WHAT TO EXPECT Majorship: TECHNOLOGY and LIVELIHOOD EDUCATION

Focus: Plumbing

Let Competencies:

1. Identify the different used in plumbing

2. Explain the theories of house plumbing and their application in septic tank , bathrooms and kitchen water connections 3. Follow the correct installation techniques and steps in plumbing 4. Explain the importance of standards of National Plumbing Code

PART I: CONTENT UPDATE

TERMINOLOGIES

 Plumbing- The word "plumbing" comes from the Latin plumbum for lead.  It is the system of pipes and drains installed in a building for the distribution of potable drinking water and the removal of waterborne wastes  The skilled trade of working with pipes, tubing and plumbing fixtures in such systems  Plumbing is usually distinguished from water and sewage systems, in that a plumbing system serves one building,  While water and sewage systems serve a group of buildings or a city.  Plumbing fixtures are exchangeable devices that can be connected to a building's plumbing system

 Venting system- It maintains atmospheric pressure in the drainpipes where the sewer gases can build up enough pressure in the drainage system. The end pipe is connected above the roofing of the house

 Drainage system- is a series of pipes connections that drain off solid and liquid waste in a building

 Septic tank- is a concrete structure under the ground level designed to hold and deposit solid and liquid waste of a building

 Traps- are pipe connections attached to a system designed to prevent potentially dangerous sewer gases from entering the house

 National plumbing code- a law that provides a standard codes for plumbing whose primary purpose is to protect the health of the community against serious health hazard.

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TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT USED IN PLUMBING

Tools used in plumbing can be classified as follows  Measuring tools like push-pull role  Loosening and tightening tools like etc.  Driving tools like screw drivers  De-clogging tools like auger  Cutting and threading tools like hacksaw Other tools

 Standard , Bulb type plunger,  Pipe Cutter  Screw driver  Closet auger  Valve seal dresser   Small auger with movable handle

Example of Tools used in Plumbing

In plumbing, pipes are assembled by means of pipes fitting with threads and coupling. The usual tools used are as follows:

Types of

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- is type of tools used for loosening and tightening pipes.  This kind of has stationary and movable jaw that can gripe and hold the pipes during assembly of parts.  The movable jaw be adjusted to fit in the different sizes of pipes to be assembled  Adjustable wrench- a type of wrench comes in different sizes and it used to loosening and tightens bolts and nuts with square or hexagonal heads. The movable jaw can be adjusted to fit in the size of the screw head.  Valve seat wrench (square end, hex end) - is a special type wrench use to loosen or tighten valve seat with square end and hexagonal end.  - a plumbing tool specifically designed to tighten and loosen basin pipes connections

Plumber wrench

Pump It is a device used to move fluids, such as liquids and gases displaces a volume by physical or mechanical action.  One common misconception about pumps is the thought that they create pressure.  Pumps alone do not create pressure  They only displace fluid, causing a flow. Adding resistance to flow causes pressure. Water heater This is appliances for providing a more-or-less constant supply of hot water  Water heating is a thermodynamic process using an energy source to heat water above its initial temperature.  Typical domestic uses of hot water are for cooking, cleaning, bathing, and space heating.  In industry, both hot water and water heated to steam have many uses.  Domestically, water is traditionally heated in vessels known as kettles and pot  These vessels heat a batch of water but do not produce a continual supply.

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THEORIES RELATED TO THE DRAINAGE SYSTEM

 Water disposal becomes a problem in the drainage system if it does not function /working correctly  The house drainage system does the job for the purpose of disposing and draining water carrying away solid wastes  Drainage system including proper installation of venting system so that the sewer gases is facilitated to flow and draining of water waste  Venting system is commonly called the “drain-waste-vent,” or DWV system.)  The major importance in the DWV system are the traps, the familiar U or S-shaped bends of piping under sink.  Traps are designed to prevent potentially dangerous sewer gases from entering the house; each fixture must have one.  The shape and position of a trap, under normal circumstances, retains water that serves as an effective seal against rising sewer gases.

THEORIES RELATED TO VENTING SYSTEM

 Sewer gases can build up enough pressure in your drainage that break through the water through the water seal in a trap and enter your house through a drain.

 The venting system is attached above the roofing of your house.

 The venting system also maintains atmospheric pressure in the drainpipes.

