Shetland Islands formed and 1993 indicate shoaling rates of up to 0.5 m per the Bransfield Strait. Seismic-wave field analyses annum that have been attributed to fluvial re- of events centered at Deception Island (Iban! ˜ ez deposition and pyroclastic input (Cooper et al., et al., 2000)and3He values (Schlosser et al., 1988) 1998). Small volcanic cones are located around the measured inthe BransfieldStrait waters further southernendof Port Foster ( Fig. 2)wherethe support the interpretation that volcanism at highest rates of uplifting occur (Cooper et al., 1998). DeceptionIslandis associated with eruptionof The surrounding slopes of Port Foster are mid-ocean-ridge-like in a back-arc environ- generally precipitous at higher elevations tapering ment. There is regular seismic activity attributed to gradually to a series of cliffs, runoff canyons and both tectonic and volcanic processes at Deception narrow beaches. Small embayments exist including Island. Volcanic activity at Deception Island, has Whalers Bay and on the eastern been prevalent over the last century, with erup- shoreline and Fumarole Bay on the western tions in 1967, 1969 and 1970 (Baker et al., 1975). shoreline (Fig. 2). TelefonBay at the northern The of Deception Island extends extent of Port Foster is the site of the volcanic to 542 m above sea level (), with an eruption in 1967 which formed a new island emergent diameter of 15 km (Marti et al., 1996). A (Orheim, 1972). The most recent eruptions in 1969 large flooded caldera located inthe centerof the and 1970 were centered on Mount Pond, creating island communicates with the surrounding Brans- several large fissures inthe permanentice cover. field Strait through a narrow channel (Neptune’s Fumarolic emissions, thermal springs, and sedi- Bellows) (Fig. 2) is approximately 550 m wide at ments generally occur along a principal fracture the narrowest point with a sill depth of 11 m. The that transects the island in a NE–SW direction large protected embayment formed within the encompassing the areas of Fumarole Bay, Telefon caldera, Port Foster, is 9.8 km long by 5.7 km Bay, and Pendulum Cove (Ortiz et al., 1992). wide situated along a northwest to southeast axis Temperatures of fumarolic discharges as high as with the opening to Bransfield Strait through the 110C have beenrecorded inthe area of Fumarole collapsed southeast wall of the volcanic cone. The Bay depending on the tidal cycle. Bottom-water sharp topography of the surrounding walls of the temperatures of 2–3C have beenreported inthe volcano is overlain by pyroclastic ash and - central and northern sector of Port Foster, that is snow-covered from June through suggesting geothermal heating (Ortiz et al., November. Glaciated portions of the prominent 1992). At low tide, steam rises from the overlying peaks, Mount Pond and Mount Kirkwood, extend waters and beach primarily in the to the periphery of the island on the eastern and vicinity of Fumarole and Whalers Bay, and southernshore line( Marti et al., 1996) covering Pendulum Cove. Emissions of H2SandH2 have approximately 57% of the island (Smellie et al., beenreported inthe vicinityof Fumarole Bay 1997). This permanent ice also extends down to the (Ortiz et al., 1992). Methane concentrations in beaches as ice-cored in several locations Port Foster indicate some venting of hydrothermal along the eastern shoreline of Port Foster. The fluids (Tilbrook and Karl, 1993). High concentra- outer perimeter of DeceptionIslandis character- tions of Fe, Mn and Si in water collected nearshore ized by precipitous cliffs and exposed outcrops of andinfreshwater lakes onDeceptionIsland basalt and permanent ice that are frequently indicate volcanic enrichment (Elderfield, 1972). buffeted by wind-driven seas. Transport of sedi- There are 11 freshwater ponds and lakes ment (lapilli-tuff) by wind and melt water into Port surrounding the caldera ranging from o1to Foster has beendocumented ( Gallardo et al., 36 m indepth andfrom 2.6 Â 103 to ARTICLE IN PRESS

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Fig. 2. Chart of Deception Island with corrected bathymetry of Port Foster and showing, fumaroles= (Cooper et al., 1998), submarine volcanic domes= (Rey et al., 1995) SSSI sites (A and B), long-term mooring locations (A—thermistor array, B— thermistor array with acoustic Doppler current profiler, C—thermistor array, D— traps and time-lapse camera, E—vertically profiling acoustic array, F—vertically profiling pump sampler), pelagic and benthic trawling transect, and the Terrestrial station (m).

