Working towards a just feminist economy: The role of decent work, public services, progressive taxation and corporate accountability in achieving women’s rights Roosje Saalbrink, Womankind Worldwide, March 2019

This briefing looks at how to shape the global A lack of corporate accountability means the private economy to work for all women through progressive sector undermines the realisation of women’s taxation, corporate accountability, gender- economic rights. However, a UN global body and transformative public services, social protection binding treaty on and rights would and decent work. Building on the key barriers to be steps towards more accountability, allowing women’s economic rights we set out in Rights and States to set policies for a fairer economy and to Realities: a briefing on women and the economy, achieve women’s rights. To address the barriers this briefing explains how the State can redistribute to building progressive, feminist and and reduce unpaid care work. States must introduce economies, we need States to uphold their human progressive taxation to fulfil their obligations to rights obligation, robust international frameworks to use the maximum available to achieve hold transnational corporations to account and local women’s human rights. action strengthened by global solidarity.

Acknowledgements This briefing has benefitted from invaluable input from Womankind colleagues and partners, especially Maria Vlahakis, Dinah Musindarwezo and Bridie Taylor. Felogene Anumo (AWID), Verónica Montúfar (Public Services International), Jessica Woodroffe (Gender and Development Network) and Emma Bürgisser (the Bretton Woods Project) provided external feedback and inspiration. Thanks to Chloe Halpenny for input on social protection. Above: Siiqqee women cooperative sort spices to sell at Thanks to Kellie Smith for editing advice and to Base Eleven for design. Thanks go to Elise Anley for formatting the market, Nekemte, . the references and Louise Hemfrey for proofreading. © Womankind Worldwide / Maheder Tadese 2 Working towards a just feminist economy Womankind Worldwide

“To simply ‘add Monetary Fund (IMF) on increasing female labour Introduction 7 women and stir’ force participation to benefit . 8 into this model To simply ‘add women and stir’ into this model of Since the 1980s, the acceleration of neoliberal economic policy-making is a failed strategy. Nor will of economic economic policies1 has led to financial crises, economic growth in the current model alone achieve policy-making is austerity, closure of civil space and extreme gender equality. inequality2. Our societies and economies have a failed strategy.” However, such economic policy choices are not been shaped by this extractive and exploitative inevitable and can be reoriented towards policies neoliberal , that has facilitated changes that reduce inequality and ensure progress towards in laws, deregulating labour rights, privatisating the realisation of social and economic rights natural resources and basic services, liberalising benefitting women living in . We need trade, investment and financial flows. Women gender-transformative public services, universal social are at the forefront of struggles worldwide, protection systems, the redistribution of unpaid care, challenging the rising power of corporations access to decent work, sustainable infrastructure, and and demanding their rights. They face the progressive public resources and taxation. invisibility of their unpaid and low paid informal work, deplorable working conditions, lack of access With the 75th anniversary of the Bretton Woods to quality public services and appropriation of their Institutions, the centenary for the women’s vote and natural resources. 3 in the UK, the upcoming 25th anniversary of the Platform for Action, and five years of The past decade was dubbed ‘the age of austerity’.4 progress made on the SDGs, it is an opportunity Measures pushed by international financial for States and the global community to address the institutions (IFIs) have been implemented in countries barriers that prevent the economy working for all 1. “ claims that all over the world, despite the commitments made interference by the state through women. The barriers to achieve women’s human , subsidies, or trade tariffs and to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). , distorts the market and rights are: leads to inefficiencies and poor social Policies include changes to how taxes are collected, outcomes”. • The time women spent doing unpaid care “ – the belief privatising public , freezing public sector that is the most work and domestic work efficient way to distribute resources for , reducing social security and reforming and .” from systems. Such austerity measures widely • Lack of access to decent work and AWID (2016): Challenging Corporate Power: Struggles for Women’s Rights, impact the enjoyment of social and economic productive resources Economic and Gender [pdf] 2. Oxfam International (2019): ‘Public human rights, particularly for women who are • Lack of quality gender-transformative or private ?’ [pdf] the most affected by all forms of tax injustice, the 3. AWID (2016): Challenging Corporate public services Power: Struggles for Women’s Rights, privatisation of public services and .5 Economic and Gender Justice [pdf] • Lack of corporate accountability 4. South Centre (2013) The Age This has undermined democratic processes, the of Austerity: A Review of Public • Lack of State resources Expenditures and Adjustment Measures accountability States have to their citizens and in 181 Countries [pdf] their ability to deliver human rights as primary • Lack of recognition of women’s human 5. Womankind Worldwide (2017): ‘Rights and Realities: A Briefing on Women and duty bearers. There is a need to re-think the global rights the Economy’ [pdf] 6. Heintz, J. and Balakrishnan, R. economic and financial system to achieve human For meaningful, transformative and lasting progress (2012): ‘Debt, Power, and Crisis: Social rights for all without retrogression.6 Stratification and the Inequitable on women’s economic rights, a rights based feminist Governance of Financial Markets’, approach to how the global economy is governed American Quarterly, vol. 64(3) pp. The current co-option of IFIs, governments 387-409 [pdf] and corporates of the term women’s economic and created is needed. All women should be able 7. BWP (2018): ‘Bretton Woods Institutions’ Instrumental Gender empowerment for purposes other than to exercise choice and control over economic Approach Ignores Structural Elephant in the Room’ [online] women’s actual economic rights is problematic opportunities, outcomes and resources, and shape 8. Steans, Jill, (1998), Gender in as it yet again instrumentalises women. An economic decision-making at all levels. International Relations: an introduction, Polity Press: Cambridge. P. 161 example is the continued focus of the International

Rural women’s assembly national meeting takes place in . © Women and Land in Zimbabwe 3 Working towards a just feminist economy Womankind Worldwide

