A Partial Glossary of Spanish Geological Terms Exclusive of Most Cognates


Keith . Long

Open-File Report 91-0579

This report is preliminary and has not been reviewed for conformity with U.S. Geological Survey editorial standards or with the North American Stratigraphic Code. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

1991 Preface

In recent , almost all countries in America have adopted democratic political systems and liberal economic policies. The resulting favorable investment has spurred a new wave of North American investment in Latin American resources and has improved cooperation between geoscience organizations on both .

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has responded to the new situation through cooperative mineral resource investigations with a number of countries in Latin America. These activities are now being coordinated by the USGS's Center for Inter-American Mineral Resource Investigations (CIMRI), recently established in Tucson, .

In the course of CIMRI's work, we have found a need for a compilation of Spanish geological and terminology that goes beyond the few Spanish-English geological dictionaries available. Even who are fluent in Spanish often encounter local terminology oijerga that is unfamiliar. These terms, which have grown out of five centuries of mining tradition in Latin America, and frequently draw on native languages, usually cannot be found in standard dictionaries.

There are, of course, many geological terms which can be recognized even by geologists who speak little or no Spanish. These cognates have largely been excluded from this glossary. An exception is made for cognates that are pronounced similarly in English and Spanish, but whose spelling may render them unfamiliar to persons not familiar with the rules of Spanish pronunciation.

The glossary is alphabetized in the traditional Spanish pattern, thus /, //, and are treated as separate letters. A list of abbreviations, a section on and measures, and a list of sources consulted are given in the prefatory material.

This glossary must be considered preliminary. A complete compilation satisfying the requirements of modern lexicography would require more time than the author can commit. Any user who finds errors or omissions may kindly write to the author at:

Center for Inter-American Mineral Resource Investigations U.S. Geological Survey 210 East Seventh Street Tucson AZ, 85705-8454 Abbreviations Abreviaturas adj adjective adjective adv adverb adverbio Aig Argentina Ariz Arizona Arizona (EE.UU.) BC Baja Baja California () Bol Bolivia Br Brasil Calif California California (EE.UU.) CAm Central America America Central Chile chem quimica Col Colombia cryst cristalografia Cu Cuba Cuba EC Ecuador Fr French frances Guy Guyana Guyana Hon Honduras Honduras hyd hidrologia LAm Latin America Latinoamerica Mex Mexico Mexico « noun (feminine) sustantivo feminino nm noun (masculine) sustantivo masculine NMex Nuevo Mexico (EE. UU.) obs obsolete caida en desuso Par Paraguay Paraguay Pe Peru pet petroleo Pi plural plural PR Puerto Rico seis sismologia Sp Espana stats statistics estadistica StoDgo Dominican Republic Santo Domingo surv surveying levantamiento SWUS southwest suroueste de las EE. UU. Ur Uruguay Uruguay US United States Estados Unidos var variety variedad vintr intransitive verb verbo intransitive vpr reflexive verb verbo pronominal vtr transitive verb verbo transitive Vz Venezuela Ill

Weights and Measures Pesos Medidas

The following is a tabulation of non-metric weights and measures used in Spanish-speaking countries. Tables of metric weights and measures may be found in almost any standard dictionary of the English and Spanish languages.

Lo siguente una compilacion de pesos y medidas no metricos c\ue se emplea en los poises Hispanos. Se pueda encontrar una tabla de pesos y medidas metricas en cualquier diccionario de ingles espanol.

Area Area

A number of local measures of area are used in Spain and Latin America:

almud (Venezuela) 400 to 25,600 meters2 area (Venezuela) 555 meters2 besana (Cuba) 2,588.77 meters2 (6.25 cordeles2) braza () 2.79 meters2 cabelleria (Costa Rica) 42.254 hectares cabelleria (Cuba) 13.420 hectares (324 cordeles2) cabelleria (Ecuador) 11.2896 hectares (16 cuadras2) cabelleria (El Salvador) 44.965 hectares (64 manzanas) cabelleria (Guatemala) 44.72 hectares (64 manzanas) cabelleria (Honduras) 45.027914 hectares cabelleria (Mexico) 42.7953 hectares (12fanegas) cabelleria (Nicaragua) 45.158 hectares (64 manzanas) cabelleria (Santo Domingo) 75.46 hectares (1,200 tareas) cantero (Ecuador) 441 meters2 carga (Venezuela) 1 hectare caro (Santo Domingo) 1.293 hectares corral (Latin America) 5,887 hectares cuadra (Paraguay) 7,500 meters2 cuadra (Uruguay) .99 hectares cuadro (Venez.-East) 0.64 to 1.0 hectares cuadro (Venez.-West) 0.64-1.8 hectares cuartilla (Venezuela) 100 to 2,500 meters2 cuerda (Puerto Rico) 0.393 hectares (4 parcelas) estadal (Nicaragua) II.28 meters2 esladal (Spain) 11.182 meters2 fanega (Mexico) 3.5663 hectares fanegada (Peru) 0.646 hectares fanegada (Spain) 0.6426 hectares (576 estadales) fanegada (Venezuela) 0.45 to 4 hectares labor 71.685 hectares legua (Venezuela) 1,600 to 2,500 hectares line (Paraguay) 75.1 meters2 <100 varas2) lino (Paraguay) 75.1 meters2 <100 varas2) litro (Sucre, Venez.) 625 meters2 IV

manzana (Argentina) 1 hectares manzana (Costa Rica) 0.699 hectares (8 so/) manzana (El Salvador) 0.70258 hectares (10,000 varas2) manzana (Guatemala) 0.70 hectares (10,000 varas2) manzana (Honduras) 0.697225 hectares (10,000 varas2) manzana (Nicaragua) 0.744 hectares (10,000 varas2) medida (Sucre, Venez.) 625 meters2 media (Venezuela) 0.5 hectare parcela (Puerto Rico) 982.6 meters2 plaza (Venezuela) 10 to 20 meters2 roza (Cuba) 0.746 hectares (18 cordeles2) roza (Cuba) 0.719 hectares (10.000 varas2) de ganado menor (Mex) 1348.933 hectares sitio de ganado mayor(Mex) 1,755.61 hectares (1 leguas2) sitio de labor(Mex) 1,755.61 hectares (1 leguas2) solar (Costa Rica) 873.62 meters2 (1,250 varas2) solar (Ecuador) 1,764 meters2 (4 canteros) suerte (Nicaragua) 1.41 hectares suerte (Uruguay) 1,992 hectares (2,700 cuadras2) tahulla (Spain) 0.1118 hectares tarea (Cuba) 69.03 meters2 tarea (El Salvador) 280 to 875 meters2 tarea (Santo Domingo) 628.8 meters2 tarea (Venezuela) 50 to 833 meters2 tablon (Venezuela) 0.6 to 1.0 hectares topo (Peru) 0.349 hectares topo (Peru, Cuzco) 0.272 hectares topo (Peru, Puna) 0.461 hectares yugada (Peru) 32.3 hectares (50 fanegadas) yugada (Spain) 32.198 hectares

Assay Values Medidas de Tenor

The traditional measure of grade in the was marcos par cajon. In modern day Bolivia and Peru the cajon is defined as 5,000 and 6,000 libras respectively, hence:

marco por cajon (Bolivia) 100 grams per tonne marco por cajon (Peru) 83.333 grams per tonne Length Distancia

punto 1/12 linea linea 12 puntos pulgada 12 lineas cuartd1 8 pulgadas pie or tercia 12 pulgadas vara 3 pies ydrdd 36 pulgadas braza 2 varas estado or estadel 2 brazas cuadra2 75 frrozas WI//03 5,000 p/es, 1666 2 / 3 varas

1 Except Guatemala, Nicaragua/ and Spain where a cuarta is 9 pulgadas. 2 Except Colombia where 100 brazas is a cuadra and in Ecuador/ Paraguay, and Uruguay where 100 varas is a cuadra. 3 Except Nicaragua where a 7m7/a is 2,200 varas.

In Ecuador the cuarta is known as cuarto or palma. In Guatemala a mecate is 24 paras. In Spain a oWo is 1 /12 of a palma and 1 /28 of a uara.

The length of a para varies according to country:

Argentina 0.8667 meters Bolivia 0.866 meters Brazil 1.111 meters Chile 0.8359 meters Colombia 0.8 meters Costa Rica 0.836 meters Cuba 0.848 meters Curacao 0.8477 meters Ecuador 0.84 meters El Salvador 0.836 meters Guatemala 0.8359 meters Honduras 0.835 meters Mexico 0.83800 meters Nicaragua 0.84 meters Panama 0.80 meters Paraguay 0.8666 meters Peru 0.8382 meters Sao Tome & Principe 4.84 meters Santo Domingo 0.836 meters Spain 0.8359 meters Spain (Burgos) 0.8359 meters Uruguay 0.859 meters Venezuela 0.838 meters

A legua is the distance covered by 5,000 footsteps or pies, equivalent to 5,000 to 5,572 meters depending on the legal definition of the para. The legua is sometimes defined as 8,000 footsteps VI or pies. The legua is also sometimes reckoned as the distance covered by horseback in one hour over level terrain. A day's ride on horseback is considered to cover 6 leguas. Legal definitions of the legua vary from country to country:

Argentina 6,000 varas 5.20 km Chile 5,400 varas 4.51386 km Colombia 6,250 varas 5 km Cuba 5,000 varas 4.24 km Ecuador 5 km El Salvador 4 km Guatemala 6,666.6667 varas 5.573 km Honduras 5,000 varas 4.175 km Mexico 5,000 varas 4.190 km Paraguay 5,000 varas 4.333 km Peru 5.556 km Santo Domingo 5 km Spain 6,666.667 varas 5.573 km Spain (Medievel) 5,000 varas 4.1795 km Uruguay 6/000 varas 5.154km Venezuela 5.565 km

Other measures of length are:

cabulla (Venezuela) 80 meters codo (Spain) 0.418 meters cordel (Cuba) 20.352 meters (24 varas) cordel (Paraguay) 69.88 meters cuerda (Paraguay) 69.88 meters linea (Arg., Para.) 2 millimeters mecate (Costa Rica) 20.064 meters (24 varas) ona (Santo Domingo) 1.188 meters paso (Spain) 1.39 meters sesma (Spain) 13.93 centimeters tercia (Costa Rica) 27.87 centimeters (1/3 vara)

Volume Volumen

A cajon (cargo in Spain) is a cubic vara. In Mexico a braza de piedra is defined as a block of 2 by 4 by 1 varas in dimensions equivalent to 4.7078 cubic meters. Vll

Weight Peso

grano 1/12 tomin tomin 12 granos adarme 3 famines ochava 2 adarmes onza 8 ochavas marco 8 onzas libra 2 marcos botija 125 libras arroba 25 libras almud 28 libras cuartilla 50 80 iarrobas 2 quintales <**$ 3 quintales Pes° 20 arrofeos fone/ada 20 quintales mont6n4 3,000 libras 5,000 libras

1 Except Mexico where a is 160 2 Except El Salvador where afanega is 24 medios or 432 to 720 /ifera, Nicaragua where afanega is 3.5 quintales, and Uruguay where afanega metrica is 100 kg. 3 Except Costa Rica where a cwrga is 350 libras and El Salvador and Nicaragua where a carga is 2 quintales. In Mexico a cwrga metrica is 140 kilograms. 4 In Mexico a monton varied from 15 to 32 quintales. 5 Except in Chile where a cajon is 6,400 libras and Peru where a cajan is 6,000 libras.

In Bolivia the /ifcra is also known as the arratel. In Colombia a tonelada granadina is 1,000 kilograms. In Ecuador the quintal is also known as the media and ihefanega as the mu/a. In El Salvador a medio is 18 to 30 libras, a carretada or tonelada corta is a tonelada of 20 quintales, and the carretada is 3 camionadas (toneladas). In Mexico a forea is 4 montones of 100 quintales. In Paraguay the arroba is called arobe. In Spain a tonelada grande is 2,240 libras. In some areas of Spain there were 12, 17, or 20 onzos to a /ifcra. The of a /ifcra varies from country to country:

Argentina 0.4594 kilograms Brazil 0.4600 kilograms Central America 0.4730943 kilograms Chile 0.0460 kilograms Colombia 0.5 kilograms Costa Rica 0.460 kilograms Cuba 0.507825 kilograms Ecuador 0.460 kilograms El Salvador 0.460 kilograms Guatemala 0.460 kilograms Honduras 0.460 kilograms Mexico 0.46024634 kilograms Nicaragua 0.460 or 0.46024 kilograms Vlll

Paraguay 0.459 kilograms Peru 0.46009 kilograms Santo Domingo 0.4536 kilograms Spain 0.460093 kilograms Uruguay 0.4594 or 0.4 kilograms Venezuela 0.4609 kilograms

Other measures of weight are:

almud (Venezuela) 9 to 50 kilograms botijuela (Venezuela) 5 kilograms bulto (Venezuela) 18-80 kilograms cabulla (Venezuela) 20 kilograms caja (Nicaragua) 16 kilograms caja (Venezuela) 18 to 63 kilograms cajon (Bolivia) 2,300.4651 kilograms cajon (Peru) 2,760.5581 kilograms carga (Venezuela) 22 to 345 kilograms cotejo (Venezuela) 5 kilograms cuadro (Venezuela) 60 kilograms cuartilla (Venezuela) 2 to 10 kilograms cuenta (Venezuela) 10 to 50 kilograms barril (Fr. Guiana) 100 kilograms fanega (Venezuela) 46 to 400 kilograms lata (Costa Rica) 453.1 grams litro (Venezuela) 2.5 kilograms madeja (Venezuela) 5 to 15 kilograms mancuerna (Honduras) 1.4375 kilograms mancuerna (Venezuela) 2 to 15 kilograms mara (Venezuela) 50 to 200 kilograms mil (Venezuela) 400 kilograms paca (Venezuela) 50 kilograms pcdito (Venezuela) 9 to 18 kilograms paquete (Venezuela) 1.2 to 2 kilograms punto (Venezuela) 600 kilograms quilate (Colombia) 20 milligrams quintal metrico 100 kilgrams saco (Venezuela) 20 to 60 kilograms terdo (Venezuela) 40 kilograms vara (Venezuela) 250 grams

Typical loads (cargas) for transporting are:

man 2 arrobas rawhide oresack 2-4 arrobas fiber oresack 5-6 arrobas 8-14 arrobas wagon 120 arrobas IX

Coinage - Moneda - Oro

grano 1/4 quilate cjuilate 4 granos real 6 granos tomin 3 quilates, 2 tomines peso 4 tomines castellano or dineral 2 pesos marco 50 castellanos or dinerales libra 2 marcos

Coinage -Silver Moneda - Plata

grano 1/12 tomin tomin 12 granos dinero 2 tomines adarme 3 tomines ochava 2 adarmes onza 8 ochavas marco or dineral 8 onzas

The Spanish peso was a silver coin of about 25 grams in weight. Sources Consulted Fuentes Consultados

____, 1979, Glosario de terminos utilizados en mineria - Parte 3. Terminos utilizados en laboreo minero: Ministerio de Industria Comercio y Turismo (Bolivia) Norma Boliviana 284/3-79,18p. ___, 1980, Diccionario Rioduero: Geologia y mineralogia, 2cd. ed: , Rioduero, 238p. ____, 1980, The world measurement guide: London, The Economist, 240p. Calderon, Abdon, 1920, Diccionario y vocabulario minero: La Paz, Editores Gonzalez y Medina, 23p. Chaballe, .Y., Masuy, L., Vandenberghe, .-P., and Salem, Shawkey, 1980, Elsevier's oil and gas field dictionary in six languages: English/American, French, Spanish, Italian, Dutch, German: Amsterdam, Elsevier, 672p. Clason, .., 1964, Elsevier's lexicon of international and naitonal units: Amsterdam, Elsevier, 75p. Dwight, Arthur S., 1903, A glossary of Spanish-American mining and metallurgical terms: American Institute of Mining Engineers Transactions, . 32, p. 575-603. Ergueta Arana, Armando, 1976, La riqueza minera en Bolivia: La Paz, Bolivia, 117p. (section titled Terminos Geologicos Mineros and following, p. 100-107) Font-Altaba, ., 1979, de mineralogia, 19th ed.: Barcelona, Ediciones Jover, 85p. Fueyo , Laureno, 1973, Diccionario termino!6gico de minas, canteras y mineralurgia: Madrid, Rocas y Minerales, 272p. Garcia-Pelayo y Gross, Ram6n and Durand, Micheline, 1983, Gran diccionario moderno espanol/ingles Larousse: Paris, Editions Larousse, 1542p. Halse, E., 1926, A dictionary of Spanish, Spanish-American, Protuguese and Portuguese-American mining, metallurgical and allied terms: London, Charles Griffith Harland, W.., , R.L., Cox, A.V., Craig, L.E., Smith, A.., and Smith, .G., 1990, A 1989: Cambridge, , Cambridge University Press, 263p. de Llanos, Garcia, 1983, Diccionario y maneras de hablar que se usan en las minas y sus labores en los ingenios y beneficios de los metales (1609): La Paz, Museo Nacional de Etnografia y Folklore Serie Fuentes Promarios 1,135p. McCann, Ferdinand, 1910, Guia minera para ingenieros y practices: Mexico , Bouligny and Schmidt, 512p. McKinstry, .E., 1948, Mining : Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 680p. (Appendix V: Weights and Measures, p. 616-623) Medina, Alvin Leroy, 1988, An English-Spanish glossary of terminology used in forestry, range, wildlife, fishery, , and botany: U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report RM-152,54p. Mendez, Agustin, 1981, Diccionario basico de la industria del petroleo: Madrid, Paraninfo, 588p. Mitchell, Richard Scott, 1985, Dictionary of rocks: , Van Nostrand Reinhold, 228p. Moliner, Maria, 1977, Diccionario del uso del espanol, 4th ed.: Madrid, Editorial Credos, 2 vols., 3036p. Munoz, Nicholas G., 1988, Dunham's rock classification: a Spanish terminology: and , v. 3, n. 1, p. 65-66. Nieto, Felix, 1891, Apuntes de mineria en forma de diccionario por el minero practice: Zacatecas, Mexico, Juan Lujan, 523p. Nogales, Luis A., and Ordonez, Alfonso, 1937, Vocabulario espanol-ingles de tecnismos de mineria, geologia y metalurgicos: Oruro, Bolivia, Imprenta Universe, 63p. Novitzky, Alejandro, 1951, Diccionario minero, metalurgico, geologico, mineralogico, petrografico y de petroleo; ingles, espanol, frances, aleman, ruso, 2 vols.: Buenos Aires, La Imprenta Chile, 369+217p. de Novo, Pedro, and Chicarro, F., 1957, Diccionario de geologia y ciencias afines: Barcelona, Editorial Labor, 2 vols., 1685p. Orellana Silva, Ernesto, 1967, Diccionario ingles-espanol de ciencias de la tierra: Madrid, Interciencia, 335p. Read, P.G., 1982, Dictionary of gemmology: London, Butterworth, 240p. XI

Robb, Louis Av 1949, Engineer's dictionary; Spanish-English and English-Spanish, 2cd ed.: New York, John Wiley and Sons, 664p. Roberts, Willard Lincon, Campbell, Thomas J., and Rapp, George Robert, Jr., 1990, Encyclopedia of , 2cd. ed.: New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 979p. Rodruguez, Eduardo A., 1986, English-Spanish/Spanish-English glossary of geologic terms and common phrases; as used in the translation of text, figures, and maps for the Costa Rica Mineral Resource Assessment Project: unpublished M.S., U.S. Geological Survey, 45p. Seiglie, George A., and Weaver, John D., 1968, Glosario de terminos geologicos inglis-espanol: edicion preliminar: Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, Universidad de Puerto Rico, Colegio de Agricuitura y Artes Mecanicos, 84p. Tomkeieff, S.I., 1983, Dictionary of : New York, John Wiley, 680p. Wyllie, R.J.M., and Argall, George O., Jr., eds., 1975, World Mining glossary of mining, processing, and geological terms; English, Svenska, Deutsch, Francais, Espanol, Rev. ed.: San Francisco, Miller Freeman, 432p. A-l

abierto,-ta adj open | flat, level (terrain) abigarrado,-da adj multi-colored, variegated | mottled aalenenseadj Aalenian | nm Aalenian abioglifo nm abioglyph aaleniano,-na adj Aalenian abi6tico,-ca adj abiotic aaleniense adj Aalenian abisal adj abyssal aaltar nm found in western Flanders abisico,-ca adj abyssal aas nm a type of abismalo^/ abyssal a'baco nm a. trough (artesa) in which gold abismo nm abyss | deep | steep face placers are washed | washtrough, huddle | abisolbentico,-ca adj abyssal-benthic graph, chart, nomogram abisolito nm abajadero nm slope, downgrade abisolitico,-ca adj abyssolitic abajador nm [Sp, M£] tool carrier in (a mine) abisopelagico,-ca adj abyssal-pelagic abajamiento nm ablacidn nf | abajar vtr to lower, let down | to fall, descend ablatografo nm ablatograph abajo adv down, below, under abocardado,-da adj or funnel shaped abajor nm depression abocarder vtr to widen the opening of or to abaluartado,-da adj rock mass in the form of a something bulwark (baluarte) abocardo nm drill abancalado,-da adj terraced abocelado,-da adj torus-shaped abandonado,-da adj abandoned, as in mina abocinado,-da adj trumpet shaped, splayed abandonada which should be distinguished abocinamiento nm widening from una mina agotada which has been abocinar vtr to widen an opening abandoned specifically due to depletion abombado,-da adj convex | swollen abandonamiento nm abandonment abombamiento nm | anteclise abandonar vtr to abandon | to leave, as in los aborregado,-da adj glaciated | striated by the mineros abandonaron la mina 'the miners left the action of mine' | a. un sondeo to abandon a. aborto de oro nm [Pe] nuggets of gold found in abanico nm fan | fan shaped workings or stopes potholes (hucucas) | a. aluvial alluvial fan | a. de deyeccion talus abovado,-da adj arched, vaulted fan, debris cone abra nf reopening of a | fissure or cleft in abarrancar vtr to excavate | to form gullies sand | gorge, break or fissure in a | abarranco,-ca adj excavated clearing, opening, gap | cove | [surv] clearing abastar vtr to furnish, supply for line of sight abastecimiento nm supply | a. de agua water abrasilado,-da adj deep supply abrasion nf erosion by water and wind | abasto nm output of a mine or mill | abrasion | scour provisioning, supplying | abundance, great abrasivo,-ca adj abradant, amount | a. de agua water supply abrazar vtr to enclose | to fabricate some kind abataje nm breaking ground of structure to prevent and spalling of abaton nm inaccessible location the roof of a mine aberracidn nf aberration abrevadero nm flooded mine | [Col] a water aberrante nm aberrant filled excavation used to work placers abertal adj cracked, generally by drought abridura nf [Mex] enlargement (of a gallery) abertura nf opening, fissure | aperture | the abrigo nm the width of a vein | inhabited reopening of a vein | of levels or | a. del [Cerro de Pasco, Pe] argillaceous drifting in a mine | gap or pass . ctween rock forming the footwall and hanging wall to | cove, small | u. de seams driving, tunneling | a. volcanica vent abrillantar vtr to cut ( or other abetunado,-da adj very ) abichita nf [Ch] abrimiento nm opening A-2 abrir vtr to drive or open up a working | a. el acantita nf terreno to bore | a. una galeria to drift | a. un acaobado,-da adj mahogany colored pozo to sink a shaft or well | a. un surco to dig a acaparrosado,-da adj colored trench | a. un tunel to acardenillado,-da adj stained by copper abrirse vpr to open up, widen (as for a vein) carbonate abrojos nmpl , hidden rocks acarmelado,-da adj caramel colored abronzado nm | [Mex] acarmirado,-da adj carmine, crimson and other copper ores acarreadizo,-za adj portable | shifting (sand) abrupto,-ta adj terraced, scarp like | steep, acarreo nm tranported material of any kind | sheer, abrupt | rugged, craggy transport of ore, supplies, etc. | alluvium | absaroquita nf absarokite float, drift | supply | a. acutfero abscisa nf abscissa | a. fluvial , alluvium | river drift | a. absorbencia nf absorption, absorbency, fluvioglacial fluvioglacial drift | a. hidrdulico absorptivity sluicing, hydraulicking | a. morrenico absorbente nm absorbent, absorptive | de a. placer absorber vtr to absorb acarreos nmpl material carried by a stream, bed absorbible adj absorbable load | drift | float | a. de glaciar glacial drift | absorcion nf absorption | a. atmosferica a. del escurrimiento silt runoff atmospheric absorption | a. del suelo ground acavernar vtr to take the form of a cavern absorption acceso nm entrance absorsornm absorber accesorio,-ria adj accessory absorto,-ta adj absorbed accidentado,-da adj rough, uneven, hilly, broken abstraccion nf abstraction accidental adj accidental | accessory abultar vtr to bulk, accidente nm roughness, uneveness (terrain) | abundamiento nm abundance any topographic feature which disrupts the abundancia nf abundance regular form of a terrain | a. del terreno hills abundante adj abundant and | a. longitudinal parallelism of abundar vtr to be plentiful, abound | to be rich vertical folds | a. topogrdfico hills and valleys in accion nf share in a. mine, venture, company or abundoso,-sa adj abundant property | capital of a. company | a. abysal adj abyssal eolica aeoliation abysico,-ca adj abyssal aceite nm any oil of vegetable or mineral origin acabalgamiento nm thrust, overthrust aceitero,-ra adj of oil, oil acadiano,-na adj Acadian | nm Acadian aceiton nm thick oil | dregs, oily ac£dico,-ca adj Acadian aceitoso,-sa adj oily acadiense m Acadian aceleracion nf acceleration | a. de gravedad acamado,-da adj horizontal gravitational acceleration acampanado,-da adj bell shaped acelerador nm accelerogram | a. de reaccion acampanar vtr to flare, splay | [Col] to clean a catalyst placer down to paydirt acelerdgrafo nm accelerograph acampar vtr to camp | to build a camp acelerograma nm accelerogram acanalado,-da adj grooved | ribbed | fluted | acelerdmetro nm accelerometer corrugated, troughed acendrada n/[Pe] used as a acanaladura nf groove, channel refractory acanalamiento nm grooving acendramiento nm refinery acanelado nm [Zacatecas, Mex] finely acendrar vtr to refine metal disseminated , brown and yellow acequia nf flume | [Pe] brook mixed with argentine and acerado nm [Arg] silver sulfide-bearing - ore | [Peras, Mex] massive gold-bearing pyrite acantilado,-da adj steep, sheer, precipitous | nm in milky | [Guadalcazar, Mex] , steep slope guadalcazarite | [Mex] , cerargyrite A-3

or any other steel grey silver mineral | [Potosi, acodalar vtr to shore, brace Bol] | a. blanco [Potosi, Bol] white acodamiento nm break | shoring, trench jamesonite | a. lejizo [Potosi, Bol] slaty bracing jamesonite | a. zebroso [Potosi, Bol] fibrous acodar vtr to shore, brace | [surv] to offset jamesonite acometer zrfr to branch acerado,-da adj steely, color of steel, steel grey acomodana nf [Pe] ore deposit acerar vtr to chill, harden aconcharse vpr [Ch] to deposit sediment acerdesa nf wad or bog acondrito nm aceria nf steel works or mill acontita nf [Ch] mixture of pyrite and acerillo nm [Pe] small, granular of galena (considered to be rich in silver) acopado,-da adj hollowed out, cupped, cup- acero nm steel shaped acetato nm acetate acopio nm waste heap, tailings dump acetico,-ca adj acetic acordamiento nm concordance of strata acicularod'; acicular acordancia nf conformity, concordance aciculita nf acordanza nf artificial concordance caused by acidez adj acid ness | nf acidity tectonic movements acidificacidn nf acidification acostado,-da adj recumbent acidificar vtr to acidify | to acidize | vpr to acostar vtr to take a vertical dip acidify acostarse vpr to change dip or direction acidimetro nm acidmeter acotacidn nf boundary marker or monument | acido,-da adj acidic | nm acid | a acetico acetic elevation marked on a map or plan | [Cu] acid | a borico | a carbolico carbolic elevation acid | a clorhidrico | afenico acotamiento nm setting of boundary markers carbolic acid | a hidroclorico hydrochloric acid acotar vtr to delimit, mark the boundaries of | | a hidriodico hydroiodic acid | a lodoso [pet] to mark elevations | [surv] to mark out, set sludge acid | a muriatico hydrochloric acid | a monuments nitrico nitric acid | a nitrohidroclorico nitric acid acotilla nm sledge hammer | a nitromuridtico nitric acid | a sulfurico acrecencia nf accretion sulfuric acid acrecimiento nm accretion acidula nf mineral water rich in carbonic acid acrecidn nf accretion acidular vtr to acidulate | to acidize acrepie nm acre-foot aciete nm oil | a. bruto crude oil | oil in bulk | a. acribar vtr to sift, sieve, screen combustible fuel oil | a. crudo crude oil | a. de acrisolar vtr to refine, assay or purify in a alcjuitran tar oil | a. de alumbrado kerosene | a. crucible (crisol) de azufre sulfuric acid | a. de carbon coal oil, acrisolado,-da adj refined, purified in a crucibJu kerosene | a. de esquisto oil | a. de horno acrobatolitico,-ca adj acrobatholitic fuel oil | a. de lampara [Mex] kerosene | a. de acroita nf achroite taladrar drilling oil | a. de vitriolo sufuric acid | acromatico,-ca adj achromatic «. lampante [Sp] kerosene | a. mineral petroleum actmico,-ca adj actinic acije nm vitriol, metal sulfate | a. amarillo actinic nm actinium | a. blanco | «. de hierro actinota nf vitriol actinoto nm actinolite acis nm volcanic vent | diapiric activado,-da adj activated aclinico,-ca adj aclinic actividad nf [chem] activity aclividad nf acclivity Actual nm Holocene acimut nm azimuth acuatico,-ca adj aquatic acimutal adj azimuthal acueo,-ea adj aqueous acobrado,-da adj copper colored dcueoglacial adj glacioaqueous acocadera nf stone cutter's chisel dcueo-igneo,-nea adj hydroplutonic acodalamiento nm shoring, trench bracing acuicierre nm aquiclude A-4 acuiclusa nf aquaclude ademar vtr to shore, timber (a mine) acuico,-ca adj aquic ademe nm shore, strut | a. de -prestado temporary acuifera nf timbering acuifero,-ra adj water-bearing, aquiferous | a. ademantino,-na adj -like, adamantine artesiano artesian aquifer adentro adv inside | mar a. offshore | terra a. acuifuga nf aquifuge inland acuitardo nm aquitard adherido,-da adj adherant | attached | no a. acumbrado,-da adj in the form of a pinnacle unattached acuminado,-da adj conical adiabatico,-ca adj adiabatic acumulacidn nf | accumulation | adiamantado,-da adj diamond-like, adamantine accretion adicidn nf apposition | addition acumulador de mineral nm large ore deposit adicional nm admixture acumular vtr to aggrade adicionante nm admixture acumulativo,-va adj cumulative adinola nf desmosite acunamiento nm truncation of strata or deposits adipita nf by erosion | thinning out of a vein adobe nm clayey, -like that is acunarse vpr to truncate when wet but hard when dried and thus acuoso,-sa adj of or pertaining to water, aquose suitable for brickmaking | aqueous, watery adobera nf brickyard or works acuosoluble adj water soluble adoguina nf pavement acustico,-ca adj acoustic adorberia nf brickyard acutangulo,-la adj acute angled adsorber vtr to adsorb achatado,-da adj oblate adsorcidn nf adsorbtion achatamiento nm levelling by erosion adularitizacidn nf adularitization achatar vtr to level by erosion adventicio,-cia adj adventitious achicamiento nm draining of a mine adyacente adj adjacent, contiguous achicar vtr to dewater a mine or working aegerina nf acmite achiflonado,-da adj [Ch] sloping aegirina nf acmite achique nm dewatering aerifero,-ra adj copper-bearing achua nf [Ch] small, pan used for aerdbico,-ca adj aerobic making tests during the patio process of aerolito nm aerolite, stony amalgamating silver ores aerofotografia nf aerial photography achura w/[Bol] rich ore aerofotogra'fico,-ca adj aerial photographic adamantino,-na adj adamantine aerofotogrametria nf aerial photogrammetry adamelita nf adamellite aerofotogrametrico,-ca adj aerial adamina nf photogrammetric adarme nm half a dram or 1 /16 of a Spanish aerofototopografia nf topography by aerial ounce photography adelantado,-da adj advanced aeromagnetico,-ca adj aeromagnetic adelantarufr to advance aeromagnetria nf aeromagnetics adelgazamiento nm the thinning out of a bed or aeropoligonacidn nf aerial traversing vein | a. cjue termina en curia wedging out aerotopdgrafo nm aerotopograph adelgazar vtr to thin out as for veins, beds, etc. aerotriangulacidn nf aerotriangulation | [Col] to separate gold and concentrates aerovia de cable nf aerial tramway (jaguas) from in order to facilitate final afallamiento nm [Mex] faulting washing afanesa nf , clinoclase adema nm [min] shore, prop afanita nf | aphanite ademado nm [min] timbering, bracing, shoring afanitico,-ca adj aphanitic | [Mex] well casing | a, de cajon cribwork afidico,-ca adj aphyric ademador nm timberman, shorer a fin adj adjacent | similar | affine ademadora nf ax used in mine timbering aflnacidn nf refining | a. par cristalizacion A-5

