International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) ISSN: 2319-7064 ResearchGate Impact Factor (2018): 0.28 | SJIF (2018): 7.426 Review of Advance Rocket Engine
Research Scholar, Chandigarh University, Punjab (India)
Abstract: The rocket engine is the main and very important part of the space transportation system. In this paper an attempt has been made about the history of Rocket Engine, types of Rocket Engines and future scope in the technology of theRocket Engines. Also, an attempt about physics behind the jets, and advantages and disadvantages of every rocket engine is made in this review paper.
1. Introduction creating incendiary weapons from the mid-eighth to the end of the thirteenth century—two of which are rockets. The first Rocket Engines are basically used to store the rocket mass of recipe calls for one part, which is sulfur, added to six parts rocket propellant for forming its high speed propulsive jet. of saltpeter (potassium nitrate) dissolved in laurel oil, then Those vehicles which are propelled by rocket engines are inserted into hollow wood and lit to actually fly away commonly known as rockets. Rockets function on the whenever you want, to whatever destination you wish and principle of Newton’s 3rd law of motion. We always see that burn up everything. The second recipe combines a pound of most of the rocket engines use combustion, but non- sulfur, two pounds of charcoal, and six pounds of saltpeter— combusting (such as cold gas thrusters) forms also exist. all finely powdered on a marble slab. Then this powder mixture is packed firmly into a long and narrow case. The In comparison, of rocket engine to other types of jet engines, saltpeter’s introduction into pyrotechnic mixtures connected rocket engines are by far the lightest, have the highest thrust the shift from hurled Greek fire into self-propelled rocketry. and have least propellant efficiency. Rocket engines become more efficient with higher velocities, due to greater Rocket type engines were also used by Tippu Sultan, the propulsive efficiency and the Oberth effect. Since they do king of Mysore. These rockets could be of various sizes, but not require any atmosphere, they are well suited for uses at commonly consisted or used of a tube of soft hammered iron very high altitudes and in space. about 8 in (20 cm) long and 1 1⁄2–3 in (3.8–7.6 cm) diameter, closed at one end and strapped to a shaft of bamboo about 4 ft (120 cm) longer. The iron tube which was 2. History of Rocket Engine used acted as a combustion chamber and it contained well packed black powder propellant. A rocket carries about one According to ancient Roman writings, AulusGellius, Inc. pound of powder which could travel almost 1,000 yards (910 400 BC, a Greek Pythagorean named Archytas, propelled a m). These 'rockets', fitted with swords used some different wooden bird along wires using steam. However, it type of sharp objects and had a long peak which could travel would not appear because it did not have so much amount of long distances, several meters above in air before coming thrust. down with sword edges facing the enemy. These rockets were used against the British empire very effectively. In the 13th century, a turning point in rocket technology Here is the history of Rocket engines, described in Table. emerged with a short typescript entitled which were as follows :- LiberIgniumadComburendos Hosts (abbreviated as The Book of Fires). The typescript is composed of recipes for
name of Scientist Description Use of its application Limitation It did not produce much
Archytas (400 BC) using steam amount of thrust, to fly ____ somebody. The principle behind it was not well understood, and its Aeolipile Hero’s Engine(Steam Rocket) Steam rocket on bearing full potential was not realized for a millennium. It was only used for small Chinese Taoist alchemists Black Powder Fire arrows objects. It has recipe that combines one pound of sulfur, two pounds of Use for creating incendiary Liber IgniumadComburendos Hosts charcoal, and six pounds of weapons. saltpeter—all finely powdered on _____ a marble slab. Conrad Haas(German military Construction to multistage Use as missiles engineer in (159-1576)) rockets. ______Is was not published for a Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (19th century) Liquid-fueled rocket engines. Tsiolkovsky rocket equation. long time Robert Goddar (American Physicist Modern Liquid-fueled rocket First to use a De Laval nozzle and –(in 20th century)) engines. this was the birth of modern ______Volume 8 Issue 4, April 2019 www.ijsr.net Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY Paper ID: ART20197345 10.21275/ART20197345 1556 International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) ISSN: 2319-7064 ResearchGate Impact Factor (2018): 0.28 | SJIF (2018): 7.426 Rocket engine Wernher von Braun and Hellmuth Liquid fueled rocket engine Installing liquid fueled rockets in Higher temperature is a big Walter (German scientists in (1930)) military aircraft problem for the nozzle. Alexey Isaev (in 1949) Staged combustion Used in Soviet planetary rockets Nikolai Kuznetsov Close cycle engine Used in formation of NK-9 ,NK- Unsuccessful Lunar N1 15,NK-33 engine rocket Ludwig Boelkow (in 1963) Combustion test engine ______Hydrogen Peroxide / Kerosene This gave the efficiency Gamma (British scientist) _____ fueled engine advantage of staged combustion Hydrogen engine were use in American scientist (1962) Liquid Hydrogen Engine (RL-10) _____ Apollo program. Scientist of NASA (2016) Black Brant XII Most popular sounding Rockets _____