International instruments to secure women’s economic rights International instruments provide the framework for realising Other key conventions are No.189 on the rights of domestic women’s economic rights. This starts with the 1948 Universal workers, No.151 and No.154, which guarantee the right to unionise Declaration of Human Rights on which international human and collectively bargain to workers delivering public services. rights law is built and other international agreements. The 1995 Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action is The 1966 International Covenant on Economic Social and an agenda for women’s empowerment, stating that “Equality Cultural Rights (ICESR) is a powerful tool to direct economic between women and men is a matter of human rights and a policy to the realisation of human rights. In addition to the principles condition for social justice and is also a necessary and fundamental of equality and non-discrimination, article 2.1 commits States prerequisite for equality, development and .” to utilise maximum available resources towards the progressive realisation of rights. These include equal rights and protection from 2030 Agenda including the Sustainable Development discrimination as well as the right to work, an adequate standard Goals (SDGs) was agreed in 2015 and is not legally binding. The of living, rest and leisure, and . States have the obligation agenda provides a comprehensive framework for government, to respect, promote and fulfil rights by abiding to principles of civil society and the private sector to realise human rights and progressive realisation, non-retrogression, the satisfaction of women’s economic rights for all. Specifically, SDG5 on achieving minimum essential levels, equality and non-discrimination as well as gender equality and empowering all women and girls, SDG8 on participation, transparency and accountability. promoting sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive and decent work for all, SDG 10 The 1979 Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of on reducing inequality within and amongst countries, SDG1 on Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is an international ending poverty, SDG2 on food security, SDG3 on health and SDG4 bill of rights for women and commits States to adopt all measures on education. to end gender based discrimination including and girls. The 2007 United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) establishes a universal framework International Labour Organization (ILO) Conventions legally of minimum standards for the survival, dignity and well-being of bind States to this body of international labour standards to the indigenous peoples of the world, and includes the principle promote decent work. Decent work is defined as work that “is of Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) of Indigenous productive and delivers a fair , security in the workplace Peoples. and social protection for families, better prospects for personal development and social integration, freedom for people to express Instruments in development are the draft 2018 UN’s Guiding their concerns, organise and participate in the decisions that affect Principles for human rights impact assessments for their lives, and equality of opportunity and treatment for all women economic reform programmes, and the 2018 zero draft for and men”. Many conventions are key for women’s rights at an international legally binding instrument to regulate, work such as No.182 on Maternity Protection, No.156 on Workers in international human rights law, the activities of with Family Responsibilities and No.100 on Equal Remuneration. transnational corporations and other business enterprises.

“Unpaid care and Barriers in the world Domestic work, unpaid care and caregivers are domestic work largely invisible in the eyes of policymakers. This are a root cause of work means economic policymakers and finance ministers fail to consider this type of work when setting out of inequality” Our policies and societies are being reshaped how the government raises and spends its resources. by what is ‘good for the economy’ according to Consequently, when public health and care services capitalism, so anything outside of the realm of the are cut and social protection and safety nets are economy is not considered important. Unpaid care reduced, a further burden is placed on women and and domestic work are a root cause of inequality girls’ disproportionate level of unpaid care work and are not seen as productive activities, even because of socially determined gender roles. This though they underpin all human activities, including jeopardises women’s right to education, decent work market based activities. (see box above), an adequate standard of living, as This reinforces gender inequalities, discrimination well as rest, leisure and a life free of violence. and stereotypes by putting women at a The economy relies on women’s unpaid care disadvantage when accessing paid work and work for the of others. This fundamental productive resources. It also puts women reproductive labour provides an immense subsidy at increased risk of violence and limits their to capitalism, whilst being a source of gender participation in political decision-making. Economic oppression and subjugation. 9 Until all women have inequalities therefore cause, contribute to and economic rights and independence they will not have 9. AWID (2019): ‘5 Major Threats’ [online] perpetuate other inequalities against women. sexual and bodily autonomy; independent income 4 Working towards a just feminist economy Womankind Worldwide

can allow women to have control over their lives, Decent work reduce the risk of violence and increase the chances As is well documented, women experience that women access justice. “Women’s economic barriers accessing productive resources18, such agency is fundamental to mitigating the often as land, and paid work, meaning they cyclical nature of poverty, denial of education, are less likely to have productive that could safety and security”.10 provide them with income security, status and Unpaid care work respect. Women’s position in the global economy continues to be one of gender-based labour Across the world, women perform the majority exploitation.19 When they are in paid employment (76.2 percent) of global unpaid care and domestic women’s wages are lower and they experience poor work. This unjust of labour has a 10. AWID (2019): ‘Our Vision: Economic working conditions, low job security and exploitation Justice in a Feminist World’ [online] profound impact on women’s ability to earn an 11. Age International (2018): ‘Who at work. This is common in informal jobs20 where Cares? Why Older Women’s Economic income and realise the full spectrum of their human Empowerment Matters for the women are overrepresented, which are not subject Sustainable Development Goals’ [pdf] rights. The disproportionate burden of unpaid to stable and secure contracts, legal protection, 12. Bretton Woods Project (2018) ‘World care work on women is both a product and a Bank’s vision of work leaves it isolated living wages, paid maternity and sick leave21. The from the international community’. driver of gender inequality. The countries where [online] situation is worse for those women who 13. PSI (2018): ‘Advancing Women’s gender disparities in unpaid care work are greatest experience multiple and intersecting forms Human Rights through Gender- are those most likely to lack an adequate care responsive Public Services’ [online] of discrimination because of their class, race, 14. UN Women (2018) Towards inclusive infrastructure, including childcare and long-term cities for all: How to protect the rights sexual orientation, disability, age or migrant of women in informal self-employment care and support”.11 In specific regions women [online] status, amongst other dimensions. 15. is a do more unpaid care work, while women in lower monetary measure of the market Following the ILO’s recommendations on decent of all final goods and services produced income households across regions have a bigger in a period (quarterly or yearly). For an burden of the unpaid care work. Notwithstanding work (see box on page 3), it is key that States analysis see Messac, L. (2018): ‘Women’s support women to access decent work, Must Be Included in GDP the substantial economic and societal contribution Calculations: Lessons from History’ including a fair income, security, personal [online] of this work, it remains invisible and unaccounted 16. UN Women (no date): ‘Redistribute for in economic decision-making.12 “When austerity development and social protection. All women Paid Work’ [online] United Nations Department for and ideological commitment to neoliberalism results and men should have equality of opportunity International Development, 2015. and treatment, and freedom to express concerns, Imbalances on Paid Work. Human in governments abdicating their responsibilities to Development Report 2015. United organise and participate in the decisions that affect Nations. [pdf] provide health, education, water, energy, social 17. UNW (2015): ‘Progress of the World services and care, women are generally expected their lives, including the right to unionise and Women 2015-2016: Transforming collective bargaining.22 When public sector workers Economies, Realising Rights’ [pdf] p. to provide the cushion that sustains lives 200 fig 4.2 13 receive the full range of labour protections they will 18. Productive assets as “tangible items and economies”. that can generate profits and cash be better equipped to deliver quality public services. flow. These can include land, property, The SDG target 5.4 commits governments to livestock, minerals, plants that can be harvested for sale, or and shares.” “recognise and value unpaid care and domestic Land rights Quoted from Age International (2018): work through the provision of public services, ‘Who Cares? Why Older Women’s The use of land and natural resources for corporate Economic Empowerment Matters for the infrastructure and social protection policies”. UN profitability and its privatisation has an immense Sustainable Development Goals’ [pdf] Women found that this requires time use surveys 19. AWID (2019): ‘5 Major Threats’ impact on the lives of rural and indigenous women [online] to be implemented systematically.14 For unpaid 20. “Workers in the and violates their right to land, food, water and include both workers and own- care work to be recognised and valued it should 23 account workers. Most own-account a livelihood. At times it also fuels conflict and be included in measures of economic outputs. workers are as insecure and vulnerable displaces women and communities, as well as as wage workers and move from one Estimates of Gross Domestic Product (GDP)15 situation to the other. Because they lack contributing to climate change, which affects protection, rights and representation, currently exclude unpaid care work, such as meal these workers often remain trapped in women in the South the most.24 Women have poverty.” preparation, house cleaning, laundry, water and reduced access to formal land titling and are “The term ‘informal economy’ refers to firewood fetching, and care of children, sick and all economic activities by workers and routinely excluded from consultation and economic units that are – in law or in elderly.16 When the value of time spent in unpaid practice – not covered or insufficiently decision-making processes around the use of covered by formal arrangements.” care and domestic work is counted in terms of GDP, Quoted from ILO 2002 ILC Resolution land. Loss of livelihoods, food insecurity, increased such activities amount to enormous contributions and Conclusions on Decent Work and exposure to environmental pollution, increased time Informal Economy [pdf] from 15% of GDP in South Africa and up to 31% 21. UNW (2015): ‘Progress of the World spent fetching water and firewood, and increased Women 2015-2016: Transforming in Nicaragua, 35% in and 39% in India.17 Economies, Realising Rights’ [pdf] instances of domestic and other forms of violence 22. PSI (2018): ‘Advancing Women’s for unpaid work is the first step against women are common in different contexts Human Rights through Gender- to recognising, redistributing, and reducing responsive Public Services’ [online] of large-scale land investment.25 States need to 23. Womankind Worldwide (2018): the time and drudgery involved in unpaid care Digging Deep: The impact of ’s establish, promote and implement legal standards land rush on women’s rights’ [pdf] work and domestic work. 24. AWID (2016): Challenging Corporate that protect a ’s right to own and inherit Power: Struggles for Women’s Rights, Despite States’ obligations to ensure economic Economic and Gender Justice [pdf] property and access credit across her whole life 25. Core Coalition and Womankind policies are non-discriminatory and prioritise human course.26 UN Women concluded that “given wide Worldwide (2017). Land intensive corporate activity: the impact on rights, regressive tax policies and underfunded gaps between women and men in accessing jobs women’s rights [pdf] public services perpetuate women’s disproportionate 26. Age International (2018): ‘Who and other economic assets, policies deliberately Cares? Why Older Women’s Economic responsibility for unpaid care and the lack of crafted to close these stand a far greater chance Empowerment Matters for the Sustainable Development Goals’ [pdf] recognition of this work. of improving women’s lives and advancing 27. UNW (no date) ‘Macroeconomic 27 Policies and Social Protection’ [online] gender equality.” 5 Working towards a just feminist economy Womankind Worldwide

