DESIGNING – An Overview1 Gregory F. Gruska Maureen S. Heaphy

ABSTRACT DEPENDENT VARIABLE or RESPONSE - What we end Statistical experiments are commonly used to identify up with: those variables, which are evaluated for changes factors affecting and productivity. The analysis of caused by the . The output of interest is called collected during these experiments is most frequent- the dependent or response variable. For example the ly recognized as the analysis of (ANOVA). response could be the diameter, surface finish, RPM, Unfortunately there is little attention shown, in the litera- torque and so on. ture or in practice by the engineer, to the designing of FACTOR LEVEL - The factor level is the number of val- experiments. That is, one needs to plan an experiment ues of the factor (independent variable) be set within prior to collecting any data. This paper addresses certain the experiment. For quantitative factors, each tested value characteristics of an experiment that are prerequisites to becomes a level; e.g., if the experiment is to be conduct- conducting a meaningful experiment. Different types of ed at four different speeds, then the factor speed has four are discussed as well as the advantages and dis- levels. Switch on or off denotes two levels for the switch advantages of each. factor. An experiment can be defined, in a general sense, as CELL – That portion of the test environment which is “a trial made to confirm or disprove something, or to likely to be more homogeneous; i.e. those samples which demonstrate some known truth . . .” In other words, it is have the same settings for each of the factors. the conducting of tests to answer specific questions. – Samples, which have the same set- However, in line with statistical thinking, the first step tings for each of the factors within the test sequence. should be the designing or planning of the experiment REPEATS – The number of times the entire test within a PDSA cycle2. sequence is implemented. A designed experiment has advantages over the classic BACKGROUND FACTORS – In addition to the factors change one variable at a time (AB-BA) approach. First of that are varied in a controlled fashion, the experimenter all, the designed experiment can detect if there are any may be aware of certain background variables that might interactions among the variables, but the classic approach affect the outcome of the tests. These background vari- cannot. Next, the approach uses all of the data ables must be considered in the planning of the experi- simultaneously in analyses of the data whereas the classic ment, so that: uses only a subset of the data. The reduced sample size • the possible effects due to background variables do present in the subset reduces the power of the analysis in not affect information obtained about the factors of the classic method. Finally, the obtained from a primary interest; or designed experiment are valid over a wide of con- • some information about the effects of the back- ditions (environment rich) as compared to the results ground variables can be obtained. from the classic approach which are valid only for the – There may be variables of which actual test conditions (environment free). the experimenter is unaware that have an effect on the outcome of the experiment. To increase the likelihood TERMINOLOGY that the effect of these variables is balanced out, an Certain terms are defined so that their usage in later experiment should always be randomized. This involves discussions will be understood. assigning the occurrence of the controlled conditions in a INDEPENDENT FACTOR - What we start out with: the purely chance fashion. To eliminate from the experi- conditions that are deliberately varied in a con- ment, variables which are not specifically controlled as trolled manner are called the independent factors or inde- factors or "blocked out" by block designs (see below) pendent variables. These factors may be quantitative fac- should be randomized. Randomization also assures valid tors such as time or temperature, which can be varied estimates of experimental error and makes possible the along a continuous scale, or they may be qualitative fac- application of statistical tests of significance and the con- tors such as different machines or a switch turned on/off. struction of confidence intervals. Continued on page 9


PREREQUISITES TO CONDUCTING • hold constant - although the noise variable might EXPERIMENT have an influence on the dependent variable, it There are certain characteristics of an experiment that should have the same effect throughout the experi- are prerequisites to conducting a meaningful experiment. ment if we hold it at a fixed level. Consequently the Some of these are: effect of the independent variables on the depen- • The experiment should have well defined dent variable can be quantified. Note assumptions: objectives. These should include identifying the 1) we can hold the noise variable constant and 2) factors and their ranges; choosing experimental the noise and signal variables are independent. procedure and equipment; and stating the applica- • assign randomly - again the noise variable might bility of the results. influence the dependent variable but by assigning it • As much