Here in Table[ 1]. There are names of scientists with their rocket as hydrazine, concept, is contaminated rocket experiments and their limitations. hydrogen throttleable& easily, peroxide or low monopropellants Different type of Rocket engines nitrous oxide) temperatures in can detonate if flows over a combustion they are catalyst and chamber. contaminated or On the different type of power source the rocket engines are exothermically provoked, Isp is different which was given as follows:- decomposes; hot perhaps 1/3 of gases are best liquids 2.1 Physical powered emitted through the nozzle. Type Description Advantage Disadvantage Up to ~99% Pumps needed efficient Water Partially filled Very simple to Altitude typically for high combustion rocket pressurized build. limited to a few performance are Two fluid with excellent carbonated drinks hundred feet or so expensive to propellants, mixture container with tail (world record is 623 design, huge which are control, and nose weighting meters or 2,044 thermal fluxes mostly liquid, throttleable, feet) across Bipropellant introduced can be used Cold gas A noncombusting Non- Extremely low combustion rocket through with thruster form, use for contaminating performance chamber wall can injectors into turbopumps Vernierthrusters exhaust impact reuse, combustion which permit failure modes chamber and incredibly 2.2 Chemically Powered have major burnt further lightweight explosions, a lot tanks, can be of plumbing is Type Description Advantage Disadvantage safe with needed. Simple, often extreme care no moving Throttling, burn A combined Atmospheric Ignitable, self- parts, termination, and cycle Very close to airspeed limited sustaining solid reasonably reignitionrequires turbojet/rocket existing designs to same range as fuel/oxidizer good mass special designs. where an operate in a turbojet engine, Solid rocket mixture fraction, Handling issues additional ("grain") with reasonable I . from ignitable very high carrying sp Turborocket oxidizer such as altitude, wide oxidiszer the central hole A thrust mixtures. Lower oxygen is added range of like LOX can be and nozzle schedule can be performance than to the airstream altitude and dangerous. Much designed into liquid rockets. to increase airspeed heavier than the grain maximum simple rockets. Some altitude of the oxidizers,
which are monopropellant 2.3 Electric power type& canalso be Quite simple, exploded in own Atmospheric airspeed which is limited to same range, as the Separate solid fuel inert right; mechanical turbojet engine is, carrying oxidizers like LOX can be oxidizer/fuel; without failure of the dangerous. Much heavier than the simple rockets. typically the oxidiser & is solid propellant Hybrid rocket oxidizer is safer; cracks do can also block Type Description Advantage Disadvantage liquid and kept not escalate, the nozzle (very Resistojet Energy is Efficient where Requires a whole in a tank and the throttleable and rare with (Electric imparted to a electrical power lot of power fuel is solid. easy to switch rubberized heating) usually inert is at a lower &energy off. propellant), fluid serving as premium than therefore, central hole reaction mass mass. typically yields widens over the via Joule Higher Ispthan low thrust. burn and heating of a monopropellant negatively affects heating element. alone, about 40% mixture ratio. May also be higher. Monopropellant Propellant (such Simple in the Catalysts can be Volume 8 Issue 4, April 2019 www.ijsr.net Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY Paper ID: ART20197345 10.21275/ART20197345 1557 International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) ISSN: 2319-7064 ResearchGate Impact Factor (2018): 0.28 | SJIF (2018): 7.426 used to impart Today NASA and some other organization get work to send extra energy to a the rocket to Mars which required a heavy amount of fuel to monopropellant getting cover the distance up to mars. Which increase the Arcjet rocket Identical to 1,600 seconds Very low thrust mass of rocket so, scientists are getting to work on different (chemical resistojet except and high power, type of rocket engines such as plasma type. burning aided the heating performance is by electric element is similar to ion discharge) replaced with an drive. References electrical arc, eliminating the  https://www.en.wikipedia.org/ physical  Bergin, Chris (2016-09-27). "SpaceX reveals ITS Mars requirements of game changer via colonization the heating plan". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 2016-09-27 element.  