“Public services The role of universal public to be accessible both physically and socially, without play a critical stigma; as well as safe for all to use, free from fear role in advancing services of violence. Public services should be underpinned by a commitment to redistributing wealth and paid women’s Public services play a critical role in advancing and unpaid work as well as reducing inequality and human rights 36 women’s human rights and addressing gender creating social justice. and addressing inequality. A failure to deliver these has a For services to be truly public they must be gender discriminatory impact on women, as has been publicly designed, publicly funded, publicly inequality.” repeatedly recognised in international law and by delivered and managed, and publicly governed. researchers, unions and civil society.28 Public services The State needs to prioritise fiscal policies that include the provision of sanitation and water, energy, provide sufficient resources for the provision of , care services, education, transport, universal public services. Effective democratic infrastructure, social protection and justice, and governance of public services requires improved ensure an adequate standard of living. States need accountability and transparency in decision-making, to address their obligations to deliver public financing, delivery and monitoring.37 An increase services, as they provide important mechanisms in participatory decision-making processes and for governments to achieve universal human women’s leadership and influence are needed rights, redistribute wealth, and address to achieve gender-responsive public services. discrimination and poverty. If designed, Women have restricted access to public services and funded and delivered using gender-transformative their decision-making processes due to time poverty 28. PSI (2018): ‘Advancing Women’s 38 Human Rights through Gender- strategies, public services can challenge patriarchy related to time spent doing unpaid work. Therefore responsive Public Services’ [online] 29. Ibid. and transform the structural causes of discrimination efforts need to be made to ensure women, 30. Ibid. by redistributing power and resources.29 women’s rights organisations and trade unions are 31. GADN & FEMNET (2019): ‘How Social Protection, Public Services and meaningfully engaged.39 Infrastructure Impact Women’s Rights’ [pdf] Gender-responsive universal 32. Womankind uses the term gender- Social protection transformative to mean that policy public services making and implementation should be According to UN Women social protection policies informed by gender analysis and aim Public Services International (PSI) proposed a to transform gender power relations framework for gender-responsive quality public are important in opening women’s access to labour and promote human rights including women’s rights. services (GRQPS) for CSW63.30 The framework markets, addressing economic risks faced by 33. ActionAid (2018): ‘Framework 2018: working families and helping poor households meet Gender-Responsive Public Services [pdf] sets out how to address the primary barriers to the 40 34. Universal coverage is when “all delivery and the enablers of GRQPS and women’s basic needs. They comprise of integrated “policies people obtain the public services they need without financial hardship” and human rights, including labour rights of those designed to ensure income security and support universal access is the “ability of all to all people across the lifecycle, paying particular people to have equal opportunity to working in frontline public services. The Gender and 41 access services, regardless of their social Development Network together with FEMNET also attention to the poor and the vulnerable”. Current identity”. From PSI (2018): ‘Advancing Women’s Human Rights through Gender- set out how social protection, public services and social protection systems vary greatly, and the responsive Public Services’ [online] 31 benefits provided are frequently inadequate. Social 35. GADN and FEMNET (2019): ‘How infrastructure impact women’s rights for CSW63. Social Protection, Public Services and protection has long been recognised as a core public Infrastructure Impact Women’s Rights’ The section below is based on both analyses. [pdf] service and a right, enshrined in the 1948 Universal To ensure public services are gender- 36. PSI (2018): ‘Advancing Women’s Declaration of Human Rights.42 Consequently, Human Rights through Gender- transformative32 they need to redress the responsive Public Services’ [online] the UN supports inclusive schemes, which “are 37. Ibid. historical gendered Mulgan, R. (2012): ‘Transparency and universally available to anybody in prescribed that places the burden of unpaid care Public Sector Performance: Occasional circumstances irrespective of their particular Paper No. 1’ [pdf] predominantly on women and girls. They 38. GADN and FEMNET (2019): ‘How characteristics such as social position or income”.43 Social Protection, Public Services and need to address specific needs and of Infrastructure Impact Women’s Rights’ Women have more need for social protection, [pdf] women and men and the intersectional nature of 39. PSI (2018): ‘Advancing Women’s because of their lack of income and assets, and discrimination, whilst respecting, protecting, fulfilling Human Rights through Gender- the disproportionate amount of unpaid care responsive Public Services’ [online] and promoting women’s right to bodily integrity, 40. UNW (no date) ‘Macroeconomic work they do, but have less access to it.44 In Policies and Social Protection’ [online] non-discrimination and to live free from violence.33 41. Age International (2018): ‘Who low-income countries less than 16% of older people Cares? Why Older Women’s Economic To advance women’s human rights there needs to Empowerment Matters for the have access to a pension. Older women are less Sustainable Development Goals’ [pdf] be a universal approach to the provision of public likely to receive a pension than older men, explained 42. ILO (2015): ‘The Right to Social 34 Protection’ [online] services, both in access and in coverage. This will partly because of gendered working patterns.45 43. Walker, R. (2005): Social Security and require an increase in the type of public services : Concepts and Comparisons. The IMF and the World Bank promote targeted Berkshire: Open University Press. p. 31 and a transformation in the way they are delivered, 44. UNW (2015): ‘Progress of the World’s social protection for low income households, which should be appropriate for the needs and Women 2015-2016: Transforming resulting in lower cost programmes. A targeted Economies, Realizing Rights’ [pdf] priorities of the communities they serve. Public 45. Age International (2018): ‘Who approach selects beneficiaries based on income Cares? Why Older Women’s Economic services will only be universal if they are affordable Empowerment Matters for the 35 levels. This is often combined with sanctions, Sustainable Development Goals’ [pdf] for all, including the most marginalised. They need 6 Working towards a just feminist economy Womankind Worldwide