 Water running out through traps can create vacuums, causing a siphoning effect that would empty the traps of water.

 The constant presence of the circulating air throughout the drainage system maintains an equilibrium that prevents siphoning.

 All fixtures must be vented

 Each may have its own vent or may connect with a main vent through a system of secondary pipes

PLUMBING AND INSTALLATION TECHNIQUES

 The drainpipes themselves lead away from all fixtures at a certain calculated slope

 If the slope is too steep, water will run off too fast, leaving solid particles behind

 If it’s not steep enough, water and waste will drain too slowly and stay into the fixture. The normal pitch is ¼ inch for every horizontal foot pipe travel.

 Central to the DWV system is a soil stack, a vertical section of 3 or 4-inch-diameter pipe that carries waste away from toilets (and often fixtures) and connects with the main house drain in the basement or crawl space.

 The upper part of the stack serves as a vent. Secondary vents from other fixtures can also be connected to it above the level of the highest fixture in the house (this is called re- venting or back venting).

 However, in many houses – especially single-story house – widely separated fixtures make it impractical to use only one stack. Instead, each fixture or fixture group has its own waste connection and its own vent.

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 The house drain is 3-inch, 4-inch or larger diameter pipe that collects all waste and drainage from the soil stack and other drainpipes and leads out of the house where it joins the house sewer – the underground part of the drainage system.

 Cleanouts provide access to the pipes for clearing obstructions. Cleanouts should be installed in various places in the drainage system

 There should be one cleanout in each horizontal section of drainage line, including an outdoor cleanout for access to the house sewer.

 For high hot water and high pressure gasses, the following materials and specifications are used.

 Light-gauge copper tube  Capillary fittings are suitable for the transmissions of hot and cold water, gas, compressed air and other fluids.  Capillary fittings are designed to give good flow characteristics which are easily taken apart and are cheaper and less bulky than compression fittings.

11. Samples of Light gauge materials connectors

PLUMBING CONNECTIONS, CONTROL AND JOINTS

Joint design

Seams should always be mechanically fastened for strength, whether soft soldered or sealed with a compound sealant. The sealant does not, therefore, require significant adhesive strength but must bond positively to both opposing surfaces as a continuous layer.

o Meters are often in position where the inlet and outlet rises are to be encased in concrete.

o When this occurs, the removal of the meter for servicing or cleaning is extremely difficult

o As the meter rises to rigid, the deflection of the pipe work effect the removal of the meter and it may cause fracture to the pipe

o To eliminate the possibility of damaging meters, meter unions or pipe work, an additional bend should be installed on the meter outlet riser so that the pipe work may be swung aside and the meter removed.

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The procedure for making the joint is as follows:

 Cut the pipe ends square and remove burrs.  Place the coupling nut over the pipe end.  Fit the insert into the end of the pipe.  Push the complete and assembly into the central fitting.

Flanged Joints

Flanged joints are generally used on large- diameter pipes and tubes where unions and other screwed fittings prove to be impartibly. Flanged joints have the advantage of allowing sections of piping to be removed or replaced without distributing any other section of the piping circuit

Flange Valves

 Flanged valves are normally supplied unbridled. If they are to be drilled they must be made according to relevant Standards table.

 Valves are to be drilled to a specific template; the position of the holes relative to the centre line of the spindle must be clearly indicated.

Other flanges

 Oval flanges are available in the galvanized malleable cast iron but are not intended for pressure purposes .

 Flanged PVC joints are made in a similar manner as that for steel pipes. The flanges may be joined to the PVC pipe in two ways.

 Solvent cementing, as for fittings and straight pipes.  Hot gas welding using PVC filter rod.

Joining of polyethylene

With the present comparison of polyethylene, no effective commercial solvent has yet been developed that will dissolve or fuse it.

o Solvent joints as used with uPVC are therefore not possible.

o Jointing is carried out by means of welding or the use of brass compression fittings.

o Welding is carried out in the manner as with uPVC, with the same advantages and disadvantage

o Compressions fittings, normally constructed of brass in various sizes, are manufactured for jointing polyethylene

o Tighten the coupling nut firmly with a wrench, but avoid over tightening 6

Fixings

The coefficient of polyethylene is high

 The material should therefore be free to expand and contract wherever it is fitted, as with uPVC pipe.

 Polyethylene does not have anywhere near the rigidity of uPVC.

