# Launch Activity and Orbital Debris Mitigation

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• NTI Day 9 Astronomy Michael Feeback Go To: Teachastronomy
NTI Day 9 Astronomy Michael Feeback Go to: teachastronomy.com textbook (chapter layout) Chapter 3 The Copernican Revolution Orbits Read the article and answer the following questions. Orbits You can use Newton's laws to calculate the speed that an object must reach to go into a circular orbit around a planet. The answer depends only on the mass of the planet and the distance from the planet to the desired orbit. The more massive the planet, the faster the speed. The higher above the surface, the lower the speed. For Earth, at a height just above the atmosphere, the answer is 7.8 kilometers per second, or 17,500 mph, which is why it takes a big rocket to launch a satellite! This speed is the minimum needed to keep an object in space near Earth, and is called the circular velocity. An object with a lower velocity will fall back to the surface under Earth's gravity. The same idea applies to any object in orbit around a larger object. The circular velocity of the Moon around the Earth is 1 kilometer per second. The Earth orbits the Sun at an average circular velocity of 30 kilometers per second (the Earth's orbit is an ellipse, not a circle, but it's close enough to circular that this is a good approximation). At further distances from the Sun, planets have lower orbital velocities. Pluto only has an average circular velocity of about 5 kilometers per second. To launch a satellite, all you have to do is raise it above the Earth's atmosphere with a rocket and then accelerate it until it reaches a speed of 7.8 kilometers per second.
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• Up, Up, and Away by James J
www.astrosociety.org/uitc No. 34 - Spring 1996 © 1996, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 390 Ashton Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94112. Up, Up, and Away by James J. Secosky, Bloomfield Central School and George Musser, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Want to take a tour of space? Then just flip around the channels on cable TV. Weather Channel forecasts, CNN newscasts, ESPN sportscasts: They all depend on satellites in Earth orbit. Or call your friends on Mauritius, Madagascar, or Maui: A satellite will relay your voice. Worried about the ozone hole over Antarctica or mass graves in Bosnia? Orbital outposts are keeping watch. The challenge these days is finding something that doesn't involve satellites in one way or other. And satellites are just one perk of the Space Age. Farther afield, robotic space probes have examined all the planets except Pluto, leading to a revolution in the Earth sciences -- from studies of plate tectonics to models of global warming -- now that scientists can compare our world to its planetary siblings. Over 300 people from 26 countries have gone into space, including the 24 astronauts who went on or near the Moon. Who knows how many will go in the next hundred years? In short, space travel has become a part of our lives. But what goes on behind the scenes? It turns out that satellites and spaceships depend on some of the most basic concepts of physics. So space travel isn't just fun to think about; it is a firm grounding in many of the principles that govern our world and our universe.
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• Thales Alenia Space Experience on Plasma Propulsion
Thales Alenia Space Experience on Plasma Propulsion IEPC-2007-301 Presented at the 30th International Electric Propulsion Conference, Florence, Italy September 17-20, 2007 Michel LYSZYK* and Laurent LECARDONNEL.† Thales Alenia Space, Cannes, 06150, France Abstract: Thales Alenia Space experience on plasma propulsion has been developed in the frame of Stentor, Astra 1K and GEI programs with plasma propulsion systems using SPT100 thrusters manufactured by Fakel and commercialized by Snecma . The PPS (plasma propulsion system) use in house equipments such as Power Processing Unit (PPU) manufactured by TAS-ETCA in Charleroi and the Thruster Orientation Mechanism (TOM) manufactured by TAS-France in Cannes . The PPS subsystem is used on board our SpaceBus satellite family to perform North-South station keeping. The on going activity on the XPS (Xenon Propulsion System) is devoted to the next European platform Alphabus currently under joint development by Thales Alenia Space and Astrium with CNES and ESA support. The XPS uses also the PPU manufactured by TAS-ETCA , the TOM manufactured by TAS-France and the Xe tank developed by TAS-Italy ; it use also the PPS1350 thruster under qualification by Snecma , a xenon regulator and a latch valve under development at Marotta Ireland. I. Introduction HIS document describes the Thales Alenia Space experience gained through Stentor , Astra 1K , GEI, T Spacebus and Alphabus programs on plasma Hall effect thrusters propulsion subsystems . For Spacebus application a description of the subsystem is given together with the general achieved performances . For Alphabus application a general status of the on going activities is given . * Head of electric propulsion section, Propulsion Department, [email protected].