Glossary: gender-transformative public services Infrastructure: includes basic physical infrastructure such as Public energy: is another key . When energy is roads, sewers, electrical grids, telecommunications and housing scarce or privatised it burdens women disproportionately due to that enable society to function and services to be provided. Social the sexual division of labour. Women and girls, particularly in rural infrastructure includes all the services that provide healthcare, areas, spend considerable time collecting firewood for cooking, education, long-term care and childcare. heating and lighting. The public provision of energy united with Public care: the redistributive targets of SDGs for gender equality, a gender-transformative approach “can alleviate women’s unpaid have to be based on public care services for all provided by the work and deliver important health benefits”. (PSI) State, including , elderly and disability care. Public transport: is a key public service, which connects people Public health care: have “a strategic need for gender equality in to work, school, shops, hospitals and other public services. “Public multiple forms in health care services”. There needs to be a human transport should be accessible, affordable, efficient, reliable, rights-based approach and a “focus on sexual and reproductive safe, clean and integrated with a city-wide network of different health services and rights that counter patriarchal norms and transport modes, including bus, train, metro, ferry, taxi, tram,” respect the principle of women´s bodily autonomy”. (PSI) For cycling and walking. (PSI) For women in particular safety is a critical example, women’s needs for services such as health care and concern. Women experience “high levels of sexual harassment water increase around menstruation and reproduction. and abuse on public transport” and consequently “have to pay more for safer methods of travel”. Improving transport links Public education: is key to empowering girls and women. appropriately for the diverse needs of women “can further support Specifically for women and girls living in rural, remote or women’s empowerment by allowing women to travel in order to marginalized areas, and those that “are at greater risk of not meet and engage in collective action”. (GADN & FEMNET) completing school”. Public education curricula can play key “role in dismantling patriarchal beliefs and systems and transforming Social protection: According to the ILO “universal social gender relations”. (PSI) protection includes adequate cash transfers for all who need it, especially: children; benefits/support for people of working age in Public water and sanitation: are vital public services. Having case of maternity, disability, work injury or for those without jobs; access to and availability of clean water is a prerequisite for and for all older persons. This protection can be provided “sustainable growth and development of communities around through social , tax-funded social benefits, social the world”. In places where there is water scarcity women and assistance services, public works programs and other schemes girls tend to be the stewards of water, adding significantly to the guaranteeing basic income security.” burden of unpaid work. of water diminishes the right to water for women and has broader discriminatory impacts on health, unpaid care work burden and diminished household budgets. (PSI)

conditions or work obligations. Contributory access to childcare and security of income for older schemes restrict; “eligibility for benefits is based women.50 Nancy Fraser’s universal caregiver model on prior financial contributions by individual focuses on increasing men’s role as carers and giving 46 46. GADN and FEMNET (2019): ‘How beneficiaries”. There is much evidence that poverty them access to parental leave. Social Protection, Public Services and Infrastructure Impact Women’s Rights’ targeting excludes the majority of people living in The World Bank and IMF play a significant [pdf] poverty from social protection. Inclusive, lifecycle 47. BWP (2018): ‘Pro-Poor or Anti-Poor? role in influencing national social protection The World Bank and IMF’s Approach to social protection systems are significantly more Social Protection’ [online] Behrendt, C. policies. Around 10 percent of IMF loans include (2008): “Can Low Income Countries in effective in reaching those living in poverty, while conditionality related to social protection, while a Sub-Saharan Africa Afford Basic Social Protection? First Results of a Modelling having much greater positive social, economic and significant share of World Bank loans, almost 10 Exercise” in Armando Barrientos & David political impacts.47 Hulme (eds.) Social Protection for the percent to low-income countries in 2017, went Poor and Poorest: Concepts, Policies and Gender-transformative social protection to social protection. Apart from advocating for Politics. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. 48. GADN and FEMNET (2019): ‘How recognises and addresses “the different roles poverty targeting, they moreover “criticise and Social Protection, Public Services and Infrastructure Impact Women’s Rights’ that women play – both paid and unpaid – threaten inclusive schemes that governments have [pdf] 51 49. ILO (2017). World Social Protection and takes into account women’s needs and established with their own funds.” Even though Report 2017-19: Universal social priorities”.48 It should also recognise, redistribute less is spent on targeted programmes, they protection to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals [pdf] and reduce unpaid care roles and recognise the are not cost-efficient and just represent token 50. GADN and FEMNET (2019): ‘How Social Protection, Public Services and predominance of women working in the informal investment in social protection. This approach fits Infrastructure Impact Women’s Rights’ sector. Extending social protection to the many a neoliberal vision of a small State and low taxes [pdf] 51. BWP (2018): ‘Pro-Poor or Anti-Poor? low-paid women working in the informal sector is such as implemented through the current austerity The World Bank and IMF’s Approach to 49 52 Social Protection’ [online] key for achieving the SDGs according to the ILO. agenda. In order to develop gender-transformative 52. Ibid 53. GADN and FEMNET (2019): ‘How The organisation Women in Informal Employment: social protection, a substantial increase in State Social Protection, Public Services and Globalizing and Organizing (WIEGO) stresses the funding is needed to move beyond inadequate Infrastructure Impact Women’s Rights’ 53 [pdf] need to prioritise informal sector workers’ health, targeted schemes. 7 Working towards a just feminist economy Womankind Worldwide