 It means that the material is restricted in use particularly above the ground and in hot areas.

 For suspended supports, this pipe should be laid in structural channels or angle sections, as allowable spans of only eight to twelve times the pipe diameter are required to prevent sagging.

Sealants

Sealants refer to the polymeric range and include those sealants made from natural rubber and the various synthetic elastomers. Polymeric sealants are formulated to provide a continuous- surface polymer bonding layer to both opposing surfaces to fill ( seal ) a gap to set ( cure ) by polymerization.

 Part of their sealing function are designed to hold metal sections together, they will always require some of mechanical aid (fasteners) such as rivets or screw.  It is important to realize that sealants are not to be confused with adhesive.  Joints are usually subject to some form of movement because the overlapping surfaces expand and contract with temperature changes.  Sealants must therefore allow for this movement by curing to flexible elastic material and by remaining soft.  Approved silicone sealants cure on contact with air to form a permanent, flexible silicone rubber which is very durable and is unaffected by aggressive weathering elements such as sunlight, moisture and extremes of temperature.

Recommended properties of sealant

Sealants used in conjunctions with metal roofing sections, flashings, and guttering rain water accessories. It should should posses all of the requirements listed below.

 Flexibility  Water resistance  Corrosion resistance  Mould resistance  Resistance to ultraviolet radiation  Resistance to temperature extremes  Gap filling (no slumping) Where doubt exists on the sustainability of a particular sealant, the following list of properties should be used as a basis for selection. .

Valves taps and controls

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There are ranges of valves, taps and controls used in water supply connections.

 Each has been designed for a specific purpose and therefore the materials from which they are manufactured also vary considerably found only on domestic installation.

 Valve is a hand-operated device used to control the flow of water in a piping system.

 It is manufactures from bronze, brass, gunmetal, steel, cast iron, glass or plastics or a combination of these.

 Materials with high corrosive resistance are usually used on water supply.

 Tap is also a hand-operated device used to control the flow of water in a piping system.

 Tap may or may not be manufactured with both inlet and outlet threads.

 Unlike a valve it is designed to be installed on an outlet of a pipeline and the type of appliance water outlets dictates of the tap.

Groups of valves and taps

There are several groups of valves in common use in water supply. They are:

 loose valve screw-down type;  straight through screw-down type;  ground face plug type

Loose valve-screw down type

These are most commonly used controls on reticulated water supplies and there are many different shapes in both valve and taps which incorporate the same operating principle.

1. The spindle is raised by turning the handle in the counter-clockwise direction, pressure is released from the valve and the water pressure acting on the underside is then able to lift the valve and allow the water to pass through to the outlet.

2. Water is restricted to the body section by a rubber O ring fitted on the bottom of the spindle. This O ring forms an effective seal between the spindle and the bonnet of the valve and prevents water passing out of the tap via the bonnet.

3. Some valves and taps are not fitted with O rings but have a stuffing box which retains a graphite-impregnated asbestos gland which serves the same purpose

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4. All loose valve taps and valves have, as their name implies, a loose valve to shut off the water supply. This loose valve allows the water to flow through in one direction only.

5. Therefore it is necessary to install this valve so that the incoming water lifts the valve from the beneath.

PLUMBING MATERIALS

 Present-day water-supply systems use a network of high-pressure pumps, and pipes are now made of copper, brass, plastic, or other nontoxic material.

 Due to lead's toxicity, lead has not been used in modern water-supply piping since the 1930’s in the United States, although lead was used as a solder until 1986.

 Drain and vent lines are made of plastic, steel, cast-iron, and lead

TYPES OF PLUMBING PIPES

Copper

Copper has historically been the most common type of pipe used in home plumbing.

. This due to its reliability and durability, it became very popular in the 1960’s and quickly became the standard material.

. Copper is more expensive than most other types of piping, and will sometimes be stolen from building sites during construction for sale to scrap metal dealers.

Stainless steel tube

Stainless steel is not a common type of plumbing pipe, and as such it is hard to find and rarely seen in use in homes today.

 Stainless steel tube is one of the most corrosion- resistant materials available to plumbers for use in hot and cold water services.

 It is an expensive material for piping, especially since copper is a much more appropriate choice.

 One beneficial characteristic is that stainless steel is better able to withstand the corrosive nature of salt water over other pipes

 It is often used in marine environments for that reason.This is due to the resistance of the hard, adherent and transparent oxide film which covers the surface of the tube.