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• UHD with Asiasat
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• SES Beam Magazine
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• 2010 Commercial Space Transportation Forecasts
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• Telecommunikation Satellites: the Actual Situation and Potential Future Developments
Telecommunikation Satellites: The Actual Situation and Potential Future Developments Dr. Manfred Wittig Head of Multimedia Systems Section D-APP/TSM ESTEC NL 2200 AG Noordwijk [email protected] March 2003 Commercial Satellite Contracts 25 20 15 Europe US 10 5 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 European Average 5 Satellites/Year US Average 18 Satellites/Year Estimation of cumulative value chain for the Global commercial market 1998-2007 in BEuro 35 27 100% 135 90% 80% 225 Spacecraft Manufacturing 70% Launch 60% Operations Ground Segment 50% Services 40% 365 30% 20% 10% 0% 1 Consolidated Turnover of European Industry Commercial Telecom Satellite Orders 2000 30 2001 25 2002 3 (7) Firm Commercial Telecom Satellite Orders in 2002 Manufacturer Customer Satellite Astrium Hispasat SA Amazonas (Spain) Boeing Thuraya Satellite Thuraya 3 Telecommunications Co (U.A.E.) Orbital Science PT Telekommunikasi Telkom-2 Indonesia Hangar Queens or White Tails Orders in 2002 for Bargain Prices of already contracted Satellites Manufacturer Customer Satellite Alcatel Space New Indian Operator Agrani (India) Alcatel Space Eutelsat W5 (France) (1998 completed) Astrium Hellas-Sat Hellas Sat Consortium Ltd. (Greece-Cyprus) Commercial Telecom Satellite Orders in 2003 Manufacturer Customer Satellite Astrium Telesat Anik F1R 4.2.2003 (Canada) Planned Commercial Telecom Satellite Orders in 2003 SES GLOBAL Three RFQ’s: SES Americom ASTRA 1L ASTRA 1K cancelled four orders with Alcatel Space in 2001 INTELSAT Launched five satellites in the last 13 month average fleet age: 11 Years of remaining life PanAmSat No orders expected Concentration on cash flow generation Eutelsat HB 7A HB 8 expected at the end of 2003 Telesat Ordered Anik F1R from Astrium Planned Commercial Telecom Satellite Orders in 2003 Arabsat & are expected to replace Spacebus 300 Shin Satellite (solar-array steering problems) Korea Telecom Negotiation with Alcatel Space for Koreasat Binariang Sat.
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• Itu Recommendation Itu-R S.1003.2
SPACE DEBRIS MITIGATION STANDARDS ITU RECOMMENDATION ITU‐R S.1003.2 International mechanism: International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Recommendation ITU‐R S.1003.2 (12/2010) Environmental protection of the geostationary‐satellite orbit Description: ITU‐R S.1003.2 provides guidance about disposal orbits for satellites in the geostationary‐ satellite orbit (GSO). In this orbit, there is an increase in debris due to fragments resulting from increased numbers of satellites and their associated launches. Given the current limitations (primarily specific impulse) of space propulsion systems, it is impractical to retrieve objects from GSO altitudes or to return them to Earth at the end of their operational life. A protected region must therefore be established above, below and around the GSO which defines the nominal orbital regime within which operational satellites will reside and manoeuvre. To avoid an accumulation of non‐functional objects in this region, and the associated increase in population density and potential collision risk that this would lead to, satellites should be manoeuvred out of this region at the end of their operational life. In order to ensure that these objects do not present a collision hazard to satellites being injected into GSO, they should be manoeuvred to altitudes higher than the GSO region, rather than lower. The recommendations embodied in ITU‐R S.1003.2 are: – Recommendation 1: As little debris as possible should be released into the GSO region during the placement of a satellite in orbit. – Recommendation 2: Every reasonable effort should be made to shorten the lifetime of debris in elliptical transfer orbits with the apogees at or near GSO altitude.
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• Photographs Written Historical and Descriptive
CAPE CANAVERAL AIR FORCE STATION, MISSILE ASSEMBLY HAER FL-8-B BUILDING AE HAER FL-8-B (John F. Kennedy Space Center, Hanger AE) Cape Canaveral Brevard County Florida PHOTOGRAPHS WRITTEN HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE DATA HISTORIC AMERICAN ENGINEERING RECORD SOUTHEAST REGIONAL OFFICE National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior 100 Alabama St. NW Atlanta, GA 30303 HISTORIC AMERICAN ENGINEERING RECORD CAPE CANAVERAL AIR FORCE STATION, MISSILE ASSEMBLY BUILDING AE (Hangar AE) HAER NO. FL-8-B Location: Hangar Road, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), Industrial Area, Brevard County, Florida. USGS Cape Canaveral, Florida, Quadrangle. Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinates: E 540610 N 3151547, Zone 17, NAD 1983. Date of Construction: 1959 Present Owner: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Present Use: Home to NASA’s Launch Services Program (LSP) and the Launch Vehicle Data Center (LVDC). The LVDC allows engineers to monitor telemetry data during unmanned rocket launches. Significance: Missile Assembly Building AE, commonly called Hangar AE, is nationally significant as the telemetry station for NASA KSC’s unmanned Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) program. Since 1961, the building has been the principal facility for monitoring telemetry communications data during ELV launches and until 1995 it processed scientifically significant ELV satellite payloads. Still in operation, Hangar AE is essential to the continuing mission and success of NASA’s unmanned rocket launch program at KSC. It is eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) under Criterion A in the area of Space Exploration as Kennedy Space Center’s (KSC) original Mission Control Center for its program of unmanned launch missions and under Criterion C as a contributing resource in the CCAFS Industrial Area Historic District.