However, PPPs are a threat to public finances as The role of the State versus they are often expensive and an inefficient financing the private sector structure, and cost governments more in the long run than if the service had been provided directly by the State and financed through government To successfully implement the SDGs, as a universal funds. Governments hide public borrowing for PPPs agenda to advance human rights and sustainable ‘off balance sheet’ with the high costs diverting development with a commitment to “leave no spending away from other public services. By 54. PSI (2018): ‘Advancing Women’s one behind”, public service provision is vital. providing long-term guarantees for profit for private Human Rights through Gender- However, increasingly States are seeking to responsive Public Services’ [online] companies, PPPs are riskier for the State than for 55. Ibid., ActionAid (2018) Gender- relinquish their obligations to provide public responsive public services [pdf], UN the private companies involved, as the public sector (2015) Report of the Special Rapporteur services and are finding ways for private on the right to education, Kishore Singh may be required to step in and pay up when things sector actors to manage essential services and [pdf] go wrong60. States essentially subsidise private sector 56. Bretton Woods Project (2017) infrastructure.54 The current trend in privatisation Development to the rescue of finance – profits, whilst socialising the cost to the the Bank’s ‘cascade’ approach [online] and its impact on the right to essential services has 57. GADN and FEMNET (2019): ‘How 61 55 public purse . Social Protection, Public Services and been well documented. This push for privatisation Infrastructure Impact Women’s Rights’ The private sector’s profit motive leads to lower [pdf] undermines the SDGs. For example the World 62 58. PPP (2017): ‘Global Campaign Banks’s Maximizing Financing for Development quality services , compromising service provision Manifesto’ [pdf] 59. Ibid agenda is channelling public tax payer funds and accountability to users. PPPs often come with 60. Eurodad (2018): ‘History RePPPeated. new or inflated user fees, which increases How Public Private Partnerships are through development banks to the private sector Failing’ [pdf] to deliver services, especially in low income inequality by restricting access to services 61. PSI (2015): ‘Why Public-Private 63 Partnerships Don’t Work. The Many countries.56 Nonetheless, States remain the for the poorest and most marginalised – Advantages of the Public Alternative’ this disproportionally impacts on women [pdf], BWP (2017): ‘Development to the primary duty bearers responsible for delivering Rescue of Finance – the Bank’s Cascade and girls. PPPs can result in human, social and Approach’ [online], Critical Macro human rights. Finance (2018): ‘The World Bank’s New environmental abuses. At the same time social and The well known neoliberal argument driving Maximizing Finance for Development environmental legislation is being weakened to Agenda Brings Shadow Banking into austerity; that governments are unable to raise International Development – Open Letter’ attract the private sector. PPP contracts are highly [online] funds for public services, supposedly justifies private 62. PSI (2018): ‘Advancing Women’s complex and reduce the government’s capacity to Human Rights through Gender- sector involvement in the provision of services regulate in the public , particularly where responsive Public Services’ [online] and infrastructure.57 Specifically public-private 63. UN CRC (2016): ‘Concluding investor-state-dispute-settlement (ISDS) systems Observations on the Fifth Periodic Report partnerships (PPPs) have been pushed as a solution of the United Kingdom of Great Britain exist.64 Expecting governments to effectively regulate and Northern Ireland’ [online] BWP to the financing shortfall by G20 governments and 65 (2017): ‘World Bank Undermines Right to powerful private sector providers is unrealistic. The public development banks, including the World Universal Healthcare’, [online] problems associated with private sector involvement 64. PPP (2017): ‘Global Campaign Bank.58 “PPPs are long-term contracts, underwritten Manifesto’ [pdf] in public sector services is evident across the world,66 65. GADN and FEMNET (2019): ‘How by government guarantees, under which the Social Protection, Public Services and demonstrating that PPPs are not a reliable way to Infrastructure Impact Women’s Rights’ private sector builds, and sometimes runs, major deliver services in the public interest, let alone in a [pdf] PPP (2017): ‘Global Campaign infrastructure projects or services traditionally Manifesto’ [pdf] gender-transformative way. 66. Eurodad (2018): ‘History RePPPeated. provided by the State, such as hospitals, schools, How Public Private Partnerships are Failing’ [pdf] roads, railways, water, sanitation and energy.”59

Sirgut, 15, is learning business skills & sewing & studying at 8th grade so she can build a life for her & her 3year old son. © Womankind Worldwide / Maheder Tadese 8 Working towards a just feminist economy Womankind Worldwide