as possible, effects of the independent randomly and by replicating the experiment, the factors should not be obscured by other variables. effects of the independent variable can be mea- This is accomplished by designing the experiment sured. Note assumptions: 1) we can randomize with such that the effects of uncontrolled variables are respect to the noise variables, and 2) the noise and minimized. signal variables are independent. • As much as possible the experiment should be free • include as independent variables - if the noise from bias. This involves the use of randomization variables are identifiable and can be controlled then and replications. they could be considered to be independent • The experiment should provide a measure of preci- variables. sion (experimental error), unless it is known from Statistical control of a noise variable involves previous experimentation. Replications provide the measuring the level of that noise variable for each experi- measure of precision while randomization assures mental test and then using a statistical technique called the of the measure of precision. Analysis of . This will enable us to "back out" • The expected precision of the experiment should be the effects of the noise variable and quantify the effect of sufficient to meet the defined objectives. There gen- the independent variables on the response variable. erally is a trade-off between the expense of addi- tional experimentation and the precision of the TYPES OF DESIGNS results. These trade-offs should be examined prior Once the prerequisites to conducting an experiment to the collection of data. Also, greater precision may are met, the type of experimental design can be chosen. be obtained by use of blocked designs when appro- These designs have certain relationships to the purposes, priate. needs, and physical limitations of experiments. They also have certain advantages in economy of experimentation SIGNAL AND NOISE and yield straightforward and unbiased estimates of Consider the variables of interest (factors) as generat- experimental effects and valid estimates of precision. ing a signal reflected in the response variable. Consider There are a number of ways by which experiment the effect of all other (background) variables in the test designs might be classified: environment to be noise. To increase the and • By the number of experimental factors to be investi- effectiveness of measuring the effect of the independent gated (e.g., single-factor vs. multifactor designs) variables, either the signal can be increased or the noise • By the structure of the experiment design (e.g., can be controlled. blocked designs vs. randomized designs); or • By the kind of information the experiment is pri- CONTROL OF NOISE marily intended to provide (e.g., estimates of effects The noise or nuisance variables are those factors that or estimates of variability). might interfere with the of the effect of the The types of designs to be discussed are Randomized, independent variable. There are basically four ways to Block, , Factorial, and Nested. control the effects of noise variables. Three methods are experimental control and the fourth is statistical control. The three methods of experimental control are:

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COMPLETELY RANDOMIZED DESIGN The block may consist of taken at nearly A completely randomized design is appropriate when the same time or place. If a machine can test four items at the effects of only one signal variable are being investi- one time, then each run may be regarded as a block of gated. The effects of any and all noise variables will be four units, each item being a unit. controlled by either holding constant or randomization. A variety of especially advantageous configurations of Suppose a total of N experimental units are available block designs have been developed. They are named and for the experiment and there are k factor levels to be classified by their structure into randomized blocks, investigated. Then the total N units are assigned randomly incomplete blocks, Latin squares Youden squares, etc. to the k levels. The sample size in each cell does not Sometimes the factor and the block are of almost equal need to be equal. interest. In this case a ‘’ is almost a ‘two- This simple one-factor design is called “completely factor experiment,’ but the experimenter must be sure randomized” to distinguish it from other experiment that the two factors do not interact before using a block designs where the principle of “” or planned design. If between factors exists or is sus- grouping has been made part of the structure. pected, the design and analysis for a APPLICABILITY - The plan is simple and may be the with two factors must be used. In other words a block best choice when the experimental material is homo- design (with one-way blocking) can be considered as a geneous and when background conditions can be well one-factor design or a two-factor-no . controlled during the experiment. This type of design is The simplest design with one-way block is the used to estimate and compare the effects of one ‘Randomized Block Design.’ This and others will be independent variable, the signal. In some cases the discussed. precision of that estimate can be quantified; i.e., how much variation is there in the estimate of the effect of the RANDOMIZED BLOCK DESIGN independent variable. In comparing a number of factor levels, it is clearly ADVANTAGES - There are three main advantages to a desirable that all other conditions be kept as nearly con- completely randomized design: stant as possible. Often the required number of tests is • With only one independent variable, the model and too large to be carried out under similar conditions. In the calculations are simple and straightforward. such cases, we may be able to divide the experiment into • Equal sample sizes are not required for each cell. blocks, or planned homogeneous groups. When each • It allows for the maximum degrees of freedom in such group in the experiment contains exactly one obser- estimating the error. vation on every treatment, the experimental plan is called DISADVANTAGES - There are four main disadvantages a randomized block design. to a completely randomized design: APPLICABILITY - This design recognizes one signal • Appropriate only when experimental material is and one noise variable. For example, a testing scheme homogeneous. may take several days to complete. If we expect some • Restricted to evaluating only one signal factor. measurable differences between days, then a day would • Appropriate only when the noise conditions can be represent a block. In another situation, several persons controlled. may be conducting the tests or making the observations, • Large sample size may be required to obtain suffi- and differences between operators are expected. The cient precision. tests or observations made by a given operator can be considered to represent a block. Also, the size of a block BLOCK DESIGNS may be restricted by physical considerations. An important class of experimental designs is charac- This type of design is used to estimate and compare terized by planned grouping. This class is called block factor level effects after removing block effects. Although designs. The use of blocking arose in comparative experi- the primary interest is to estimate factor effects, it is also ments in agricultural , in recognition of the possible to estimate the block effects. that plots that were close together in a were usually ADVANTAGES - There are three main advantages of a more alike than plots that were far apart. In industrial and randomized block design: research, the tool of planned grouping can • The analysis of the data is relatively simple and be used to take advantage of naturally homogeneous straightforward. groupings in materials, machines, time, etc., and also to • The experimental material can be divided into take account of ‘background variables’ which are not blocks or homogeneous groups. directly ‘factors’ in the experiment. Continued on page 11


• The effects of individual differences are minimized. DISADVANTAGES - There are three main disadvan- CAR I II III IV tages of a randomized block design: • It may be difficult to minimize the ‘within’ block FR AADA variability for a large number of factor levels. Position FL AACD • For a Fixed Effect Model (i.e., models where factors RR DBBB levels tested represent all levels of interest), bias is RL DCBC present in the test for factor level effects. • Each level of the factor must be run in each block. Brands Randomly Assigned to a Car This drawback can be overcome by using an incom- plete randomized block design. With this , tire brand A happens to LATIN SQUARE DESIGN be assigned to the front positions only and is not A Latin square design is appropriate when there are assigned to vehicle 111. Again from the test results, the two variables that the experimenter wishes to block out. effect of tire brand will not be isolated since there is dri- These two variables are sources of noise and could affect ver/vehicle influence and tire position. Even if each tire the test results. These two noise variables also thought of brand is restricted to being assigned only once on each as non-homogeneous conditions, are secondary factors in car, test results still could be influenced by tire position. the test whereas a third variable is the primary factor or The solution for this problem is the Latin square. The signal of interest. The use of the Latin square is to associ- primary interest is the four tire brands but the two noise ate the primary factor with the two noise variables in a variables, driver/vehicle and tire position, need to be prescribed fashion. blocked out. An acceptable assignment is shown below. APPLICABILITY - There are a number of situations where two noise variables need to be blocked out. The noise variables might be machines, positions, operators, days. A classic example is one where testing is to be CAR I II III IV done to measure tread loss on four brands of tires, using FR CDAB four similar vehicles. Let the four tire brands be identified Position FL BCDA as A,B,C,D and the four vehicles as 1, 11, 111, IV. There RR ABCD are four tires of each brand to be tested. In setting up the RL DABC test one possible assignment of tire brand and vehicle could be to have one brand assigned to one car as shown Each Brand Assigned to Each Vehicle and to Each below. Position