Pattison process for separating silver from aglutinante nm afinado nm refining aglutinar ufr to agglutinate, cement | to afinadura nf refining afinamiento nm refining aglutinizacion nf agglutinization afinar vtr to refine metals agmatitico,-ca adj agmatitic afino nm refining | refinery agojia nf a channel cut to remove water from a aflojadero nm [M£x] the soft part of a vein mine aflojar vtr to loosen, slacken | to remove ore agolpamiento nm impounding trapped in an ore chute | a. el canalon [Col] to agdnico,-ca adj agonic | nf agonic line pan or wash material accumulated in a ground agotado,-da adj depleted, exhausted | pinched sluice (canalon) or thinned out afloramiento nm outcrop | exposure agotamiento nm depletion | drainage aflorar en vintr to outcrop or crop out | to agotar vtr to exhaust, deplete | to thin or pinch spring (ground water) | vtr to sift or sieve out | to drain, dewater afluencia nf runoff, inflow agotarse vpr to pinch or thin out afluente adj inflowing, affluent, tributary | nf agradacidn nf aggradation tributary agradar vtr to aggrade afluir vintr to flow in | to be a tributary | to agregacion nf aggregation open, lead agregado,-da adj aggregated | nm aggregate | aflujo nm inflow, runoff, afflux admixture | soil | a. coloidal admixture | a, aforamiento nm valuation, appraisal | guaging, cristalino law | a. escalonado measuring graded aggregate | a. graduado graded aforar vtr to guage, measure capacity or tonnage aggregate | a. grueso coarse aggregate | a. | to measure or guage a flow of water | to paralelo crystal group | a. tal como sale run-of- appriase mine aggregate aforo nm guaging, measuring, measurement | agrietadura nf crack or fissure appraisal, assessment, valuation | flow of a agrietamiento nm Assuring, fracturing river | capacity agrimensor nm surveyor | a. de minus mine afdtico,-ca adj aphotic surveyor afrechera nf [Pe] a finely divided amalgam agrimensura nf surveying which results from the use of insufficient agrio,-ia adj acid or sour | brittle (ores) | rough mercury (terrain) afrentar un hilo vtr [Col] to make a agrisado,-da adj greyish, grey perpendicular cut accross a vein to determine agrupamiento nm group | a, cristalino crystal its thickness, dip and strike law group afrolitico,-ca adj aphrolitic agua nf water | luster of diamonds and other afrontonar vtr to muck (ore) precious stones | a. abajo downstream | a. Aftonense nm Aftonian, Giinz-Mindel actdula mineral water rich in carbonic acid | a. arriba upstream | a. artesiana artesian water | a. aga nf red marl avaiable available moisture | a. blanda soft agalisico nm plutonic rocks water | a. calcdrea | a. capilar nf agate | a. en cinta ribboned agate capillary water | a. carbonatada carbonated agente nm agent | a. catalitico catalyst | a. de water | a. congenita connate water | a. connata tierras land man | a. mineralizador mineralizing connate water | a. cruda hard water | a. de agent | «. mineralizante minerlizing agent | a. achique drained mine water | a. de cal quimico reagent | a. reductor reducing agent water | «. de cantera water | a. de aglomeracidn nf agglomeration cohesion cohesive water | a. de consolidacion aglomerado nm , conglomerate | a. water of | a. de constitution water volcanico agglutinate of constitution | a. de cristalizacion aglomerante nm water | a. de descarga waste aglomerar vtr to agglomerate water | a. de expulsion compaction water | a. de A-6

fondo ground water | bottom water (in a well) agualotal nm [Arg, Cu] bog, | a. deformation connate water | a. degravedad aguallita nf shallow water meteoric water | a. de grieta fissure water | a. agualluvia nf rain water de hidratation water of hydration | a. de aguamarina nf aquamarine imbibition absorption water | a. de aguar vtr to water, dilute percolation water | a. de lluvia or llovediza rain aguarse vpr to be flooded or inundated by water water | a. de madre water from which minerals aguas nfpl mineral waters in general | a. abajo have precipitated, mother liquor | a. de downstream | a. altos high water | a. manantial spring water | a. de mar | a. aprovechables water resources | a. arriba up de mina mine water | a. de noria [Mex] well stream | a. artesianas artesian water | a. bajas water | a. de percolation percolation water | a. low water | a. broncos [Mex] flood waters | a. de pie spring water | a. de retention pore water cloacales de infiltration ground water | aguas de | a. de saturation saturation water | a. de afloramiento | a. de cabecera [PR] sobresaturation dilation water | a. de tratantiento headwaters | a. estiales low water | a. inmundas process water | a. del suelo | a. waste water | a. juveniles juvenile waters | a. delgada soft water | a. dormida stagnant water | madres mother | a. meteoricas meteoric a. dulce soft or fresh water | a. dura hard water water | a. minimas low water | a. pluviales rain | a. estancada standing or stagnant water | a. water | a. residuales waste water | a. someras ferruginosa iron-rich mineral water | a. fosil [Arg] surface water | a. teluricas [Arg] ground connate water | a. fredtica ground water, water | a. termales thermal waters | a. vertientes phreatic water | a. fuerte nitric acid | a. gorda runoff | a. vivas flowing water hard water | a. infiltrada percolation water | a. aguatal nm [Ec] pool, swamp juvenil juvenile water | a. limitada bound water aguazal nm swamp, bog, marsh | a. magmdtica | a. marginal agudo,-da adj acute, sharp edge water | a. metamorfica metamorphic water agiiilla nf water, fluid | a. meteorica meteoric water | a. mineral aguja nf pointed peak of a mountian | compass mineral water | a. natural spring water (lacking needle | [surv] marking pin, arrow | [Sp] minerals) | a. oxigenada oxygenated water | a. small vein | [Col] small branch vein or stringer pelicular pellicular water | a. pluvial rain water | a. de marear compass | a. potable potable water | a. regia aqua regia | agujerar vtr to perforate a. rejuvenetida rejuvenated water | a. salada agujero nm drill hole | fissure | mouth of a well or saline water | a. salobre brackish or briny agujilla nf [Hualgayoc, Pe] fibrous stromeyerite water | a. singenetica connate water | a. somera aguosidad nf water, fluid shallow water | a. subdlvea water in a stream aguoso,-sa adj watery bed | a. subterrdnea (underground water | a. aguzado,-da adj tapering subterrdnea endicada perched ground water | a. ahebrado,-da adj fibrous subterrdnea fija fixed ground water | a. ahechar vtr to sift or sieve subterrdnea fijada attached ground water | a. aherrumbrarse vpr to be stained by | subyacente bottom or edge water | a. sucia to aquire the color of unpotable water | a. surgente artesian water | ahitar vtr [surv] to set monuments a. surgidor artesian water | a. surtidora artesian ahocinarse vpr to run through a narrow canyon water | a. telurica | a. termal (rivers) | to cut a gorge thermal water | a. vadosa vadose water | a. ahogado,-da adj flooded, inundated, drowned | vadosiana vadose water | a. viva spring water [Mex] embedded aguacero nm waterfall ahogar vtr to submerge, drown aguachento,-ta adj watery, full of water, ahogarse vpr to be submerged | a. el oro [Col] saturated to lose gold by being carried off by water aguachinar vtr to saturate ahondadura nf sinking, excavation, digging aguada nf flood | saturation | inundation of a ahondamiento nm sinking, excavation, digging mine by water | [Ch] spring ahondar vtr to sink a shaft | to deepen a well aguaducho nm conduit | flood ahonde nm sinking, excavation, digging | A-7

deepening | shaft dug to establish legal title to albica nf white a claim | the depth of seven varas to which a albienseoJ; Albian | nm Albian discovery shaft must be dug to gain legal title albin nm bloodstone (a var of ) to a claim albina nf salt pool or marsh | (archaic ahuesado,-da adj -colored, yellowish | spelling) | | a. de marisma white bone-hard deposits (madre de sal) left by salt marshes and ahumado,-da adj smokey when they dry up aireado,-da adj aerated albino,-na adj very white aislamiento nm isolation albitizacidn nf albitization aiza nf [Bol] caving albitizado,-da adj albitized ajaquefa nf cave albitdfido nm albitophyre ajarafe nm tableland albufera nf coastal lagoon, tidal lagoon ala nf limb, side, flank albuhera nf pond alabandina nf | hyaline quartz alcalde nm justice of the peace | a. canari an alabastrado,-da adj alabaster, alabastrine Indian in charge of passing along instructions alabastrino,-na adj alabaster, alabastrine | nf related to the mita \ a. de minus a Spaniard or thin sheet of alabaster Creole who was the primary judge of cases alabastrita nf transluscent involving miners and mining | a. veedor official alabastro nm alabaster | a. yesoso transluscent charged with the inspection of working and gypsum mining conditions alado,-da adj flange-like alcali nf alkali aladrero nm [Sp] timberman (in a mine) alcali-basalto nm alkali alagadizo,-za adj subject to flooding alcalinidad nf alkalinity alagado nm flooded land alcalino,-na adj alkaline | a.-terreo alkaline earth alagar vtr to flood alcalinoterreo,-rea adj alkaline earth alagunar vtr [Ch] to flood alcali-riolita nf alkali alajite nm [Mex] altered alcali-riolitico,-ca adj alkali rhyolitic alambre nm copper | bronze | metal wire | a. alcali-traquita nf alkali carril [Arg] aerial tramway alcance nm reach, range | drift | coverage alamontita nf allamontite alcanzar a vtr to reach to, extend to | vintr to alanita nf get as far as a certain point alanoca nf an advance on wages yet to be alcapparosa nf copperas | a. amarillo copiapite | recieved (these were regularly demanded by a. azul | a. blanco goslarite minga labor in Spanish colonial Peru) alcarria nf alasquita nf alaskite alcohol nm galena | [Bol] antimony | a. de albar adj white | white-hot | nm dry, white alferos cubic crystals of galena | a. de hoja earth [Linares, Sp] galena containing little or no albaro,-ra adj white silver albarazado,-da adj whitish alcor nm hill albariza nf lagoon | dry white earth alcotana nf pick, mattox | stone cutter's albarizo,-za adj whitish hammer albayaldado,-da adj covered by alcuba nf dome, albayalde nm cerussite | a. de plomo cerussite | alcubilla nf basin, pond a. rojo alea nm risk | randomness | a funcional random albenseoJ; Albian function | a numerico random variable | a alberca nf pool, pond vectorial random vector albero nm whitish earth | [, Sp] aleacidn nf alloy yellow sand used for construction aleaje nm alloy albertense adj Albertian alear vtr to alloy albertita nf asphaltic coal | ash coal | albertite aleatorio,-ria adj random albiano,-na adj Albian aleatorizacidn nf randomization A-8 aledano,-na adj bordering, adjacent almendrilla nf fine gravel | fine coal | alejamiento nm [surv] latitude | alejamientos y [Guadalcazar, Mex] almond sized fragments of desciaciones latitudes and departures silicified | [Aguascalientes, Mex] alejandrita nf alexandrite (a var of ) quartz matrix of copper veins alemontita nf allemontite almirez nm mortar | a. y mano mortar and alero nm horizontal bed or layer pestle alevante nm [Mex] overhand stope almoceda nf [Sp] water rights alfagra n/[Sp] channel | gorge almohadillado,-da adj pillow, pillow-like alfaguara nf an abundant spring almojatre nm sal ammoniac alfaque nm shoal, alocroita nf allochroite alferez nm an Indian serving as standard bearer alocromatico,-ca adj allochromatic in a fiesta de tabla (his contributions to the a!6ctono,-na adj allochthonous church and its officials exempted him from the aldfana nf mita for three years) alogeneo,-nea adj allogenous alfiler de oro nm [Col] acicular gold alogeno,-na adj allogene, allogerdc alga nf algea alomado,-da adj undulating algaceo,-cea adj algal alometamorfismo nm static or load algaida nf sand dune | dynamic metamorphism | algino,-na adj algal metamorphism algomano,-na adj Algoman alometrico,-ca adj allometric alg6nquino,-na adj Algonkian | nm Algonkian alomorfita nf allomorphite alkalitraquita nf alkali trachyte aloque adj light red alidada nf alidade aloqeita nf allochetite (obs) aligacidn nf alloy | [chem] bond alotigeno,-na adj allothigenic alimonados nmpl sulfides and other of alotipo nm allotype silver alotriomorfico,-ca adj anhedral alindar vtr to mark boundaries alotriomorfb,-fa adj allotriomorphic alineacion nf | lineament | alignment alotropia nf allotropy alinderar vtr [ Arg, Cu] to mark boundaries alotropico,-ca adj allotropic aljez nm crude or natural gypsum alpestreod; alpine | mountainous aljezarnm gypsum quarry | gypsum deposit alpino,-na adj alpine aljibe nm well | pool | [Col] spring alpinotipico,-ca adj alpinotype aljornm gypsum alquifol nm cubical galena | almacen nm warehouse | reservoir | a. royal alquitran nm tar | a. de hulla coal tar | a. mineral Spanish royal storehouse for mercury (the bitumen production and distribution of which was a alquitranoso,-sa adj tarry royal monopoly) alsbaquita nf alsbachite (obs, ) almadaneta nf rock hammer alta nf hanging wall | [New Almaden, Calif] almaden nm mine | mineral deposit layer of in the hanging wall of mercury almadena nf rock hammer deposits almagra nf red ocher altearse vpr to uplift, elevate almagradura nf red ocher coloring alteraci6n nf alteration | | a. almagral nm deposit of red ocher acumulativa accumulative weathering | a. almagre nm red ocher atmosferica weathering almagrero,-ra adj abundant in red ocher | red alterado,-da adj altered ocher bearing altillano nm [Col] plateau almaina nf rock hammer altillo nm small hill almandina nf almandite, altimetria nf topographical survey, running almandino nm almandite, almandine levels, altimetry almartaga nf litharge altimetrico,-ca adj altimetric almendra nf an almond-shaped diamond altimetro,-ra adj altimetric | nm altimeter A-9 altiplanicie nf high plateau, tableland amarillo,-lla adj yellow | a. de yellow altiplanimetrico,-ca adj topographic ocher | nm yellow | [Zacatecas, Mex] gossan altiplano nm high plain, altiplano, plateau | a. claro light yellow | a. oscuro dark yellow altitud nf atltitude, elevation amarrar las aguas vtr [Col] to protect placer alto,-ta adj high, elevated workings from inundation by means of dikes alto nm height, hill | elevation | upper part of a (trinchos) vein, deposit or mine | [Mex] hanging wall | amarrar tonga vtr [Col] to lessen the head elevated terrain | a. homo (tonga) of water flowing through a sluice altozano nm small hill amatista nf amythest | a. oriental a violet- altura nf height or summit | altitude, elevation colored variety of | level | a. de carga [hyd] head | a. piezometrica amazonita nf hydraulic head ambarnm | a negro (var of black alud nf avalanche | a. de cenizas ash flow | a. de ) fondo groundslide | a. de hielo ice avalanche | a. ambarino,-na adj amber de roca rockslide ambiental adj environmental alumbrar vtr to strike, to find, to discover | to ambiente nm environment | setting | a. de emerge (ground water) | to treat with , area of sedimentation | a. aluminate deposicional depositional environment alumbre nm alum | a. de piedra | a. de ambito nm perimeter | area roca rock alum | a. potdsico alum ambligonita nf alumbrera nf alum quarry amianta nf amianthus, a fine, silky var of alumbrico,-ca adj alum-bearing alumbroso,-sa adj aluminous amianto nm asbestos alumina nf alumina amigdaloide adj amygdaloidal | nm aluminifero,-ra adj aluminum-bearing amygdaloid aluminio nm aluminum amigdula nf amugdule aluminita n/[Ch] an ore of and amojonar vtr [surv] to set monuments aluminum sulfates amoladera nf [Bol] aluminoso,-sa adj aluminous amoladura nf grinding | a. glaciar glacial striae alutacidn nf nuggets of gold found in the amolinar vtr [Col] to collect spalled ore in weathered surface outcrop of veins or deposits underground mines for processing | to collect aluvial adj alluvial ore in a ground sluice (canalon) for washing aluvidn nm flood | alluvium, wash or silt | a. amoniaco nm ammonia fluvio-glacial glacial outwash | a. metalifero amonita nf ammonite placer | a. soplado [Col] fluvial amonitico,-ca adj ammonitic deposited by strong currents or cataracts amontonar vtr to pile up, make into heaps aluvional adj alluvial amorfo,-fa adj amorphous aluvionamiento adj alluviation | silting up | amortizacidn nf pay out, amortization accretion amparar vtr to obtain title to a property | a. en la aluvionario nm [Arg] alluvial posesion to keep a property in possession by alveo nm riverbed or channel | source of a river doing assessment work, etc. alveolado,-da adj honeycombed amparo nm maintenance of the legal right of alveolo nm cell ownership by continual use alza n/[Bol] washing of gold in a lavadero ampelita nf cannel coal | ampelite | a. grdfica alzaguera nf [Sp] spring, source lithographic stone alzar vtr to hoist, raise, lift amplification nf amplification | magnification amagamiento nm [Col] spring, source amplificador nm amplifier amalgama nf amalgam amplio,-lia adj wide, broad amalgamar vtr to amalgamate ampolla nf blister | pocket (of ore) | a large amarillento,-ta adj yellowish brachyanticline | a. de lava blister amarillez nf yellow ampolloso,-sa adj porous, containing cavities A-10

anaerobico,-ca adj anaerobic anfibolizacidn nf amphibolization analcima nf , analcite anfingena nf anabergita nf anfiteatromorrenico nm glacial lodge anacarado,-da adj pearly anfotero,-ra adj amphoteric analisis nm analysis | a. armonico harmonic anfractuosidad nf extent of broken terrain analysis | a. cristalqutmico crystal-chemical angla nf analysis | a. cualitativo qualitative | a. angosto,-ta adj narrow cuantitativo quantitative test | a. de cedazo angostarse vpr to thin, become narrow screen or sieve analysis | a. de la variancia angostura nf narrowness | narrow, pass, gorge analysis of variance | a. discriminante | narrows of a river discriminant analysis | a. factorial factor Angoumense nm Angoumian analysis | «. ponderal gravimetric analysis | a. angra nf cove, small bay quimico chemical analysis anguena nf [Sp] silver ore analista nm and nf analyst angulo nm angle | corner | a agudo acute angle analitico,-ca adj analytic, analytical | a axil axial angle | a axil aparente apparent analizador nm analyst | analyzer | a. fotometrico axial angle | a de cabeceo angle of pitch | dde photometric analyzer cizalladura angle of | a de deslizamiento analizar vtr to analyze angle of slide | a de discordancia angle of anasismo nm anaseism | a de estratification angle of anastomasado,-da adj anastamosing bedding | a de extintion angle of extinction | a anastomosarse vpr to anastomose de incidencia angle of incidence | a de inclination anatasa nf angle of dip, pitch | a de pendiente angle of anataxia nf anataxis slope | a de reflexion angle of | a de anaxil adj anaxial refration angle of | a de reposo angle anco nm [Bol] impure native silver | [Ch, Pe] a of repose or rest | a de rotation angle of rotation silver ore | a. de rumbo angle of strike | a externo external ancon nm bay, cove angle | a interno internal angle | dobtuso anconada nf large bay, cove obtuse angle | a recto right angle | estar en a to ancho,-cha adj broad, wide | nm width, be at an angle | formar un a con to be at an breadth angle to | formar un a de to form an angle of anchura nf width of a bed or deposit | angulosidad nf angularity widening of a vein, etc. | open terrain anguloso,-sa adj angular anchuron nm chamber, room (in a mine) anhedral adj anhedral anchuroso,-sa adj wide, large anhidrico,-ca adj anhydrous andadero,-ra adj accessible by foot anhidrita nf andalucita nf anhidro,-ra adj anhydrous andana nf lineation of hill, etc. anidado,-da adj nested andarivel nm aerial tramway aniego nm [Mex] inundation, flooding anden nm [Bol, Pe] terrace () aniegue nm [Mex] inundation, flooding andino,-na adj Andean anihedrico,-ca adj alotriomorphic andurrial nm clay pit or deposit anillo nm ring, annulus | a. anual annual ring anegable adj subject to flooding anisiano,-na adj anegar vtr to flood, submerge, inundate Anisiense nm Anisian anegarse vpr to be flooded, submerged, anisometrico,-ca adj anisometric inundated anisopericlasa nf or parallel to a anfibio nm amphibian fold anfibol nm anisotropia nf anfibolesquisto nm anisotropico,-ca adj anisotropic anfibolico,-ca adj amphibolic anisotropo,-pa adj anisotropic anfibolifero,-ra adj amphibole-bearing anodo nm anode anfibolita nf amphibolite anomalia nf anomaly | a. al aire libre free air A-II

anomaly | a. gravimetrica gravity anomaly | a. antofilita nf magnetica antracita nf andmalo,-la adj anomalous antracitico,-ca adj anthracitic anormalidad nf abnormality antracito,-ta adj black anorgandgeno,-na adj inorganic antracitoso,-sa adj anthracite-bearing anorogenico,-ca adj anorogenic antro nm cave, cavern an6rtico,-ca adj asymmetric anularod1; annular anortita nf anil nm indigo blue anortoclasa nf anorthoclase anilado,-da adj indigo blue anortosita nf aovado,-da adj oval, egg-shaped anqueria nf [Pe] silver ore that mimics cubic apacheta nf [Pe] summit or mountain galena apogado,-da adj extinct, quenched, extinguished anta nf [Pe] copper | a. chacra copper mine apacheta nf [Pe] summit, pass anta'rticoj-ca adj antarctic apagar vtr to quench, extinguish | a. un homo to antearrecife nm forereef blow out a furnace antecambriano,-na adj | nm apalache adj Appalachian | nm Appalachian Precambrian apalancar vtr to lever | to get ore from a hopper antecedente adj antecedent | nmpl preliminary apantanar vtr to flood, inundate data aparato nm apparatus | system | a. volcanico anteclisa nf anteclise volcanic system antecubeta nf foredeep aparecer vintr to appear in the literal sense as in antefosa nf , foredeep 'the ship appeared on the horizon1 thus las antepaisnm foreland andesitas aparecen intruidas por unfilon does not antepecho nm bench (in a mine) imply any doubt about the intrusive antepozo nm foreshaft relationship | to appear on a list anticlasa nf anticlase aparejado,-da adj paired anticlinal adj anticlinal | nm | a. aparejamiento nm pairing acostado recumbant anticline | a. asimetrico aparejo nm apparatus, rig | a. de perforacion asymmetric anticline | a. calvo bald-headed drilling rig anticline | a. de air | a. desmantelado aparinar vtr to show indications of ore breached anticline | a. recostado recumbant apartado nm sorting or cobbing of ore | anticline | a. recumbente recumbant anticline | smelting | refining or parting of gold | smelter a. simetrico symmetric anticline | a. tumbado | a. a. mono hand sorting | casa del a. parting overturned anticline | a. volcado inverted or or assay establishment overturned anticline apartador nm ore picker | smelter anticlinorio nm anticlinorium apartamiento nm extraction of minerals antiduna nf antidune apartar vtr to sort or cob ore | to part or refine antiforma nf antiform during assaying | to extract minerals antiguo,-gua adj ancient | primordial | olden, aparte adv separately, separated dating to Spanish colonial times or earlier apatito nm | a. fluor | nm mine worked in Spanish colonial times apeador nm land surveyor antimoniado,-da adj antimony-bearing apeadura nf surveying antim6nico,-ca adj antimony, antimonic apear vtr to survey | to shore, timber, brace antimonio nm antimony | antimony ore | a. apeo nm survey | timbering, shoring arsenical allemontite | a. blanco | a. aperatura nf aperture | act of opening (a mine) gris | a. rojo apice nm apex antimonioso,-sa adj antimonial apilamiento nm arrangement of in a antidndula nf antiripple crystal lattice antipertita nf antiperthite apique nm [Col] shaft or winze antirizadura nf antiripple apireo nm [Ch] removal of ore in hand-carried antitetico,-ca adj antithetic baskets A-12 apiri ntn ore carrier (usually a mitayo) aquitaniano,-na adj apizarrado,-da adj -colored | slaty, with aquitaniense adj Aquitanian slaty | containing slate aragonito nm apizarramiento ntn slaty cleavage arancel nm tariff | legal exaction made by a aplanado,-da adj complanate | leveled priest to support himself and his church aplanamiento nm levelling arbolita nf harbolite aplanar vtr to level arborescencia nf arborescence aplantillar vtr to dress stone according to a arborescente adj arborescent pattern Arcaica nf aplastamiento nm collapsing/ crushing | arcilla nf clay | any | a. alfareia flattening | a. de trozos de pomez flattening of potter's clay | a. aluminosa steatite, | a. fragments apizarada slate | a. arenosa sandy clay | a. aplastar vtr to flatten | to crush aurifera gold-bearing clay | a. de batan fuller's aplastarse vpr to collapse earth | a. caolinica feldspathic shale | a. cocida aplogranito nm aplogranite baked clay | a. enduredda claystone, clay gall | aplomado,-da adj lead-colored/ leaden a. figulina potter's clay | a. defiltro filter clay | aplomado nm [Michoacan, Mex] lead-colored a. de pedernal clay | a. enduricida [Vz] copper ore consisting of , , claystone | a. esquistosa shale | a. ferruginosa and tetrahedrite clay | a. glaciar glacial material | a. aplomarse vpr to collapse gredosa gouge | a. inflamable bituminous clay | apofilita nf apophyllite a. laminar [Vz] shale | a. pedragosa , boulder apdfisisnm apophyses clay | a. pizarrosa shale, slate | a. pldstica apolvillado nm [, Mex] a second gumbo | a. refractoria refractory clay | a. rq/'a class of rich ore from the veta madre yielding red clay | a. violacea lithomarge about 750 ounces silver to the ton arcillarnm clay deposit apomagmiticOs-ca adj apomagmatic arcillita nf claystone aporcelenado,-da adj porcellaneous arcilloso,-sa adj clayey, argillaceous, argillic aportacitfn nf inflow, runoff arco nm arc | arch | a. de islas arc | a. aporte nm runoff, inflow insular apreciacidn nf appraisal, valuation, estimation, arcosa nf estimate arcosico,-ca adj arkosic apreciar vtr to appraise, value | to make out | arcosita nf arkosite to see area nf area | are (100 square meters) | a. aprecio nm appraisal, valuation, estimation alimentadora watershed | a asismica aseismic apretado,-da adj brief, compressed | compact | a comprobada proven territory | a de apretura nf narrow opening | gorge drenaje drainage area | a. de escurrimiento [Col] aprovechamiento nm use, utilization | watershed | a de exploration exploration area | exploitation, development | reclamation a no probada unproven area | a. vertiente aprovechar vtr to exploit an opportunity | to watershed exploit, develop or improve any natural areg or arej nm erg, sand desert resource arena nf sand, grit | gold placer | a. asfdltica tar aptiano,-na adj Aptian | nm Aptian sand | a. aurifera gold-bearing sand | a. bruja aptense adj Aptian | nm Aptian fine sand | a. compacta close sand | a. cuarzosa aptiense adj Aptian | nm Aptian quartz sand | a. de cantera pit sand | a. de apuntamiento nm small outcrop carboncillo sun-burnt sand | a. de sand pit aquerita nf akerite (obst ) | a. de conchas shell sand | a. de cuarzo quartz apurar vtr to purify metal | to concentrate ore sand | a. de duna dune sand | a. de escape thief aquilatacidn nf assay | alloy sand | a. defosasand pit | a. deguijasand pit | aquilatamiento nm assay a. de hoyo sand pit | a. de mar sand | a. de aquilatar vtr to assay precious metals | to mina pit sand | a. de oro gold | a. de play a weigh precious stones | to alloy beach sand | a. de silice silica sand | a. eolica A-13