the re-municipalisation of failed privatised services Corporate accountability directly contravene the human rights obligations of States. This undermines States’ legitimate regulatory and policymaking space to establish public social 67. ‘Corporate power’ refers to the Transnational corporations (TNCs) wield enormous excessive control and appropriation of power67, both formally and informally: 63% of the policies, protect human rights and hold corporations natural resources, labour, information and finance by an alliance of powerful top 175 global economic entities are TNCs, not accountable, as well as to develop gender- corporations, and global , in collusion with government. - AWID countries. An alliance of powerful corporations and transformative public services and employ other (2016): Challenging Corporate Power: policy tools to support women’s human rights.76 Struggles for Women’s Rights, Economic global elites, in collusion with governments, exerts and Gender Justice [pdf] undue influence over domestic and international TNCs are able to escape accountability because of 68. ESCR-net (no date): ‘Corporate Capture Project’ [online] decision makers and public institutions. This legal loopholes that enable impunity, undermining 69. “Financialisation refers to the 77 increasing importance of financial undermines the realisation of human rights and and the . There is no markets, financial motives, financial the environment, through excessive control institutions, and financial elites in regulatory framework to protect human the operation of the economy and and appropriation of natural resources, labour, rights and the environment from corporate its governing institutions both at the 68 78 national and international levels” information and finance. This is enhanced by the abuse. This lack of corporate accountability leads Epstein Gerald A. 2006: Financialization 69 and the World Economy. Edward Elgar financialisation of the world economy , through to environmental pollution and aggravates climate Publishing. which “financial institutions exert a strong influence change, labour and human rights abuses, social 70. AWID (2016): Challenging Corporate Power: Struggles for Women’s Rights, over economic governance and the direction of insecurity, land grabbing and forced displacement, Economic and Gender Justice [pdf] 70 71. Ibid development policy”. Furthermore, the “current illicit financial flows and tax evasion, and the impact 72. Womankind Worldwide (2017): financial system, including controversial credit and 79 Rights and Realities: A Briefing on on women’s lives specifically are well documented. Women and the Economy’ [pdf] debt policies, are integral to the reproduction and Low tax collection by governments means 73. Investor-State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) mechanisms allow foreign expansion of accumulation processes,” there are fewer resources to spend on public investors to sue national governments 71 for any measures which harm their allowing TNCs to take a larger share. The current services and social security. profits. This makes it harder for system has evidently led to a race to the governments to regulate in the public The 2011 UN Guiding Principles on Business and interest, and can cost the taxpayer bottom in terms of labour standards, safety Human Rights (UNGPs) provide a voluntary set millions. Stop ISDS (no date): ‘Our 72 Demands. Stop ISDS’ [online] and environmental regulations, and tax rates. of guidelines for TNCs, based on existing human 74. AWID (2019): ‘5 Major Threats’ 80 [online] For the past 20 years, thousands of trade and rights obligations. The UNGPs have played an 75. PSI (2018): ‘Advancing Women’s Human Rights through Gender- investment agreements have safeguarded corporate important role clarifying the State’s obligation to responsive Public Services’ [online] interests, without any respect for the free, prior protect and provide a remedy for violations and the 76. TJM (2018): ‘Patriarchy and Profit: A Feminist Analysis of the Global Trade and informed consent and consultation of affected corporate responsibility to respect human rights. System’ [pdf] TJM (2018b) Gender Equality and Trade: communities. New generation trade and investment However, there aren’t any internationally agreed Recent Developments and Ways Froward’ agreements have investment protection clauses [pdf] sanctions for companies that fail to meet their duties 77. AWID (2016): Challenging Corporate and ISDS which grant corporations one-sided to respect human rights.81 This highlights the Power: Struggles for Women’s Rights, Economic and Gender Justice [pdf] powers to nullify national laws and policies if they importance of a binding gender-transformative 78. Womankind Worldwide (2018) 73 Submission to the Working Group reduce investors’ expected profits. The capacity international accountability framework for on the issue of human rights and of corporations to sue States that seek to regulate TNCs as an integral part of a broader effort to transnational corporations and other business enterprises [pdf] corporate activity or introduce public interest laws achieve women’s empowerment and human #Feminists4BindingTreaty [online] 79. AWID (2016): Challenging Corporate and policies, through ISDS clauses, creates a “chilling rights. A 2014 UN Human Rights Council working Power: Struggles for Women’s Rights, effect” on regulators. This limits States’ policy space Economic and Gender Justice [pdf] group launched a zero draft in July 2018 for an 80. Womankind Worldwide (2017): to create and enforce regulations on issues as crucial international legally binding instrument to regulate, Rights and Realities: A Briefing on Women and the Economy’ [pdf] as environmental protection, labour rights, and the in international human rights law, the activities of 81. ActionAid, AWID et al. (2018) 74 82 Women’s Rights Beyond the Business duration of copyrights. It further denies States TNCs. States need to support the proposed Case Ensuring Corporate Accountability huge whilst corporations win unlimited binding treaty and its process and further ensure [pdf] 75 82. OHCHR (2018): ‘Legally Binding rewards entering into the billions. women, women’s rights organisations and trade Instrument to Regulate, in International Human Rights Law, The Activities of Rules that require States to reduce regulations and unions are meaningfully engaged in consultations Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises’ [pdf] prohibit the introduction of new regulations or around its development.