298.3 Â 103 m2 inarea ( Drago, 1989). The largest Great Britainin1819, with its subsequentcharting lake (Lake #9) lies inclose proximity to the in 1820. The principal interest in these islands was northern shore of Port Foster (Fig. 2). The only the southernfur seal populations,which were visible terrestrial vegetationonthe islandare exploited to near extinction by 1830. The com- patches of and bryophytes located primar- mercial enterprise of reached the Antarc- ily inareas of moisture andsubstrate stability tic in the late 1800s, and a Norwegian Whaling (Smith, 1988). station was built and operated from 1910 until 1931 inWhalers Bay, the protected embayment 2.2. Historical perspective just inside Neptune’s Bellows (Fig. 2). Depletionof whale stocks inthe Antarctic brought the demise The South Shetland Islands, including Decep- of the whaling station at Deception Island. tion Island, were first explored and claimed by However, the developed ARTICLE IN PRESS

Editorial / Deep-Sea Research II 50 (2003) 1595–1609 1599 the old Norwegianwhalingstationat Whalers Bay similar frequency distributions of size and devel- into a scientific station in 1944. In subsequent opmental stage in the two locations at the same Argentine and Chilean stations were estab- time. These findings suggested that E. crystal- lished inPort Foster at Fumarole Bay and lorophias from Port Foster and Bransfield Strait Pendulum Cove, respectively. A major eruption belonged to the same population. Other pelagic inthe vicinityof TelefonBay caused the tempor- species identified included the notothenioid fishes ary evacuationof these stationsin1967. A Notothenia newnesi and Champsocephalus gunnari subsequenteruptiononMountPondin1969 (Everson, 1987). produced a heavy deluge of pyroclastic material Benthic communities reported from Port Foster in the area of Pendulum Cove and Whalers Bay, include species found at comparable depths else- burying portions of the Chilean and British where inthe Antarctic ( Arntz et al., 1994). Littoral stations, leading to their final evacuations at that and sub-littoral macroalgae within Port Foster time. These two stations have never been rebuilt, include species of Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and and only two seasonal bases currently exist on Rhodophyta belonging primarily to widely dis- Deception Island, the Argentine station and a tributed Antarctic, polar and cold-water species Spanish seismic station, both located on the shore (Claytonet al., 1997 ; Gallardo et al., 1999). of Fumarole Bay. The remains of the whaling Macrobenthic fauna in Port Foster is character- stationandthe British stationat Whalers Bay were ized by low taxonomic richness and high biomass designated a historic site under the Antarctic compared to other sampling areas within the treaty of 1995. Tour ships frequent Port Foster South Shetland Islands (Arnaud et al., 1998). in austral summer, disembarking their passengers Arnaud et al. (1998) describe a depth zonation of to explore this historic site and the fumarole areas dominant benthic taxa in Port Foster with in Pendulum Cove. There is considerable concern Ascidiacea between40 and50 m, Echinoidea about increasing tourism and its impact on this Regularia from 100 to 150 m and Ophiuroidea ‘‘fragile ecosystem’’ (Smith, 1988). Sites of special dominating below 150 m. These faunistic zona- scientific interest (SSSI; Fig. 2) were established in tions are coincident with changes in sediment type both marine and terrestrial sites at Deception from gravel at the shallow stations to sandy and Island by the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 ultimately muddy sediments at the deepest depths. to protect areas from anthropogenic intervention The dominance of benthic suspension feeders at and permit long-term studies on the impact of shallower depths has beenrelated to a close volcanic activity on the associated communities of coupling with food in the overlying water (Saiz- organisms. Salinas and Ramos, 1999). The dominant macro- benthic fauna were the echinoid, Sterechinus 2.3. Biological perspective neumayeri and the ophiuroid, Ophionotus victoriae (Gallardo et al., 1977; Retamal et al., 1982; Fratt No definitive studies of the pelagic and benthic and Dearborn, 1984; Gallardo, 1987; Arnaud et al., communities within Port Foster were conducted 1998). Gallardo et al. (1977) found that the structure prior to our studies that were initiated in 1999. The and composition of the benthic community in Port pelagic fauna, particularly krill populations of Foster were altered after the 1967 eruptionand Euphausia crystallorophias, E. superba and Thysa- attributed these changes to volcanic perturbation. noessa sp. were identified in Port Foster (Everson, Top predators onDeceptionIslandandinthe 1987; Brinton and Townsend, 1991). E. crystal- immediate vicinity of Port Foster during our study lorophias and E. superba have beenfoundincapa- included gentoo (Pygoscelis papua) and chinstrap citated along the beach in Pendulum Cove as a (P. antarctica) penguins, frequently seen gliding result of elevated hydrothermal temperatures through the water insearch of krill or restingon (Brierley, 1999). Brinton and Townsend (1991) the beaches (Kendall et al., 2003). The petrel compared E. crystallorophias inPort Foster with (Daption capense) nested in the high cliffs near populations in the Bransfield Strait and found Neptune’s Bellows and sought pelagic prey both ARTICLE IN PRESS