aeolian sand | a. esqueleal skeletal sand | a. argirita nf | [Bol] fluvial river sand | a. fluvialglaciar fluvialglacial argirosa nm pyrargirite | argentite sand | a. franca loamy sand | a. galuconita nm argon , glauconitic sand | a. gastfera gas argoviano,-na adj Argovian | nm Argovian sand | a. gorda coarse sand | a. granftica argoviense adj Argovian | nm Argovian wash | a. gruesa coarse sand | a. lacustre aridez nf aridity lacustrine sand | a. marina marine sand | a. arido,-da adj arid, dry | nmpl aggregate | a. movediza quicksand | a. muerta sand not mixed finos fine aggregate | a. graduados graded with earth | a. orienta [Arg] sand from aggregate | a. gruesos coarse aggregate Uruguay | a. oscura black sand | a. petroltfera arisco,-ca adj rough, uneven (terrain) oil sand | a. pomosa sand formed from pumice arista nf arete | intersection of crystal faces at a fragments | a. productiva pay sand | «. profunda right angle | a. polar an arista that cuts an axis deep (oil-bearing) sand | a. recia coarse sand | of symmetry | a. hidrografica [Vz] watershed a. verde sand divide arenaceo,cea adj sandy, arenaceous arkosa nf arkose arenal nm large expanse of sand | sandy place armadura nf framework | [Me"x] country or host or ground | sand deposit, pit, bar | [Mex] rock sand dune armar vtr to put together, assemble | v intr to Arenigense nm Arenigian be hosted by, occur in arenigiano,-na adj Arenigian | nm Arenigian armoniaco nm sal ammoniac arenilla nf fine sand | [Mex] tailings | [Vz] annonico,-ca adj harmonic black, -bearing sand | [Col] aromatico,-ca adj aromatic titaniferous | [Hidalgo, Mex] smalls aromatizacidn nf aromatizacion from ore sorting | [Ch] copper matte mixed arqueada nf part of a vein that branches off and with slag then reunites with the vein in the form of an arenisca nf sandstone | a. amasada kneaded arch sandstone | a. arcosa arkosic sandstone | a. arqueado,-da adj arcuate arcosica arkosic sandstone | a. caliza arquamiento nm arching sandstone | a. glauconitica glauconitic arqueano,-na adj Archean | nm Archean sandstone | a. gruesa grit | a. malaxada arqueociatido nm archaeocyathid kneaded sandstone | a. margosa marly arqueozoico,-ca adj Archeozoic | nm sandstone | a. profunda explotable farewell sand Archeozoic | a. silicea sandstone | «. verde green arqueria nf [Ch] silver amalgam sand | a. volcanica ashy grit arrambarse vpr to be covered by sand (after a arenisco,-ca adj sandy flood) areniscoso,-sa adj arenilitic arrancar vtr to break ground, dig | to mine | to arenoso,-sa adj sandy, arenaceous, arenose | nf begin extraction or processing | a. el carbon to freestone, sandstone which cleaves easily break down coal areola nf areole arranque nm breaking ground, digging | argarita nf marcasite mining, extraction | processing | drill pattern argayo nm talus for blasting argentado,-da adj silver, silvery arrasarse vpr to be filled with argenteo,-tea adj silver, silvery arrastrado,-da adj dragged along, transported argentffero,-ra adj silver-bearing, argentiferous arrastrar vtr to drag along the ground | to haul, argentino,-na adj silvery, argentine convey | to unite as veins into one | to scour, argentoso,-sa «, silver-bearing, argentiferous wash out argila nf clay arrastre nm creep, drag | drag-mill used to argilita nf argil ite crush ore (generally misspelled in English as argilolita nf claystone arrastra) \ haulage or conveyance | slope or argiloso,-sa adj clayey, argillaceous inclination of a shaft, etc. | footwall | a. de argilla nf clay mano hand operated drag-mill used for A-14

sampling | a. de marca large drag-mill | a. de arsenico nm | a. piritoso arsenopyrite | mula drag-mill powered by | a. ecuatorial a. rojo ecuatorial drift arsenic so,-sa adj arsenious arrastres nmpl silt, suspended matter arseniuro nm arsenide arrate nm a pound of sixteen ounces arsenoblenda nf arsenic blende | a. amarilla arreador nm a person, usually Creole or mestizo, used to quicken the pace of work in a mine or arsenopirita nf arsenopyrite mill which largely employed Indians, most of artesa nf gold pan | [Col] river basin | a. de whom were mitayos criba screen pan | a. oscilante cradle (for arrecife nm of rock | reef | a. algino algal washing placers) reef | a. anular annular reef | a. coralino coral artesiano,-na adj artesian reef | a. coroligeno reef | a. costero fringing arteson nm wash trough (placer mining) or shore reef | a. de algas algal reef | a. de artico,-ca adj arctic or barrera barrier reef | a. franeante fringing reef asbestino,-na adj asbestine, made of asbestos | a. literal fringing reef | a. marginal fringing asbesto nm asbestos | a. actinolito actinolite | a. reef | a. orgdnico organic reef lignoso ligniform asbestos arremolinamiento nm agglomeration asbolana nf asbolite, ocher arremolinarse vpr to agglomerate ascender a vintr to come to, amount to, reach arrendadornm lessor ascenco nm ascent, uplift, raise arrendamiento nm lease ascharita nf szaibelyite arrendar vtr to lease nm settling arrendatario nm lessee, leaseholder asentar vtr to rest upon arriada nf flood asentarse vpr to settle arriarse vpr to flood asentista nm contractor, tutworker | a. de azogue arribera nf fluvial valley contractor charged with transport of mercury arrinonado,-da adj boytriodal, nodular from almacenes reales to silver mining centers arriscado,-da adj craggy such as Cerro Rico de Potost where the patio arroba nf a weight of 25 Spanish pounds (mules process of amalgamation was used for silver could carry a maximum of 14 arrobas) \ a. extraction granadina [Col] a weight equivalent to 125 aserrado,-da adj serrated kilograms | a. inglesa quarter | a. marina a asfalteno,-na adj asphaltene | nm asphaltene weight of 31 or 32 Spanish pounds asfaltico,-ca adj asphaltic arroyado,-da adj gullied | nf course of an asfaltifero,-ra adj -bearing arroyo asfalto nm asphalt | a. de escorias clinker asphalt arroyar vtr to gully, form gullies | a. mexicano chapapate | a. verde green tar arroyo nm brook, stream, creek | any ephemeral ashgilliano,-na adj Ashgillian | nm Ashgillian water course | dry wash (less precipitous than Ashgilliense nm Ashgillian a barranca) \ a. desecado nullah | a. asidero nm asiderite subglaciar asiento nm settling | sediment that settles in arroyuelo nm brooklet vats, etc. | a. de minus or a. mineral mineralized arruga nf small fold region arrugacidn nf folding of strata asignar a vtr to assign to a formal stratigraphic arrugado,-da adj wrinkled, corrugated, fluted unit | to allot or allocate arrugamiento nm folding of strata | small fold asimetria nf asymmetry arrugar vtr to fold asimetrico,-ca adj asymmetric arrugia nf gold mine | working of auriferous asimilacidn nf assimilation | a. magmdtica assimilation arrumbamiento nm strike of a bed, vein, etc. | asintota nm asymptote bearing asintdtico,-ca adj asymptotic arrumbar vtr to outcrop asismico,-ca adj aseismic arseniato nm arsenate asociacidn nf assemblage | a. defosiles A-15

assemblage atmosferico,-ca adj atmospheric asociar a vtr to associate or associate with | to atol nm atoll bracket a category, etc. atoldnnm atoll asombrarse vpr to become flatter | to become atolladero nm swamp more bed or manto like (veins) atdmico,-ca adj atomic asomo nm outcrop | edge of a precipice | inlier atomo nm aspa nf cross in the form of an X | [Pe] the atraccidn nf attraction intersection of two veins atravesado,-da adj crossed or cut by another aspar vtr to cross in the form of an X vein, fault, etc. - aspecto nm aspect | a. vitreo glassy appearance atravesar vtr to lay across, span | to go or pass aspereza nf roughness, uneveness (of terrain) through, penetrate | to pierce, run through | aspero,-ra adj uneven, rough (terrain) | harsh to cross, go across | «. a unfilon to cut accross asperdn nm sandstone | a. carbomfero a vein or lode sandstone atravesarse vpr to lie across, span aspillera nf dissolution surface on carbonate atravieso nm [Ch] gap, pass rocks aturiano,-na adj Aturian | nm Aturian asquistico,-ca adj aschistic aturiense adj Aturian | nm Aturian asquisto,-ta adj aschistic aturquesado,-da adj asta de venado nf [Pe] atutia nf tutty (metal oxides encrusted on astenolito nm asthenolith furnaces and chimneys) astenosfera nf auerbaquita nf auerbachite asteria nf asteria or asteriated | cat's augengneis nm augengneiss eye (a var of ) aulacdgeno nm aulacogen asterismo nm atunento nm magnification | a. de una playa Astiano,-na adj Astian advance of a beach astiense nm Astian auramalgama nf gold amalgam astilla nf chip, splinter, spall | [Pataz, Pe] aureo,-rea adj gold, golden, aureate particles of gold found in accumulated in aureola nf aureole | a. albitica albitic rim | a. de street gutters after a heavy rain | a. de cantera contacto contact aureole quarry spall auricalcita nf astillarvfr to splinter aurico,-ca adj auric, gold astillarse vpr to spall | to splinter aurifero,-ra adj gold-bearing, auriferous astilloso,-sa adj hackly, splintery | easily autigenesis nf authigenesis chipped autigenico,-ca adj authigenic astrago nm autigeno,-na adj authigenic astrakanita nf astrakhanite autoclastico,-ca nf autoclastic astrofilita nf autocorrelacidn nf autocorrelation atabacado,-da adj tobacco-colored autdctono,-na adj autochthonous | nm atacar con acido vtr to etch with acid ataque nm [Pe] breaking ground | a. cjuimico autdctonon nm autochthone etching | nmpl deads, waste autoformacidn de brechas nf autobrecciation atascadero nm swamp autointrusidn nf auto-injection, autointrusion atectdnico,-ca adj atectonic autolito nm autolith atenuacidn nf attenuation autometamorfismo nm autometamorphism aterramiento nm alluvium | action of silting up automorfo nm idiomorphic aterrar vtr to silt up autdporo nm autopore atico,-ca adj Attic autopotential nm selfpotential atierre nm silting up | nmpl deads, waste autuniano,-na adj Autunian atincar nm refined Autuniense nm Autunian atipico,-ca adj atypical Auversense nm Auversian atmdsfera nf auxilio nm credit | a. de entre semana credit A-16

offered by a bank enabling a miner to borrow azimutnm azimuth against the subsequent week's production | a. azoado,-da adj nitrogenous ordinario a regular credit extended by a bank at azoar vtr to nitrogenate the beginning of the to miners in a gremio azoato,-ta adj nitrate | nm nitrate de azogueros in proportion to the number of azoe nm stamps their mills employed azogado nm mercury poisoning avalancha nf avalanch | [Arg] flood azogamiento nm mercury poisoning avaluar vtr to appraise, value, estimate azogarse vpr to become poisoned by mercury avance nm advance | a. de una playa advance of azogue nm mercury | ore amenable to a beach | a. del glaciar glacial advance | a. del amalgamation with mercury | [Pachuca, Mex] mar transgression | a. en direction advance on second class ores | [Sinaloa, Mex] ore of silver strike sulfides, embolite, and copper in a avenamiento nm drainage, draining | a. quartz matrix | [Batopilas, Mex] ore containing autogeno autogenic drainage | a. centripetro visible silver | a. apolvillado ore very amenable internal drainage | a. desordenado aimless to amalgamation | a. comun ore generally drainage amenable to amalgamation | a. ordinario ore avenarztfr to drain generally amenable to amalgamation | a. avenc nm [Catalonia, Sp] razonable ore marginally amenable to avenida nf flood amalgamation aventadero nm [Pe] gold placer | [Arg] shallow, azogueria nf amalgamation works placer | [Col] placer above the azoguero nm [Potosi, Bol] an owner or banks of a river renter/operator of mines and mills aventurino,-na adj | nf aventurine azogueria nf amalgamating works | the averno nm gas pocket (in a coal mine) amalgamation process avetado,-da adj veined, seamed azoico,-ca adj azoic | nm azoic | nitric aviador nm person who finances a mine, azotico,-ca adj nitric contracting for the work | person who azolvarse upr to silt up advances funds or goods against future azolve nm silt production from a mine azolvosnmp/ silt aviadoro,-ra adj subject to assessment azucar nf [Col] granular soft white matrix aviar vtr to finance a mine | to grubstake, lend to native gold ore money and equipment for working a mine azufrado,-da adj sulfurated | colored | avio nm preparation, provision | implement or nm sulfuring | [col] yellow ocher found in material used in a mine | hereditary lease | veins | [Hualgayoc, Pe] yellow ore derived funds or goods advanced for working a mine, from decomposition of galena | [Ch] nitrate of grubstake soda () of a canary or lemon yellow color aviso sismico nm foreshock | [Pe] sulfide ore avolcanado,-da adj volcanic azufral nm solfatera axil adj axial azuframiento nm sulfuring axilaradj axilary azufrar vtr to sulfurate, impregnate with sulfur ayllu nm social group of Andean Indians united azufre nm sulfur | a. nativo native sulfur | a. through kinship | a drove of twenty llamas or vivo brimstone, molten sulfur, native sulfur burros in the charge of cumuris and used to azufrera nf sulfur mine transport ore azufrdn nm pyritic mineral in a pulverulent azabachado,-da adj jet-black condition | [Mex] sulfide ore azabache nm jet (a var of lignite) azufroso,-sa adj sulfurous azada nf a tool used to dress stone azul adj blue | nm blue, blueness | [Cartagena, azanca nf spring Sp] greenish-blue slate bearing disseminated azar nm chance | al a. at random galena and iron silicate | [Me"x] silver-bearing azarcon nm crocoite, red lead | a. nativo sulfide ores | a. acerado [Zacatecas, Mex] azamefe nm orpiment stephanite | a. celeste sky blue | a. claro light A-17

blue | «. de cobalto cobalt blue | a. de montana and green colors | a. de ultramar ultramarine blue | a. azulenco,-ca adj bluish marino navy blue | a. oscuro dark blue | a. azulillo nm silver-bearing carbonate ore plomilloso [Zacatecas, Me"x] argentite | a. turqut azulino,-na adj bluish indigo blue | a. verdoso petrol blue azulosor-sa adj bluish azulado,-da adj bluish, blue azumbre nf a measure of capacity azulaque nm bitumen | [Zacualpan, Mex] equivalent to about two liters argentite | [Fresnillo, Mex] disseminated azurita nf azurite pyrite, argentite, silver chloride and native azurronado nm [Tlalpujahua, Mex] silver- silver ores distal to veins | a. y cardenilla bearing cubic pyrite [Guerrero, Me"x] silver-rich copper ores of blue B-l

6 b. de grava gravel bank | b. de hielo ice floe | b. de nivel bench mark | b. de piedra thick bed of stone | b. de rescates bank where silver bullion bacilarod; fibrous | bacillary could be exchanged by miners for coin | b. de nf bacteria | b. tigmotdctica thigmotactic no river bank | B. Minero bank, usually state bacteria owned, set up to provide credit to small and bacularo^y rod-shaped medium-size mining enterprises | b. platero ba'culo nm staff | [Mex] transit rod, range pole [Sinaloa, Me"x] argentiferous pyrite | b. de Jacob Jacob's staff bandaleta nf \ en b. loop badana nf bag made from cured sheepskin used bandeado,-da adj banded | b. groseramente to transport mercury crudly banded bad^nnm gully bandeamiento nm banding bagazo nm drilling mud banquear vtr to level, bench | [Col, Vz] to bahia nf bay excavate baja nf fall, drop | b. ley low grade banqueo nm leveling, benching | bench | [Col, bajada nf descent | bahada (merging of several Vz] excavation | b. de prestamo [Vz] borrow pit alluvial fans) | slope | drop | ebb | banqueta nf small bed or bench downgrade | ladderway banquisa nf pack-ice bajamarnm low | ebb banado nm swamp, marsh bajante nm low water, low tide bara nf bar (unit of ) bajar vintr to descend, sink | to lower | to drop barcana nf barchan dune or fall in price | to ebb | vtr to reduce in price barequear vtr [Col] to extract as much of the | to lessen paydirt in a placer as possible without bajial nm low ground subject to flooding disturbing the overburden bajio nm bank, shoal | sandbar | lowland baratina nf barite bajo,-ja adj low | bajo de ley of low grade barchan nm barchan dune bajo nm footwall | shoal or sandbank bario nm bajociano,-na adj Bajocian barisfera nf barysphere bajocense adj Bajocian baritina nf barite bajociense adj Bajocian barjdnnm barchan dune balaje nm balas (a rose-red var of ) barlovento,-ta adj windward balanza nf balance | blind shaft | b. de Jolly Jolly barniz nf varnish | b. del desierto desert varnish balance | b. de torsion torsion balance barquina nf a type of large furnace balate nm boundary marker, survey marker | barra nf bar, ingot | sandbank, bar | b. aviada border of a trench | terrace limited liability share | b. aviadora share paying balde nm bucket | b. de arrastre dragline bucket assessments | b. de arena sand bar | b. de caliza | b. de extraction mine bucket | b. de pozo shaft granular oolitica oolitic grainstone bar | b. de bucket mina hand drill | b. de plata [Me"x] silver ingot balicero nm [Mex] rodman of 75 pounds | b. de rio shoal, bar | b. prelitoral balsamo nm balsam | b. de Canadian longshore bar | b. viuda limited liability share balsam barranca nf steep, jagged canyon, wash | cliff, banca nf bench bluff | gorge, ravine | slope (hill or mountain) bancada nf stope | bench | downgrade | [Arg] riverbank | b. abajo bancal nm berm, bench, terrace downhill | b. defalla | b. de folia con banco nm thick bed or | bank or bar of erosion faultline scarp a river, etc. | bench (in a quarry or mine) | barranco nm gorge | fissure | precipice, cliff | [Mexj (barren rock within or that deflects scar | [Vz] small round pits, about a vein) | b. barrera barrier beach | b. de arena four feet in , dug to work shallow ores sandbank, sand bar | b. de avios bank which barrancdn nm gorge, canyon advances funds for the working of mines | b. barrancoso,-sa adj broken, rough (terrain) de coral | b. de cotafija bench mark | barranquero nm placer miner B-2 barranquilla nf [Mex] gully pan 12 inches in diameter with ears or handles barreal nm clay pit | b. zambullidora an oblong, elliptical gold pan 3 barremiano,-na adj Barremian to 4 feet long and 14 to 18 inches wide barremense adj Barremian bataque nm [BC, M£x] deposits formed by barren-dense adj Barremian spring waters barrena nf drill | crow bar | b. asimetrica bateria de pisones nf battery of stamps side hill bit | b. batidora churn drill | b. de batial adj bathyal arrastre drag bit | b. de cable cable drill | b. de batipelagico,-ca adj bathypelagic canteadar stone cutter's drill | b. de cateo earth batir vtr [Col] to work placers by of water borer | b. de cesto basket bit | b. de chorro jet bit | b. el monte to explore for gold placers, etc. | b. de muelas reamer bit | b. de perforation batisfera nf desuiada directional bit | b. regulable expansion batisismo nm bathyseism bit | b. tubular core drill | b. sacanucleos core batolito nm batholith drill | b. sacatestigos core drill batoniano,-na adj Bathonian barrenarufr to drill batonense adj Bathonian barreno nm shot | drill | drill hole | [Col] batoniense adj Bathonian drilled well bauleao nm [Col] pyrite cubes barrera nf clay pit | barrier | b. prelitoral bayociano,-na adj Bajocian longshore bar Bayociense nm Bajocian barrero nm clay deposit | clay pit benceno nm benzene barretero nm miner employed at the working beneficiable adj millable, suitable for face benefeciation, workable barretdn nm heavy crowbar | [Col] miner's pick beneficiador nm miller | mill operator | person barrial nm clay pit employed to supervise the patio process of barril nm barrel | [Fr Guiana] a weight of 100 amalgamation of silver ores kilograms beneficiar vtr to work or improve a mine | to barrilla nf [Bol] grains of derive a profit from working a mine | to win disseminated in other copper ores | [Bol] metals from ore or concentrate | to smelt, copper or tin ore concentrates refine barro nm clay, , mud, earth, silt | marl | beneficio nm working of a mine | profits [Col] overburden on gold placers | b. de olleros derived from working a mine | reduction of potter's clay | b. gladariaco till | b. refractario ores and concentrates, smelting | productive [Cu] fire clay ore | the richest part of a deposit | b. de cazo barroso,-sa adj muddy, clayey, silty [M£x] the hot amalgamation process of bartoniano,-na adj reducing silver ores | b. de hierro amalgamation bartoniense adj Bartonian with the addition of iron filings | b. de metales basal adj basal | of ores | b. de patio the cold, patio basaltico,-ca adj basaltic process of amalgamation of silver ores | b. de basalto nm basalt toneles the Freiberg or barrel process of basamento nm basement amalgamating silver ores | b. par cianuradon nm base (of crude oil) | b. de erosion base cyanide process of recovery | b. level of erosion por cloruradon chlorination process of metal b£sico,-ca adj basic | basal recovery | b. porfuego recovery of metals by basitas nfpl [Arg] basic rocks direct smelting of ore bastoniforme adj rod-like bencina nf gasoline, benzene batea nf wooden gold pan, traditionally 20 bentonico,-ca adj benthic inches in diameter and 25 inches deep | b. bentonitico,-ca adj bentonitic cortadora polished gold pan 16 inches in bentosnm benthos diameter and rather less than 2 inches deep | b. benzol nm benzene lavadora variety of gold pan 16 inches in berilio nm beryllium diameter and 2 inches deep | b. vetadora gold berilo nm | b. noble transparent beryl | b. B-3

verdemar aquamarine blanco,-ca adj white berma nf berm blandura adj softness | nf soft, crumbly earth bermelldnnm blanquizal nm pipe clay berriasiano,-na adj Berriasian blastogranitico,-ca adj blastogranitic berriasiense adj Berriasian blastoideo,-dea adj blastoid berroquena nf granite blastoporfiritico,-ca adj blastoporphyritic bertierita nf berthierite blenda nf blende | sphalerite | b. acaramelada betumennm bitumen yellow sphalerite | b. amarilla yellow sphalerite betunnm bitumen, asphalt | b. dejudea asphalt | b. arsenical orpiment | b. cadmifera | b. marga bituminous marl | b. cornea [Mex] hornblende | b. de bia"xico,-ca adj biaxial plata pyrargyrite | b. de zinc sphalerite | b. biboro nm botryolite parda brown sphalerite | b. roja red sphalerite | bicarbonato nm bicarbonate b. rubi red sphalerite | b. testdcea fibrous bidoruro nm bichloride sphalerite bicharra nf [Pe] a type of small furnace blonco bueno nm [Guanajuato, Mex] a third biddnnm jerry can class of rich ore from the veta madre of about bifurcacidn nf bifurcation, branching, forking | 400 ounce silver to the ton branch of a vein that follows along strike bloque nm block | b. erratico | b. bifurcamiento nm branching of a vein defalias bifurcarse vpr to branch, as for a vein bloque-diagrama nm block diagram bimbalete nm [Pe] a crude ore mill consisting of bloquear vtr to block out (ore) a large boulder rocked by a transverse bar bloqui nm ingot binario nm binary | b. dtgito bit bobo,-ba adj [Ch] sterile, barren (of ore) binche nm [Arg] cubic crystals of pyrite found boca nf the first opening made on a vein or lode in gold-bearing conglomerates | mouth or collar of a shaft, well or adit | binomio,-mia adj binomial mouth of a river | gap, pass, saddle | b. de bioestratigrafia nf glaciar glacial outlet | | b. de pozo bioestratigra*fico,-ca adj biostratigraphic wellhead | b. mina portal, mouth of an adit bioherma nf bioherm bocal nm mouth, entrance | gap, straight, biolita nf biolith narrows | pit head (coal mine) biolitita nf boundstone bocamejora nf auxilliary shaft biolito nm organic sediment bocamina nf portal, entrance to an adit or bidxido nm dioxide | b. carbanico carbon tunnel dioxide bocana nf [Col] river mouth birrefringencia nf bocarrena nf birrefringente adj birefringent bocarte nm stamp mill | crusher | drag mill bisilicato nm bisilicate bocartear vtr to crush ore in a stamp mill bismalito nm bysmalith bocarteo nm crushing of ore in a stamp mill bismutina nf bismuthenite bodega nf chamber deposit bismutinita nf bismuthenite bodoque nm argentite | [Batopilas, Me"x] silver bismuto nm | b. blenda eulytite | b. chloride native native bismuth | b. acre oxide or bofia nf gypsum pipe carbonate of bismuth bofdnwm plug bisulfato nm bisulfate bogue nm [Sp] boghead coal bisulfuro nm bisulfide bol armenico nm bole (type of ) bitounita nf boleo nm of ore found in a vein | bitumenizacidn nf bituminization of ore found in sedimentary ore biturnifero,-ra adj bituminous deposits | [Mex] waste dump bituminoso,-sa adj bituminous bolichar vtr to reduce ore in a boliche bivalencia nf bivalence boliche nm bowl concentrator used in the patio bivalenteoJ; bivalent process of amalgamating silver ores B-4 bdlido nm meteorite capacity bolo nm [Col] a red ocher found in placers botroide adj botryoidal boldn nm cobble, boulder bdveda nf cave or cavern | dome, cupola | bolone nm [Ch] rounded fragment of copper chamber deposit | b. de sal ore boveddn nm [Pe] chamber bolsa nf richest part of a mine | rich pocket of boya nm [Cerro de Pasco, Pe] rich vein or ore | small irregular deposit | lined with pocket of ore | b. del cobre copper production druse boom in 1887 in Peru due to high world market bolsada nf rich pocket of ore | druse | irregular prices for copper deposit | pocket, cavity bradfordiano,-na adj Bradfordian bolsilla nf small bunch of ore bradfordiense adj Bradfordian bolsdn nm bolson, internal basin | large pocket bradisismo nm bradyseism of ore braguetilla nf [Pe] crude smelting furnace, often bolsonada nf bunch of ore no more than a roasting pit bolsonero,-ra adj [Bol] in rich ore, in pockets of braquianticlinal nm brachyanticline ore braquidpodo nm bollandiano,-na adj Bollandian braquisinclinal nm brachysyncline bollandiense adj Bollandian brasa n/[Almade'n, Sp] reduction of mercury bollo nm [Pe] pocket of ore ore by roasting and distillation bomba nf bomb (experimental) | pump | b. braunespato nm brown (any carbonate calorimetrica calorimetric bomb | b. volcanica colored brown by iron) volcanic bomb braza nf fathom (a unit of length) bonanza nf large deposit of rich ore | ore shoot brazada nf [Col, Vz] fathom (a unit of length) | | en b. yielding a profit, in good ore b. de piedra [Mex] a cubic measure used in bono nm bonus | b. de caja cash bonus selling building stone bononiano,-na adj Bononian brazaje nm water depth bononiense adj Bononian brazo nm arm | branch of a stream | b. boratera nf [Arg, Bol, Ch] borax deposit pantanoso bayou borato nm borate | [Ch] | b. calcinado brea nf pitch or tar | asphalt | b. de altjuitran calcined ulexite coal tar | b. de carbon coal tar | b. de hulla coal borde nm river bank | fringe, edge | b. tar | b. de tierra earth pitch | b. mineral heavy continental continental borderland oil, maltha, asphalt bordo nm edge | ore remaining in a mine brecha nf | opening, break, | bdrico,-ca adj boric, boracic [Col] prospecting trench | b. conchifera shell boro nm hash | b. de crush breccia | b. de borra nm [Me"x] matrix, gangue | barren rock | falias | b. defriccion fault breccia | refined borax | b. de veta soft, altered rock | en b. de huesos bone breccia | b. de trituracion fault b. in unproductive ground breccia | b. de talud talus breccia | b. filoniana borrasca nf an unproductive or unprofitable vein breccia | b. milonita mylonitic breccia | b. mine | barren rock | b. de la capa tounging of a osifera bone breccia | b. poligenica polygenetic bed into adjacent beds | dar or caer en b. to breccia | b. tectonica tectonic breccia | b. become unproductive or unprofitable volcanica volcanic breccia boruro nm boride brechacidn nf brecciation bota nf leather bag used to carry ore out of a brechifonne ad; brecciated mine brechoide adj brecciated botadero nm dump brechoso,-sa adj brecciated botamiento nm fault | dislocation brigada nf party, gang, crew | b. de campo field botar vtr to dump party | b. del transito transit party | b. botella nf flask | b. de acido acid bottle | b. de topografica survey party azogue flask of mercury brillantez nf brilliance (gems) botija nf [Bol] rawhide bucket of about 7 gallons brillo nm luster | b. anacarado pearly luster | b. B-5