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addition, as States are reforming their tax systems, The role of maximum there is a need to identify and remedy implicit available resourcing and gender bias. progressive taxation States failing to collect tax can seek other sources, “which often means regressive taxes that impact more adversely on women”. They might also The SDG agenda and existing commitments such as introduce user fees for public services or a crude the Beijing Platform for Action will only be realised cut in spending on public services, which are both if unprecedented levels of financing – in scale, likely to have discriminatory effects on women. scope, and quality – are committed to implementing “Significant global reform is required to ensure gender equality goals and targets.83 According governments secure the minimum 35 percent public to article 2 of the International Convention on revenue to GDP ratio necessary to deliver” gender- Economic, Social and Cultural Rights States will responsive public services.93 States can use gender- undertake steps “to achieve the full realisation of responsive budgeting94 to spend their existing the rights” in the covenant, using the “maximum resources wisely and prioritise social investment over, of its available resources”.84 To fulfil this obligation for example, military budgets. and make resources available for women’s rights States need to explore all strategies available Illicit financial flows impact on within public finance and macroeconomic policies, revenue including , taxation, official 83. Womankind Worldwide (2017): development assistance (ODA), budget deficits, debt TNCs engage in tax avoidance and evasion by Rights and Realities: A Briefing on shifting income out of developing countries and into Women and the Economy’ [pdf] management, monetary policy, financial 84. UNGA. 1966. International covenant 85 tax havens to avoid corporate . These on economic, social and cultural rights, and borrowing. A tool to assess economic policy 16 December, UNTS 993. Art 2. [online] in times of crisis is the UN’s Guiding Principles for so called illicit financial flows (IFFs) are any “money 85. Radhika Balakrishnan, James Heintz, illegally earned, transferred, or used”.95 Although Diane Elson, 2016. Rethinking Economic human rights impact assessments for economic Policy for Social Justice (Economics as not strictly illegal, it does “go against established Social Theory) reform programmes.86 86. OHCRC (2018) Guiding Principles rules or norms, including avoiding legal obligations for human rights impact assessments for 96 economic reform policies [online] Fiscal policy to pay tax”. Over 65 percent of IFFs are commercial 87. Committee for the abolition for tax evasion, with countries losing at least USD600 illegitimate debt (2015) Overview of debt Fiscal choices have gendered impacts and in the South: breakdown of external debt billion in public revenue annually and an estimated in developing countries (DCs) [online] consequently States should ensure resources 97 88. Womankind Worldwide (2017): promote redistribution and do not increase the USD20-30 trillion sitting in tax havens. Africa Rights and Realities: A Briefing on loses 5.5% of GDP, which is larger than the total of Women and the Economy’ [pdf] burden on women. State debt in the global South 89. GADN and FEMNET (2019): ‘How foreign direct investment and ODA.98 In addition, Social Protection, Public Services and has become a major problem again, with external Infrastructure Impact Women’s Rights’ tax competition between countries, as well as the [pdf] debt payments increasing by 60 percent over the last 90. Womankind Worldwide (2017): three years. This means States budgets, at times up indiscriminate use of tax incentives to attract foreign Rights and Realities: A Briefing on , for example through Special Economic Women and the Economy’ [pdf] to 20 percent of their revenue, are spent on paying 91. PSI (2018): ‘Advancing Women’s Zones or export processing zones99, is “driving Human Rights through Gender- back debt, with more money flowing from south 100 responsive Public Services’ [online] to north in debt repayments than ODA flowing to down corporate tax rates”, meaning less funds 92. Bretton Woods Project (2017) The for the public purse. For a fair global economy, IMF, Gender Equality and VAT: The the south.87 There is need to further improve the gender dimensions of the IMF’s key fiscal just distribution of resources is needed. This policy advice on mobilisation in international legal framework for the prevention and developing countries [online] resolution of debt crises. means putting limits on monopolistic accumulation 93. PSI (2018): ‘Advancing Women’s 101 Human Rights through Gender- of capital and other abuses of property, through responsive Public Services’ [online] Tax is by far the most important revenue stream for national and global tax reform to increase the 94. Womankind Worldwide (2017): developing countries, and is already dwarfing ODA Rights and Realities: A Briefing on amount of revenue raised from wealthy individual Women and the Economy’ [pdf] in many contexts. In Africa in 2012 tax revenue 95. FEMNET (2017): ‘Factsheet: What and corporations. are the Gender Dimensions of IFFs? collected was 10 times the amount of overseas Strengthening African Woman’s 88 Engagement and Contribution’ [pdf] aid received. Yet States could raise more to International cooperation on tax 96. Ibid. increase their budget.89 In particular, it is critical for 97. PSI (2018): ‘Advancing Women’s The lack of progress on tax cooperation continues to Human Rights through Gender developing countries to raise taxes from TNCs, as Responsive Public Services’ [online] be stressed by the Group of 77 and China, a group 98. FEMNET (2017): ‘Factsheet: What corporate income tax makes up 16 percent of their of 134 developing countries. The 2015 are the Gender Dimensions of IFFs? State revenue compared to just over eight percent in Strengthening African Woman’s Action Agenda agreed at the third Financing for Engagement and Contribution’ [pdf] high income countries90. 99. Womankind Worldwide (2017): Development (FfD) conference stresses that “efforts Rights and Realities: A Briefing on A critical enabler of increased investment to Women and the Economy’ [pdf] in international tax cooperation should be universal 100. PSI (2018): ‘Advancing Women’s fund gender equality policies, women’s human in approach and scope”.102 Developed countries Human Rights through Gender- responsive Quality Services’, [pdf]. rights and public services is progressive tax continue to hinder the establishment of an 101. AWID (No Date): ‘Our Vision: 91 Economic Justice in a Feminist World’ revenue. At national level there are possibilities for universal, intergovernmental tax body under [online] States to improve the progressivity of the tax system the auspices of the UN, which would ensure 102. UN (2015) Report of the third International Conference on Financing and shift the tax burden away from consumption implementation of this commitment.103 for Development [pdf] towards wealth and property taxes. Consumption 103. South Centre, Global Alliance for A shift in thinking on economic policy and managing Tax Justice (2018): ‘Collaboration or Co- taxes affect those on lower the most, of optation? A Review of the Platform for public finance is needed to account for social Collaboration on Tax’ [pdf] which women represent a larger proportion.92 In 10 Working towards a just feminist economy Womankind Worldwide

104. Social infrastructure is care, health, spending as an economically viable investment. according to UN Women and the International Trade education and training services, social 104 security and housing, complemented Investing in social infrastructure would Union Confederation, this kind of social investment by investment in renewable energy and environmentally friendly public transport. contribute to the realisation of women’s increases and jobs, thus expanding From Women’s Budget Group, (2019) economic rights, the SDGs more broadly and tax revenue so government loans can be repaid.106 Public investment in social infrastructure [online] further generate employment. “Such investments “An investment of two percent of GDP in the social 105. Womankind Worldwide (2017): Rights and Realities: A Briefing on would be revolutionary since spending on social care, health and education sectors would increase Women and the Economy’ [pdf] infrastructure is considered current expenditure employment by up to six percent, depending on the 106. GADN and FEMNET (2019): ‘How Social Protection, Public Services and for governments rather than an investment, as it country, with between 59 percent and 70 percent of Infrastructure Impact Women’s Rights’ 107 [pdf] is not seen to generate growth, limiting States’ direct jobs going to women.” 107. Womankind Worldwide (2017): 105 Rights and Realities: A Briefing on ability to borrow to fund such sectors”. However, Women and the Economy’ [pdf]

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“To create a of gender-transformative universal social protection global economy Conclusion systems, quality public services – including publicly where women funded education, health and care services – and sustainable infrastructure, are urgently needed. have economic The lack of progress on women’s human rights and gender equality is a symptom of the Above all, without recognising, reducing rights, a shift dominance of global neoliberal capitalism and and redistributing the unpaid care work in economic a worrying sign that the structural underlying disproportionately done by women that policymaking barriers in our economic system are not being underpins the economic system, the current is needed.” addressed. Since the 1980s, policy and decision policies will remain inherently biased and makers have considered the economy as an end reinforce structural inequalities that penalise in itself, rather than a means to contribute to our the poorest women and girls. To achieve societies and the achievement of human rights transformative change towards women’s rights, for all. progressive national and global tax reforms Macroeconomic policy and decisions makers at and improvements in global governance and national and international levels are not involved in accountability are vital, as well as more suitable a politically neutral, technical process controlled by corporate accountability mechanisms. A just economists. Macroeconomic policymaking is a highly feminist economy would reduce the time burden political process that should reflect societies’ values, of unpaid care work, provide secure incomes, tax 108. BWP (2016): Gender-Just Mactoeconomics. Engaging the IMF and priorities and principles and States’ human rights justice with sufficient public resources to guarantee World Bank’ [pdf] 108 109. GADN and FEMNET (2019): ‘How obligations. To create a global economy where maximum levels of health and care provision, and Social Protection, Public Services and promote “women’s safety and ability to engage in Infrastructure Impact Women’s Rights’ women have economic rights, a shift in economic 109 [pdf] GADN (2017): ‘Sharing the policymaking is needed. Appropriate public political activity”. Load: Unpaid Care Work and Women’s Economic Empowerment’ [online] investment and policies that support the provision