1600 Editorial / Deep-Sea Research II 50 (2003) 1595–1609 inside and outside of Port Foster. Other avian within Port Foster utilizing remote sensing in- inhabitants were the Antarctic skua (Catharacta strumentation for continuous sampling combined antarctica) and kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus). The with seasonal sampling on cruises. Our field dominant mammal on the island is the southern program at DeceptionIsland,ERUPT, beganin fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella), which frequently March 1999 and continued through November forms large aggregations on southwestern beaches 2000 (Table 1). Measurements and sampling of Port Foster near Neptune’s Bellows. ranged from local weather to the physical, chemical, biological and geological oceanography of Port Foster. Ice cover, air temperature and wind 3. Climatic conditions of area velocity (Table 1) were monitored by the Terres- trial stationlocated onthe northernridge of Day length ranges from a winter minimum of 5– DeceptionIsland(see Fig. 3). 6 h to a summer maximum of 19–20 h at this To characterize the water column, three ther- latitude (cf. Smith and Sakshaug, 1990), with mistor arrays were positioned in the central area of seasonal ice covering up to 80% of Port Foster in Port Foster to measure water temperature at 10-m July and August (Igarzabal, 1974). Increasing air intervals from the bottom to within 20 m of the temperature in the western Antarctic Peninsula surface (Fig. 4). Anacoustic Doppler current regionover the past half centuryhas been profiler was placed at the base of one of these correlated with high inter-annual variability of thermistor moorings to provide an integrated coverage (Smith et al., 1996), suggesting measure of current velocity throughout the water that ice cover withinPort Foster is changingas column. An acoustically activated pop-up buoy well. There is also a statistical coherence between was secured to the top of each array at 20 m depth air temperature and ice cover with the Southern to avoid contact with ice and surface ships while Oscillation Index, a major indicator of El Nino permitting instrument recovery and data retrieval. SouthernOscillationevents( Smith et al., 1996). Vertical profiles of salinity, temperature, dissolved Because of the changing climatic conditions oxygen, fluorescence, transmissivity and irradiance reported for the region surrounding Deception data, and water samples for nutrient analyses were Island, we developed a long time-series Terrestrial collected using a CTD/rosette at seven stations in station to continuously monitor air temperature Port Foster during each cruise (Table 1). Sampling and wind velocity as well as take a daily picture of stations included the north, center and southern Port Foster to record weather and sea-ice condi- end of Port Foster, Stanley Patch and the tions from a promontory on the northern ridge at peripheral coves (Whaler’s Bay, Pendulum Cove, 200 m altitude (Fig. 2). Over the period of TelefonBay andFumarole Bay: Fig. 2). Salinity deployment from 12 March 1999 until 21 Novem- and temperature data along with water samples ber 2000, the temperature at the Terrestrial station  were collected from shallow near-shore and beach ranged from À12.6 inAugust 2000 to 2.7 Cin interstitial water sites, especially targeting areas March 1999. Daily average wind speeds were with water temperatures higher thanambient highest inJune(47.4 m s À1) but highly variable indicating hydrothermal activity. throughout the year. Ice became visible inthe daily Anupward-lookingacoustic array was devel- photographs of Port Foster inJuly anddisappeared oped and moored on the sea floor to monitor the inNovember 2000 ( Smith et al., 2003). Representa- vertical distribution, movements and size of tive photographs of ice-free and ice-covered condi- acoustically reflective targets (macrozoplankton tionsinPort Foster are shownin Fig. 3. and micronekton) through the water column (Fig. 4). To provide identification of the faunal targets 4. Erupt program recorded with the acoustic array, a vertically profiling pump sampler was developed. This pump The primary goal of our study was to monitor sampler was designed to make timed excursions to the seasonal changes in the marine ecosystem the surface while collecting and preserving the ARTICLE IN PRESS