ceroso waxy luster | b. de antimonio antimonite up ore | b. de antimonio argentifero miargyrite | b. de brotadero nm seep, spring, source betun pitchy luster | b. de bismuto bismuthenite brotar vtr to outcrop | to seep, emerge | b. de cobalto | b. de cobre chalcocite | (ground water) b. de hierro red hemetite | b. de plata argentite | brotazdn de veta nm [Mex] apex of a vein b. diamantino adamantine luster | b. grasiento brote nm [Cu] outcrop | b. defiltracion seepage greasy luster | b. graso greasy luster | b. grasoso outcrop [Bol] greasy luster | b. mantecoso greasy luster broza nf [Bol, Pe] barren part of a vein | low | b. mate dull luster | b. metdlico metallic luster grade ore | [Bol] coarse-grained minerals | | b. nacarado pearly luster | b. resinoso resinous [Ch] mine waste luster | b. sedoso silky luster | b. terroso earthy buitrdn nm section of the patio of an ingenio luster | b. vitreo glassy luster where each cuerpo of ore was treated by the briozoario nm bryozoan patio process of amalgamation of silver ores (a brocado nm [Pe] low-grade ore patio was generally divided into several brocal nm collar (of a shaft) | entrance (to an buitrones) adit) brujula nf compass | b. de geologo 's brocantita nf compass | b. minera mine compass broceo nm [Ch] barreness or sterility of an ore bruno,-na adj dark brown deposit | en broceo in barren ground bruto,-ta adj coarse, rough | crude bromargira nf buche nm [Col] pocket of ore bromargirita nf bromargyrite bucle nm bromo nm bromine bufa nf [Mazipal, Me"x] beds of brown iron ore bromuro nm bromide and bronce nm bronze | pyrite | any mineral of a buncenita nf bronze color | [Pe] iron and copper sulfide burdigaliano,-na adj Burdigalian ores | b. bruno [Zacatecas, Me"x] silver-bearing burdigaliense adj Burdigalian pyrite | b. amarillo pyrite or chalcopyrite | b. burga nf hot spring anilado | b. apretado pyrite | b. blanco buro nm | marl pyrite | [Potosi, Bol] arsenopyrite | b. bueno burrear vtr [Sp] to carry ore on one's shoulders [Guanajuato, Me"x] silver-bearing pyrite | b. busca nf search, exploration | [Mex] ore taken chino pyrite or chalcopyrite | b. de cobre out by prospectors chalcopyrite | b. dorado chalcopyrite | b. malo buscadornm prospector [Guanajuato, Mex] pyrite barren of silver | b. buscar vtr to prospect or explore morado bornite | b. nochistle chalcopyrite | b. buscdnnm prospector plateado [Ch] copper sulfide ore | b. platero busconero nm prospector silver-bearing pyrite busqueda nf search | b. de informacidn scouting broncita nf a well bronco nm greenhorn, bronco (new, unproven butano nm butane oil field employee) | [Mex] loose, rock ready buzamiento nm dip, inclination | pitch | angle to fall of dip | [Ch] plunge (in Chile manteo is used bronzado,-da adj [Pe] containing copper and for dip) I b. aparente apparent dip | b. arriba iron sulfide ore or bronces updip | b. axil plunge | b. del eje plunge | b. en bronzudo nm [Me"x] pyritic ore cupula quaquaversal dip broquita nf buzanteod/' plunging brosa nf [Bol] low-grade ore buzar vtr to dip broseo nm [Bol] weathering and decomposition of ores brosiri nm worker, usually minga used to break C-l

caducacidn nf expiration of rights to a mining claim or lease caducar vtr to forfeit rights to mining claims or cabalgar vtr to overlap | to thrust, overthrust leases (generally by expiration) cabalgadornm caducidad nf act of forfeiture to a mining claim cabalgamiento nm thrust, overthrust | c. or lease | expiration, lapse horizontal apparent heave | c. inclinado caduco,-ca adj expired, invalid apparent slip | c. vertical apparent throw caenozoico,-ca adj caballeria nf a measure of land area cagafierro nm slag, caballete nm [Me"x] horse (waste rock within or caguacha nf residues of amalgam and mercury between veins) washed out of a mill caballero nm spoil bank caguachiri nm worker employed to collect caballo nm horse (waste rock within or caguachas between veins) | c. de piedra [Amolanas, Ch] caida nf fall, drop | [hyd] head | dip | slip, fall basic, barren intrusions into quartz | (of rock) | c. de agua waterfall c. de pena [Col] horse | c. de tepetate horse caidos nmpl fallen or caved ground | fallen cabecera nf headwaters of a river | summit of a material hill or ridge | [Bol] a working in the upper part caiman nm [M£x] ore chute of a mine | de c. accross a vein cainozoico,-ca adj Cenozoic cabeza n/[Me"x] outcrop | [Col] upper part of a caja nf wall rock to a vein or deposit | thickness placer working | c. de ingenio stamp (in a mill) of a vein | [Ch] river bed | c. de esclusa sluice | c. de mina mine entrance | c. de moro a var of box | c. de extraction mine cage cajalarga nf [Bol] rock easily drilled cabezo nm reef, submerged rock cajdnnm canyon, gorge, gully | narrow or box cabezdn nm rapids | boulder | , canyon | a measure of quantity of ore, | [Col] point at which a of water loses generally weighing fifty quintales \ [Col] clay at velocity such that material in suspension is contact between coal and deposited cajonero nm worker who handles skips | [Me"x] cabezuela nf [San Dimas, M£x] concentrates mouth of a shaft rich in gold and silver cal nf lime | c. de estano cablevia nf cableway, aerial tramway cala nf creek, cove, bight | test boring | cabo nm cape exploration well | c. de prueba test boring cabuchdn nm rough, unpolished ruby calabres,-esa adj Calabrian cabujdn nm rough, unpolished ruby calabriano,-na adj Calabrian cachalonga nf variety of calabriense adj Calabrian cachi nm [Bol] barite | [Potosi, Bol] | calamaco nm [Me"x] large piece of rock difficult [Pe] salt | [Chanarcillo, Ch] calcite to break up cachimba nf [Arg] shallow well, spring | [Me"x] calamina nf calamine, | [Pe] miner's lamp | [Pe] aurichalcite cacholongo nm a var of opal calamita nf magnetite, lodestone | siderite | cachuela nf rapids compass needle | turquoise cadena nf chain | c. de Markov Markov chain | c. calar adj calcareous, lime | nm limestone de montanas | c. montanosa quarry mountain chain calar vtr to pierce, penetrate, perforate cadenada nf [surv] length of one chain calca nf copy | c. heliogrdfico blueprint cadenear vtr [surv] to chai: calcado nm tracing cadeneo nm [surv] chainiru calcantita nf chalcanthite cadenero nm chainman | c. delantero head calcar vtr to trace, copy chainman | c. trasero rear chainman | c. zaguero calcareo,-rea adj calcareous, limey | nm [Arg] rear chainman limestone cadmio nm cadmium calcedonia nf chalcedony C-2 calcico,-ca adj calcic, conglomerate calciesponja nf calcisponge calicata n/[Arg] test pit | bore, drill hole calcifero,-ra adj calciferous calichal nm [Bol] kaolin | [Mex] second class calcificacidn nf silver ore of 150 to 1000 ounces per ton silver calcificar vtr to calcify caliche nm caliche | salpeter | [Pe, Ch] impure calciforme adj cup-shaped nitrate | [Arg] cement to borate calcilodita nf mud stone (Dunham classification) nodules found in | [Uco, Pe] clayey calcimetro nm calcimeter soil above gold veins | [Ch] altered clay calcinacion nf calcination selvages to veins | [Durango, Mex] white, calcinador nm calciner, roaster decomposed clay | [Me"x] | calcinar vtr to calcine, roast | vpr to calcine [Guanajuato, M£x] | [Col] recently calcio nm calcium | c. clorurado discovered mineralized vein | [Col] calcioborita nf dreelite decomposed calcareous quartz | c. negro calco nm a tracing | cast | c. de carga load cast | [Cerro de Pasco, Pe] copper sulfides and c. de deslizamiento slide cast | c. deflujo flow sulfoarsenides cast | c. de race bounce cast | c. espigado calichera nf [Ch, Pe] deposit of caliche mark calichero,-ra adj relating to caliche calcocita nf chalcocite calichoso,-sa adj calcareous | feldspathic calcofilo nm calcophile calido,-da adj hot, warm calcografia nf chalcography caliente adj warm, hot | [Mex] oxidized silver calcografo nm chalcographer ore calcopirita nf chalcopyrite caliz nm calyx | de c. calycal calcosfera nf chalcosphere caliza nf limestone | c. carbonifera carboniferous calcosina nf chalcocite limestone | c. cavernosa cavern limestone | c. calcosita nf chalcocite conchifera fossiliferous limestine | c. Carolina coral limestone | c. cristalna crystalline calcotriquita nf chalcotrichite carbonate (Dunham classification) | | nf caldera | crater of a | winze c. de agua dulce freshwater limestone | c. de | sump | c. vaporizadora de mercurio mercury arrecife reef limestone | c. feldespdtica arkosic boiler limestone | c. fetida stinkstone | c. granular calderilla nf winze grainstone (Dunham classification) | c. caldero nm cauldron | hundamiento en c. hidrdulica limestone that yields hydraulic lime cauldron subsidence in calcination | c. lodogranular packstone caledoniano,-na adj Caledonian (Dunham classification) | c. lodosa wackestone calefaccidn nf heal, heating (Dunham classification) | c. magnesiana calefaccionar vtr to heat dolostone | c. oolitica oolitic limestone | c. calentado,-da adj hot | c. al blanco white hot | c. porosa porous limestone al rojo red hot calizo,-za adj calcareous, lime calentador nm [Rio Tinto, Sp] a reverboratory calocar nm white clay furnace used to calcine ore calomelano nm calero,-ra adj calcareous, limestone | nm lime caldn nm [Huelva, Sp] iron oxide-bearing burner | operator of a lime pit | nf lime pit or sandstone and limestone deposit | limestone quarry | lime kiln calorescencia nf calorescence calesa nf [Mex] ore bucket calor nm heat | c. blanco white heat | c. de caleta nf creek, cove, inlet hidraracion heat of hydration | c. especifico caleza nf [Mex] ore bucket specific heat | c. latente de fusion latent heat of calibita nf chalybite, siderite fusion | c. propio geothermal | c. caliborita nf kaliborite rojo red heat calibracion nf calibration | caliper logging caloria nf calorie calibrar vtr to calibrate | to guage, measure caldrico/-ca adj caloric calibre nm caliper | c. micrometrico microcaliper calorifero,-ra adj heat-producing, giving heat calicanto nm [Chuquibamba, Fe] auriferous C-3 calorifico,-ca adj calorific cancha nf ore bin | [Pe, Ch] mine dump | place calorimetria nf calorimetry near the entrance of a mine where ore was calorime'trico/-ca adj calorimetric, calorimetrical sorted by hand calorimetro nm heat probe, calorimeter canchal nm rocky or stony place | [Me*x] caloviano,-na adj Callovian moraine caloviense adj Callovian canchamina n/[Ch] work area around a shaft or caluma nf [] pass, gap, gorge adit calvo,-va adj barren, desert canchaminero nm [Ch] surface worker in a mine callana nf[Pe] government refinery or mint cancho nm large rock, boulder calloviano,-na adj Callovian candencia nf incadescence calloviense adj Callovian candente adj incadescent, red-hot cama nf layer, bed, stratum | c. de roca bedrock candil de minero nm miner's lamp camada nf bed, stratum, layer canel nm [Sp] cannel coal ca'mara nf chamber, room j ore shoot, chamber caney nm small bay | [Col] river bend deposit | c. de minus chamber of mines | c. canga nf any red lateritic soil | iron-bearing magmdtica reservoir | [Arg, Bol] iron-bearing soil cambio nm change, variation | c. de fades cangagua n/[Col] clay suitable for adobe change | c. de naturaleza variation in cangahua nf [Ec] hardpan sedimentary material | c. de nombre renaming | cangalla nf tailings | [Ch] stolen ore c. de potenda variation in thickness cangalli nm [Tipuani, Bol] false bedrock of cambriano,-na adj ferruginous quartz that overlies gold- c£mbrico,-ca adj Cambrian bearing sand caminamiento nm [Ec] traversing cangildn nm bucket | [Ec] mud hole | [PR] camino nm [Bol] gallery, drift small waterfall | c. de arrastre dragline bucket camidn nf truck | c. de disparo shooting truck | cangrejero nm [Col] pockets of gold occuring in c. de registro recording truck | c. de taladro smaller veins or venillas drilling truck canguildn nm [Ch] bucket campamento nm camp, campground | c. minero candn nm royalty, tax | rate | c. bruto gross mining camp royalty | c. de adidon overriding royalty | c. de campana nf level country derre shut-in royalty | c. de compensadon campaniano/-na adj Campanain compensation royalty | c. del propietario fee campaniense adj royalty | c. de partidpadon royalty interest | c. campanil nm [Bilbao, Sp] hematite | [Sierra exento de cargos non-participating royalty | c. , Sp] siderite fijo fixed royalty | c. no venddo unaccrued campilita nf campylite royalty | c. sin gustos free ride campista nf tributor, lessor cantal nm stone or | spall | stony campamiento minero nm mining camp ground campo nm field | mining camp | c. aurifero gold cantara nf a liquid measure equivalent to 13.16 field | c. coerdtivo coercive field | c. de cumbres liters | [Durango, Me"x] white, decomposed | c. de field | c. de nieves field | clay c. de un microscopic field of view () | ca'ntaro nm [Guadalcazar, Pe] retort for reducing c. del petroleo oil field | c. gasffero gas field | c. mercury ores magnetico magnetic field | c. minero mining cantearirtr to cut stone camp | c. petrolero oil field | c. productor cantera nf quarry | quarry stone, hewn stone, producing field | c. raso flat, open country ashlar, freestone | [Vz] small veinlets of quartz canal nm channel j flume, race, ground sluice | detached from veins | c. de arena sand pit | c. c. de erupdon chimney, pipe de grava gravel pit | c. de prestamo borrow pit canalado,-da adj grooved, fluted, corrugated canteria nf quarry | quarrying, hewing of stone canalizacidn nf channelization | freestone, ashlar, hewn stone | [Mex] canaldn nm ground sluice cantero nm stonemason | sum cancagua nf [Ch] a stiff, sandy soil cantidad nf quantity, amount | c. de rotadon C-4

amount or degree of rotation capilaridad nf capillarity cantil nm cliff | shelf | cliff edge capillo nm cupel cantillo nm small stone, pebble capita nf band, small seam, thin layer cantizal nm stony ground capitin nm foreman | c. de la mita Spaniard or canto nm edge or border | thickness | stone or Creole in charge of the mita \ c. de yanaconas pebble | boulder | fragment of flint | dressed person in charge of Indians permanantly stone | c. errdtico glacial erratic | c. grande dwelling in a mining center, as opposed to cobble | c. rodado boulder, cobble, pebble | c. mitayos who lived elsewhere | c. enterador sin labrar rough ashlar | de c. edgewise, on Indian in charge of his community's mitayos edge during their service cantorral nm stony ground caporal nm [Vz] foreman canturrdn nm [Col] manganese oxide capote nm [Col] topsoil cana nf gallery | c. de mina gallery | c. de volar c£psula nf laboratory dish blasting hole capotero,-ra adj shallow Canada nf valley, gorge, ravine | eroded river captacidn nf capture, | c. en abanico arc bank | the immediate drainage formed by a shooting spring | [Arg] inlet, | [Col, PR] stream captura nf capture | c. de rto river capture or canaddnnm canyon, gorge piracy cano nm gallery (in a mine) capuchdn nm cap rock canon nm canyon | drift, gallery | c. submarine cara nf face | of a crystal | wall of a fissure | panel of stone in a quarry | c. de crucero canutillo nm [Col] fine cleavage face caolin nm kaolin, clay cirabe nm amber caolinico/-ca adj kaolinic caraca nf [Col] thin layer of hard clay between caolinita nf , kaolin bedrock and paydirt in placers caolinizacidn nf kaolinization caracol adj spiral capa nf bed, layer, seam, stratum | stratabound cara'cternm character | extent deposit | c. acuffera aquifer | c. barrera blocking caracteristica nf characteristic, feature layer | c. basal bottomset bed | c. cabalgante caradociano,-na adj Caradocian nappe | c. clave key bed | c. ccbijante nappe | c. caracociense adj Caradocian competente competent bed | c. de carbon coal carambano nm icicle seam | c. defilon beded vein | c. de hielo caramero nm [Vz] flood debris | c. de velocidad velocity bed | c. dorsal topset carapacho nm carapace bed | c. freatica acuifer | c. frontal foreset bed | carbeno nm carbene c. fuselar fusellar layer | c. gasifera gas cap | c. carbdnnm coal | carbon | charcoal | cinder | ondulttico wave stratum | c. osifera bone bed | graphite | c. aglomerante coking coal | c. c. reflectora reflecting bed | c. roja red bed | c. aglutinante coking coal | c. algal algal coal | c. superior topset bed | c, vegetal top soil | en almendrillo nut coal | c. antracitoso anthracite | capos layered, bedded c. bituminoso | c. brillante capa-fildnnm bedded vein glance coal | c. candeloide cannel coal | c. capacidad nf capacity | c. electrica capacitance | conglomerate coking coal | c. craso coking coal c. termica heat capacity | c. de algas boghead coal | c. de ampelita cannel capacho nm bucket | [Pe, Ch] rawhide bag for coal | c. de astilla splint coal | c. de bujia cannel carrying ore of 2 to 4 arrobas capacity | c. de coal | c. de cok coking coal | c. degas [Vz] gas extraccion mine bucket carbon | c. de gaz cannel coal | c. de llama corta caparazonnm carapace | shell hard coal | c. de llama larga soft coal | c. de caparrosa nf | copperas | vitriol | c. piedra coal | c. de piedra pasada coke | c. de amarillo copiapite | c. azul blue vitriol | c. retorta gas carbon | c. de tierra coal | c. blanda goslarite entrozado [Me"x] broken coal | c. fosil coal | c. capataz nm foreman | c. de turno shift granado nut coal | c. graso coking coal | c. capilaro^/ capillary grueso large coal | c. lustroso pitch coal | c. C-5

menudo small coal | c. mineral coal | [Pe] peat | | c. suspendida suspended load c. no aglutinante non-coking coal | c. para cargado,-da adj loaded | heavy, dense steam coal | c. pardo lignite | c. pezoso cargamento nm load, shipment | cargo pitch coal | c. seco non-coking coal | c. cargar vtr to load | to charge (a furnace) | v intr semigraso semibituminous coal | c. tal como sale to load up run-of-mine coal | c. vegetal charcoal cargo nm burden, loading | load of stone of carbonaceo,-cea adj carbonaceous about one third of a cubic meter | [Granada, carbonada nf load of coal Sp] one cubic vara nm black diamond, carbonado carhua nf [Pe] pyrite carbonar vtr to turn into charcoal, carbonize can adj lead grey carbonate nm carbonate | [Sp] lead ore | c. cariado,-da adj rotten calcico | c. de hierro siderite | carmesi oJ;' crimson | nm crimson c. de sodio soda | c. de sodio anhidrico soda ash | cannin adj carmine, crimson | nm crimson | c. magnesico | c. plomizo cerussite [Col] carboncillo nm small coal, fine coal, slack | coal carmineo,-nea adj carmine, crimson dust carnacidn nf flesh color carbonear vtr to turn into charcoal, carbonize | came de vaca nm [Bol, Pe] coarse galena ore to load coal (considered to be relatively poor in silver) | carboneo nm charcoal making [Hualgayoc, Pe] red amorphous sphalerite, carbonera nf coal bin or | coal mine phosphorescent on fracture carboneria nf coal mine | coal shed or yard carneola nf variety of chalcedony carbonero,-ra adj coal | nm coal mine | coal carniense nm Karnian merchant, coalman carrancho nm [Col] altered granite carrying carbdnico,-ca adj carbonic auriferous pyrite and free gold | shaley host carbonifero,-ra adj carboniferous | coal-bearing rock in which gold veins are unproductive carbonilla nf coal dust, fine coal, pulverized carranchoso,-sa adj [Col] rough, scaley, harsh coal | cinder carrascal nm [Mex] honeycombed quartz, carbonizacidn nf carbonization usually barren carbonizar vtr to carbonize | to burn | vpr to carrera nf run | c. de la marea carbonize carretada nf cart or wagon load of 120 arrobas carbono nm carbon | c. organico organic carbon carretal nm [Sp] roughly dressed ashlar or | carbono 14 carbon-14 rubble-stone carbonoso,-sa adj carbonaceous carro nm car | c. calichero [Ch] nitrate car | c. carborundo nm corundum carbonero coal car | c. de extraction mine car | c. carburo nm carbide salitrero [Ch] nitrate car carcamo nm drain (of a mine) | flume carst nm carcava nf gully, ditch carstenita nf karstenite, anhydrite carcavdn nm gorge carstico,-ca adj karstic carcomar vtr to erode, undermine | vpr to be carstificacidn nf karstification undermined carta nf map | chart | c. planialtimetrica [Arg] cardenilla nf [Batopilas, Mex] proustite topographic map cardenillo nm verdigris cartografia nf cartography | c. aerea aerial carear vtr to face (stone) photosurveying carga nf load | loading | [hyd] head | [met] cartografiar vtr to survey, make maps heat, charge | mule-load of 8 to 14 arrobas \ cartografico,-ca adj cartographic man load of about 2 arrobas \ duty, tax, charge cartografo nm cartographer | [Bol] ah red rock useful as a guide to ore cartoteca »/[Vz] map file [Col] and cobbles found in placers | casa nf house | c. del apartado parting [Sandia, Pe] overburden on placers | c. de mula establishment load of about 8 to 14 arrobas \ c. del lecho bed casar metales vtr [Pe] to mix ores for load | c. disuelta dissolved load | c. mineral ore amalgamation or smelting C-6 casardnnm large stope catlftico,-ca adj catalytic cascada nf waterfall, cascade | [Col] rapids | c. catalizador,-dora adj catalytic | nm catalyst de diaclasa -plane waterfall | c. de glaciar catalizar vtr to catalyze glacierfall cataclasis nf cataclastic process cascajal or cascajar nm gravel deposit | gravel cataclismo nm cataclysm pit catar vtr to explore, prospect, sample cascajear vtr to extract gravel from a gravel pit catarata nf cataract, waterfall | [Col] to clean out cobbles from a sluice cataroca nf [Arg] cascajero nm gravel bed | worked-out mine | catastral adj cadastral [Col] a previously worked placer that still catastro nm official land register, cadastre | contains gold inventory or census of mining properties cascajo nm gravel deposit | quarry waste | fine catastrofico,-ca adj catastrophic gravel | [Arg] cobbles | [Ch] coarse, gold- catastrofismo nm catastrophism bearing gravels | [Fr Guiana] deeply catazona nf katazone weathered rock | [Mex] waste rock | c. blando cateado,-da adj prospected, explored [Calamachi, Mex] talcose schist bedrock to cateadornm prospecter | sampler | placers | c. duro [Calamachi, Mex] slate which prospecter's pick forms potholes in bedrock to placers | catear vtr to look for, search for | to prospect or [Durango, M£x] iron-bearing quartz | [Pe] explore a mine, deposit or property | to pockets of silver ore of large size | [El Caratal, sample Vz] decomposed schist forming bedrock to cateo nm prospecting, exploration | sampling placers | altered in the vicinity of veins catodo nm cathode cascajoso,-sa adj gravelly cauce nm river channel, river bed | ditch, trench casco nm hard hat | way, channel, course | c. inferior lower cascote nm rubble stone | waste | muck | course (of a river) | c. superior upper course (of [Arnao, Sp] screened coal 250 to 600 mm in a river) size caudal nm fortune, wealth | rate, discharge, carstico,-ca adj karst volume of flow | c. afluente runoff, inflow | c. casimba nf well | spring | [Cu] sinkhole de avenida flood flow | c. de un no discharge of casiterita nf cassiterite a river | c. solido bed load casquete nm cap | c. de gas gas cap caudaloso,-sa adj in full flood casquijo nm gravel | gravel bar cava nf digging, ditch | pit, excavation | rill | castana nf abandoned mine [Reocin, Sp] cuts made in working calamine castano,-na adj chestnut brown | nm chestnut brown cavadizo,-za adj easily excavated castellano nm an old Spanish coin | one-fiftieth cavador nm digger, excavator part of a marco \ [Mex] furnace used for lead cavadura nf digging smelting cavar vtr to dig, excavate | to dig or sink a well castigar vtr [Mex] to dress or smooth stone | vintr to dig castillete nm head frame cavazon nm [Sp] digging, excavation castillo nm head frame caverna nf cavern, cave, hollow castina nf limestone flux cavemario,-ria adj cave, cavern castor nm cavernoso,-sa adj cavernous, porous cata nf mine under litigation | mine of shallow cavidad nf cavity, vug | c. de unfilon vug or depth | placer mine | prospecting pit, test pit pocket in a vein | testing, boring, exploration | [Mex] cavitacidn nf cavitation subsidence cayo nm cay, small island | shoal cataclastico,-ca adj cataclastic caz nf flume, canal, race catacorte nm [Col] prospecting pit or trench cazo nm vessel used for heating ore in the hot catadora nf earth auger amalgamation process for silver ores catalisis nf cebar vtr [Mex] to smelt ore C-7 cebo nm [Me"x] smelter charge | [Col] late cerargirita nf cerargyrite calcite precipitated by ground waters cerca adv near | c. del sol open pit | nf [Ch] infiltrating veins bedrock ceca nf royal mint cereo,-reaad/ waxy, wax cedazo nm small hand sieve used in assaying cerio nm cerium celemin nm dry measure equivalent to two cemedor or cernidor nm screen, sieve macjuilas and one-twelth of afanega cerner or cernir vtr to sift or sieve celestina nf celestite cerniduras nfpl screenings celula nf cell | cellule cero nm zero | c. absolute absolute zero celularoJ; celular ceroso,-sa adj waxy, ceraceous cementacidn nf | setting of casing cerracho nm [Huancavelica, Pe] smalls (granza) | c. defondo plug back of mercury ore used as the top charge in the cementado,-da adj cemented barba furnace cementar vtr to cement cerrar vtr to close | to enclose | to shut-in (a cemento nm cement | c. artificial [Sp] Portland well) | c. el trazado to close a survey cement | c. puzolanico pozzulan cement cerrarse vpr to thin out, pinch out, as for a vein cementoso,-sa adj cement-like cerrazon nm [Col] part of a placer containing cenagal nm swamp boulders cenagoso,-sa adj swampy cerril adj rough, uneven, hilly cendra nf paste of bone ash used to make cupels cerrillada nf range of low hills cendradilla nf [Mex] small reverberatory cerrillo nm hillock refining furnace cerro nm hill (smaller than a pico but larger and ceniciento,-ta adj ashen, ashy color steeper than a loma) \ c. glaciarico kame cenicilla nf [Me"x] black earthy residue obtained cerro-mesa nm table mountain in reducing mercury ores in a gallery furnace ceruleo,-lea adj cerulean, azure, deep blue ceniza nf ash | c. de plomo litharge | c. de soda cerusa nf cerussite soda ash | c. volcdnica cinder cerusita nf cerussite cenizo,-za adj ash colored cesio nm cesium cenizo-negro nm [Chanarcillo, Ch] transitional cesidn nf failure | c. de inter es farm-out ore zone containing both silver chlorides and cianita nf proustite-pyargyrite cianizar vtr to cyanide cenomaniano,-na adj Cenomanian cianuracion nf cyanidation, cyaniding cenomanense adj Cenomanian cianuro nm cyanide nm [Yucatan, Mex] sinkhole cibairo nm any blue or green copper mineral cenozoico,-ca adj Cenozoic ciclico/-ca adj cyclic, cyclical cental nm a measure of weight ciclo nm cycle j c. de erosion erosional cycle | c. centellador nm scintillator, scintillometer glaciar glacial fluctuation centelldmetro nm scintillator, scintillometer cielo nm sky | roof of a working | hanging wall centenaja nf [Col] pothole (in a river) | a c. abierto open pit centiarea nm square meter, centare cienaga nf depression where water collects | centigrado,-da adj centigrade swamp, bog | c. carstica karst , karst swamp centila nf percentile ciencia nf sceince | ciencias geologicas geological centigramo nm centigram sciences centimetre nm centimeter cienegal nm [PR] swamp centra nm center | height and depth | axis of a cieno nm mud | sludge stream, etc. cientifico,-ca adj scientific | nm/nf cenido,-da adj [Mex] thinned out, narrowed cierre nm closure | shut-in | c. anticlinal ceolita nf anticlinal closure | c. del trazado [surv] closure cera nf wax | c. fosil or mineral natural parrafin, cifra nf figure, number, numeral | quantity, mineral wax amount | c. decimal digit ceramico,-ca adj cilindrico,-ca adj cylindrical, cylindric C-8 cilindrio nm cylinder cisco nm broken coal | coal dust cima nf summit, top, height, peak, crest citrina nf citrine (a var of quartz) cimborrio nm dome | roof, cieling, hanging wall cizalla nf shear cimbrozano nm [Vz] cizallar vtr to shear cimento nm cement cizalleo nm shearing cimofana nf cymophane, chrysoberyl cizallimiento nm shearing cinabarita nf [Sp] cinnabar ckajcheo nm irregular workings resulting from cinabrio nm cinnabar | c. hepatico hepatic selective mining cinnaber ckallar vtr to high grade a vein or deposit by cine nm zinc | c. rojo mning selectively cincel nm chisel | [Pe] large mass of native ckatata or ckatati nf [Bol] leather bag used to silver | c. del indio [Col] stone chisel used by haul ore natives for quarrying stone | c. de unas [Sp] ckojta nf [Bol] miner's carbide lamp stone cutter's chisel ckollpa nf [Bol] cincelador nm stone cutter's chisel claro nm open space in a lode remaining after cincelar vtr to chisel ore has been extracted cincelete nm graver, small chisel clase nm class | grade | c. cristalina crystal cincifero,-ra adj zinc-bearing, zinciferous class cincita nf zincite clasificable adj classifiable cincha nf girth, cinch clasificacidn nf classification | sorting | order | cinerita nf ash flow c. de Dunham Dunham's classification of cinetico,-ca adj kinetic | nf kinetics carbonate rocks cinquero nm zinc worker clasificado,-da adj classified cinta nf tape | measuring tape | band or layer clasificador nm filing cabinet | classifier of mineral in a vein | [Col] gold-bearing (milling) horizon in a placer | c. de agrimensor measuring clasificar vtr to class, classify | to sort | to tape | c. de bolsillo pocket tape | c. metrica grade, class | to screen measuring tape clastico,-ca adj clastic cintada nf [surv] tape length, tape measurement claustalita nf cintarrdn nm [Col] layer of pay-dirt in a placer clavada nf winze of unusual thickness clavado,-da adj [Col] vertical cinteado,-da adj banded, ribboned | nf , clavaque nm pebbles of quartz crystal band clavo nm bunch of ore | pay streak | rich ore cintero nm [surv] tapeman | c. delatero head shoot | chimney (of ore) | inclusion of igneous tapeman | c. trasero rear tapeman | c. zaguero rock within | [Col] piece of [Arg] rear tapeman gold which cuts a pebble or cobble from one cintildmetro nm scintillator, scintillometer side to another cinturdn nm belt, zone | c. de cabalgamiento cliachita nf , cliachite overthrust belt | c. morenico moraine belt clinclasa nf clinoclase circa nf [Ch] bed rock clinocloro nm clinochlore circar vtr [Bol] to mine selectively clinoeje nm clinoaxis circo nm , kar | c. glaciar cirque clinometro nm clinometer circ6nnm clivaje nm cleavage | c. de crenulacion circona nf zirconia cleavage | c. de disyuncion fracture circdico,-ca adj zirconic cleavage | c. de estratificacion bedding cleavage circonio nm zirconium | c. deflujo flow cleavage | c. defractura circonita nf zirconite fracture cleavage | c. de lapis pencil cleavage | circulo nm circle | | c. antartico antarctic c. de micropliegue crenulation cleavage | c. de circle | c. artico arctic circle | c. de Mohr Mohr's piano axil axial plane cleavage | c. de roca rock circle j c. polar polar circle cleavage | c. de transposition slip cleavage | c. circunferencia nf circumference en abanico cleavage fan | c. espaciado spaced C-9