Further reading ActionAid (2018): ‘Framework 2018: Gender-Responsive Public FEMNET (2017): ‘Factsheet: What are the Gender Dimensions Services [pdf] of IFFs? Strengthening African Woman’s Engagement and ActionAid, AWID et al. (2018): Women’s Rights Beyond the Contribution’ [pdf] Business Case Ensuring Corporate Accountability [pdf] FEMNET (2017): ‘What are the Gender Dimensions of IFFs? ActionAid TJM, et all (2018) Gender Equality and Trade: Recent Strengthening African Women’s Engagement and Contribution’ Developments and Ways Forward’ [pdf] [pdf] Age International (2018): ‘Who Cares? Why Older Women’s GADN, AWID & FEMNET (2016): ‘Breaking down the barriers Economic Empowerment Matters for the Sustainable Development Macroeconomic policies that promote women’s economic equality’ Goals’ [pdf] [pdf] APWLD, AWID et all. (2017): ‘Integrating a gender perspective into GADN & FEMNET (2019): ‘How Social Protection, Public Services the legally binding instrument on transnational corporations and and Infrastructure Impact Women’s Rights’ [pdf] other business enterprises’ [pdf] GADN, GAPS and UK SRHR Network (2015): ‘Turning Promises AWID (2016): Challenging Corporate Power: Struggles for into Progress: Gender Equality and Rights for Women and Girls – Women’s Rights, Economic and Gender Justice [pdf] Lessons Learnt and Actions Needed’ [online] AWID (2017): ‘Illicit Financial Flows: Why we should claim these GenderAction (2013): ‘Gender Toolkit for International Finance resources for gender, economic and social justice’ [online] Watchers’ [pdf] Balakrishnan, Heintz, Elson, (2016): ‘Rethinking Economic PPP (2017): ‘Global Campaign Manifesto’ [pdf] Policy for Social Justice: The radical potential of human rights’ – PSI (2018): ‘Advancing Women’s Human Rights through Gender- Routledge [book] responsive Public Services’ [online] Bretton Woods Project (2016): Gender-Just . TJM (2018): ‘Patriarchy and Profit: A Feminist Analysis of the Engaging the IMF and World Bank’ [pdf] Global Trade System’ [pdf] Bretton Woods Project (2017): ‘The IMF, Gender Equality and VAT: The gender dimensions of the IMF’s key fiscal policy advice UN Women (2015): ‘Progress of the World Women 2015-2016: on resource mobilisation in developing countries’ in ‘The IMF and Transforming Economies, Realising Rights’ [pdf] Gender Equality: A Compendium of Feminist Macroeconomic UN Women (2019) ‘Gender Equality and Inclusive Growth: Critiques’ [online] Economic Policies to Achieve Sustainable Development’ - Edited by Bretton Woods Project (2019): ‘Gender-Just Macroeconomics: The D. Elson and A. Seth [pdf] World Bank’s Privatisation Push’ [pdf] Womankind Worldwide (2017): Rights and Realities: A Briefing on Core Coalition and Womankind Worldwide (2017): ‘Land intensive Women and the Economy’ [pdf] corporate activity: the impact on women’s rights’ [pdf] Womankind Worldwide (2018): Digging Deep: The impact of FEMNET (2016): ‘Unraveling Gender Dimensions in Uganda’s land rush on women’s rights’ [pdf] Macroeconomic Policy Frameworks in Africa’ [pdf] 12 Working towards a just feminist economy Womankind Worldwide

Recommendations These recommendations, many enshrined in international human • adopt gender-responsive budgeting to reprioritise expenditure rights law, build on our Rights and Realities briefing, the work and ensure adequate resources are invested to achieve all of various feminists economists and feminist organisations, and women’s human rights, involving women’s rights organisations are urgent and feasible. They address some of the structural (WROs) and feminist economists in the process. changes needed to govern economies to provide transformative • provide gender-transformative, high-quality, publicly-funded, change to realise women’s economic rights and gender equality democratically-controlled, accountable public services, social for all women. protection and infrastructure, based on the principle of universality that actively promotes gender equality. Around decent work States should: • adopt progressive and gender-responsive tax regimes at • recognise the care economy in economic decision-making, national and global level to redistribute wealth and measure unpaid care and domestic work and include it in curb inequality. and measurements of GDP. • establish a UN Global Tax Body, and support FFD as the central • generate decent work for all women by ratifying all relevant forum for multilateral decisions on development finance. ILO conventions, including the proposed ILO convention on gender based violence in the world of work. • support the proposed international legally binding instrument to regulate, in international human rights law, the activities • promote and enforce labour regulations, including freedom of transnational corporations and hold them accountable for of association (the right to be in trade unions), collective human rights violations. bargaining and living wages. • adopt comprehensive universal social protection systems Recommendations for other actors that do not discriminate against women based on a • The UN Committee on CEDAW should – provided with range of factors, including their employment patterns, sufficient resources – investigate governments’ economic including extending social protection coverage to informal policies, including trade, investment and fiscal policies, for sector workers. their impact on the progressive realisation of all women’s human rights. In economic policymaking and governance • The World Bank, the IMF, other public development banks, States should: and governments of high income countries need to halt the • recognise and minimise the negative effects of austerity promotion and incentivising of public-private-partnerships measures and support and implement the UN’s Guiding for social and economic infrastructure financing, and support principles of human rights impact assessments for economic countries in finding the best financing. reform programmes. • States and multilateral institutions should ensure they respect, • commit to gender impact assessments of macroeconomic protect and fulfil all women’s economic rights, including policies and budgets, providing remedy, adapting policies and actively engaging, consulting with and promoting meaningful addressing cases where policies have had a negative impact. participation by WROs, trade unions and movements. • maximise available resources for gender-transformative public investments by using financing methods which are responsible, transparent, environmentally and fiscally sustainable, and in line with their human rights obligations prioritising domestic resources. This should be augmented with long-term concessional and non-concessional finance.

About Womankind Worldwide Womankind Worldwide is a global women’s rights organisation working in solidarity and equal partnership with women’s rights organisations and movements to transform the lives of women. Our vision is of a just world where the rights of all women are respected, valued and realised. Womankind supports women’s movements to strengthen and grow by providing a range of tools, including technical support, communications, connectivity and shared learning, joint advocacy and fundraising.

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