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(A) Ice Free

(B) Ice Cover

Fig. 3. Terrestrial station photographs of Deception Island and Port Foster viewed from the northern ridge looking south with Lake #9 in the foreground and Neptune’s Bellows in the distance to the southeast and Mount Kirkwood to the southwest. (A) Port Foster under ice-free conditions on 16 April 1999. (B) Port Foster with ice cover on 12 September 2000. pelagic fauna by depth with each profile. Phyto- Fig. 4) to collect the sinking particulate matter at plankton were collected with towed, open surface 10–18-day intervals for organic and inorganic nets and enumerated seasonally. Macrozooplank- chemical analyses (Table 1). At the bottom of this ton and micronekton were sampled at discrete mooring was a time-lapse camera system to take 50-m depth intervals from the surface to the hourly photographs of the sea floor and record bottom on a diel schedule using 1 and 10 m2 events as well as the distribution, multiple opening/closing net systems on each cruise size and movements of the epibenthic megafauna. (Table 1). A portable weighing station was estab- Benthic surveys were conducted on the first two lished ashore at the northern end of Port Foster to cruises with anROV equipped with a video measure fresh biomass of dominant pelagic species camera (Table 1). A small pistonoperated grab avoiding problems with shipboard motion. respirometer (POGR) was deployed oncruises to Sediment traps equipped with timed sequencers measure insitu sedimentcommunity oxygen were moored at 50 and 20 m above bottom consumption and recover sediment for chemical incentralPort Foster (160 m total water depth; and biological analyses and infaunal abundance ARTICLE IN PRESS

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Table 1 Summary of time-series measurements and sampling conducted at Deception Island from March 1999 through November 2000

Sampling month 1999 2000

Erupt cruises M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N I II III IV V

Measurements/sampling Weather Wind speed/direction M––––––––––––J M––––––––––––––––––––N Air temperature M––––––––––––J M––––––––––––––––––––N Photographic monitoring M––––––––––––J M––––––––––––––––––––N

Oceanography Water column Ice cover monitoring M––––––––––––J M––––––––––––––––––––N Current speed/direction F–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––N Temperature Long term (thermistor array) M––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––N Short term (CTD) M N F M/J N Salinity M N F M/J N

Nutrients (NO3, SiO4,PO4)M NFM/JN Dissolved oxygenM N F M/J N Chlorophyll/phaeopigments (in vivo—surface)M N F M/J N Sinking particulate matter (50 mab, 20 mab) Total mass M––––––––––––––––––––––––––––D M/J–––––––––––––––––––––N Total carbonM––––––––––––––––––––––––––––D M/J–––––––––––––––––––––N Inorganic carbon M––––––––––––––––––––––––––––D M/J–––––––––––––––––––––N Organic carbon M––––––––––––––––––––––––––––D M/J–––––––––––––––––––––N Total nitrogen M––––––––––––––––––––––––––––D M/J–––––––––––––––––––––N Chlorophyll-a M––––––––––––––––––––––––––––D M/J–––––––––––––––––––––N Phaeopigments M––––––––––––––––––––––––––––D M/J–––––––––––––––––––––N Phytoplankton Species compositionM N F M/J N Abundance M N F M/J N Macrozooplankton Species compositionM N F M/J N Vertical distributionM N F M/J N Abundance M N F M/J N Biomass M N F M/J N Micronekton Species compositionM N F M/J N Vertical distributionM N F M/J N Abundance M N F M/J N Biomass M N F M/J N

Sediments Bathymetry M N Chemical composition Total carbonN F M/J N Inorganic carbon N F M/J N Organic carbon N F M/J N Total nitrogen N F M/J N Chlorophyll-a/phaeopigments N F M/J N Macrofauna/meiofauna Species compositionN F M/J N Abundance N F M/J N ARTICLE IN PRESS

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Table 1 (continued)