cleavage | c. paralelo bedding cleavage | c. native copper | c. vitreo pizarreno slatey cleavage | c. pizarroso slatey cobreno,-na adj copper, with copper cleavage | c. verdadero slaty cleavage cobrizo,-za adj copper-bearing, cupriferous | clizoglifo nm mud crack copper-colored, coppery | nm [Me"x] low- cloantita nf chloanthite grade copper ore clorato nm chloride coccidn nf roasting clorhidrato nm hydrochloride coceo nm [Me"x] thrust clorhidrico,-ca adj hydrochloric cocer vtr to roast ore cldrico adj chloric cocimento nm [Pe] boiling of ores | [Ch] clorita nf chlorite method of treating nitrates cloritico,-ca adj chlorite, chloride cocinera «/[Zacatecas, Mex] rich part of a mine cloritizacidn nf chloritization coco nm [Col] gold pan made from a cocanut cloritoide nf chlortoid shell cloro nm cocolita nf coccolite clorocalcita n/hydrophilite cocolito nm cloroespinela n/chlorospinel cocha nf [Bol, EC] , pond cloruro nm chloride | c. de cal chloride of lime | cochano nm [Vz] nugget c. de sodio sodium chloride | c. sodico sodium cochino nm [met] pig chloride cochiso nm [Pe] proustite, pyrargyrite coacervatidn nf coacervation cochizo nm pyrargyrite | [Bol, Pe] tetrahedrite | coalescencia nf coalescence, fusion [Pe] stromeyerite | c. falso [Cerro de Pasco, Pe] cobaltico,-ca adj cobaltic cobaltifero,-ra adj cobalt-bearing, cobaltiferous cochura nf roasting cobaltina nf cobaltite codal adj one cubit long cobalto nm cobalt | cobalt ore | c. arsenical cddigo nm code of laws | c. de Carolina mining smaltite | c. brillante cobaltite | c. fragmentado code for Potosi and the area under the native arsenic | c. gris cobaltite, smaltite authority of the viceroyalty of the Rio de La cobaltoso,-sa adj cobaltous Plata (essentially modern Bolivia) established cobertera nf cover in 1792 | c. de minas mining laws cobertura nf cover, covering codo nm cubit coblenciano,-na adj Coblenzian coeficiente nm coefficient | c. de confianza colbenciense adj Coblenzian confidence level | c. de correlation correlation cobijadura nf alluvium | [Arg] overthrust coefficient | c. de determination coefficient of cobre nm copper | copper ore | c. abigarrado determination | c. de elasticidad modulus of bornite | c. amarillo chalcopyrite | c, ampolloso elasticity | c. de permeabilidad coefficient of blister copper | c. anilado covellite | c. azul permeability | c. de productividad productivity azurite | c. bruto en plancha copper ingot | c. de index | c. de variation coefficient of variation acarreo drift copper | c. de cementation cement cogollo nm upper part | c. de la tinta [Col] copper | c. del cdtodo cathode copper | c. en upper part of the pay zone in a placer | c. del plancha sheet copper | c. gris (antimonial) hilo [Col] upper part of a vein | c. de las vetas tetrahedrite | c. gris (arsenical) | c. outcrop of a vein gris argenttfero | c. gris mercurial coherencia nf coherence schwazite | c. hepdtico a var of chalcopyrite | c. cok nm coke | c. de petroleo petroleum coke | c. indigo chalcocite | c. morado bornite | c. nativo de retorta gas coke | c. para altos hornos blast native copper | c. negro blister copper | furnace coke | c. piritoso chalcopyrite | c. piritoso cola nf tail | [Mex] part of a vein that hepdtico bornite | c. porfidico copper porphyry | terminates with depth | nfpl tailings c. rojo | c. roseta copper ingot | c. salino colada nf flow (of lava) | melt | filtering | c. de | c. siliceo crysocolla | c. sulfurado lava lava flow vidrioso chalcocite | c. sulfureo chalcocite | c. coladero nm winze, ore pass, ore chute verde malachite | c. vidrioso chalcocite | c. colador nm strainer | c. de lodo shale shaker | c. C-10

vibratario shale shaker, mud screen columnar adj columnar coladura nf straining, filtering coluvial adj colluvial colagon rim [Mex] conduit canal coluvion nf colluvium colar vtr to cast metal | [Mex] to sink a shaft collado nm saddle, gap, pass | hill colarse vpr to seep, percolate collpa nf [Bol, Pe] nitrate, trona colatidud nf colatitude nf territory, district, region | border, coleccion nf collection boundary, limit | study area | c. minera mining colector nm collector | c. de gas gas trap district colgado,-da adj suspended, hung | [Bol] said of comba nf bulge a mine working which encounters an already combar vtr to bend, curve or warp worked area combersa n/[Arg] valley colgante adj hanging, suspended combination nf combination, compound | colgar vtr [Col] to use natural drainage to work commingling | permutation a placer combo nm [Bol] sledge hammer colicuacion nf smelting combustible adj combustible | nm fuel, colillas nfpl tailings combustible | fuel oil | c. liquido liquid fuel colimacion nf collimation combustion nf combustion | c. in situ in situ colimadornm collimator combustion colina nf ridge, hill | hillock | c. de presion combustoleo nm fuel oil pressure ridge comercializacion nf marketing colindante adj adjacent comerse los pilares vpr [Mex] to rob pillars colmado,-da adj piled in heaps comillo nm reverberatory furnace colmarse vpr to fill up comision nf [Col] party | c. de estudios [Col] colmatacidn nf filling | [ Arg] silting up survey party colmataje nm filling comisura nf corner | c. estratigrdfica bedding colmo nm height, summit plane colocar vtr to arrange or place, locate, set compacidad nf [PR, Vz] compaction, colofonita nf cellophane compactedness colofano nf cellophane compactacion adj compaction, compacting, coloformo,-ma adj colloform consolidating coloidal adj colloidal compacto,-ta adj compact, dense coloide adj/nm colloid companfa nf company | La C [Pe] Cerro de coloideo,-dea adj colloid, colloidal Pasco Corporation colomillo nm [Col] protruding rocks in the compas nm compass (for drawing) | compass bedrock of a river or placer (for navigation) | c. de division dividers color nm trace or color of gold | rock stained by compensation nf adjustment, compensation | c. mineral de la brujula compass compensation colorante nm coloring material compensar vtr to adjust | c. la aguja adjust a ,-da adj red | n/[Topia, Mex] rusty compass needle orange staining of propylitized due to competencia nf weathering of pyrite | nm red | [Mex] gossan competente adj competent | [Pe, Ch] oxidized silver ores colored by complejo nm complex | c. basal basement copper complex | c. de base basement complex | c. coloreado,-da adj colored fundamental basal complex | c. volcdnico colpa nf copperas | [Pe] a silver ore volcanic complex colqueruna nm Indian who obtained exemption componente nm constituent, component from the mita by paying a fee to his caquique composition nf composition colqui nm [Bol, Pe] silver comportamiento nm behavior | c. geoquimico columna nf pipe or column of rock or ore | c. de geochemical behavior brecha breccia pipe | c. de petroleo oil column | compresibilidad nf compressibility c. de sondeo drill string compresible adj compressible C- compresidn nf compression | c. isotermica condensado nm condensate | c. retrograde isothermal compression retrograde condensate compresivo,-va adj compresive condensar vtr to condense compreso,-sa adj compressed cdndrita nf comprimible adj compressible conduccidn nf conduction | c. de calor thermal comprimido,-da adj compressed conduction comprimir vtr to compress | v,pr to be conductancia nf conductance compressed conductibilidad nf conductivity compuesto,-ta adj compound | nm compound conductible adj conductive computadornm computer conductividad nf conductivity computadora nf computer conductivo,-va adj conductive computar vtr to compute, calculate conducto nm vent or pipe of a volcano | cdmputo nm computation, calculation channel, lava channel | conduit | c. volcanico comun adj common, ordinary, average | nm volcanic vent ore of average grade conexidn adj connection, linkage comunicacidn «/[Bol] drift that connects two confeccidn nf drawing up, making up | c. de section of a mine | intersection of a raise or mapas mapping winze with a gallery configuration nf pattern, array, configuration concavidad nf concavity c. de afloraminetos outcrop pattern | c. de cdncavo,-va adj concave | nf cavity, hollow diaclasas joint pattern | c. dendritica dendritic concavoconvexo,-xa adj concavo-convex pattern | c. en reja trellis pattern | c. lee lee concentration nf concentration | c. en seco dry configuration | c. radial radial pattern | c. concentration rectangular rectangular pattern | c. Wenner concentrado,-da adj concentrated | nm Wenner array concentrate confitillo nm [Mex] pea gravel, peastone concentrador nm concentrator conflation nf smelting concentrar vtr to concentrate confluencia nf confluence, concourse, or concentricidad nf concentricity meeting of two rivers, etc. | junction | c. de concentrico,-ca adj concentric gladares glacial confluence concesidn nf concession, grant | c, comunitaria confluente adj confluent, tributary | nm community lease | c. de tiro shooting lease confluence, concourse (of rivers) concesionar vtr to grant a concession confluir vtr to converge, meet, come together concesionario nm holder of a concession, congelado,-da adj frozen licensee, grantee congelar vtr to freeze, congeal | vpr to freeze, concoide adj conchoidal congeal concoideo,-dea adj conchoidal congelo nm [Ch] lowest layer of caliche concordancia nf conformity consisting of , sand, sulphates and concordante adj concordant, conformable chlorides concrecidn nf | c. calcarea calcareous conglomeradico,-ca adj [Arg] conglomeritic, sinter | c. esferoidal spheroid concretion conglomerate concrecionado nm deposit formed by chemical conglomerado,-da adj conglomerate | nm precipitation conglomerate | c. aurifero gold placer | c. de concrecionar vtr to sinter boleos boulder conglomerate | c. de chinos concrecional adj concretionary cobble conglomerate | c. defalias fault concha nf shell | test () conglomerate | c. degranito [Arg] granolithic conchifero adj shell-bearing | nm [Me"x] shell- conglomerate | c. de penas [Vz] cobble bearing limestone conglomerate | c. d: penones [Vz] boulder conchilla nf [ Arg] shell conglomerate | c. Ui. trituracion crush conchudo,-da adj shelly, shaly conglomerate | c. fundamental basal cdnchula nf [Arg] test (microfossil) conglomerate | c. rojo [Mex] conglomerate condensacidn nf condensation cemented by red, iron-bearing clay C-12

conglomerante nm binding material contador nm counter | c. central center counter conglomerar vtr to conglomerate | vpr to | c. de altura altimeter | c. geiger geiger counter conglomerate | c. proporcional proportional counter conglomera'tico,-ca adj conglomeratic contaritfr to count conglutinado,-da adj conglutinated contempora',-nea adj contemporaneous conglutinarse vpr to coalesce, coagulate, cake contenido nm concentration, grade | content congo nm [Col] pebbles or fragments of iron ore contextura nf structure and texture | c. ofitica found in placers | iron oxide found in veins | ophitic texture sphalerite continental adj continental congosto nm pass | canyon, gorge continente adj containing | nm congruente adj congruent contingente nm share, quota, allowable | c. de congruo,-rua adj congruent production provisional temporary allowable coniaciano,-na adj Coniacian contornar or contornear vtr to sketch or trace coniaciense nm Coniacian the outline of | to skirt, pass around conicidad nf taper | conicity contorno nm outline, contour | periphery | c. cdnico,-ca adj conical | conic (projection) | nf estructural structural contour conic section contracanon nm [Mex] gallery driven into the conificacion nf water coning footwall side of a vein coniforme adj cone shaped contraccidn nf contraction, shrinking conileno nm conylene contracielo nm [Mex] raise, upraise | c. de acceso conjugado,-da adj conjugate manway raise | c. escalonado stope raise | c. conjuncidn nf conjunction piloto pilot raise | c. ramal branch or cutout conjunto nm suite | assemblage | c. de estratos raise sedimentary complex contraconducto nm counterchute cono nm cone | c. acandilado spatter or drip cone contracorriente nf countercurrent, eddy, reverse | c. adventicio adventive cone, | current | a c. upstream c. aluvial alluvial fan | c. compuesto compound contraerse vpr to contract, shrink cone | c. de agua water coning | c. de cenizas contraflldn nm countervein, counterlode | c. de deyeccion alluvial fan | c. de contraflujo nm countercurrent, eddy erupcion eruption cone | c. de lava , contramina nf a tunnel connection two mines | c. parasito parasite cone | c. contrapresidn nf back pressure piroclastico pyroclastic cone contrastar vtr to assay coins, gold, silver etc. conodonto nm conodont contraste nm assay conoide nm conoid contrata nf [Pe] a system of debt servitude in conquilifero,-ra adj [Sp] containing shells mining in the 19th century which later evolved consecuente adj consequent into a bonifide system of contract labor consolidacion nf consolidation contrato nm contract | c. de avio credit for consolidado,-da adj consolidated working a mine | c. de reembolso bottom hole consolidar vtr to consolidate, compact | sin c. contract | c. Have en mano turnkey contract unconsolidated contravena nf countervein consolidarse vpr to settle, become compact contraveta nf countervein constante nm constant | c. de gravitacion conveccidn nf convection gravitational constast | convergencia nf convergence | c. en ley constriccion nf constriction convergence in distribution or law | c. en consumido nm [Mex] mercury lost in the patio probabilidad convergence in probability process of amalgamation of silver ores convergente adj convergent, converging contacto nm contact | c. de transition gradational convexidad nf convexity contact | c. gradual gradational contact | c. neto convexo,-xa adj convex sharp contact | c. pronunciado sharp contact | c. convolucidn nf convolution sedimentario sedimentary contact | c. tectonico coordenada nf coordinate | c. cartesiana tectonic contact Cartesian coordinate | c. de simetria tinematica C-13

kinematic symmetry cleavage | c. de simetria de coronacidn nf crest pliegue fold symmetry cleavage | c. estructural coronamiento nm crest top fabric symmetry cleavage | c. tecto-textural de corral nm a land measure of 5.857 hectares simetria fabric symmetry cleavage correcion nf correction | c. de bouguer copal nm copalite, mineral | c. de congo correction | c. estatica static correction congo copal corredero nm [Col] ancient abandoned river copalillo nm [Batopilas, Mex] sphalerite | bed [Zacatecas, M£x] cerussite corredura nf flow, overflow copaquira nf copper or sulfate, corregir vtr to correct, adjust (instruments) melanterite correlacidn nf correlation | c. de los ranges rank copela nf cupel correlation | c. ilusoria false correlation | c. copelacidn nf cupellation lineal linear correlation | c. multiple multiple copelar vtr to assay by cupellation, cupel correlation | c. partial partial correlation | c. copete nm crest serial serial correlation copey nm [Ec] bitumen correlograma nm correlogram coprogeno,-na adj coprogenic correntada nf current (of a river, etc.) coprolito nm coprolite corrental nm current (of a river, etc.) coque nm coke | c. amorfo amorphous coke | c. correr vtr to run or flow, as for rivers, etc. | to de petroleo petroleum coke | c. de retorta gas run a survey | c. una linea [surv] to run a line | coke c. niveles [surv] to run levels coqueria nf coking plant correspondido nm ratio of mercury consumed coquificacidn nf coking to silver produced in the patio process of coquificar vtr to coke amalgamation of silver ore coquizacidn nf coking corrido,-da adj continuous | lineal, running | nf coquizar vtr to coke run, travel | strike of a vein | [surv] a run of coraliano,-na adj Corallian levels | [Bol] drift, float | [Ch] coutcrop | nf coralico,-ca adj [Vz] coral [Bol] drift which follows the course of a vein coraliense adj Corallian corriente adj running, flowing | nf current j coralifero,-ra adj coraliferous stream, flow | course of a river | c. abajo coraliforme adj coraliform upstream | c. arriba upstream | c. cataclinal coraligeno,-na adj coral cataclinal stream | c. de convecion convection coralino,-na adj coral ine, coral-red current | c. de densidad current | c. de cordado,-da adj ropey remolino [Arg] eddy current | c. de rompiente rip cordel nm a measure of length | a measure of current | c. de turbeidad current | c. de area turbidez | c. efluyente effluent cordillera nf mountain range | c. divisoria divide stream | c. fluvial stream | c. freatica subsurface cordon nm [Arg, Ch] mountain chain | c. de flow c. literal longshore current | c. cerros range of hills | c. estratigrafico shoestring sedimentadora aggrading stream | c. turbia sand turbidity current cori nm [Bol, Pe] gold corrimiento nm landslide, sliding | overthrust | cori-bronce nm [Potosi, Bol] chalcopyrite c. aparente apparent slip | c. horizontal corinddnnm corundum horizontal thrust cornalina nf cornelian chalcedony corromperse vpr to decompose cornamusa nf [Pe] earthen retort corrosivo,-va adj corrosive cornea na nf corroyente adj corrosive, abrasive cornelina nf cornelian chalcedony corrugacidn nf corrugation | c. intraformacional cdrneo,-ea adj horny intraformational corrugation cornerina nf cornelian chalcedony | corrugado,-da adj corrugated cornubianita nf hornblende cortada nm cut or working coro-coro nm [Bol] native copper cortafierro nm cold chisel corona nf rim | c. albitica albitic rim cortafrio nm cold chisel C-14 cortahierro nm cold chisel coyote nm working area during block caving cortanucleos nmpl core bit, core drill cracoiano,-na adj Cracoian cortar vtr to cut | c. alturas to trench a vein at cracoiense adj Cracoian the surface, stoping downwards as far as craquear vtr [ Arg] to crack (petroleum) practical | c. sogas to abandon a mine craqueo nm [Arg] | c. al vapor steam cortarse vpr to be cut off, as for a vein cracking | c. catalitico catalytic cracking | c. cortaveta n/[Bol] drift which intersects a vein at termico thermal cracking an angle crater nm crater of a volcano | c. adventicio corte nm cut off | cutting | working face, cut | adventive crater | c. de explosion explosion section | cut or opening to an ore deposit or crater | c. de meteorito | c. mine | stope | [Col] surface workings of a inundado | c. parasito or parasttico placer | c. de pozo drill cutting | c. de prestamo parasitic crater borrow pit | c. de roca | c. geologico cratogeno nm geologic cross-section | c. tranversal cross crece nm [Ch] flood section | c. y relleno cut and fill crecer vtr to rise, swell (river) | to increase corteza nf | c. helada permanente permafrost crecido,-da adj in flood | nf flood | c. terrestre earth's crust creciente nm flood, rise | c. de la marea flood corundo ntn corundum tide corvadura nf curvature crecimiento nm flooding, rising | growth | c. cosedimentacion nf cosedimentation exponential exponential growth | c. lineal linear cosolete nm escutcheon growth | c, logistico logistic growth coseno nm cosine crema nf cream (color) costa nf , shore | c. acantillada steep coast | crenulado,-da adj crenulate, crenulated c. alta mountain coast | c. de emersion cresta nf crest | c. de gas gas cap | c. dentada emergence coast | c. de sumersion submergence hogback | c. divisadora divide | c. monoclinal coast | c. play a low coast hogback costado nm side of a pit, tunnel or shaft cresteria nf hogback, ridge | watershed line costal nm [Mex] ore-sack of 150 pound capacity creston nm outcrop | outcrop of a vein or costalera nf ore-sacks (collectively) deposit that stands above the ground surface | costanero,-ra adj coastal | nf slope crest coste nm cost | c. de extraction extraction cost, creta nf chalk lifting cost | c. de taponamiento plug-back cost | cretaceo,-cea adj Cretacous c. intangible intangible cost cretacico,-ca adj Cretacous costeable adj [Mex] workable at a profit, cretoso,-sa adj chalky payable criadero nm ore deposit, vein, seam or shoot | costeno,-na adj coastal genesis of ore deposits | [Ch] matrix | [Col] costero,-ra adj coastal, nearshore gold found in the heads of streams | [Me"x] costero nm side of a mineral deposit chamber deposit | c. bolsada irregular deposit | costra nf crust, scale | slag | [Ch] conglomerate c. de contacto contact metasomatic or skarn that overlies caliche deposit | c. de petroleo oil pool | c. detritico costroso,-sa adj scaley alluvial deposit | c. en arbol deposit that cota nf altitude, elevation | c. de altura elevation branches like a tree | c. en capa stratiform | c. de comparadon datum | c. de nivel elevation deposit | c. en filon veins of considerable extent j c. de referenda bench mark, datum | c. en veta vein deposit | c. en manto bedded cotacion nf elevation vein deposit | c. en masa irregular deposit | c. coto nm boundary marker | c. minero group of en saca irregular, sack-like deposit | c. mines engabarrado disseminated deposit | c. irregular covacha nf small cave irregular deposit | c. en rinones small, irregular covadera nf deposit deposits covarianca nf covariance criba nf screen, grizzly, riddle | c. hidrdulicafig, covelina nf covellite jigging table C-15 cribado,-da adj cribate, cribiform | jigged, crocoisita nf crocoite concentrated on a jigging table | nm sieving, cromato nm chromate | c. de hierro sifting, screening | nm screening | [Sevilla, Sp] crdmico,-ca adj chromic, chrome-bearing screened coal 30 to 100 mm in size cromita nf chromite (ore) cribador,-ora adj sieving, sifting, screening | nm cromito nm chromite (chemical) ore screen | siever, sifter, screener cromo nm , chrome cribadura nm sieving, screening or jigging of ore cromocre nm chrome ocher cribar vtr to screen, sieve, jig or sift cromoferrita nf chromite cribdnnm grizzly cromo nm chrome criboso,-sa adj cribate, cribiform cronoestratigrafico,-ca adj chronostratigraphic crinoide nm cronologia nf chronology crioconito nm cryoconite cronoldgico,-ca adj chronological cridgeno,-na adj cryogene croquis nm sketch | rough draft criptoclastico,-ca adj cryptoclastice cruce nm [Bol] intersection of two galleries or criptocristalino,-na adj cryptocrystalline drifts criptdgeno,-na adj cryptic crucero nm jointing | cleavage | [Bol] criptomagmatico,-ca adj cryptomagmatic intersection of two galleries or drifts | c. criptdmera nf cryptomere, aphanitic rock astilloso pencil cleavage | c. basico basal criptdnnm krypton cleavage | c. de intersection pencil cleavage | c. criptovolcanicOj-ca adj cryptovolcanic de piano axil axial plane cleavage | c. de roca crisoberilo nm chrysoberyl cleavage, rock cleavage | c, en abanico cleavage crisdcola nf | borax fan | c. espaciado spaced cleavage | c. ondulado crisol nm assay or smelting crucible | hearth (of crenulation cleavage | c. pizanoso slaty a furnace) cleavage | c. verdadero slaty cleavage crisolada nf charge of a crucible cruciforme adj cruciform crisdlita nf chrysolite crudo,-da adj crude, untreated | hard (water) | crisdlito nm chrysolite nm crude oil | c. deequidad equity crude | c. crisoprasa nf dulce sweet crude crisdtilo nm cruzado,-da adj crossed or cut by another | nf cristabalita nf cristabolite crosscut cristal nm crystal | c. de roca rock crystal | c. cruzador nm cross vein mineral dissolved salt crudeza nf (of water) cristalillo nm hyaline quartz | crystallized salts cruz nf intersection of veins cristalinidad adj crystallinity cruzamiento nm crosscutting of veins cristalino,-na adj crystalline cruzante nm vein that cuts another cristalito nm cruzar vtr to cross, cut or traverse cristalizacidn nf crystallization cuaderno nm field book, notebook | c. de cristalizador,-dora adj crystallizing nivelacion level book cristalizante adj crystallizing cuadra nf a measure of length of one quarter of cristalizar vtr/intr/pr to crystallize a mile cristaloblastasis nf crystalloblastesis cuadra do,-da adj square | nm square | c. latino cristaloblastico,-ca adj crystalloblastic Latin square | c. media mean square cristalofisica nf crystal cuadrangulo nm quadrangle cristalografia nf crystallography cuadrante nm quadrant (of a circle) cristalogra>fico,-ca adj crystallographic cuadratico,-ca adj quadratic cristaloide adj/nm crystalloid cuadricula nf grid, cross ruling cristaloideo,-dea adj , vstalloidal cuadriculado,-da adj grid, in squares | nm grid, cristaldptica nf crystal cross ruling criterio nm criteria | c. de rechazo rejection cuadricular ufr to grid criteria cuadrilla nf gang, party, crew | c. de perforation crocoisa nf crocoite drilling crew C-16 cuadrivalente adj quadrivalent cuba nf vat | c. de cianuracton cyanidization vat cuadro nm table | shaft | c. periodico periodic cubaje nm volume table cubertura nf cover cuajado nm [Mex] silver-bearing lead ore cubeta nf [Vz] trough, downfold, , basin cuajar vtr to evaporate | c. cerrada basin | c. marina basin cuajarse vpr to coagulate, cake cubetada nf bucketfill cuaje nm total evaporation of brine cubetadraga nf dragline bucket cualitativo,-va adj qualitative cubicacidn nf computation of volume cuantico,-ca adj quantum, quantic cubicaje nm volume cuantificacidn nf quantification cubicar vtr to block out (ore) | to compute cuantificar vtr to quantify | to quantize volume cuantila nf quantile cubko,-ca adj cubic cuantitativo,-va adj quantitative cubierta nf cover, overburden cuanto nm quantum cubierto nm cover, overburden | c. fluvioglacial cuarache nm [Guanajuato, Mex] clay selvage galcial cover | c. moderno recent cover around a vein cubilote nm cupola cuarcifero,-ra adj quartz-bearing, quartziferous cubo nm cube cuarcita nf | c. feldespatica arkosite cubreobjeto nm cover , cover slip cuarcitico,-ca adj quartzitic cubrir vtr to cover cuarta nf fourth | quadrant | a linear measure cucurbita nf retort of one fourth of a vara cucurucho nm peak, summit, top cuarteadura nf crack, split, fissure cucharadraga nf [Ec] dragline bucket cuartear vtr to break rock with a sledge hammer cuchareo nm baling (of a well) | to cuchilla nf knife-edged or sharp ridge | quarter | to crack | vpr to crack, split mountain crest | mountain range | outrunner cuarteo nm crack, fissure | splitting, dividing or branch of a sierra \ line of hills into parts | [Me"x] piecework cuele nm driving, sinking (workings) cuarterdn nm [Me"x] a liquid measure of 25 liters cuelga nf [Ch, Col] slope, grade (of a river) cuarteta nf [Ch] a measure of area cuenca nf basin | watershed, river drainage cuartila nf quartile system | valley | trough, graven | c. cuartilla nf one fourth of an arroba, one- alimentadora watershed | c. carbonifera coal sixteenth of a quintal basin | c. cerrada closed basin | c. de cuartillo nm a measure of volume of one fourth alimentacion watershed | c. de drenaje drainage of afanega or real basin or area | c. defallas | c. de cuarton nm boulder | [Mex] sedimentacion sedimentation basin j c. fluvial cuarzo nm quartz | c. ahumado smokey quartz | river basin | c. hidrogrdfica drainage basin | c. c. alfa alpha quartz | c. amarillo cairngorm hullera coal basin | c. imbrffera [Arg, Ur] stone | c. bastardo bull quartz | c. beta beta watershed | c. marginal marginal basin | c. quartz | c. cariado rotten quartz | c. citrino marina sea basin | c. petrolifera oil pool | c. | c. ferruginoso iron stained quartz | c. recolectora watershed | c. rocosa rock basin | c. hialino hyaline quartz | c. hialino verde sinople | sedimentaria | c. submarina c. lechoso milky quartz | c. listado ribboned submarine basin | c. tributaria watershed quartz | c. macho [Col] quartz barren of ore | c. cuenco nm pool, basin porfidico [Pe] hornstone | c. radiado cross- cuerpo nm body or mass of rock or mineral | course spar | c. rosado rose quartz | c. tabular orebody | c. de agrimensores survey party | c. de laminar quartz beneficio ore body | c. de brecha hidrotermal cuarzodiorita nf hydrothermal breccia body | c. defilon or de cuarzomonzonita nf quartz veta branch of a vein | c. del alto hanging wall cuarzoso,-sa adj quartzose branch of a vein | c. del bajo footwall branch of cuaternario,-ria adj Quaternary a vein | c. del enmedio branch of a vein between cuaterno,-na nf quaternary the footwall and hanging wall | c. intrusivo C-17

intrusive body | c. magmdtico boss, stock | c. curi nm [Ec] gold mineralizado ore shoot curiche nm [Bol] lake, pool cuesco nm core | [M£x] coarse ore curso nm course | stream | c. antecedents cuesta nf abrupt grade, elevation | rise | hill | antecendent stream | c. consecuente consequent slope | c. abajo downhill, downslope | c. arriba stream | c. desplazado offset stream | c. uphill efluyente effluent stream | c. influyente influent cueto nm high crag, rocky peak stream | c. pirata pirate stream | c. ramificado cueva nf cave | c. vieja [Minglanilla, Sp] large braided stream | c. sobrepuesto superimposed chambers resulting from the excavation of salt stream | c. subsecuente subsequent stream cuisiano,-na adj Cuisian curva nf curve | c. acampanada bell(-shaped) cuisense nm Cuisian curve | c. acumulada cumulative frequency culminacion nf culmination distribution | c. bimodal bimodal curve | c. de cumbre nm summit, top, ridge, peak, crest declinacion decline curve (oil or gas production) cumbrera nf summit, top, ridge | c. de las frecuencias acumuladas cumulative cumulante nm cumulant frequency distribution | c, de nivel contour line cumulo nm accumulation, pile, heap | irregular | c. de vaporization flash curve | c.enj J-curve | deposit or mass | stockwork c. en u U-shaped curve | c. familiar family cumuri nm owner of llamas or burros employed curve (average of decline curves for several to transport ore ) | c. isobata depth contour | c. unimodal cuneta nf small trench unimodal curve cuniforme adj cuniform, cuneate, wedge-shaped curvacion nf curvature cuna nf wedge | c. de hielo curvar vtr to bend, curve cuota nf allowable, quota, share | c. curvatura nf curvature, warp suplementaria discovery well allowable curvilineo,-nea adj curvilinear cuprico,-ca adj cupric cuspide nf peak, summit | apex cuprifero,-ra adj copper-bearing, cupriferous cuspilito nm beach cusp cuproso,-sa adj cuprous cupula nf cupola, dome, roof | c. de lava CH-1