 Stainless steel tube is stronger than copper and steel and weighs less. The rigidity of the tube is an advantage when fixing

 The expansion rate of stainless steel tube which is less that copper’s, resulting in less movement in fixing and less strain on joints

 The tube of fully compatible with copper or copper fittings; no galvanic or electrolytic action occurs.

Galvanized Iron Pipes (G.I.)

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Galvanized steel was used in homes prior to the 1960's and the widespread adoption of copper, but it can still be found used in some older homes.

 Galvanized pipes were especially popular in carrying water into the home from wells, and waste-water out to sewers.

 The gray galvanized coating helps prevent rust, but the interior of the pipes were prone to leaking, corrosion and sediment build-up that reduces the overall flow of water.

 These were all factors in the gradual diminishing use of galvanized steel and increased use of copper.

 This kind of pipes is use primarily in household and industrial water connections. The pipes are coated with zinc to prevent massive rusting and corrosion when expose to air and water.

 They classified according to sizes, length and thickness. Example of G.I pipes 2’’ x 20’ schedule 40 which represent the degree of thickness of the pipe.

Cast iron pipe and fittings

This type of pipes is made of cast iron. The color is gray and it is usually hard but brittle and not affected much by massive rusting when expose to air and water. It can be use as flanged for the following purposes;

 Flanged cast iron pipes are produced primarily for water main systems.

 The flanges are catch/grasp/grip integrally with the pipe barrels and the joints are made by bolting – as with other flanged systems.

 Suitable flanged fittings are available to match the pipe ends.

 Flanges used in water service pipe work all conform to a plumbing standard.

Concrete Pipes

A type pipe made of concrete and usually use for sewer purpose due to large diameter in size and durability. It is usually called soil pipes due to its ability to adopt soil environment with no danger of rusting

Plastics

PVC, or polyvinyl chloride, is a form of plastic pipe used for plumbing high-pressure water. PVC is most commonly used for drains, and is usually white or gray in color

 It's less expensive than copper, but will similarly split in cold weather.

 It's only capable of handling cold water transfer because hot water will warp PVC pipe, so it needs to be used in addition to another type of pipe for hot water.

 A comprehensive range of both mechanical and injection-moulded fittings is produced to suit plastic pipe manufactured from the rigid PVC, polyethylene and nylon materials.

 These materials belong to the “thermoplastic” classification of plastics and are mainly used in a range of sizes from 15 to 50 mm only a limited range of screwed fittings is available.

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 Upvc pipes- a system that offers possibly the greatest range of screwed plastics fittings well suited to domestic, commercial and industrial applications.

 Majority of jointing in this system is based on the solvent weld spigot and socket technique, many joint are of the screwed type and are used in a similar manner to that used for steel pipes.

 Moulded solvent–weld uPVC pressure fittings are manufactured and tested in accordance with an Australian Standard and are classified in various BSP threaded fittings are available for take off connections. The spigot and socket ends are connected in the usual way using solvent cement

 To connect threaded fittings, the joint is best made by using PTFE sealing tape onto the male end and screwing firmly, avoiding over tightening. Various uPVC adaptors and other moulded threaded fittings of the system.

 Polyethylene (black polythene)- The greatest demand for fitting associated with polyethylene pipe is still in the rural sector for water reticulation systems for some reasons like:

 Polyethylene pipe cannot be solvent bonded; the greatest usage for mechanical fittings is in conjunction with fittings produced from this material.

 A complete range of BSP fittings is available to suit polyethylene, PVC and galvanized steel pipes and fittings.

 The normal method of joining polyethylene pipe is by compression (non-manipulative) fittings

 While the extensive variety of fittings are available to suit the various grades of pipe makes reference to the fitting instructions provided by manufactures advisable, because particular brands use different rings and inserts.

 A relatively recent development in mechanical fittings is available and is suitable for joining both imperial and metric sizes of medium and high density polyethylene pipe.

 It is made from a nylon material and the basic component of each fitting is known as “central fitting”.

 A special insert housing an O-ring is provided and fits into the central fitting.

 The joint is achieved by screwing up a coupling nut onto the central fitting.