Sampling month 1999 2000

Erupt cruises M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N I II III IV V

Biomass N F M/J N Sediment community oxygen consumption N F M/J N

Epibenthic megafauna Species compositionM N F M/J N DistributionM N F M/J N Abundance M N F M/J N Movement (activity)b M–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––F M/J–––––––––––––––––––N

Fishes Species compositionM N F M/J N Abundance M N M/J N ReproductionM N F M/J N Diet M N F M/J N Parasites M N F M/J N

Marine birds and mammals Species compositionM N F N Abundance M N F N DistributionM N F N

Instrumentation Weather Terrestrial stationM–––––––––––––J M/J–––––––––––––––––––N Oceanography Thermistor array M–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––N ADP F———————————————N Sediment traps M––––––––––––––––––––––––––––D M/J——————————N Upward-looking acoustic array M/J——————————N Pump samplera F–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––N Time-lapse camera M–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––F M/J—————————–N Pistonoperated grab respirometer N F M/J N ROV survey M N

The five ERUPT cruises are denoted by roman numerals and represent those periods of point measurements and sampling (capitol letter for month of sampling). Time series measurements are denoted by solid lines joining the periods of continous monitoring. a Pump sampler deployed did not function. b Data not presented in this volume.

and biomass. Sediment samples were also obtained mammal populations within Port Foster were with grab samplers and gravity corers. Epibenthic surveyed onall but onecruise ( Table 1). megafauna including demersal fishes were photo- A common trawling transect was chosen for all graphed along a transect line (Fig. 2) with a the pelagic and benthic trawling, which extended camera sled; anotter trawl was used to sample over the length of Port Foster from northwest to these conspicuous animals for identification, bio- southeast, avoiding any obstructions in bottom mass and chemical analyses. Small boat surveys topography and our long-term moorings while still allowed sampling of intertidal and subtidal sedi- leaving the ship ample freedom to adjust course ments with their associated biota. The avian and for changing weather conditions (Fig. 2). ARTICLE IN PRESS

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large chunks of aeolian ash jammed the collection mechanism on the pump sampler. These problems were overcome through the program and the resulting data sets, although interrupted during the time-series, still provide an unprecedented long-term examination of an Antarctic ecosystem. The thermistor arrays proved to be the most reliable instrumentation, recording water tempera- ture throughout the study (Table 1). DeceptionIslandis a very unique ecosystem that is restricted insize andhas several terrestrial and marine areas designated as sensitive sites (SSSI) to be avoided. Because of this situationwe chose a sampling program of the pelagic and benthic biota to minimize our impact on this ecosystem so that our collections would not create an anthropogenic disturbance. All trash was held onboard each cruise, the wastewater was only expelled from holding tanks when the ship was well clear of Deception Island, and all mooring anchors were removed at the end of the study.

4.1. Significant findings

This section includes the principal findings presented in the following 15 contributions in the volume.

* DeceptionIslandis a very active volcano Fig. 4. Graphic presentation of Deception Island showing the although there have been no eruptions reported long-term moorings. since 1970. Seismic networks consisting of a variety of instruments, including radio-teleme- During the first cruise of the ERUPT program tered stations, autonomous digital seismic sta- in March 1999, the long time-series instrumenta- tions, broadband seismometers, and seismic tion, including the Terrestrial station, thermistor arrays, have identified two main types of seismic arrays, sediment traps and time-lapse camera, was signals generated by the volcano, namely deployed to record and collect samples throughout volcanic tremor and long-period events and the field program with servicing on each subse- volcano-tectonic earthquakes. Volcanic tremors quent cruise (Table 1). The upward-looking and long-period events occur in seismic swarms acoustic array, POGR and pump sampler were lasting from hours to days (Iban! ˜ ez et al., 2003). deployed later inthe program. High windspeeds * A descriptionof the equipmentdeveloped to (>65 m sÀ1) and wind-blown and ice provide long time-series monitoring of the caused unexpected damage to our Terrestrial Deception Island ecosystem is presented, in- station, requiring major repair and downtime cluding: (1) an autonomous weather station amounting to almost 1 year. The low temperature (Terrestrial station) to record daily conditions and corrosive nature of the waters in Port Foster and ice cover, (2) an underwater time-lapse created problems with the acoustic Doppler camera/sediment trap array to photograph profiler (ADP) and sediment trap arrays, while the seafloor and sequentially collect sinking ARTICLE IN PRESS