CAR I II III IV ADVANTAGES - The primary advantage of a Latin FR ABCD square design is the ability to block out the effects of two Position FL ABCD noise variables thereby isolating the influence of the RR ABCD primary factor. With this type of design it is possible to RL ABCD estimate and compare the effects of the two blocked variables. Also, the analysis is considered to be relatively One Brand Assigned to a Car simple. DISADVANTAGES - One disadvantage is that the design assumes no interactions exist among the three With this assignment, the test results cannot be variables. A second item, that initially seems to be a attributed to tire brand differences only since there might restriction, is there must be the same number of levels for be driver/vehicle influence. To eliminate the driver/ all three variables. If this were not the case, then an vehicle influence, one might decide to randomly assign incomplete Latin square, called a Youden square, would the sixteen tires (4 tires of each of 4 brands) to the be appropriate. four vehicles. The results-of such and assignment could be as shown as follows. Continued on page 12


FACTORIAL DESIGN SUMMARY In a factorial experiment several independent factors A statistical experiment should be part of a PDSA are controlled and their effects are investigated at each of cycle. It should be planned (designed) before any data is two or more levels. The experimental design consists of collected. The plan should consider what data are taking an at each one of all possible combi- required to meet the stated objective. The type of design nations that can be formed for the different levels of the chosen should provide the maximum efficiency in factors. addressing the . Then an adequate amount of APPLICABILITY - This type of design recognizes two data needs to be collected to provide adequate precision. or more signal variables. When two or more variables All too often the data is collected first without designing being studied have an interaction effect, the factorial the experiment, resulting in misleading and incorrect design may be appropriate to use. With this type of results. design, the results are used to estimate and compare the effects of several factors and estimate possible interaction effects. If there were two factors, A and B. then the REFERENCES interaction, if it existed, would be between A and B 1. Afifi, A.A. and Azen, S.P., Statistical Analysis a Computer represented as AB. If there were three factors A, B, Oriented Approach, Academic Press Inc., 1972. and C, then the possible interactions are AB, BC, AC and 2. Dixon, W.J. and Massey, F.J. Introduction to Statistical Analysis, McGraw-Hill, 1969. ABC. 3. Draper, N.R. and Smith, H., Applied , ADVANTAGES - The main benefit of using this type of Wiley, 1966. design is that it facilitates the of interactive 4. Hicks, C. R., Fundamental Concepts in the Design of effects. A second consideration is that all of the results are Experiments, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1973. used to evaluate the effects of the factors. Also, the results 5. Johnson, N. L. and Leone, F.C., Statistics and Experimental are applicable over a wide range of experimental condi- Design, Vol. ll, Wiley, 1964. tions. 6. Juran, J.M., Handbook, McGraw-Hill, 1962. DISADVANTAGES - The required sample size may be 7. Lipson, C. and Sheth, N.J., Statistical Design and Analysis large, but this problem can be resolved by running a sub- of Engineering Experiments, McGraw-Hill, 1973. set of the full factorial. This is referred to as a fractional 8. Mendenhall, W., Introduction to Linear Models and the factorial design. Another disadvantage is the explanation Design and Analysis of Experiments, Wadsworth, 1968. 9. Miller, 1. and Freund, J.E., and Statistics for and interpretation of some interactions may be complex. Engineers, Prentice Hall, 1977. This type of design is generally less efficient in determin- 10. Natrella, M.G., Experimental Statistics, National Bureau of ing optimum levels of factors than sequential experi- Standards Handbook 91, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1966. ments. 11. Romano, A., Applied Statistics for and Industry, Allyn and Bacon, 1977. NESTED DESIGN 12. Scheffe, H., The , Wiley, 1959. With some experiments the independent factors may be hierarchical sources of variation and the main purpose of the experiment is to obtain the relative variability of the sources. Designs intended to provide the relative vari- ation in various strata are called nested designs. APPLICABILITY - This type of design is appropriate when distinct strata or nestings are present. For example, a test run on a two spindle machine results in two strata, spindles 1 and 2. This type of situation is present in many industrial experiments but is often not recognized. ADVANTAGE- Relative variability is correctly identified instead of main effect variation. A nested design is gener- 1This paper was adapted from a paper presented at the 1982 ally the only appropriate design for stratified data. ASQC Conference in Toronto, Canada. DISADVANTAGE - Nesting is a specialized design 2PDSA - Plan-Do-Study-Act Cycle also known as the Deming appropriate only when some hierarchical structure is Cycle or the Shewhart Cycle. present.