REPUBLIC ACT NO. 6541 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES

Chapter 5.02 – SANITATION SECTION 5.02.01:

General Provision All buildings hereafter erected for human habitation should be provided with plumbing facilities installed in conformity with the National Plumbing Code adopted and promulgated by the National Master Plumbers Association of the Philippines pursuant to Republic Act 1378, otherwise known as the "Plumbing Law".

The importance of the Standard National Plumbing Codes

The purposes of plumbing codes are to:

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1. Establish standards that will protect the health of the community. Faulty plumbing is a serious health hazard.

2. Codes have always varied widely from place to place.

3. With the increasing standardization of equipment and materials, plumbing codes in different areas of the country are tending more and more toward uniformly,

4. There is by no means a single plumbing code. Organizations are at work encouraging the adoption of a uniform, nationwide plumbing code.

5. Most obvious variations in code have to do with climate-pipes in underground (to prevent freezing).

6. Plastic piping, still a relative new comer in the industry, is not accepted uniformly throughout the country.

7. Regulations concerning it may vary; some places don’t allow its use at all.

8. Improvements in the materials and an increasing amount of experience with plastic piping seem to indicate that more uniform regulations can be expected.

9. Since changes will always occur- in materials, in methods of joining pipes – an absolutely current plumbing code will never be possible.

10. Every home plumber should have a copy of the local code. (Get this from the building inspector’s office; cost is usually low.)

11. When you do any plumbing, check the code first. If the material you’re planning to use isn’t mentioned in the code, check with the building inspector.

12. Some plumbing codes prevent anyone but a licensed plumber from doing certain kinds of work.

13. Most codes, allow homeowners to do all plumbing work in homes they own and live in.

14. Check your code before you begin any work.

Common Plumbing Symbols

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PICTORIAL DIAGRAM OF A PLUMBING SYSTEM

PICTORIAL DIAGRAM OF KITCHEN SINK TRAP PICTORIAL DIAGRAM OF A SEPTIC TANK

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STUDYING PART II: ANALYZING TEST ITEMS

Competency No. 1 Identify the different tools used in plumbing Item No. 1 In plumbing work, what kind of tool is use to tighten/loosen bolts and screw head. a. basin wrench c. pliers b. pipe wrench d. adjustable wrench

The correct Answer is D Adjustable wrench is the most appropriate tool because of the adjustment

of the movable jaw to fit in the bolt head.

Option A Basin wrench is use only for installation of drainage pipe of the basin

Option C Pipe wrench is used for holding and tightening pipes

Option D Pliers are use for holding small object.

Competency No. 2 Explain the theories of house plumbing and their application in septic tank bathrooms and kitchen water connections Item No. 2 The venting system maintains the atmospheric pressure in the drainpipes. What causes the siphoning effect that would empty the traps of water?

a. Effect of Air c. effect solid waste b. Effect of the running water d. effect of gases

The correct Answer is B. Effect of the running water out through the trap can create vacuums, causing a siphoning effect that would empty the traps of water.

Option A Effect of Air support the flow of water in the system

Option C Effect of Solid waste is a part of the water drained in the system Competency No. 3 Option D Effect of gases do not contribute to the siphoning effect Follow the correct installation techniques and steps in plumbing 14

Item No. 3 The main purpose of the flanged joints is to allow the sections of piping to be replaced without distributing the ______a. trap c. venting system b. section of the piping circuit d. running water

The correct Answer is B. Without disturbing the section of the piping circuit flanged joints can be use Option A The trap, under normal circumstances, retains water that serves as an effective seal against rising sewer gases Option C The venting system also maintains atmospheric pressure in the drainpipes. Option D Water running out through traps can create vacuums, causing a siphoning effect that would empty the traps of water

Competency No. 4 Explain the importance of standards of National Plumbing Code

Item No. 4 Plumbing codes always varied widely from place to place to protect the

a. beauty of the community c. health of the people b. health of the people in other countries d. health of the community

The correct Answer is D the health of the community is the priority concern of the plumbing

code

Option A. The beauty of the community is a minor concern of plumbing code.