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particulate matter, (3) anacoustic array to at both sampling depths in Port Foster. SCOC, monitor movements of macrozooplankton and anestimate of carbondemandby the sediment nekton, (4) an autonomous, vertically profiling community, exceeded the organic carbon flux to pump sampler to collect macrozooplankton, (5) the seafloor (supply) and alternative sources of thermistor arrays to record water temperatures organic carbon input to the benthos are withinthe water column,(6) anADP to record discussed (BaldwinandSmith, 2003 ). current velocities, and (7) a POGR to measure * The caldera floor of Port Foster is covered with sediment community oxygen consumption and a layer of yellowish-brown volcaniclastic sandy recover surface sediments (Glatts et al., 2003). mud composed primarily of basaltic-andesitic * A Terrestrial stationinstalled ona ridge 200 m lithic fragments and volcanic glass. Minimum above Port Foster measured weather, ice and sediment accumulation rate was estimated to be snow conditions. Daily averaged wind speeds at least 5 mm yrÀ1. There has beenlittle change ranged from 0.2 m sÀ1 inOctober to 47.4 m s À1 in foraminiferal abundance since the mid-1970s in June with wind prevailing from the southwest but changes were observed in the species and less frequently from the northeast. Daily dominance (Gray et al., 2003). averaged air temperatures ranged from * The copepod Metridia gerlachi inPort Foster À12.6C inAugust to 2.7 C inMarch. Ice had three generations per year with a popula- cover onPort Foster beganinlate July 2000 tionmaximum of >200 m À3 inJune2000. M. and was intermittently visible through early gerlachei were estimated to remove 68–205% of November (Smith et al., 2003). phytoplankton standing stock per day when * Water temperature inPort Foster is stratified in this species was most prevalent (King and the austral summer, but is overcome by shear LaCasella, 2003). instability as the water cools in the fall/winter, * From March 1999 through February 2000 the probably due to wind stress. Tides and solar pelagic community in Port Foster was domi- radiation forcing dominate diurnal and semi- nated by krill, primarily E. crystallorophias and diurnal variability, and the presence of baro- E. superba. The pelagic community composition clinic tides and internal waves indicate that the shifted during early 2000, and samples from currents interact with the complex topography May and November 2000 contained a more inside Port Foster. Water parcels have a mean diverse assemblage and large numbers of non- residence time of 2.4 years in Port Foster with a migrating cydippid ctenophores. This change in 1% volume exchange over each tidal cycle composition was accompanied by displacement (Lenn et al., 2003). of the biomass mode to greater depths (Kauf- * During the seasons of light limitation and low mann et al., 2003). primary productivity, local currents were effec- * RNA:DNA inthe krill, E. superba, mirrored the tive at redistributing dissolved biochemical chlorophyll-a concentration in the water col- components throughout Port Foster. In austral umn of Port Foster, being highest during spring summer the dissolved nutrient and oxygen peaks in phytoplankton abundance. Activities distributions reflected consumption of nutrients of lactate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase by primary producers. The mid-depth max- were higher inmale E. superba, suggesting their imum observed inammonia profiles implies higher burst and swim performance. Enzyme excretionof metabolites by residentpelagic activity and RNA:DNA suggest E. superba fauna (Sturz et al., 2003). exhibit reduced metabolism during the winter * Particulate matter fluxes measured at 20 and whenphytoplanktonproductionis reduced 50 mab increased in mid-winter and were (Cullenet al., 2003 ). positively correlated with local wind speed. * The epibenthic community at Port Foster was Fluxes were higher at 20 mab and there was primarily composed of deposit-feeding taxa, an inverse relationship between mass flux and with the ophiuroid, O. victoriae, the dominant % organic carbon and particulate total nitrogen organism. Comparative trawls off Livingston ARTICLE IN PRESS