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• EUTELSAT S.A. € 500,000,000 1.125 PER CENT BONDS DUE 23 June 2021 ISSUE PRICE: 99.894 PER CENT
EUTELSAT S.A. € 500,000,000 1.125 PER CENT BONDS DUE 23 June 2021 ISSUE PRICE: 99.894 PER CENT The €500,000,000 aggregate principal amount 1.125 per cent. bonds due 23 June 2021 (the Bonds, and each a Bond) of Eutelsat S.A. (the Issuer) will be issued outside the Republic of France on 23 June 2016 (the Bond Issue). Each Bond will bear interest on its principal amount at a fixed rate of 1.125 per c ent. per annum from (and including) 23 June 2016 (the Issue Date) to (but excluding) 23 June 2021, payable in Euro annually in arrears on 23 June of each year and commencing on 23 June 2017, as further described in "Terms and Conditions of the Bonds – Interest". Unless previously redeemed or purchased and cancelled in accordance with their terms and conditions, the Bonds will be redeemed at their principal amount on 23 June 2021 (the Maturity Date). The Issuer may, at its option, and in certain circumstances shall, redeem all (but not part) of the Bonds at par plus any accrued and unpaid interest upon the occurrence of certain tax changes as further described in "Terms and Conditions of the Bonds – Redemption and Purchase – Redemption for tax reasons". The Bonds may also be redeemed (i) at the option of the Issuer, in whole or in part, at any time, prior to the Maturity Date, as further described in "Terms and Conditions of the Bonds — Redemption and Purchase — Make Whole Redemption by the Issuer", (ii) at any time prior to the Maturity Date, in whole (but not in part), at par plus accrued interest, if 80 per cent.
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• 59864 Federal Register/Vol. 85, No. 185/Wednesday, September 23
59864 Federal Register / Vol. 85, No. 185 / Wednesday, September 23, 2020 / Rules and Regulations FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS C. Congressional Review Act II. Report and Order COMMISSION 2. The Commission has determined, A. Allocating FTEs 47 CFR Part 1 and the Administrator of the Office of 5. In the FY 2020 NPRM, the Information and Regulatory Affairs, Commission proposed that non-auctions [MD Docket No. 20–105; FCC 20–120; FRS Office of Management and Budget, funded FTEs will be classified as direct 17050] concurs that these rules are non-major only if in one of the four core bureaus, under the Congressional Review Act, 5 i.e., in the Wireline Competition Assessment and Collection of U.S.C. 804(2). The Commission will Bureau, the Wireless Regulatory Fees for Fiscal Year 2020 send a copy of this Report & Order to Telecommunications Bureau, the Media Congress and the Government Bureau, or the International Bureau. The AGENCY: Federal Communications indirect FTEs are from the following Commission. Accountability Office pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). bureaus and offices: Enforcement ACTION: Final rule. Bureau, Consumer and Governmental 3. In this Report and Order, we adopt Affairs Bureau, Public Safety and SUMMARY: In this document, the a schedule to collect the \$339,000,000 Homeland Security Bureau, Chairman Commission revises its Schedule of in congressionally required regulatory and Commissioners’ offices, Office of Regulatory Fees to recover an amount of fees for fiscal year (FY) 2020. The the Managing Director, Office of General \$339,000,000 that Congress has required regulatory fees for all payors are due in Counsel, Office of the Inspector General, the Commission to collect for fiscal year September 2020.
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• TV5MONDE Rides the Intelsat Globalized Network for Le Tour Du Monde De La Francophonie Broadcast
TV5MONDE Rides the Intelsat Globalized Network for Le Tour du Monde de la Francophonie Broadcast September 20, 2017 Intelsat to provide seven satellites to enable the upcoming television special, spanning five continents, 23 destinations and multiple time zones LUXEMBOURG--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Sep. 20, 2017-- Intelsat S.A. (NYSE: I), operator of the world’s first Globalized Network and leader in integrated satellite communications and TV5MONDE, the France-based international television network, are partnering to broadcast Le Tour du Monde de la Francophonie [The Grand Tour of the World of Francophonie] on Sept. 21. The live, 24-hour television broadcast will feature interviews with French culture experts from five different continents, in 14 subtitled languages and multiple time zones, reaching approximately 318 million television households around the world. The tour broadcast requires a complex global network infrastructure to support the contribution of live interviews from 23 different countries, 13 of which will be backhauled to the TV5MONDE broadcast center in Paris using seven Intelsat satellites: Galaxy 28, Intelsat 19, Intelsat 20, Intelsat 901, Intelsat 905, Intelsat 906 and Intelsat 33e. TV5MONDE will also use the IntelsatOne® network which includes IntelsatOne teleports and the IntelsatOne MPLS fiber network to complement the Intelsat satellites. “Le Tour du Monde de la Francophonie requires an exceptional technical mechanism to bring in real-time interviews from different parts of the world to our millions of viewers,” said Yves Bigot, TV5MONDE CEO. “Effectively reaching a broad audience over 24 hours in multiple subtitled languages and time zones is not an easy task, and we are delighted to have a partner like Intelsat to help us flawlessly execute our plan.
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