Option B The health of the other country is a concern of the people

Option C. Health of the people is a general concern of the government

Item No. 5. Who are the people responsible and assigned to check if your plumbing connections are appropriate? a. the building inspector c. the plumber b. the engineer d. the foreman

The correct Answer is A. Building inspector. It is the duty of the building inspector to justify if the connections are being fallowed. Option B The engineer supervises the whole project and sees to it that all plans are implemented Option C The plumber installs the necessary connections Option D The foreman supervises the work on specific jobs

6. Sealants refer to the polymeric range material made from natural rubber and the various a. powder c. color b. synthetic elastomer d. liquid enhancer

7. This kind of tool has stationary and movable jaw that can gripe and hold the pipes during assembly of parts. a. combination pliers c. pipe wrench b. adjustable wrench d. basin wrench

8. Today modern living, every home plumber should have a copy of the local code. This code can be acquired from the office of a. City engineer office c. Barangay office b. Public works and Highways d. Building inspectors

9. Which among the following is the purpose/ use of Polymeric sealants? 15

a. to set distance c. to seal a gap b. to cover the surface d. to improve the appearance

10. It is a device used to move fluids, such as liquids and gases displaces a volume by physical or mechanical action. a. compressor c. Wrench b. water container d. Pumps

11 This kind of connections is suitable for the transmissions of gas, hot and cold water a. tube of compressed air c. Light-gauge copper tube connections b. water line d. Water and solid waste connections

12. A type of plumbing appliances use for providing a more-or-less constant supply of hot water a. Water heater c. pumps b. tap d. water line

13. The shape and position of a trap retains water that serves as an effective seal against from a. rising sewer solid waste c. rising sewer gases b. rising sewer air d. rising sewer substances

14. It is a concrete structure under the ground level designed to hold and deposit solid and liquid waste of a building

a. Septic tank c. soil pipes b. traps d. pipes

15. The present increasing standardization of______Plumbing codes tend toward uniformly. a. engineering standard c. manpower b. tools and equipment d. equipment and materials

16. To facilitate the removal of meter, a meter unions or pipe work are additional bend that should be installed on the meter outlet riser so that the pipe work may be swung aside to eliminate a. the possibility of damaging meters c. the possibility of damaging water line b. the possibility of damaging connector’s d. the possibility of damaging pipes

17. It is a vertical section of 3 or 4-inch-diameter pipe that carries waste away from toilets and connects with the main house drain in the basement or crawl space. a. soil stack c. plastic pipes b. cement pipes d. cast iron pipes

18. It is necessary to install this type of valve so that the incoming water lifts the valve from beneath. a. loose valve c. universal valve b. flanged and loose valves d flanged valves

19. The law that provides a standard codes for plumbing whose primary purpose is to protect the health of the community against serious health hazard. a. Building code c. National plumbing code b. Municipal ordinance d. City ordinance

20. It is a series of pipes connections that drain off solid and liquid waste in a building a. sewer connections c. Drainage system b. traps d. Piping system

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21. It is the system of pipes and drains installed in a building for the distribution of potable drinking water and the removal of waterborne wastes a. pipe connection c. Plumbing b. Piping system d. sewer connections

22. It is a hand-operated device in a water circuit connection that is used to control the flow of water in a piping system. a. flanged c. union joint b. valve d. universal joint

23. Manufactures of water supply materials make use of bronze, brass, gunmetal, steel, cast iron, glass or plastics or a combination because of it characteristics that it is a. high resistance to water c. high corrosive resistance to water b. high corrosive to water d. high value to water

24. A drainage fixture designed to prevent potentially dangerous sewer gases from entering the house. It is attached to the roofing of the house. a. joint c. venting pipe b. fixture d. traps

25. A type of materials use in plumbing system that offers possibly the greatest range of screwed plastics fittings well suited to domestic, commercial and industrial applications. a. uPVC system c. metal and plastic system b. cast iron pipes system d. stainless pipes system

STUDYING

PART III: ENHANCING TEST TAKING SKILLS

1. A type of pipe made of concrete and usually use for sewer purpose due to large diameter in size and durability. It has the ability to adopt soil environment with no danger of rusting

a. soil pipes c. water pipes b. sewer pipe d. drainage pipe 2. What particular tool will be use to by plumber when tightening or loosen pipe fitting

a. adjustable wrench c. pliers b. pipe wrench d. basin wrench

3. A building has a system of pipes and drains installed for the purpose of distribution of potable drinking water and the removal of waterborne wastes

a. Venting system c. Drainage system b. Water system d. Plumbing system

4. In order to avoid the sewer gases to build up pressure in the drainage system, the must connect

a. Water system c. Drainage system b. Venting system d. Plumbing system

5. The drainpipes connections are lead away from all fixtures at a certain calculated slope of

a. ½ per ft c. 1/8 per ft b. 5/8 per ft d. ¼ per ft 17

6. Today’s modern plumbing makes use of central fitting suitable for joining both imperial and metric sizes of medium and high density polyethylene pipe. This type of fitting is made of

a. nylon material c. plastics b. fiber d. syntactic

7. This type of material is use for making flanged. The color is gray and it is usually hard but brittle and not affected much by massive rusting when expose to air and water.