CH jaw crusher | ch. giratoria gyratory crusher chancal nm glacial moraine chancar vtr [Ch] to crush (minerals) | to grind chabarco nm [Le6n, Sp] pond, lake chango nm [Me*x] derrickman, roughneck chabasia nf chabazite chanta nf flagstone | slate chabasita nf chabazite chanto nm [, Sp] flagstone chabisque nm [Aragon, Sp] mud chanarcillita nf huntilite | [Ch] Pb-As-Sb chacal nm [Pe] graphite minerals such as atacamite, , chaco nm [Bol, Par] plain huantajayite chacuaco nm [LAm] furnace for reducing Ag chapa nf plate, sheet (of metal) ores chapapote nm [Mex] asphalt, tar, bitumen chacurruscar vtr [Pe] to mix different types of chapatal nm swamp | muddy ground ore chapopote nm [Me"x] asphalt, tar, bitumen chadacristal nm chadacryst, xenocryst chapuro nm [Arg,Cu] asphalt, tar chadroniano,-na adj Chadronian charca nf pool, pond, small lake chaemolito nm humic coal charcal nm [Arg,Cu] pond chafalonia nf wrought silver | scrap gold or charco nm pool, pond | water hole | puddle in silver a playa | gulf chafariz nm pool, pond charmouthiano,-na adj Charmouthian chaguite nm [Hon] swamp | pool, pond channouthense adj Charmouthian | nm chahuar vtr [Bol] to frisk or search a miner for Charmouthian stolen ore Channoutiense nm Charmouthian chalchihuitl nm [Mex] Aztec word used for any charnela nf hinge (of a fold, etc) | bend, bow | useful green stone, such as and ch. anticlinal anticlinal apex or bend | ch. turquoise sinclinal synclinal bend, trough line chalchuite nm blue or green variety of turquoise charniano,-na adj Charnian | nm Charnian | [Mex] charnockitico,-ca adj charnockitic chalmersita nf charque nm [Bol] native metal chalybita nf siderite charquear vtr to dewater (a mine) challantita w/ferricopiapite charqueria w/[Ch] native metal in the form of a chamarcal nm seasonal swamp charqui chamba w/[Col] pit, ditch or trench | [Ec] sod, charquero nm drainage ditch turf chasa «/[Arg] gypsum deposit chambear vtr [Col] to dig a trench, pit or ditch chasquear vtr [Bol] to move load of ore or waste chameolito nm humic coal from one place to another chami nm [Bol] low grade ore chassignito nm chassignite chamorro,-ra adj said of a hill with a summit chatarra nf scrap iron, scrap | slag devoid of vegetation chatarrero nm scrap dealer chamositico,-ca adj chamositic chathamita nf iron champa w/[Pe] peat Chatiense nm champlamiano,-na adj Champlainian | nm chato,-teadj flat Champlanian chat6n nm large precious stone (used only after chamuscar vtr [Pe] roasting of ore it is set) chanca nf crushing | [Ch, Pe] sorting of ore chatoyante nm/adj chatoyant chancaca nf [Sayapullo, Pe] oxidized ore | chattiano,-na adj Chattian [Hualgayoc, Pe] mixture of oxidized and chattiense adj Chattian | nm Chattian unoxidized silver ores Chautauquiense nm Chautauquan chancado nm crushed stone | ch. sin cribar chauti nm [Mex] clay crusher-run aggregate chautoso,-sa adj [Me"x] clayey chancadora nf crusher | ch. de cono cone crusher Chaziense nm Chazyan | ch. de mandibulas jaw crusher | ch. de quijadas chchamear or ch'amear vtr [Bol] to high grade a CH-2

vein, mine selectively [Almaden, Sp] low grade mercury ore chchipa or ch'ipa nf [Bol] rock difficult to drill chinapo nm [Mex] chekao nm barite chinarro nm boulder | pebble, cobble Chemungiano nm Chemungian chinata nf [Cu] pebble, cobble chengbolita nf moncheite chinazo nm large pebble, cobble, stone chertificacidn n/chertification chingana nf underground cave or passage cherusko-aca'dico,-ca adj fourth order folding chingarse la veta vtr loss, displacement or chessylita nf azurite petering out of a vein (not for proper company) Chesteriano nm Chesterian chinidina nf glue used for thin sections Chesteriense nm Chesterian chini-liga n/[Potosi, Bol] variety of silver- chiastolitico,-ca adj chiastolitic bearing galena chico nm [Bol] piece of unusually high grade chinilla nf small pebble ore, usually sold to mine owner chinkolobwita nf chicuite nm small bucket used for raising ore chino nm pyrite | chalcopyrite | cobble | [PR] chicharrdn nm [Cu] a type of silver currency | boulder [Col] gold nugget | [Hualgayoc, Pe] wad | chinoita nf [Cerro de Pasco, Pe] local variety of sandstone chiquero nm [Cu] crib, cribwork chicharrones nmpl tailings chirola n/[Arg, Bol] a silver coin equivalent to chichicle nm [Mex] 20 centavos chichitle nm [M£x] amethyst chiscarra nf deeply weathered and decomposed Chideruano nm Chideruan limestone | [Cartagena] trachyte usefull as a chifle adj still, stagnant guide to lead ore chifldn nm chamber in a mine | flume | chispa nf very small diamond | [Bol] very fine rockslide | rock fall in a mine | inclined grained gold or other ore gallery | [Arg, Cu] waterfall | [Bol] ventilation chispa-chispeada nf [Batopilas, Mex] native shaft | [Ch] rapids | [Col] spring, source | ch. silver in thin wire or leaf | ore containing one- de agua water jet third silver chile nm [M£x] refractory clay | [Pe] deepest chispeado nm [Yauli, Pe] tetrahedrite part of a mine | working that folows the dip of chiva nm [Mex] claw bar a vein chladnita nf chladnite (mineral) chile-loeweita nf humberstonite chladnito nm chladnite (meteorite) chilenita nf bismuth-bearing native silver chloanthita n/nickel-skutterudite chileno nm edge or Chilean mill choclo de oro nm a mass of native gold in chilisalpeter nm Chile salpeter matrix chilpear vtr [Bol] to sampla a load of ore using a choco,-ca adj dark red punta chocolate adj chocolate brown chiltonita nf chompa n/[Vz] churn drill chiluca nf [Mex] hornblende trachyte porphyry chondritico,-ca adj chondritic or porphyry used as a building chondrito nm chondrite stone chondrodita nf chillagita nf tungstenian chtindrulo,-la adj chondritic chimaltizatl nm [Mex] talc chonolito nm chimban/[Ch,Pe] ford cheque nm shock, jolt | ch. sismico seismic shock chimbo nm [Hon] smelting furnace chorlo nm schorl or black tourmaline | jetstone chimborazita nf aragonite chorreadero nm [M£x] ore chute | loose or chimenea nf pipe, chimney | shaft | ascending running ground gallery | ch. central central shaft on an oil chorredn nm [Cu] small waterfall production platform | ch. de ascenso channel of chorrera nf [Bol] part of a mine subject to ascent | ch. de extraction drawhole | ch. flooding | [Mex] abandoned stope | ore shoot volcanica chorro nm jet | spring, source | ch. de agua a china nf small stone, cobble or pebble | presion jet of pressurized water | ch. padron CH-3

[Ch] fault master fault sodium chloride chorroborro nm alluvium | diluvium chulano nm a hole drilled upwards chortal nm small lake or pool fed by a spring chumba nf [Bol] sphalerite | any mineral that choy nm [Me"x] variety of soft shale looks similar to sphalerite chozola nf river bend chumbe nm [Bol, Pe] sphalerite | any mineral christensenita nf that looks similar to sphalerite christophita nf marmatite, iron sphalerite chumpi nm magnetite | [Bol] chua n/[Bol] flat rounded plate used in chungita nm shungite (var graphite) collecting ore samples chupdn nm glory hole chuca n/[Ch] friable layer of sand and gypsum churumbella nf [Col] altered wall rock overlying costra and caliche chuzo nm [Ch] crowbar chuco nm [Ch] upper part of a caliche deposit consisting mainly of and D-l

D demarcation demarcar vtr to demarcate, delimit, mark out demasias nfpl [Bol] land falling outside of dacitico,-ca nf dacitic existing mining claims danense adj dendriforme adj dendroid danesadj Danian dendrita nf dendrite daniano,-na adj Danian dendritico,-ca adj dendritic daniense adj Danian dendioideadj dendroid darcy nm darcy dendroideo,-dea adj dendroid data nf date densidad nf density | d. API API gravity | d. de datacidn nf dating, age determination probabilidad probability density | d. natural datar vtr to date, put a date on | vintr to date natural (rock) density | d. relativa relative dato nm fact, datum, record, piece of density, specific gravity information | ntnpl data, facts, information densimetro nm densimeter debil adj weak dentado,-da adj jagged, serrated, toothed | debilidad nf weakness dentate decaedro nm dentellado,-da adj jagged, serrated, toothed | decano nm decane dentate decantacidn nf decantation | d. selectiva denticulado,-da adj toothed selective decantation denudacidn nf erosion, decapitacidn nf stream capture denudar vtr to erode, denude decila nf decile denuncia nf petition for a mining claim declinacidn nf declination | d. de la aguja or denunciar vtr to obtain legal possession to a magnetica deviation from magnetic north mining claim declive nm inclination, slope, incline, declivity, deplecidn nf depletion dip, pitch | en d. sloping, on a slope deposicidn nf deposition declividad nf slope depositor ufr to deposit | vpr to settle dedo nm twelth part of a palmo, twenty-eigth depdsito nm deposit, sediment | deposition | part of a vara reservoir, tank | d. aluvial alluvial deposit | d. defecto nm defect | d. de estructura crystal defect de contacto contact metamorphic deposit | d. de | d. de masa mass defect minerales mineral deposit | d. de metal ore deflacidn nf deflation deposit | d. estratoligase stratiform deposit | d. deflexion nf deflection | d. de la aguja magnetic glaciar glacial deposit | d. mural mural deposit deviation | d. par deslizamiento slump | d. vetiforme deformacidn nf deformation | strain vetiform deposit deformar vtr to deform | to strain depositicidn nf deposition degradacidn nf degradation, erosion depresidn nf depression, hollow | gap, pass | d. degradar vtr to degrade literal longshore trough dejar respaldo vtr [Pe] to leave ore in the wall- depuracidn nf purification (of water) rock of a mine depurar vtr to purify deleznable adj brittle, friable, crumbly derecho,-cha adj straight | nm grant, deleznamiento nm slakings concession | d. de captura rule of capture | d. de deleznar vtr to crumble mina mineral rights delineado,-da adj blocked-out (ore) derechos nmpl tax on ore | d. de mineraje royalty delinear vtr to block out (ore) | d. de senoraje duty formerly paid to the king delta nm delta | d. continental inland delta | d. of Spain on coining gold or silver glaciarico kame delta | d. marine marine delta deriva nf drift | d. de (los) continentes continental deltaico,-ca adj deltaic drift demantoide adj , uralian emerald derivar vtr to calculate | vintr to incline, drift, demarcacidn nf demarcation trend demarcador,-dora nf demarcating, of derivacidn nf offset D-2

derramamiento nm runoff desazogadera nf retort used to volatilize and derramarse vpr to overflow, run-off recover mercury from amalgam derrame nm declivity, slope, incline | sill | desazogar vtr to volatalize and recover mercury overflow, runoff desbarrancadero nm precipice derretido,-da adj melted, molten desbocado,-da adj overflowing (river) derretimiento nm melting, thawing desbordamiento nm overflow, overflowing derretir vtr to melt, thaw, melt down | vpr to desbordar vintr/pr/tr to overflow, flood melt, become molten, thaw desborde nm overflowing derribar vtr to break ground descalaminado nm removal of calamine derribo nm breaking ground descalaminar vtr to remove calamine from derrocado,-da adj caved descalcificacion nf decalcification derrubiar vtr to erode, undermine, wash away descalcificar vtr to decalcify | vpr to become derrubio nm alluvium | erosion, undermining, decalcified washing away | d. estriado striated pebbles | d. descarbonatar vtr to decarbonate glacial glacial drift descarburacion nf decarbonization, derrumbadero nm precipice, cliff decarbonizing derrumbamiento nm caving, collapse of descarburante adj decarbonizing, decarburizing workings | landslide | slumping | d. de tierra | nm decarbonization, decarbonizing landslide decarburar vtr to decarbonate, decarburize derrumbarse vpr to cave in, fall in, collapse descargar vtr to discharge | vintr to flow | d. en derrumbe nm caving, collapse of workings | to flow into landslide | d. de montana rockfall descendencia nf descendence derrumbo nm precipice | [Col] landslide descendente adj downslope desagregacion nf desaggregation, disintegration descendiente adj descending | descendent, desagregado,-da adj disintegrated descendant desaguadero nm drain, outlet descenso nm subsidence desaguador nm drain, canal, outlet descoagulante adj liquefying desaguamdo nm drainage, draining | drain, descoagular vtr to liquify, dissolve outlet descogollar vtr [Col] to work the cogollo or desaguar vtr to drain, empty, run off | v intr to upper part of a vein flow, drain into | vpr to drain descolorante adj bleaching desagiie nm drainage, draining | drain, outlet descolorar vtr to | vpr to be bleached desahucio nm [Bol] anullment of a mining claim descolorido,-da adj bleached | nm bleaching for failure to pay taxes descolorimiento nm bleaching desalacion nf desalinization descolorir vtr to bleach | vpr to be bleached desalar vtr to desalinate descomponer vtr/pr to decompose | to resolve desalinizacion nf desalinization (a force) | to split up (a fraction) | to break desalinizar vtr to desalinate down desamontar vtr to unpile descomposicidn nf decomposition | resolution desamparar vtr to abandon a mine or working (of a force) | factoring desamparo nm abandonment of a mine or descompresion nf working descomprimir vtr to decompress desaparacion del mineral nf picnhing out descompuesto,-ta adj decomposed desarenar vtr [Col] to wash away sand in a desconcharse vpr to spall, exfoliate placer working describir vtr to trace | to describe desarollar v tr develop | to unroll, unfold (a descripcidn nf tracing | description map) | vpr to develop, be developed | to descuajar vtr/pr to liquify, dissolve unroll, unfold (a map) descubierto,-ta adj exposed desarollo nm development | expansion (of a descubridor,-ra adj discovered mathematical expression) | unrolling (of a descubrimiento nm discovery | d. en suspension map) suspended discovery D-3 descubrir vtr to discover deslavar vtr to erode desdoblar vtr to unfold (a map) desleir vtr to dissolve | to dilute | vpr to desecacion nf dessication, drying | draining (of dissolve | to be diluted a marsh) desleidura nf dissolving | dilution desecado,-da adj dried, dessicated | nm drying, desleimiento nm dissolving | dilution dessication deslindador nm land surveyor desecador,-dora adj drying, dessicating deslindamiento nm delimitation, demarcation, desecamiento nm dessication, drying | draining marking of boundaries (of a marsh) deslindar vtr to mark the boundaries of, desecante adj drying, dessicating delimit, demarcate, survey desecar vtr/pr to dry up, dessicate | to drain deslinde nm demarcation desecativo,-va adj drying, dessicating desliz nf landslide desecho nm waste rock | very low grade ore | deslizamiento nm landslide, slide | slip | d. de [surv] offset faldeo landslide | d. de terreno landslide | d. desembocadura nf river mouth, outlet laminar afin affine laminar slip | d. lento slow desembocar vintr to flow, run slide | d. total net slip desencielar vtr [Col] to extract ore that remains deslizarse vpr to run, flow | to slip, slide, glide between two adits desmagnetizacidn nf demagnetization desencofrado nm removal of timbering from a desmagnetizar vtr to demagnetize mine desmenuzable adj friable | unstable desencofrar vtr to remove timbering from a desmineralizacion nf demineralize mine desmineralizar vtr to demineralize desescombrar vtr to muck desmontar vtr to strip away overburden desescombro nm mucking desmonte nm overburden | waste rock | desfiladero nm gorge, narrow pass, defile levelled ground | rubble, excavated soil | desgarramiento nm tear, disjunction | [Vz] excavation j desmontes de cantera [Ch] quarry shattering, breaking up refuse desgarre nm desmoronamiento nm erosion of river banks, desgasificacion nf degassing etc. | landslide desgastar vtr to abrade, erode, wear away | to desmuestre nm coring, core sampling corrode desnitrar vtr todenitrate desgaste nm abrasion, erosion, wearing away | desnitrificacidn nf denitrification corrosion desnitrificar vtr to denitrify deshelarse vpr to melt, thaw (ice in a river) desnivel nm uneveness of ground | slope, deshiele nm thaw gradient | difference in height deshielo nm thawing, melting | ablation desnivelado,-da adj sloping desierto nm desert | d. de arena sand desert | d. despajar vtr [Mex] to concentrate ores de piedra rock desert d.frio cold desert | d. despaje nm [Mex] mill tailings salino salt desert despegue nm detachment, decollement desigual adj uneven despenadero,-ra adj steep, precipitous | nm desigualidad nf inequality steep face, precipice, cliff desilificacion nf desilification desperdicio nm waste | spoil desilificar vtr desilicify despilado,-da adj robbed of pillars desimanacion or desirnantacion nf despilar vtr to rob pillars demagnetization despilanamiento nm robbing of pillars desimanar or desimantar vtr to demagnetize despinta «/[Ch] silver ore assaying less than 50 desintegracion nf desintegration, decay | d. diezmilesimos in grade | [Arg] poorest grade espontanea spontaneous fission | d. radioactiva ores, rich in pyrite radioactive or atomic decay desplazado,-da adj displaced deslava nm erosion | alluvium desplazamiento nm displacement | slip | d. deslavable adj erodible aparente apparent displacement or separation | D-4

d. porfase miscible miscible drive diaclasa nf joint | d. de buzamiento dip joint | d. desplazar vtr to displace de cizalla shear joint | d. de contraction joint of despliegue nm deployment | d. en cruz cross retreat | d. decortante shear joint | d. de spread direction strike joint | d. de estratification desplome nm collapse | d. de montana rockfall bedding joint | d. de inclination dip joint | d. de despojo nm [Bol] debris | [Col] extraction, as rumbo strike joint | d. de tension joint | from a mine d. de traction tension joint | d. diagonal oblique desprender de vtr to separate from joint | d. oblicula oblique joint desprendimiento nm landslide diaclasado,-da adj jointed, jointy desprovisito,-ta adj devoid diaclasado nm jointing | d. angular angular despueble adj abandonment (mines) | nm jointing abandonment of a mine diaclasimiento nm jointing despuntador nm pick, pickaxe (miner's) diafanidad nf transparency desquebrajado,-da adj cracked, split diaftoresis nm diaftoresis desquebrajar vtr to crack, split nf diagenesis | induration destaje or destajo nm [Bol] contract work, diagrafia nf logging | d. de amplitud amplitude tut work | [Pe] open cut log | d. de densidad density log destilacion nf distillation | d. al vacio diagrama nm diagram | d. de barras bar diagram distillation | d. defases | d. de pozo well log destilado nm distillate | d. de proximidad proximity log | d. de sectores desvenar vtr to extract ore from a vein or mine pie diagram desviacion nf deviation, departure, deflection | dialaga nf diagolite d. del pozo side tracking | d, media mean diamagnetico,-ca adj diamagnetic deviation diamantado,-da adj diamond-like, diamond desviarse vpr to deviate, deflect, depart from | diamante nm diamond | d. brillante brilliant to branch off diamond | d. bruto rough diamond | d. en bruto desvio nm wandering (of a river) | vein which rough diamond | d. falso fake diamond | d. meets another, follows it for a short distance negro bort | d. rebolludo round rough diamond and then resumes its normal course | d. rosa rose diamond | d. tabla table diamond desviometro nm driftmeter | d. tallado cut diamond desvitrificacidn nf devitrification diamantifero,-ra adj diamond-bearing, desvitrificar vtr to devitrify diamond- ing, diamantiferous desvolcanarse vpr [Col] to be covered by a lahar diamantino,-na adj diamond, diamond-like | or mudslide | to collapse | to be destroyed nm [Guanajuato, Mex] veinstone formed of deszafrar vtr to carry away waste from a mine hornfels and crystalline feldspar desviacion nf deflection diamantista nm diamond cutter | diamond detector nm detector | d. de aqua divining rod | merchant d. de gas gas explorer diapiro nm | d. salino salt dome deteriorizacion nf deteriorization diario nm logbook | d. de sondeo drilling journal deterioro nm deteriorization or record detritico,-ca adj detritic diaspora nf detrito nm detritus | d. aluvial alluvium diaspora nm diaspore deuterico,-ca adj deuteric diasquistica nf dischistic, differentiated deuterio nm deuterium diasquisto nm dischistic rock, differentiated devoniano,-na adj rock devonico,-ca adj Devonian diastrofismo nm diastrophism dextroso,-sa adj dextral diastroma nf diastrophism deyeccion nf ejection of volcanic material | £ceo,-cea adj diatamaceous | debris diatomea nf diatom diabasa nf diatrema nf diatreme | maar | d. de explosion diabasico,-ca adj diabasic diatreme D-5 dicroita nf dichroite diorita nf diorite | d. compacta aphanite | d. dicroismo nm dichroism esquistosa greenstone dicroita nf dioritico,-ca adj dioritic diedro,-ra adj dihedral | nm didxido nm dioxide | d. de silicic dioxide, dientes de perro nmpl scalenohedral calcite quartz diestro,-ra adj dextral dipiramide nm diezmilesimo nm [Ch] 0.0001 grams of metal in dipolo nm dipole 10 grams of ore dique nm dike | d. anular diferencia nf difference | d. de latitud norte direccidn nf strike | trend | d. local local strike northing | d. de latitud sur southing | d. en | d. media average strike j d. principal principal longitud meridian distance | d. en nivel fall, strike difference in level | d. media mean difference dirigirse vpr to strike or trend diferenciacidn nf differentiation | d. magmdtica disco nm disc magmatic differentiation discoidal adj disc-shaped diferencial adj differential disconformidad nf disconformity difluencia nf diffluence discontinuidad nf discontinuity difraccidn nf discontmuo,-nua adj discontinuous difractar vtr to diffract discordancia nf unconformity j d. angular difractivo,-va adj diffractive angular unconformity | d. de erosion erosional difractdmetro nm diffractometer unconformity | d. de plegamiento j d. paralela difrangente adj diffractive disconformity difundido,-da adj diffuse discordante adj discordant difusidnn/ | scattering disfrutar vtr to work, expolit or profit from a digestidn nf assimilation mine, vein, etc. digitacidn nf fingering disfrute nm working or exploitation of a mine, digitado,-da adj digitate, digitated vein, etc. digito nm digit disgregacidn nf disintegration | breaking up dilatacidn nf dilation disgregante adj disintegrating dilatado,-da adj dilated disgregar vtr to disintegrate dilatarufr to dilate disimetria nf disymmetry dilucidn nf dilution dislocacidn nf dislocation, throw or a fault | diluido,-da adj dilute fault | d. ascendente upthrow | d. circular fault diluir vtr to dilute pit | d. descendente downthrow | d. longitudinal diluvio nm flood, deluge strike-slip fault | d. periferica circular fault j d. diluvidnnm diluvium rumbeante strike-slip fault | d. transversal cross dimanar vintr to flow, run fault | d. vertical vertical fault dinamico,-ca adj dynamic | nf dynamics dislocado,-da adj displaced, faulted, disrupted dinamometamorfismo nm dynamic disclocar vtr to displace, fault metamorphism disminuacidn nf decrease dinamitacidn nf well shooting disminuir vtr to decrease dineral nm weight of gold of 24 quilates or 96 disolubilidad nf granos \ weight of silver of 12 dineros or 298 disolubleod/ soluble granos disolucidn nf solution dinero nm twelth part of a dineral disolvente nm solvent dinosaurio nm disolvertrfr todisolve diodo nm diode disperarse vpr to die out (as for a vein) dionisia nf bloodstone (par of ) | nf dispersion | d. de la capa irregular specular! te surface on a bed didpsida nf disponerse en vpr to be found, occur didpsido nm diopside disposicidn nf arrangment | bedding | d. dioptasa nf alternante alternation of beds | d. concordance D-6

conformable bedding | d. discordante domo nm dome | d. de sal salt dome | d. salino unconformity salt dome or plug | d. volcanico volcanic dome dispositive nm layout | d. de tiro shot pattern | dorado,-da adj golden | nm [Michoacan, Me"x] d. simetrico split spread chalcopyrite-bearing copper ore distancia nf distance | d. horizontal de dorsal oceanica nf mid-oceanic ridge afloramientos normal horizontal separation dosificacidn nf distena nf disthene dosis nf proportion (chemicals) distension nf distension, extension downtoniano,-na adj Downtonian distribucidn nf distribution | d. cesurada downtoniense adj Downtonian censored distribution | d. compuesta mixture draga nf dredge, dredger, dredging distribution | d. conditional conditional dragado nm dredging distribution | d. defrecuencia frequency dragador,-dora adj dredging | nm dredger, distribution | d. de la muestra sample dredge distribution | d. ligada conditional distribution dragaje nm dredging | d. marginal marginal distribution | d. dragalina nf [Sp] dragline observada observed distribution | d. simetrica dragalinea n/[Mex] dragline symmetric distribution | d. truncada truncated dragar vtr to dredge distribution drenaje nm drainage | d. efectivo net drainage | distrito nm district | d. minero mining district d. par expansion depletion drive drainage | d. disuelto,-ta adj dissolved por expansion degas gas cap drive | d. por disyuncidn nf fracture | jointing | d. de rocas expansion de gas libre gas cap drive j d. por jointing | d. prismatica | d. gravedad gravity drainage tabular tabular jointing drusa nf druse | drusy cavity or vug | en d. divergencia nf divergence drusy divergente adj divergent | nm divergent diictil adj ductile division nf joint ductilidad nf divisoria nf divide | d. de vertientes watershed duna nf dune | d. continental \ d. costera coastal divorcio de las aguas nm divide, ridge dune | d. de playa coastal dune | d. descendente ddcil adj free-milling, easily treated falling dune | d.falciformebarchandune \ d. dodecaedro nm longitudinal longitudinal dune | d.parabolica dodecaetileno nm dodecatylene parabolic dune | d. seifseif dune | d. d. dodecano nm dodecane transversal transverse dune trepadora climbing dolina nf doline dune dolomia nf dolostone dureza nf hardness | d. delagua water hardness dolomitico,-ca adj dolomitic duro,-ra adj hard dolomitizar vtr to dolomitize duro nm [Asientos, M£x] hard copper ores with domeriano,-na adj Domerian quartz gangue Domeriense nm Domerian dominio nm domain | d. minero mining area E-l