Since the initial development of this paper (1982), the Taguchi Designs - basically Orthogonal Main Effects Quality field has begun to evolve from a tolerance Designs as promoted by Dr. . Dr. Taguchi to a target philosophy (i.e. continual improve- has advanced the use of this tool by using graphs to ment). One impact of this is the move to look at a assist the analyst in selecting the proper design and designed experiment as a sequence of smaller experi- integrating it in “off -line quality control” activities. Dr. ments rather than a large ‘grand’ experiment (i.e. the Taguchi has also developed specific signal-to-noise (SN) experiment to end all experiments). The general rule is ratios for use with these designs. This analysis is valid that the first step should use no more than twenty-five only when the underlying variation model is known; i.e. percent of the total number of samples allocated. the purpose of the study is to determine the parameters In the past it was assumed that all sources of variation of the model for optimal response not to determine the were known and could be handled in the manner dis- model itself. cussed. Special causes were only considered if they were Response Surface (RSM) - a sequential frequent enough to become part of the abnormal experimental design which has the goal of developing a process”. mathematical model (i.e. response surface) of the process The primary purpose of most industrial experiments in order to optimize and control it more efficiently. RMS was and is to determine the components of variation so assumes a constant experimental error throughout the that we can predict the optimal settings in the future. This experimental region, and, that only effects of order less tacitly assumes that the process is in-statistical-control, i.e. than three are important. Because of it sequential nature, no special causes. If this simple assumption is not true, it is a highly effective tool. analysis of the experimental data can lead to wrong con- Evolutionary Operations (EVOP) - an application of clusions and decisions. To be valid, a designed experi- RSM to an operating process. This design starts with a ment must be conducted on a process that is known to process that is in statistical control and changes the be in-statistical-control. (Note: the study could be planned process parameters in such a manner that normal to include a determination if this assumption is true.) production is not adversely affected and that the optimal setting will be determined after a minimal number of Study Types tests. The basic study types are given in the main paper. Every designed experiment is a combination or adapta- REFERENCES tion of these basic types. Some of these combinations Box G.E.P. and Draper N.R., Empirical Model-Building and have become known by unique names. Among the more Response Surfaces, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1987. popular are: Box G.E.P., Hunter W.G., and Hunter J. S., Statistics for Experimenters, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978. Fractional Factorial - a factorial design where the Moen R.D., Nolan T. W., and Provost L. P. Improving Quality number of samples is reduced by ‘’ or Through Planned Experimentation, McGraw-Hill, New York, mathematically mixing a higher order interaction results 1991. with a lower order . That is, if a two level inter- Taguchi G., of Experimental Design, Unipub, White action was intertwined mathematically with a seven level Plains NY, 1987. interaction and the analysis showed that this setup was significant, we would not know if the variation was caused by the two level or the seven level interaction. Since higher order interactions are generally not major contributors to the total variation, this technique can save time and expense. Orthogonal Main Effect Designs - the highest fraction- ated factorial design possible since it confounds higher order effects with the main effects. It gets its name because it uses orthogonal arrays in the development of the experimental design in order to make the analysis calculations easier. The U.S. Government has published several manuals listing various standard designs of this type. Its primary use is to filter out non-signal variables in situations where there are many potential signal variables and little product and process . As a first (filtering) experiment, this tool is very useful.