a. Steel c. cast iron b. Mild steel d. stainless steel

8. The proper installation of the venting system facilitate the flow of sewer gases and

a. draining of water waste c. solid waste disposal b. water disposal d . solid and water disposal

9. The atmospheric pressure in the drainpipes is maintained by the ______due to the siphoning effect and flow of running water in the traps.

a. venting system c. effect solid waste c. Effect of Air d. effect of gases

10. It is a concrete structure under the ground level designed to hold and deposit solid and liquid waste of a building

a. Venting system c. Drainage system b. Water system d. Septic tank 11. It is a type of pipe connections that is attached to a system designed to prevent potentially dangerous sewer gases from entering the house

a. Trap c. Drainage b. Venting d. Plumbing

12. A house plumber should have a copy of the plumbing local code before installing any plumbing connection. This code can be acquired from the office of

a. Mayor’s office c. Building inspector’s b. Public works and Highways d. License plumber

13. Galvanized steel was used in homes prior to the year______and the widespread adoption of copper, but it can still be found used in some older homes. a. 1965 c. 1960 b. 1970 d. 1980

14. Copper, historically has been the most common type of pipe used in home plumbing and it became very popular in the 1960’s due to its a. availability c. reliability and durability b. affordability d. Usefulness

15. This material is used in conjunctions with metal roofing sections, flashings, and guttering rain water accessories.

a. Sealants c. contact cement b. elastomeric d. gutter cement

16. This type of joints is generally used on large-diameter pipes and tubes where unions and other screwed fittings cannot be use. 18

a. Flanged c. Pipes b. Fitting d. coupling

17. Compressions fittings are normally made of brass in various sizes and are manufactured for

a. joining metals c. joining pipes b. compressing joint d. Jointing polyethylene

18. Mr. Abad want to control the incoming water lifts from the in the system. What kind of valve will he install? a. flanged valves b. flanged and loose valves c. union valve d. loose valve

19. Generally, flanged joints are used on a large-diameter pipes and tubes where unions and other screwed are fitted. The main purpose of the flanged joints is to allow the sections of piping to be replaced without distributing the a. running water c. venting system b. trap d. section of the piping circuit

20. One of the most corrosion- resistant materials available to plumbers for use in hot and cold water services connection a. stainless steel tube c. cast iron b. steel tube d. uPVC

21. The Plumbing Codes varied widely from place to places in order to protect the health of the community. Faulty plumbing may cause

a. health problem of the people c. health epidemics b. problem of the community d. serious health hazard

22. Polyethylene fitting normally made of brass in various sizes, this is called a. cast iron pipes c. stainless pipes b. flanged fitting d. Compressions fittings

23. The shape and position of a trap retains water that serves as an______against the rising sewer gases. This due to the normal circumstances in rising sewer air

a. operation of the sewer c. trap in the sewer b. abnormal operation d. effective seal

24. The application of Science and technology contribute much in the improvements of the plastic materials in plumbing. It indicate that that

a. uniform regulations can be expected c. demand can be expected b. capital can be expected d. regulations can be the same

25. The increasing standardization of Plumbing codes in different areas of the country tends toward uniformly due to the availability of a. manpower c. equipment and materials b. tools and equipment d. engineering standard

PLUMBING KEY TO CORRECTIONS 19

ANALYZING TEST QUESTIONS

6. B 16. A 7. C 17. A 8. D 18. A 9. C 19. C 10. D 20. D 11. C 21. C 12. A 22. B 13. C 23. C 14. A 24. C 15. D 25. A

ENHANCING TEST TAKING TEST

1. A 2. B 3. D 4. B 5. D 6. A 7. C 8. D 9. A 10. D 11. A 12. C 13. C 14. C 15. A 16. A 17. D 18. D 19. D 20. A 21. D 22. D 23. D 24. A 25. C

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