Belluscio, Alejandro G. (2016-10-03). "ITS Propulsion Pulsed plasma Plasma is used High Isp, can be Low energetic thruster to erode a solid pulsed on and off efficiency – The evolution of the SpaceX Raptor propellant for attitude engine". NASASpaceFlight.com.Retrieved 2016-10-03. control  Wade, Mark. "RD- Variable Microwave Variable Isp from Similar 0146". EncyclopediaAstronautica.Retrieved 2009-09- specific heated plasma 1,000 seconds to thrust/weight 25. impulse, with magnetic 10,000 seconds ratio with ion  "RD-180". Retrieved 2009-09-25. magnetoplasma throat/nozzle drives (worse),  Astronautix NK-33 entry type rocket thermal issues, as  Mueller, Thomas (June 8, 2015). "Is SpaceX's Merlin with ion drives 1D's thrust-to-weight ratio of 150+ very high power requirements for believable?".Retrieved July 9, 2015. The Merlin 1D significant thrust, weighs 1030 pounds, including the hydraulic steering really need (TVC) actuators. It makes 162,500 pounds of thrust in advanced nuclear vacuum. that is nearly 158 thrust/weight. The new full reactors, never thrust variant weighs the same and makes about flown, requires 185,500 lbs force in vacuum. low temperatures  Sauser, Brittany. "What's the Deal with Rocket for Vibrations?". MIT Technology Review.Retrieved 2018- superconductors 04-27. to work  David K. Stumpf (2000). Titian II: A History of a Cold
War Missile Program. University of Arkansas 3. Jet Physics Press. ISBN 1-55728-601-9.  G.P. Sutton & D.M. Ross (1975). Rocket Propulsion Rocket jets were dependent on the rocket engine’s design Elements: An Introduction to the Engineering of altitude, thrust and other factors. Exhausts having rich Rockets (4th ed.). Wiley Interscience. ISBN 0-471- Carbon is from kerosene fuels & are often orange in colour 83836-5. See Chapter 8, Section 6 and especially due to the black body radiation of the unburnt Section 7, re combustion instability. particles. Peroxide oxidizer-based rockets and hydrogen  John W. Strutt (1896). The Theory of Sound – Volume rocket jets have high amount of steam and are nearly 2 (2nd ed.). McMillan (reprinted by Dover invisible to the naked eye but shine brightly in Publications in 1945). p. 226.According to Lord the ultraviolet and infrared. Jets from solid rockets can be Rayleigh’s criterion for thermoacoustic processes, "If highly visible as the propellant frequently contains metals heat be given to the air at the moment of greatest such as elemental aluminum which burns with an orange- condensation, or be taken from it at the moment of white flame and adds energy to the combustion process. greatest rarefaction, the vibration is encouraged. On the other hand, if heat be given at the moment of The shape of the jet varies by the design altitude: at high greatest rarefaction, or abstracted at the moment of altitude, all rockets are grossly under-expanded, and a quite greatest condensation, the vibration is discouraged." small percentage of exhaust gases actually is getting end up  George P. Sutton & Oscar Biblarz (2001). Rocket expanding forwards. Propulsion Elements (7th ed.). Wiley Interscience. ISBN 0-471-32642-9. See Equation 2-14. 4. Conclusion and Future Scope  George P. Sutton & Oscar Biblarz (2001). Rocket Propulsion Elements (7th ed.). Wiley Today, human culture or scientists have discovered the new Interscience. ISBN 0-471-32642-9. See Equation 3-33. type of rocket engine which consumes less amount of money  Sutton, George P. (2005). History of Liquid Propellant and having high-efficiency comparing to the startup by the Rocket Engines. Reston, VA: American Institute of formation of the Rocket engine. Hence in the future, there is Aeronautics and Astronautics. a lot of amount of Innovation which will happen in the field  Foust, Jeff (2015-04-07). "Blue Origin Completes BE- of the rocket engine. Today’s scientist was getting work on 3 Engine as BE-4 Work Continues". Space the new type of rocket engine which gets work on the News.Retrieved 2016-10-20. phenomena plasma.  Wade, Mark. "RD-0410". Encyclopedia Astronautica.Retrieved 2009-09-25. Volume 8 Issue 4, April 2019 www.ijsr.net Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY Paper ID: ART20197345 10.21275/ART20197345 1558 International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) ISSN: 2319-7064 ResearchGate Impact Factor (2018): 0.28 | SJIF (2018): 7.426  KonstruktorskoeBuroKhimavtomatiky» - Scientific- Research Complex / RD0410. Nuclear RocketEngine.Advanced launch vehicles".KBKhA - Chemical Automatics Design Bureau.Retrieved 2009- 09-25.  "Aircraft: Lockheed SR-71A Blackbird". Archived from the original on 2012-07-29.Retrieved 2010-04- 16.  "Factsheets : Pratt & Whitney J58 Turbojet". National Museum of the United States Air Force.Archived from the original on 2015-04-04.Retrieved 2010-04- 15.  "Rolls-Royce SNECMA Olympus - Jane's Transport News". Archived from the original on 2010-08- 06.Retrieved 2009-09-25. With afterburner, reverser and nozzle ... 3,175 kg ... Afterburner ... 169.2 kN  Military Jet Engine Acquisition, RAND, 2002.
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