elipsoide nm ellipsoid | e. biaxial biaxial ellipsoid | e. de referenda reference ellipsoid | e. optico optical ellipsoid | e. uniaxial uniaxial eclimometro nm clinometer ellipsoid econometro nm econometer eliptico,-ca adj elliptical, elliptic ecosonda nf echo sounder eluvacion nf eluviation ecuacidn nf equation eluvion nf eluvium, talus ecuador nm equator | e. magnetico aclinic line | embacarse la veta vpr to lose a vein e. terrestre earth's equator embalse nm pondage ecuatorial adj ecuatorial emanacidn nf exhalation, emanation echado,-da adj inclined | nm [Mex] dip, embije or embijete nm [Me"x] thin coating of inclination mineral on a joint edad nf age | e. de hielo | e. glacial ice age embocadura nf entrance edafologia nf pedology embudiforme adj funnel-shaped efecto nm effect | e. de perforation effect embudo nm funnel | doline | e. de ablacion eficacia nf efficiency | e. de barrido sweep ablation funnel | e. de explosion maar efficiency emerger umfr to project, jut out | to emerge eflorescencia nf efflorescence | [Pe] outcrop emisidn nf emission efluente nm effluent outflow emorrascamiento nm [Mex] depletion of ore efusidn nf eruption, extrusion emborrascarse vpr [Mex] to lose sight of ore efusivo,-va adj extrusive embozado nm [Mex] blind rich ore egirina nf aegirite, embudo nm sink hole egirita nf aegirite emisor nm transmitter, emitter | e. de eifeliano,-na adj Eifelian ultrasonidos pinger eifeliense adj Eifelian emjambre de diques adj einstenio nm einsteinium empalmar vtr to join, as for veins, etc. eje nm axis | e. anticlinal anticlinal axis | e. empanizado,-da adj [Cochas, Pe] altered, cinemdtico de simetria kinematic symmetry | e. decomposed cristalogrdfico crystallographic axis | e. de empinado,-da adj steep plegamiento fold axis | e. de simetria axis of emplazamiento nm emplacement symmetry | e. de simetria del pliegue fold emplazar ufr toemplace symmetry axis | e. de simetria estructural fabric empobrecido,-da adj impoverished, depleted symmetry axis | e. de simetria para plegamiento empobrecimiento nm depletion of ore | fold symmetry axis | e. principal de deformacion impoverishment principal strain axis | e. sismico seismic axis | e. empresa nf company, firm, enterprise tecto-textural de simetria fabric symmetry axis empuje nm pressure | drive | e. hidrostatico elasticidad nf elasticity water drive | e. horizontal horizontal pressure | elastico,-ca adj elastic e. tangencial tangential pressure | e. vertical elaterometro nm elaterometer vertical pressure electro nm amber | electrum emscheriano,-na adj Emscherian electrode nm electrode emscheriense nm Emscherian electrolito nm electrolyte emsiano,-na adj Emsian electrolizacion nf electrolysis emsiense nm Emsian electromagnetico,-ca adj electromagnetic enantimorfo,-fa adj enantimorphous electroquimico,-ca adj electrochemical enarenamiento nf sanding elemento nm element | e. mineral \ e. trazo trace enarenar vtr to mix ore with sand | to cover element with sand eleolita nf encajetado nm [Hualgayoc, Pe] oxidized silver elevacidn nf elevation, height | rise in the ore ground, hill encanada nf [Bol] canyon elipsoidal adj ellipsoidal encapado,-da adj cloaked, coated, encased | E-2

blind, concealed entremontana nf intermountain, median mass, encape nm [Bol] overburden intermontane area, intermediate massif encenagamiento nm [Arg] mud deposit entreverado,-da adj stockwork encentrar vtr to open up a vein along strike or in entropia nf entropy the direction of dip eocambriano,-na adj Eocambrian enclave nm inclusion eocambrico,-ca adj Eocambrian encontrar vtr to meet, as for veins, etc. eoceno,-na adj | nm Eocene encorvado,-da adj crooked eocenico,-ca adj Eocene encorvamiento nm warping edlico,-ca adj aeolian encrespadura nf ripplemark ednnm aeon encuentro nm meeting of two veins eopaleozoico nm Eopaleozoic endicamiento nm impounding eozoico,-ca adj enlace nm bond, tie | e. atomico atomic bond epicentre nm epicenter endentado,-da adj serrate epidoto nm | e. calizo | e. endliquita nf endlichite manganesico piedmontite enddgeno,-na adj endogenous epigene"tico,-ca adj epigenetic energia nf energy | e. nuclear nuclear energy epipelagico,-ca adj epipelagic enganchado,-da adj [Pe] contracted to pay off a epiroca nf epirock debt epirogenesis nf epeirogenesis, epeirogeny enganchador nm [Pe] mine worker serving epirogenetico,-ca adj epeirogenetic under debt peonage epirogenia nf epeirogenesis, epeirogeny enganchadora nf [Pe] mine labor contractor epirogenico,-ca adj epeirogenic enganche nm [Pe] debt servitude, generally to epizona nf epizone | de la e. epizonal pay off debts owed to the company store epoca nf epoch | efria ice age | e geologica era | enigmatita nf aenigmite e metalogenica metallogenic epoch enlazimiento nm connection, link equilibrio nm equilibrium | material balance enriquecerse vpr to come upon higher grade equipo nm shift | rig | gear | e. perforador ores drilling rig enriquecimiento nm enrichment of veins | e. equivalente adj equivalent secundario secondary enrichment era nf era | salt water pond formed by enrollado,-da adj convoluted evaporation | e. geologica era ensanchado,-da adj widening, flaring ergio nm erg ensanche nm widening | e. de unfilon swelling erguimiento nm uplift or bunching of a lode eritrina nf ensanchamiento nm widening erodado,-da adj eroded ensayarufr to assay erosion nf erosion | e. fluvial fluvial erosion | e. ensaye nm assay glacial glacial erosion | e. mecanico mechanical ensayo nm assay | test | e. de capas drill stem erosion | e. profunda deep erosion | e. regresiva test retrogressive erosion | e. cjuimico chemical ensenada nf bay erosion | e. vertical downcutting ensiforme adj bladed erosionado,-da adj eroded entalpia nf enthalpy erratico,-ca adj erratic enterrado,-da adj buried error nm error | e. cuadrdtico media mean square entierro nm burial error | e. de medida measurement error | e. de entrada nf entrance to a mine | recess muestro sampling error | e. de observacion entrar vintr to empty | e. tajo or tonga [Col] to observational error | e. media mean error drain a mine or placer working erubescita nf bornite entrecrecer vtr to intergrow erupcidn adj eruption | blow-out (of a well) | e. entrecrecido,-da adj intergrown defiance flank eruption entrecrecimiento nm intergrowth eruptivo,-va adj eruptive, volcanic entrelaminado,-da adj interbedded esarcha nf [Pe] native sulphur E-3

escala nf scale | e. de dureza hardness scale esferico,-ca adj spherical (Moh's) | e. Rankine Rankine scale esferoidal adj spheroidal escalenoedrico,-ca adj scalenohedral esferoide nm spheroid | e. intraformacional escalenoedro nm scalenohedron convolutional | e. lacustre lake ball escalon nm step | stope | e. de circo cirque | e. esferolitico,-ca adj spherulitic de conflnencia confluence step | e. de banco esferolito nm underhand stope | e. de cielo overhand stope | esferosiderita n/spherosiderite e. de denudacion erosion scarp | e, de folia fault esfuerzo nm scarp | e. defractura fault scarp | e. marginal eslamosa nf nagyagite marginal step esmaltina nf smaltite escalonamiento nm stepping esmaltita nf smaltite escama nf slice, flake | scale esmanil nm sphalerite escamiforme adj scale-like esmeralda nf emerald | e. oriental corundum escamosiones nfpl incrustations, scale esmeril nm emory | [Mex] arsenopyrite escamoso,-sa adj scaley, platy esmitsonita nf smithsonite escapolita nf espacio nm spacing escarapela nf rosette espalto nm spalt, fluorspar flux escarcha n/[Pe] native silver esparnaciano,-na adj Sparnacian escarpa nf , scarp | e. defractura fault esparnaciense nm Sparnacian scarp | e. de piamonte scarplet espatico,-ca adj spathic escarpado/-da adj steep espato nm spar | e. adamantine corundum | e. escarpar vtr to scarp, slope amargo magnesite | e. azul blue fluorspar | escarpe nm scarp, escarpment | e. defalla fault | e. bruno brown , magnesite | scarp e. calcareo calcite | e. calcico calcite | e. calizo escarpita nf scarplet calcite | e. de cat calcite | e. de cine smithsonite escaso,-sa adj rare, infrequent | e. (de)fluor fluorspar, | e. dehierro escintilometro nm scintillometer | e. aereo siderite | e. de Islandia spar | e. de itrio airborne scintillometer | e. de manganese , escoger a mano vtr to hand sort (ores) rhodonite or dialogite | e. en tablas escollera nf cliff | e. ferrifero siderite | e. fetido bituminous escollo nm shoal, reef fluorite | e. fluor fluorspar, blue fluorspar | e. escombrera nf debris | waste heap lustroso satin spar (calcite or gypsum) | e. escombro nm waste rock | detritus, talus | manganoso dialogite | e. pardo brown dolomite, overburden on placers | e. glacial drift magnesite | e. pesado barite | e. romboidal escopetar vtr to work a gold mine dolomite | e. satinado fibrous gypsum escoria nf scoria | slag | dross especie nm species | e. tipo type species escorial nm slag heap | deposit of especimen nm specimen | lava bed especularo^/ specular escota nf miner's pick espejado nm [Pe] galena escudo nm shield | e. continental continental espejo nm [Col] | e. defalla shield slickenside | e. defriccion slickenside escurrente adj exhalant, effluent espejuelo nm | transparent talc | [Ch] escurrimiento nm draining, runoff | e. superficial fine-grained, transparent selenite or gypsum | surface runoff [Ch] calcite | [Real de Monte, M£x] galena and escurrirse vpr to run off sphalerite crystals generally poor in silver | esfalerita nf sphalerite [Pe] lead carbonate | [Hualgayoc, Pe] barite esfena nf sphene espeleologia nf esfeno nm sphene esperanza nf expectation | e. matemdtica esfenolita nf sphenolith mathematical expectation esfera nf sphere esperkisa nf spear pyrite (var of marcasite) esferal adj spherical espesartina nf spessartite E-4 espesartita nf spessartite estadistico,-ca adj statistical | nm statistic espeso^sa adj thick, dense estado nm state | espesor nm thickness of a bed, vein, etc. estaffordiano,-na adj Staffordian espesura nf density, thickness estaffordiense adj Staffordian espiga nf bay bar estalactita nf espilita nf spilite estalagmita nf stalagmite espinela nf spinel | e. cincifera , estampiano,-na adj Stampian | e. cromifera picotite estampiense adj Stampian espinelido nm spinellide estanekita nf stannekite espodito nm whitish volcanic ash estanina nf espodumena nf estannita nf stannite esponja nf stockwork of veins | [Mex] spongy estanoso^sa adj stannous bullion estanque nm pool | e. de petroleo oil pool | e. espuma nf meerschaum | gossan | magnesia | para colas tailings pond e. de mar | e. de nitro surface crust of estanifero,-ra adj stanniferous, tin-bearing nitrate on salt flats estanina nf stannite esqueletal adj skeletal estano nm tin | tin ore | tin concentrate | e. esquema nf sketch | classification | e. Lahee acarreo placer tin | e. de aluvion placer tin | e. de Lahee classification of exploratory wells arroyo placer tin | e. de cornuallis cassiterite | e. esquisto nm shale, schist, slate | e. anfibolitico de escoria tin slag | e. de madera tin | e. de amphibole schist | e. arcilloso underclay | e. placeres placer tin | e. en grano placer tin | e. bituminoso | e. carbonoso coal shale | e. lenoso wood tin | e. piritoso stannite | e. vidrioso cloritico chlorite schist, | e. cassiterite | e. xiloide wood tin combustible oil shale | e. cornea hornslate | e. de estanoso,-sa adj stannous anftbolita amphibolite schist | e. de barro estaurolita nf | e. divisorio dividing slate | e. esteatita nf steatite, soapstone micaceo micaceous schist | e. noduloso spotted estefaniano,-na adj Stephanian slate or schist | e. paralelo bedding schistosity | estefaniense nm Stephanian e. petrolifero oil shale | e. talcoso talc schist estefanita nf stephanite esquistoideo nm schistoid estelidn nf dolerite, toadstone esquistosidad nf schistosity | cleavage, induced esteldn nm olivine dolerite, toadstone cleavage, rock cleavage | e. astillosa pencil estereograma nf stereogram cleavage | e. de crenulacion crenulation cleavage estepa nf steppe | e. en abanico cleavage fan | e. en pizzarin esteril adj barren, sterile, devoid of pencil cleavage | e. espaciada spaced cleavage | mineralization | dry (wells) | nm waste, e. trasversal slaty cleavage waste rock esquistoso,-sa adj schistose esteril nm gangue | unmineralized or barren essonita nf hessonite rock estabilidad nf stability | e. quimica chemical estero nm estuary, inlet | [Arg, Mex] swamp | stability [Bol, Ch] creek | [Vz] pond estabilizacidn nf stabilization estiaje nm low water mark estableod; stable estibina nf stibnite estacidn nf season | station | e. gravimetrica estibnita nf stibnite gravity station estilbita nf estacional adj seasonal estilo nm style | e. tectonico tectonic style estadal nm land measure of 4 varas | [Mex] estilotito nm level rod | e. cuadrado 16 square varas estimacidn nf estimation | e. por el metodo de estadia nf stadia Bayes Bayesian estimation | e. por el metodo de estadio nm furlong los minimos cuadrados lest-squares estimation | estadistica nf statistics | e. de orden order e. por el metodo de momentos moment estimation statistics | e. por intervalo interval estimation | e. por la E-5

maxima versimilitud maximum-likelihood estriadura nf striation estimation | e. par regresion estimation by estriar vtr to sort ore regression | e. puntual point estimation estribacidn nf spur | njpl foothills estimador nm estimator | e. convergente estringa nf [Me"x] stringer consistent estimator | e. exhaustive complete estroncianito nf estimator | e. sesgado biased estimator | e. sin estroncio nm stroncium sesgo unbiased estimator estructura nf structure | texture | e. estimarse vpr to be taken to be, appear to be, almohadillada ball-and-pillow structure, mullion suggest to be structure | e. amigdaloide amygdaloidal estiramiento nm stretching structure | e. bandeada banded structure | e. estoraque nm [Guerrero, Mex] sphalerite cataclastica cataclastic structure | e. estrangulacidn nf narrowing of a vein, etc. concreccionada concretionary structure | e. de estrangulamiento nm narrowing of a vein, etc. despegue decollement structure | e. de munon estratificacidn nf , bedding | mullion structure | e. en lajas flaggy structure | bedding cleavage | e. cruzada cross-bedding | e. fluidal fluid structure | e. microscopica e. diagonal cross-bedding | e. entrecruzada cross- microtexture | e. mom'/i/brmeboudinage | e. bedding | e. gradada graded bedding | e. ojival ogive | e. sedimentaria sedimentary graduada graded bedding | e. gradual graded structure bedding | e. inclinada inclined bedding | e. estructural adj structural indinada inversa backset bedding | e. estruniano,-na adj Strunian intraplegada convolute bedding, slip bedding | estruniense nm Strunian e. lenticular lenticular bedding | e. masiva estuarino,-na adj estuarine massive bedding | e. nodular nodular bedding estuario nm estuary, inlet | e. ondulada wavy bedding | e. ondulitica estudio nm study | e. catastral cadastral survey ripple bedding | e. rizada crinkle bedding, etopa nf stage ripple bedding | e. seleccionada sorted bedding etiqueto nf tag (for samples) estratificado,-da adj stratified eugeosinclinal nm eugeosyncline estratificar vtr to deposit, stratify euhedral adj euhedral estratiforme nm stratiform euhedrico,-ca adj euhedral estratigrafia nf stratigraphy eupelagico,-ca adj eupelagic estratigrafo,-fa nm/f stratigrapher europio nm europium estratigrafico,-ca adj stratigraphic eustosia nf eustasy estrato nm stratum, bed, layer | e. anual | eustotismo nm eustasy e. concordante concordant bed | e. conforme eutectico,-ca adj eutectic conformal bed | e. de cobertura cap rock | e. euxenico,-ca adj euxenic cruzante crossbed | e. disconcordante discord evaporacidn nf evaporation bed | e. guijoso gravel layer | e. indice key bed evaporito nf estrechamiento nm thinning or pinching of a evento nm event vein, etc. evolucidn nf evolution estrecharse vpr to thin or become narrow exactitud nf accuracy estrechez nf narrowness | gap, pass exagonal adj hexagonal estrecho nm straight exaracidn nf exaration estrechdnnm narrowness excavacidn nf excavation | e. a cielo abierto open estrechura nf narrowness | narrows, gap, pass pit | e. de ensayo test pit | | e. en escalones stope estrellarse la veto vpr [Pe] to thin out, peter out | e. en zanja trench (vein), especially by passing into disseminated excavadorod/ burrowing ore exento nm free of | e. de acidos acid free estria nf striation, stria | groove | e. glaciar exfoliacidn nf exfoliation | cleavage glacial stria exfoliar vtr to exfoliate estriacidn nf striation exhalation nf exhalation estriado,-da adj striate exhalante adj exhalant E-6 exhondacion nf surface at a mine exhumacion nf exhumation extinguido,-da adj extinct exitela nf valentinite extinguir vintr to become extinct exdgeno,-na adj exogenous extinto,-ta adj extinct exotermico,-ca adj exothermic extraccidn nf extraction, mining, production, exploracidn nf exploration recovery | sampling | e. con reposition explorar vtr to explore sampling with replacement | e. par gas gas lift exploratorio,-ria adj exploratory | e. sin reposition sampling without explosion nf explosion, blast | e. de abanico fan replacement | e. vigorizada enhanced recovery shooting extracto nm extract explotacidn nf mining, exploitation | e. en extraible adj minable descubierto open-pit mining, stripping, strip extrusivo,-va adj extrusive mining | e. par metodo minero oil mining exudacidn nf exudation explotar vtr to mine, exploit, work eyeccidnwf ejecta, accidental | e. juvenil }uvei\i\ extension nf extension | area, areal extent | ejecta range, extent | e. en acres acreage | e. ezteri nm bloodstone, a variety of jasper estratigrafica stratigraphic range exterior nm exterior, outside | aboveground, F-l

step fault | /. de estratificacion bedding-plane fault | /. de gravedad gravity fault, normal fault | /. directa normal fault | /. distributativa step fabrica nf fabric (petrographic) | /. siderurgica fault | /. en escalera step fault | /. escalonada step iron works fault | /. escarpada [Mex] fualt scarp | /. falsa faceta nf facet (of a gem) pseudo-fault, horse | /. girada pivotal fault | /. facies nfpl facies | /. abisal abyssal facies | /. gravitacional normal fault | /. horizontal strike- continental continental facies | / costera coastal slip fault | /. inversa reverse fault | /. inversa de facies | /. de agua dulce freshwater facies | /. bajo angulo , overthrust ] /. lateral eolica aeolian facies | /. fluvial fluvial facies | /. lateral fault | /. marginal boundary fault | /. glacial glacial facies | /. lacustre lacustrine facies normal normal fault | /. por empuje thrust fault | /. litoral coastal facies | /. marina marine | / por empuje inferior underthrust fault | /. facies | /. metamorficas | /. ramificada branching fault | /. rumbodeslizante neritica neritic facies | /. sedimentarias strike-slip fault | /. segun buzamiento dip-slip sedimentary fades | def. facieologic, fault | /. simple normal fualt | /. sinsedimentaria facieological synsedimentary fault | /. transformante facoidal adj lenticular | /. transcurrente strike slip fault facolito nm phacolith, phacolite | /. transversal dip fault factor nm factor | /. comun common factor | /. de fallado,-da adj faulted contraction shrinkage factor | /. de escurrimiento fallamiento nm faulting [Col] runoff coefficient | /. deformacion fallar vtr to fault formattion resistivity factor | /. de grupo group fallo nm [Bol] fault deformation factor | /. especifico specific factor | /. fameniano,-na adj volumetrico formation volume factor fameniense adj Famennian faena nf work, labor, task | workings | [Bol, Pe] fanega nf [Me"x] unit of land measure (about 8.8 unpaid work (a type of corvee) | [Ch] work acres) gang, shift | /. mineral mine workings fanegada nf unit of area equivalent to 576 fahlbanda nf fahlband estadales (about 6600 square meters) | unit of faja nf belt or zone of rock, mineralization, etc | capacity of 225 to 555 liters band of mineral in a vein | /. petrolifera faneritico,-ca adj phaneritic petroleum zone fanerocristalino,-na adj phaneritic fajado nm prop (of mine timber) faneromero,-ra adj phaneritic fajeado,-da adj banded fangal nm marsh, bog falda nf slope, hillside | wing or leg of a saddle fanglomerado nm fanglomerate falsificar el mineral vtr to salt (a mine) fango nm mud, slime, ooze | sludge | [Isla falso,-sa adj false | /. matriz pseudo-matrix | /. Carman, Me"x] layer of black, earthy salt | /. de pena false bedrock | /. salto false throw of a glaciar glacial mud or silt | /. mineral slimes vein or fault fangoso,-sa adj muddy, silty falla nf fault | /. activa active fault | /. acostada faralldn nm [Bol] wallrock | [Pe] outcrop of a thrust fault | /. antitetica antithetic fault | / casi vein vertical de dezplazamiento horizontal wrench fault farmacolita nf | /. conforme conformable fault (to bedding) | /. farmacosiderita nf corriente strike fault | /. de altoempuje upthrust fase nm phase fault | /. de ascenso normal fault | /. de faunico,-ca adj faunal buzamiento dip fault | /. de cabalgamiento faunistico,-ca adj faunal overlap fault | /. de descenso reverse fault | /. de faz nf front, face | /. de laboreo working face desgarre strike-slip fault | /. de despegue feldespatico,-ca adj feldspathic | /. de desplazamiento feldespato nm feldspar | /. calizo anorthite | /. horizontal strike-slip fault | /. de desplazamiento de cat anorthite | /. nacarado or opalado adularia oblfcuo oblique-slip fault | /. de direccion strike | /. potasico potash feldspar | /. sodico albite | /. fault | /. diagonal inclined fault | /. escalonada verde claro amazon stone | /. vitreo F-2 feldespatoide nm breccia vein | /. capa bedded vein | /. ciego felsico,-ca adj blind lode | /. cldstico clastic dike | /. compuesto felsitico,-ca adj felsic, felsitic compound vein | /. cuneiforme gash vein | /. de £emico/-ca adj , femic carbon coal seam or measure | /. de contacto fenacita nf contact vein | /. de curia gash vein | /. de fenaquita nf phenakite diaclasa joint vein | /. de roca dike | /. en escalera fenestra nf inlier, or escalonado stair-step vein | /. en reticulado fenocristal nm stockwork | /. en rosario en echelon vein | /. fendmeno nm phenomena | /. del carst karst estratificado banded vein | /. hidrotermal phenomena | /. tectonico hydrothermal vein | /. incllnado vein | /. ferralitico,-ca adj ferralitic intrusive igneous dike | /. metalifero or mineral ferrate nm ferrate mineralized vein | /. principal master vein, f^rreo,-rea adj ferrous, iron-bearing mother lode | /. rocoso dike | /. sedimentario ferreria nf iron works sedimentary vein or dike | /. simple ordinary ferrete nm copper sulphate vein of simple structure | /. sin afloramiento fe'rrico,-ca adj ferric blind vein | /. sin creston blind vein | /. ferriferOj-ra adj iron-bearing transversal cross vein ferrito nm ferrite (salt) filoniano,-na adj vein or dike-like ferromagnesiano,-na adj ferromagnesian filonita nf - ferromagnesico,-ca adj ferromagnesian filonitizacidn nf veining ferromagnetico,-ca adj ferromagnetic filtracidn nf seep | /. de petrcleo oil seep | /. en ferromagnetismo nm ferromagnetism frio cold ferromanganeso nm ferromanganese filtrado,-da adj filtered | nm filtering ferrometeorito nm filtradornm filter ferroniquel nm ferronickel filtranteo^/ filtering | porous ferroso,-sa adj ferrous filtrar vtr/intr to filter | vpr to filter | to filtrate ferrugineo,-nea adj ferruginous, iron-bearing filtro nm filter | /. de entrada input filter ferruginoso,-sa adj ferruginous, iron-bearing fineza nf fineness flbra nf fiber | vein | [Parral, Mex] stockwork finiquito nm quitclaim vein fino,-na adj fine | pure fibrazdn nm the whole of the veins in a deposit fino nm [, Sp] screened coal up to 6 mm or mine in size | nmpl fines fibroso,-sa adj fibrous finura nf fineness ficha nf index card, filing card | record fiordo nm , fiord fichar vtr to put on an index card | to file, index firme adj surface | fisible | fissile fichero nm card index | records firnnm firn fidelidad nf accuracy fisico,-ca adj physical | nm/nf physicist fierro nm iron fisicoquimico,-ca adj physiochemical | nf fijo,-ja adj attached | nof. unattached physical chemistry fila nf row fisil adj fissile filada nf a variety of slate fisilidad nf filamento nm filament fisidn nf fission filamentoso,-sa adj filamentous fisionable adj fissionable filiforme adj thread-like fisografia nf physiography filita nf phyllite fisura nf fissure filo nm ridge fisuracion nf spalling filogenia nf phylogeny fisurarse vpr to crack fildn nm vein, lode (generally large) | fit6geno,-na adj phytogenic mineralized seam or bed | gold mine | dike | flabeliforme adj fan-shaped gangue | [Me"x] small stringer or intersecting flanco nm flank | limb (of a fold) | hillside vein | /. atravesado cross vein | /. brechoide flaqueza nf [Pe] shaley structure F-3 flecha nf deflection material filling open spaces in a lode | /. flexibilidad nf flexibility productora pay zone | /. c\ue le circundan host flexura nf flexure | flexure folding rock filita nf phyllite formal adj regular | [M£x] undisturbed fisico,-ca adj physical formase vpr to be formed flogopita nf fdrmico/-ca adj formic flojo,-jaad/ loose fdrmula nf formula flor nf bloom | /. de antimonio valentinite | /. de fosa nf trench | pit | graben | /. marginal trough cine hydrozincite | /. de cobalto erythrite | /. de | /. oceanica | /. posterior back cobre chalcotrichuite | flor de hierro flos ferri | /. deep | /. tectonica graben de niquel annabergite fosfatico,-ca adj phosphatic flotabilidad nf fosfato nm phosphate flotation nf flotation | /. diferencial differential fosfeno nm phosphate floatation | /. selectiva selective floatation fosfito nm phosphite flourescencia nf flourescence fosforado,-da adj phosphorous fluctuacidn nf fluctuation | jitter fosforecer or fosforescer vtr to phosphoresce fluctuar vintr to fluctuate | to oscillate fosforescencia nf phosphorescence fluente adj fluid | flowing fosforescente adj phosphorescent fluidez nf fluidity fosfdrico,-ca adj phosphoric fluido,-da adj fluid | nnt fluid fosforita nf fluir vintr to flow, run fdsforo nm phosphorous flujo nnt flow, stream | rising tide | flux | /. de fosforoso,-sa adj phosphorous caja cash flow | /. de escombrera | /. fosgenita nf defango mud flow | /. de lava lava flow | /. fdsil nm fossil | any mineral or rock | /. guia laminar laminar or platy flow | /. magnetico index fossil | /. indice index fossil | /. viviente magnetic flux | /. natural primary drive living fossil mechanism | /. turbulento turbulent flow fosilifero,-ra adj fossiliferous fluor nm fluorine | /. espato fluorspar | /. fetido fosilizacidn nf fossilization bituminous feldspar fosilizarse vpr to fossilize, become fossilized fluorescencia nf foso nm ditch, trench | hole, pit | /. de lodo mud fluorescente adj fluorescent pit fluorhidrato nm hydrofluoric acid fdtico,-ca adj photic fluorhidrico,-ca adj hydrofluoric fotoclinometro nm photoclinometer fluorina nf fluorite fotogeologfa nf photogeology fluoruro nm fluoride fotografia nf photography | /. aerea aerial fluviomarino,-na adj fluviomarine photography foco nm focus | /. sfsmico hypocenter | /. fraccidn nf fraction volcanico volcanic center fractionatidn nf fractionation nf foliation fraccionamiento nm fractionation | cracking foliado,-da adj foliated, foliate | nof. unfoliated fraccionar vtr to crack | to fractionate foliatura nf foliation fraccionario,-ria adj fractional (math) fondo nm background | bottom of a mine | /. de fractila nf fractile circo | /. de laboreo working face | /. del mar sea fractura nf fracture | /. escalonada step fault | /. floor | /. del rio riverbed pizarrosa slaty cleavage | /. marginal boundary fonolita nf | /. leucitica leucite fault | /. sencilla or junta joint | /. rellena filled phonolite | /. nefelinica nepheline phonolite fracture foraminifero nm foramnifer, foram fracturar vtr/pr to fracture, break forastera nf [Bol] newly discovered vein or mine fracturacidn nf fracturation forma nf form, mode | /. de presentation mode of fracturamiento nm fracturing | /. intense intense occurrence | /. enredada stockwork fracturing formacidn nf formation | [Col] clay and other fragmentation nf fragmentation F-4 fragmentar vtr to fragment spring | /. caliente hot spring (<20°C) | /. carga fragamento nm fragment boiling spring | /. carstica karst spring | /. de fragil adj brittle afloramiento gravity spring | /. de contacto fragilidad nf contact spring | /. defisura fissure spring | /. de frailesca nf [ Almaden, Sp] lenticular breccia gas gas seep | /. de hondonada depression spring masses found in schist | /. de valle valley spring | /. descendente gravity francio nm francium spring | /. episodica intermittent spring | /. franja nf fringe | belt | /. capilar capillary fringe intermitente intermitent spring | /. mineral | /. de sedimentos mud belt mineral spring | /. muy caliente hot spring franjilla nf [Hualgayoc, Pe] argentiferous galena (>50°C) | /. perenne \ f. periodica intermittent with stibrdte spring | /. salina salt spring | /. sulfurosa sulfur frasco nm flask (unit of measure for mercury) spring j /. termal thermal spring (20-50°C) frasniano,-na adj Frasnian fuerza nf force | power | /. de una prueba power Frasniense nm Frasnian of a (statistical) test freatico,-ca adj phreatic, subsurface fugacidad nf fugacity frecuencia nf frequency | /. acumulada fumarola nf fumerole cumulative frequency funcidn nf function | /. aculmulata cumulative freita n/[Santander, Sp] active landslide function | /. caractertstica characteristic function frente nm front | face, heading | /. de colina | /. de decision decision function | /. de densidad brow of a hill | /. de pliegue facing density function | /. de versimilitud likelihood frentero nm miner employed at the working function | /. generatriz generating function | /. face of a mine periodica periodic function friabilidad adj friability fundente adj melting | nm flux friccidn nf fundible adj fusible, easily melted frigoria nf kilocalorie fundicidn nf smelting | casting | fusion | frijolillo nm [Guanajuato, Me"x] conglomerate melting | foundry, smelting works frisol nm [Col] kidney-bean shapped cobble fundido,-da adj melted, fused found in washing auriferous gravels fundidornm smelter fritamiento nm chilling effect fundir vtr to melt, smelt of cast metal | to fuse frontdnnm cliff (coastal) | pediment | working | vpr to melt face (mines) fundirse vpr to fuse, melt fruta de mono nf gold pan made from the shell fuque nm [Mex] deepest point of an excavation of a fruta de mono furo nm channel fruto nm ore | yield or product | enfrutos in fusalina nf smelting works ore, carrying ore fusibilidad nf fusibility fucsita nf fusidn nf fusion, melting | /. residual residual fuchsita nf fuchsite melt fucoide nm fucoid fusionar vtr [Arg] to fuse, melt fuente nm spring or source | /. alcalina alkaline fuslina nf [Arg, Sp] smelter spring | /. artesiana artesian spring | /. fusulina nf fusulinid ascendente artesian spring | /. burga boiling G-l

