BI 101: , Lycopyhtes, & Allies


• Quiz # 5 Friday – Fungi

• Scavenger Hunt: Due Mon May 20th

• Weekend field trip: Sat. may 18th? – Extra credit: make-up lab – Meet at the top of Mary’s Peak – Doodle poll email today

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Adaptation to Land

For a : What are the differences between life on land and life in the water?

• Variation in temperature - fluctuation, not buffered by water • Variation in moisture - no longer continuously bathed in water • Nutrient availability - differences between water and and how nutrient uptake occurs • Gravitational force - floating at the surface was sufficient to get to the sun • Substrate - differences between water and soil

Adaptation to Land What types of adaptations are needed to move from water to land ? • Protection against water loss – Cuticle to prevent water loss – stomata for regulation • Ability to tolerate variation in temperatures • for anchoring to substrate and nutrient absorption • Protection for : specialized structures • Gametes () do not require water • Development of vascular

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Vascular tissue Stomata

Land Origins  Shares most recent common ancestor with ()  Aquatic origin  476 million years ago

 Researchers have identified called charophyceans as the closest relatives of land plants.

Common name: - stoneworts

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Bryophytes • True organs lacking • (unspecialized cells in plant body) • ( hair like structures) •anchorage function only •Pores: allow gas exchange; don’t close •Surface covered in waxy cuticle • conducting tissues absent or primitive • water required for fertilization • generation dominant

Bryophytes: pores • Bryophytes like and liverworts lack true stomata • Have pores that are always open

Cross section of liverwort thallus (Conocephalum)

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Why so tiny?

Bryophytes have life cycles dominated by Hairy-cap moss Brown

Gametophyte (Green & leafy)

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Cellular reproduction

– Asexual – Genetically identical offspring (clones) – Produces diploid cells (2n) • – Genetic variation – Produces gametes (sperm & egg) – Produces haploid cells (1n)

Bryophytes: Non vascular plants: Moss

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Figure 21-6 Life cycle of a moss sperm

male gametophyte

1 Mitotic cell produces 2 female sperm in an Sperm gametophyte and swim through an egg in an water to reach the egg


6 The germinate and develop into 3 Following fertilization, gametophytes a sporophyte develops and begins to grow upward from the gametophyte

4 At maturity, the sporophyte will produce haploid spores within a capsule capsules

5 Haploid spores are liberated from the MEIOTIC CELL capsule and disperse DIVISION

haploid (n) diploid (2n)

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Bryophytes: non vascular plants:

Liverworts 9,000

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Gemmae cups

Create liverwort Clones!


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Carboniferous ~300 mya

stem of a giant fern (Medullosa), one of the early stem of giant (Lepidodendron) seed-bearing plants horsetail ()

Fig. 23-13c, p.380

Vascular plants: Derived adaptations • : conducts water and nutrients throughout the plant • Plant organs: roots, stems, • Stomata for gas exchange • Sporophyte generation dominate (plant spends more of its life in the sporophyte (2n) generation

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Lycophytes: “club

Lycophytes: “club mosses” strobilus

Strobilus: where spores are produced via meiosis 11,500 species

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Lycophytes: “club mosses”

11,500 species

Strobilus: where spores are produced via meiosis

Pterophytes (ferns and allies) • 12,000 extant species, mostly in the tropics; many extinct • roots, stems & leaves present • sporangia variable in Sori, not strobilus

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Pterophytes (ferns and allies)

Psilotales: whisk ferns : horsetails • Often lack roots & leaves • Contain silica

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Pterophyte: Fern Life cycle

Alternating Generations In more advanced plants, the sporophyte generation dominant.

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Ancestral Derived

Mosses & Liverworts Club mosses,horsetails, Plants we’ll cover next whisk ferns & ferns week…

Non-vascular Vascular Vascular Gametophyte-dominant Sporophyte-dominant Sporophyte-dominant Sperm require water Sperm require water Sperm don’t need water Homospory Some use heterospory !


 Motile sperm

 Gametophyte-dominant Gametophyte  Cuticle -dominant

Gammae cups Hepatophyta

 Motile sperm

 Gametophyte-dominant Chlorophyta  Cuticle Motile sperm  Gemmae cups Green algae Cuticle Ex: Chara Lycophyta Strobili  Vascular tissue

 Motile sperm

 Sporophyte-dominant

 Cuticle Vascular tissue  Roots and leaves Sporophyte-dominant  Strobili Heterospory Roots and leaves Pterophyta Sori  Vascular tissue

 Motile sperm

 Sporophyte-dominant

 Cuticle

 Roots and leaves

 Sori