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and King George Islands yielded a more diverse understanding during all phases of our study. Al epibenthic assemblage, with a dominant sus- Sutherland participated on our first cruise to pension-feeding community of sponges and Deception Island, providing enthusiastic support tunicates. Sediment infauna had a high abun- on deck and ashore. His skills with hand-held GPS dance of foraminifera, nematodes, and poly- helped in positioning the Terrestrial station while chaetes. The major contributors to infaunal avoiding SSSI sites. Bob Wilson participated on biomass were bivalve mollusks and polychaetes two cruises to carefully chart the bathymetry of (Lovell and Trego, 2003). Port Foster. Wayne Pawelek served as an invalu- * O. victoriae, anophiuroid, S. neumayeri,a able associate, preparing many of our free vehicle regular echinoid, and Porifera were the most instruments for deployments, especially the pump abundant taxa of epibenthic megafauna in Port sampler system ontwo cruises. REU support from Foster. Abundances of O. victoriae and S. NSF allowed the participationof 16 undergradu- neumayeri peaked in June 2000, coinciding with ate students who were invaluable in our pelagic a large number of small individuals (Cranmer and benthic trawling operations. Sarah Gray and et al., 2003) Henry Ruhl painstakingly prepared the chart of * Elevenspecies of fishes were recorded inthe Deception Island incorporating the latest bathy- study region, all in the suborder Notothenioi- metric measurements made on each cruise. dei. Some benthic feeding fishes from Port Foster had heavy worm parasite infestation, possibly due inpart to the embayment’s References sheltered nature (Ruhl et al., 2003). * A temperature-tolerant interstitial worm with Ainley, D.G., Fraser, W.R., Smith, W.O., Hopkins, T.L., associated epibiotic bacteria was the most Torres, J.J., 1991. The structure of upper level pelagic food abundant faunal species found in shallow water webs in the Antarctic: effect of phytoplankton distribution. fumaroles. Incontrastto other metazoan Journal Marine Systems 2, 111–122. Arnaud, P.M., Lopez, C.M., Olaso, I., Ramil, F., Ramos- meiofauna, the distribution of this species is Espla, A.A., Ramos, A., 1998. Semi-quantitative study of positively correlated with the water tempera- macrobenthic fauna in the region of the South Shetland ture. The outer surface of these animals was Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula. Polar Biology 19, colonized by apparently symbiotic, rod-like 160–166. bacteria (Bright et al., 2003). Arntz, W.E., Brey, T., Gallardo, V.A., 1994. Antarctic * zoobenthos. Oceanography Marine Biology Annual Review The was the dominant 32, 241–304. and its abundance has increased since Arrigo, K.R., Wothen, D.L., Lizotte, M.P., Dixon, P., the 1986/1987 austral summer season. Chin- Dieckmann, G., 1997. Primary production in Antarctic sea strap penguins were the most dominant sea- ice. Science 276, 394–397. birds. The most dominant flying were Austen, M.C., Buchanan, J.B., Hunt, H.G., Josefson, A.B., Kendall, M.A., 1991. Comparison of long-term trends in the kelp gulls and cape petrels (Kendall et al., benthic and pelagic communities of the North Sea. Journal 2003). Marine Biological Association 71, 179–190. Baker, P.E., McReath, I., Harvey, M.R., Roobol, M.J., Davies, Acknowledgements T.G., 1975. The of the South Shetland Islands. V. Volcanic evolution of Deception Island. British Antarctic Survey Scientific Reports 10, 81. The ERUPT program was successful only Baldwin, R.J., Smith Jr., K.L., 2003. Temporal dynamics of through the efforts of many participants and particulate matter fluxes and sediment community response support personnel including the Captain and crew inPort Foster, DeceptionIsland, Antarctica. Deep-Sea of R.V.L.M. Gould and the technical support Research II, this issue (doi: 10.1016/S0967-0645(03)00089-4). Barker, D.H., AustinJr., J.A., 1998. propagation, crews of ASA and later Raytheon. We thank our detachment faulting and associated magmatism in Brans- NSF sponsors, Polly Penhale, Edward Carpenter, field Strait, Antarctic Peninsula. American Geophysical and Al Sutherland for support and generous Union 91, 24017–24043. ARTICLE IN PRESS

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K.L. Smith Jr.* A. Sturz Marine Biology Research Division, Scripps Marine and Environmental Studies Program, Institution of Oceanography, 9500 Gilman Drive, University of San Diego, 5998 Alcala Park, San La Jolla, CA 92093-0202, USA Diego, CA 92110-2492, USA E-mail address: [email protected]

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +1-858-534-4858; fax: +1- 858-534-7313.