nonassociated gas | g. pobre lean gas, producer gas | g. seco dry gas gasificacidn nf gasification gabarro nm | nodular fragment of rock gasiflcar vtr to gasify or ore gasoducto nm gas pipeline ga"brico,-ca adj gabbroic gasdleo nm diesel oil, gas oil gabro nm gasolina nf gasoline gadolino nm gadolinium gastable adj erodible galactita nf fuller's earth gastar vtr to wear away, erode gal£pago nm pig of copper, lead or tin gasterdpodo nm gastropod galemador nm furnace for roasting silver ores gasto nm volume of flow, discharge | g. de galemar vtr to roast silver ores derrame runoff rate | g. solido bed load galeme nm [Mex] a reverberatory furnace of 1 to gastos nmpl charges, expenses, costs | g. de 3 arrobas capacity desarollo development costs | g. defundicion galenita nf galena smelting charges galera nf an irregularly shaped ore deposit | gausio nm gauss furnace for distilling sulphur gaveta nf [PR] gold pan galena nf gallery | g. cdrstica karst cave gaylussita nf galerdn nm an irregular deposit of large size gedinniano,-na adj Gedinnian galga nf boulder gedinniense nm Gedinnian galmeita nf carbonates and of zinc geiser nm galleta n/[Asturias, Sp] screened coal (20-50 geiserita nf mm) gelatinoso,-sa adj colloid, gelatinous gallinazo nm [Titiribi, Col] sphalerite gelificarse vpr to gallo nm [Me"x] rich ore with needles or grains gelifraccidn nf congelifraction of gold and silver | a lump of native metal, nm frozen ground nugget gelivacidn nf congelifraction gambusino nm prospector | [Mex] itinerant geloide nm firn ice miner who high-grades a deposit and then gema nf gem, precious stone moves on to another geminacidn nf twinning gamella nf gold pan gemmologia nf gemmology gammagrafia nf gamma ray log gemmoscopio nm binocular microscope ga*ndara nf low wasteland genero nm genus (pi genera) ganchudo,-da adj hackly genetico,-ca adj genetic gandinga nf fine ore | nfpl concentrates genotipo nm genotype gang nm dike | vein geoanticlinal nm geoanticline, geanticline ganga nf gangue | g. cuarzosa vein quartz geociencia nf geoscience, ganita nf gahnite geocratico,-ca adj epeirocratic garbancillo nm [Sp] fine gravel geocronita nf geochronite garbillar vtr to screen (minerals) geocronologia nf garbillo nm screen geocrono!6gico,-ca adj geochronological garganta nf gorge geoda nf geode gas nm natural gas | gasoline | g. acido sour gas geodepresion nf geodepression | g. asociado associated gas | g. condensado gas geodesia nf condensate | g. crudo raw gas | g. de petroleo geodesico,-ca adj geodesic, geodetic | nf \ic\uado liquified petroleum gas | g. de pozo de geodesy, geodetics petroleo bradenhead gas | g. disuelto solution geodesta nm geodesist gas | g. grisu methane | g. humedo condensate geod£tico,-ca adj geodetic rich gas, wet gas | g. juvenil juvenile gas | g. geodinamico,-ca adj geodynamic | nf Wore unassociated gas | g. licuado condensate | g. natural natural gas | g. no asociado geofisico,-ca adj geophysical | nf | G-2

ntn/f geophysicist | g. aplicado applied continental | g. rocoso rock glaciar geophysiscist glaciario,-ria adj glacial gedfono nm geophone glaciarismo nm geognosia nf geology glacioeolico,-ca adj glacio-eolitic geohidrologia nf geohydrology glaciologia nf glaciology geoide nm geoid nm geoisoterma nf geoisotherm glaucofana nf glaucophane geologia nf geology | g. aplicada applied glauconia nf geology | g. aplicada a la ingeneria engineering glauconitico,-ca adj glauconitic geology | g. de minus mine geology | g. del glauconitizacidn nf glauconitization petroleo | g. dinamica gleba nf [Alicante, Sp] thin layer of precipitated dynamic geology | g. economica economic salt | g. tectonica fault block geology | g. estructural | g. gliptogenesis nf glyptogenesis fisica physical geology | g. general general globo nm globe, sphere geology | g. historica | g. globulito nm marina gldbulo nm globule geo!6gico,-ca adj geological globuloso,-sa adj globular ge61ogo,-ga nm/f geologist gmelita nf geomagn6tico,-ca adj geomagnetic | nf gneis nm geomagnetics gneisico,-ca adj gneissic geomagnetismo nm geomagnetism gneisoide adj gneissoid geomorfologfa nf geotita nf geoquimico,-ca adj geochemical | nm or/ golfo nm gulf geochemist | nf goma nf glue | g. ardbiga gum arabic | g. de georgiano,-na adj Georgian tragacanto gum tragacanth Georgiense nm Georgian gonidgrafo nm [Sp] plane table geosinclinal adj geosynclinal | nm , goniometro nm goniometer geosynclinal gongora nf [Col] cavity or vug in a lode geosutura nf geosuture gongorado,-da adj vuggy geotectonico,-ca adj tectonic | nf geotectonics gotera nf precipitate | g. calcdrea calcareos sinter geotermico,-ca adj geothermal | nf geothermics gotlandiense adj germanotipico,-ca adj Germanotype grada nf stope j g. al reves overhand stope | g. gersdorfita nf abierta open stope | g. de relleno filled stope | g. giba nf hump (rundhocker) derecha underhand stope | g. ramal branch gibsita nf stope gigante nm monitor, giant (used in hydraulic gradiente nm gradient | g. adiobatico adiobatic mining of placers) gradient | g. hidrdulico hydraulic gradient | g. giobertita nf magnesite geotermico geothermal gradient | g. gravimetrico girasol nm fire opal gravitational gradient | g. termico thermal givetiano,-na adj Givetian gradient givetiense adj Givetian grado nm degree | gradient | g. de libertad glaciacion nf glaciation | g. final latest (Wiirm) degrees of freedom | g. geotermico geothermal glaciation | g. local local glaciation gradient glaciar adj glacial | nm glacier | g. active active graficadorwra plotter glacier | g. alpino alpine or mountain glacier | grafico,-ca adj graphic | nf graphics | graph, g. colgante hanging glaciar | g. continental chart | nm graph, chart continental glacier | g. de circo cirque glaciar | grafitico,-ca adj graphitic g. de montana alpine or mountain glacier | g. de grafito nm graphite | g. natural natural graphite plateau plateau glaciar | g. de roca rock glacier | grafitoso,-sa adj [Vz] graphitic g. de valle alpine or valley glacier | g. fluyente gramo nm gram active or flowing glacier | g. groenlandes granada nf G-3 granalla nf small grains of metal, generally gold gravel | g. de mina pit gravel | g. de play a beach granate adj garnet (color) | nf garnet | gravel | g. en bruto pit-run gravel | g. fluvial [Guadalcazar, Mex] crystalline cinnabar | g. river gravel | g. graduada graded gravel | g. almandino almandinite provechosa pay gravel | g. sin cribar unscreened granatffero,-ra adj garnetiferous, garnet-bearing gravel | g. tal como sale unscreened gravel grancilla n/[Sevilla, Sp] screened coal (15-30 gravedad nf gravity | g. espedfica specific mm) | [Asturias, Sp] screened coal (5-12 mm) gravity granip<5rfido,-da adj [Vz] granophyre gravadora nf [Sp] gravel screen granitico,-ca adj granitic gravera nf gravel pit granitizacidn nf granitization gravilla nf fine gravel granito nm granite | small grain | hair, streak gravilladora nf [Sp] gravel screen or point that diminishes the quality of a gravimetria nf gravimetry diamond | g. anfibolico amphibole granite | g. gravimetrico,-ca adj gravimetric biotitico granite | g. micaceo mica granite gravimetro nm gravimeter | g. potasico potash granite gravitacidn nf gravitation, gravity granitoide nm gravitacional adj gravitational granitoideo,-dea adj granitoid gravoso,-sa adj [Mex] gravelly grano nm grain | grain, a weight | de g. fino fine greca nf irregular workings grained | de g. grueso coarse grained | de g. greda nf marl | chalk | fuller's earth | [Bol] media medium grained barren gravel above pay-dirt in placers | [Guy] granoblastico,-ca adj granoblastic highly alterered schist bedrock to placers | [Vz] granofirico,-ca adj granophyric pay-dirt | g. dura [Col] carboniferous, iron- granofiro nm bearing schist granosidad nf granularity gredal nm clay pit granoso,-sa adj granular gredoso,-sa adj chalky, marly, clayey granudo,-da adj granular, granulate, granulated grenoquita nf greenockite granulacidn nf granulation gremio nm society, guild, corporation | trade granulado,-da adj granulated | nm granulation union | g. de azogueros [Potosi, Bol] association granular adj granular, granulate, granulated of miners | g. de cumuris association of ore nm granule transporters | g. de duenos association of granulometria nf granulometry (mostly absentee) mine owners | g. de mineros granuloso,-sa adj granulose, granular miner's association granza nf [Arg] crushed stone | [New Almaden, gres nm sandstone | potter's clay Calif] coarse mercury ore | [Cu] gravel | greta nf fuller's earth | [Mex] litharge [Mex] fragments of ore from about the size of gretoso nm [Chico, Mex] silver sulfide-bearing rice to that of an egg | [Guanajuato, Mex] gossan fourth class of ore, about 80 ounce silver to the grieta nf narrow fissure, crack, crevice | joint | ton | g. de yunque [San Dimas, Mex] smalls | g. autoclastica autoclastic fissure | g. capilar [Huitzuco, Mex] middlings of mercury ore | hairline crack | g. de contraction frost crack | g. [Asturias, Sp] screened coal (10-25mm) de desecacion mud crack | g. de enfriamiento granzita nf[Almade'n, Sp] coarse-grained ores cooling joint | g. de erupcion | g. de granzdnnm gravel glaciar crevasse | g. glaciar crevasse | g. graptolito nm graptolite marginal marginal crevasse grasero nm slag pile grietarse vpr to crack grasoso,-sa adj greasy grieteado,-da adj cracked grauvaca nf | g. feldespdtica arkosic grieteo nm formation of fissures wacke grietoso,-sa adj cracked grauwaca nf greywacke gris adj grey | nm grey | g. perla grey grava nf gravel j [Cartagena, Sp] ore of 6 to 8 grisaceo,-cea adj greyish percent lead | g. de boleos boulder gravel | g. de grosornm thickness cantera pit gravel | g. de guijas [Vz] granule grosularia nf grossularite G-4 grosularita nf grossularite guaraturo nm [Vz] flint | quartz grueso,-sa adj thick | coarse | hard (water) giiedal nm [Inguaran, Mex] copper skarn grueso nm thickness of a bed, vein, etc. | deposit [Sevilla, Sp] large coal (600mm in size) | guia nf highest grade part of an orebody | [Ch] [Arnao, Sp] coal up to 7 cm in size small, lateral veins | [Pe] veinlet in a grupo nm group | cluster | g. de volcanes stockwork | g. mejicana small earthenware volcanic cluster plate in which amalgam was tested during the gruta nf cave, , cavern patio process of amalgamation of silver ores guache nm [Col] a layer between pay-dirt and guija nf pebble, gravel, cobble | matrix, gangue overburden of low-grade in placers | loose | [Mex] milky or bull quartz | [Batopilas, stones derived from bedrock of a placer Mex] calcite | g. de oro [Guanajuato, Me"x] gold- guadaloso/-sa adj swampy bearing quartz guaico nm [Col] excavation of indiginous origin guijarra nf stony place guaira nf [Bol, Pe] a small, clay windblown guijarro nm cobble, pebble, stone smelting furnace used by Indians to refine guijarroso,-sa adj stony, pebbly high-grade silver ores guijo nm gravel gualda nf [Pe] chalcopyrite | [Chacas, Pe] guijole nm [Durango, Mex] wood tin found in bornite rhyolite, generally kidney shaped gualdado,-da adj yellow guijoso,-sa adj pebbly, gravelly gualdo,-da adj yellow guinche nm winch | hoist guanero,-ra adj guano guinar vtr to change direction, as for a vein, etc. guaracu nm [Col] basalt, diorite, or greenstone guiris nm mining expert H-l

H heliodoro nm heliodor (gem beryl) nm heliotrope, bloodstone helveciano,-na adj Helvetian haba nf nodule | nodular (bean-like) piece of helveciense adj Helvetian ore encased in gangue helvetiano,-na adj Helvetian habilitacidn nf outfit, equipment; fitting out helvetiense adj Helvetian habilitar vtr to equip, fit out hematita nf hematite | h. botrioidea botryoidal ha'bito nm habit hematite | h. especular specular hematite | h. hacer vtr to make | h. la ceja [Col] to recover ocrosa ocherous hematite | h. oolitica oolitic gold from a gold pan | h. mina to make a mine, hematite | h. parda limonite | h. roja non- that is, be profitable to work | h. tierras [Mex] specular (red) hematite to work a placer hematitico,-ca adj hematitic hacienda nf smelting or reduction works | h. de hematizacidn nf hematization beneficio amalgamation works | h. de hembergiense adj Hembergian cianuracion cyanide plant | h. defundicion hemera nf hemera smelting works | h. de maquila custom mill hemiedro,-dra adj hemihedral halmir<5geno,-na adj halmyrogenic hemim6rfico,-ca adj hemimorphic halmirolisis nf halmyolysis hemimorfita nf halocmesis nf halokinesis, hemipelagico,-ca adj hemipelagic halogenico,-ca adj halogenic hemisferico,-ca adj hemispheric ha!6geno,-na adj halogenous | nm halogen hemisferio nm hemisphere haloisita nf hender vtr/pr to cleave, split, crack halotriquita nf hendible adj fissile, cleavable hallazgo nm discovery, as of a deposit, etc. hendidura nf fissure, crevice, crack, split or rent halloisita nf hallyosite | rift hamada nf hammada hendimiento nm splitting, cleaving, cracking hankoamana nm [Potosi, Bol] member of a heptano nm heptane | h.-normal n-heptane cuadrilla or gang of weekend mestizo miners herciniano,-na adj Hercynian who worked the mines for their own benefit hercinita nf from Saturday night to Monday nights and on hercio nm Hertz feast days herido nm [Ch] trench harina nf fine powder of metal or ore | h. de roca hervezon nm [Col] alluvium | h. fosil or silicea diatemaceous hervidero nm boiling spring | earth or tripoli hesita nf harmotoma nf harmotome hetangiano,-na adj Hetangian hamear vtr [Col, Ch] to sift, screen hetangiense adj Hetangian hastial nm lateral wall of an excavation | heterobla'stico,-ca adj heteroblastic surface of any wall of a deposit | side of a heteromorfismo nm heteromorphism deposit | h. de piso [Bol] footwall | h. de techo heter<5pico,-ca adj heteropic [Bol] hanging wall heteroscedasticidad nf heteroscedasticity hauteriviano,-na adj Hauterivian hettangiense adj Hettangian hauteriviense adj Hauterivian hexaedro nm hauyna nf hauynite, hexeno nm hexane haz nf group of deposits hialino,-na adj hyaline | nf hyaline hebra nf vein | layer, bed or stratum hialita nf hyalite hebrudo nm [Huitzuco, Mex] barcenite hiato nm hiatus hectara nf hectare hfbrido,-da adj hybrid | nm hybrid hecUrea nf hectare hidatdgeno,-na adj hydatogenic hediondo,-da adj fetid hidrargillita nf hydrargillite helero nm glacier | hidratacidn nf hydration helio nm helium hidratar vtr to hydrate H-2 hidrato nm hydrate vein | h. del criadero strike or direction of a hidrocarburo nm deposit | h. del desposorio [Villalpando, Mex] hidrocincita nf hydrozincite small veins of gold-bearing clay | ah. de veta hidrocloruro nm chloride along strike of a vein hidrocraqueo nm hydrocracking hinchado,-da adj swollen hidrodinamico,-ca adj hydrodynamic hincharse vpr to swell, as for clays hidrogeno nm hydrogen | h. pesado deuterium | hinchazdn nm increase in volume of rock h. sulfurado hydrogen sulfide extracted from a mine due to breakage hidrogeologia nf hiperstena nf hidrografia nf hipidiomorfo,-fa adj hypidiomorphic hidrolacolito nm pingo hipocentro nm hypocenter hidrolisis nf hipocristalino,-na adj hypocrystalline hidrolita nf hydrolith hipogenico,-ca adj hypogene hidrologia nf hydrology | h. de aguas hipolimnico,-ca adj hypolimnetic subterraneas groundwater hydrology hipomagma nf hypomagma hidrologo nm hydrologist hipdtesis nf hypothesis | h. altemativa hidromuscovita nf alternative hypothesis | h. compuesta hidrdsfera nf hydrosphere compound hypothesis | h. nula null hypothesis hidrosilicato nm hydrosilicate | h. simple simple hypothesis hidrosta"tico,-ca adj hydrostatic histograma nm histogram hidrotermal adj hydrothermal historia nf history | h. de la tierra earth's history hidrotermico,-ca adj hydrothermal hito nm survey monument | h. de limite hidroxido nm boundary monument hielo nm ice | n. de glaciar glacial ice hocino nm narrows, canyon, gorge hierro nm iron | iron ore | [Me"x] low grade hojfmanita nf hofmannite silver ore of 20 to 35 ounce per ton | h. acicular hogar nm hearth | h. escoriador slag hearth | de goethite | n. arcilloso clayey ironstone | n. h. abierto open hearth arsenical arsenopyrite | h. azul | n. hoja nm slab or sheet (of metal) | nappe | h. de blanco arsenopyrite | h, brillante specularite | n. arrastre nappe | n. de libra [Guanajuato, Me"x] cromado chromite | h. de pradera bog iron ore | ampelite | h. de papel finely laminated clay, h. de (los) pantanos bog iron ore | h. de (los) slate or talc | h. de pizarra slab of slate prados bog iron ore | h. de los estanques bog iron hojoso,-sa adj laminated ore | h. espatico siderite | h. especular holmio nm holmium specularite | h. espejado specularite | h. espinela holocenico,-ca adj Holocene hercynite | h. fangoso bog iron ore | h, lintoso holoceno,-na adj Holocene | nm Holocene bog iron ore | h. magnetico magnetite | h. holocristalino,-na adj holocrystalline magnetifero [Cartagena, Sp] ore carrying 33% holoedro nm holohedron metallic iron | h. meteorico iron from a meteor | holocarstnm holokarst h. nativo native iron | h. oligisto hematite | h. holotipo nm holotype pantanoso bog iron ore | h. pardo limonite | h. homeoblastico,-ca adj homeoblastic rojo hematite | h. seco [Cartagena, Sp] ore homoclinal nm carrying 50% or better metallic iron | h. homogeneidad nf homogeneity titanado | h viejo scrap iron | [Pe] iron homogeneo,-nea adj homogenous oxide-rich silver ore homoscedasticidad nf homoscedasticity higado nm [Pe] gold-bearing iron oxide | a homotaxico,-ca adj homotaxial lenticular deposit of gold hondo,-da adj deep | low, low-lying (land) | nm hijuela nf small thread of ore or mineral bottom | depth hilo nm small vein or thread of ore in a vein | h. hondonada nf trough, depression | hollow, dip, alto small vein coming out of the hanging wall ravine | h. carstica karst depression | h. bajo small veins going into the footwall | h. hondura nf depth | [Col] large pothole in de cajon vertical vein | h. de la veta strike of a bedrock of a placer H-3 horizonte nm bed, layer, stratum | seam | huayre nm [Potosi, Bol] clay reduction furnace horizon | h. del suelo soil horizon | h. guia once used by Indians datum | h. petrolifero oil-bearing formation huecarrera nf cavern filled with ore in the form hornablenda nf hornblende | h. esquistosa of stalagmites and stalagtites hornblende schist hueco,-caod/ hollow | loose | nm vug hornable*ndico,-ca adj hornblende huellanf track, trace | [Mex] trace of gold hornablendeifero,-ra adj hornblende-bearing recovered in assaying | h. defision fission track hornacho nm excavation hueso nm [Ch] yellowish, compact sodium hornada nf [met] a melt nitrate hornaguear vtr to work or extract hard coal huevo nm [Col] belly or swollen piece of ore in hornaguera nf hard coal | h apizarrada slate coal a beaded vein | large boulder in alluvium or | terreno de h. coal measures soil hornagueror-ra adj bearing hard coal huincha nf [Bol, Ch] measuring tape hornaza nf small furnace huinche nm winch hornfelsa nf hornfels huincho nm [Pe] magnetite | hematite hornfelsitico,-ca adj hornfelsic hulla nf black bituminous coal | h. apizarrada homillo nm small furnace slate coal | h. blanca white coal | h. brillante homo nm kiln | furnace | h. de cal lime kiln | h. anthracite | h. cannel cannel coal | h. de llama de ensayar assay furnace | h. defoso pit furnace bituminous coal | h. grasa soft coal | h. magra | h. defundicion smelting furnace | [Mex] blast non-coking anthracite | h. para gas gas coal | h. furnace | h. de reverbero reverberatory furnace picaforme jet | h. seca coking coal horrura nf scoria, dross hullero,-ra adj coal | nf coal mine | coal bed | horsteno nm nm coal miner hoya nf any deep excavation | pit, ditch, hole | hullifero,-ra adj coal-bearing basin, trough | sink | pothole in a river bed | hullita nf anthracite valley, dale | [Pe] river bed | h. de drenaje humedecer vtr to moisten, humidify watershed | h. de explosion shot hole | h. glacial humedad nf humidity | h. de canter a quarry hole water | h. del suelo hoyada nf depression, hollow, dip hiimedo,-da adj humid, wet, damp hoyar vtr to dig holes in, make holes humilde metal nm [Pe] silver ore that readily hoyo nm hole, pit | h. de disparo shot hole amalgamates hoz nf gorge, ravine humita nf huachaca n/[Cerro de Pasco, Pe] ore paid to humo nm smoke | los humos [Cerro de Pasco, workers or lessors Pe] 'the smoke1, a controversy brought about huaico nm [Arg, Pe] debris flow, mud flow by the installation of a copper smelter without huaillaripear vtr [Pe] to steal ore | to extract even so much as a bag house for pollution gold from tailings by means of running water control and sheepskins humor nm [BC, Mex] trace huairona nf [Pe] lime kiln hundido,-da adj caved | nm dip huairuna nf [Pe] small, earthen retort used to hundimiento nm subsidence | caving | dip of a recover mercury from amalgam bed | pitch of a fold axis | h. en caldero caldron huambi nm [Pe] realgar subsidence huarina nf [Potosi, Bol] member of a cuadrillo or hundirse vpr to dip | to subside | to cave gang of weekend Creole miners who worked the huroniano,-na adj Huronian mines for their own benefit from Saturday night to Monday morning and on feast days 1-1

cascjuete degas gas cap drive | i. por gas disuelto solution gas drive | i por gravedad gravity drive iacotinga nf [Br] quartz-hematite-gold ore impulse nm impusle icenenseotif; Icenian | nm Icenian impureza nf impurity icosaedro nm impurificado,-da adj impure, contaminated icositetraedro nm impurificar vtr to contaminate ida y vuelta nf round trip (in drilling) impuro,-ra adj impure idiobldsticOs-ca adj idioblastic inagotable adj inexhaustible idiocroma'tico/-ca adj idiochromatic inanga nf a gray idi6geno,-na adj syngenetic inarm6nico/-ca adj disharmonic, inharmonic idiomorfo/-fa adj idiomorphic incarbonizacidn nf coalification idocrasa nf , idocrase inciso,-sa adj incised igarapes nmpl branches of a river inclinacion nf declivity, slope | gradient | [Arg, igneo/-nea adj igneous Ch] dip | i. magnetica magnetic dip | sin i. ignifugo,-ga adj refractory aclinic Igualadense nm Igualadian inclinado,-da adj inclined ilita nf illite inclinarse vpr to dip | to slope, rake iluminacidn nf illumination inclinometro nm dipmeter | clinometer, iluvial adj illuvial imagen nf image incluido,-da adj imbedded, included imdn nm magnet, loadstone | magnetite inclusidn nf inclusion | i. anexa cognate imanacidn nf magnetization inclusion | i de escoria salg inclusion | i. imanar or imantar vtr to magnetize | vpr to exogena xenolith | i. fluida fluid inclusion | ;'. become magnetized gaseosa gas inclusion | i. negativa negative imantacion nf magnetization crystal | i. solida inclusion imbibicion nf imbibition, absorption incoherente adj incoherent, unconsolidated imbricacidn nf imbrication, overlapping incoloro,-ra adj colorless imbrkado,-da adj imbricated, imbricate, incolumita nf flexible sandstone overlapping incompetente adj incompetent imbricar vtr to imbricate, overlap incongruente adj incongruent, incongruous imma nf red ocher inconsecuente adj inconsequent impaccidn nf impact inconsistente adj unstable, loose, uncompacted impacto nm impact incorporation nf incorporation (coalification) impar adj odd, uneven | nm odd number increcidn nf incretion impedancia nf impedance | i. acustica acoustic incremento nm increment, recharge impedence incrustacion nf incrustation, inlay | scale impederreventones nmpl [Vz] blowout incrustado,-da adj incrusted, incrustate | preventer (on a drill rig) embedded impermeabilidad nf impermeability incrustante adj incrusting, scale-forming | nm impermeable adj impermeable | impervious incrustant impregnacidn nf impregnation incrustar vtr to incrust, inlay | vpr to embed impregnado,-da adj impregnated itself impregnar vtr to impregnate | vpr to become incurrente adj incurrent, influent impregnated independencia nf independence | i. en impresion nf impression, imprint probabilidad indepenence in probability impronta nf impression, imprint, cast, mark indicacidn nf indication, generally favorable for impuesto nm tax | i. de production severance tax ore impulsar vtr to drive indicador nm radioactive tracer | i. de impulsidn nf natural drive mechanism for oil deformacion strain gauge | i. de desviacion drift and gas pools | i. por agua water drive | i. par indicator | i. de pH pH meter | i. de profundidad 1-2

depth meter inflado,-da adj inflated indicatriz nf indicatrix inflexion nf inflection mdice nm index | i. ca.lco-alca.lino alkali-lime influjo nm inflow | flood tide index | . de dureza hardness number | i, de informador nm oil scout escurrimiento runoff coefficient | i. de Infracambrico nm Infracambrian hinchamiento swelling index | i. de mareafosil infraglacial adj subglacial index fossil | i. de petroleo show of oil | i. de inframargenal adj inframarginal Prandtl Prandtl number | i. de productividad infrapuesto,-ta adj underlying productivity index (crude oil) | i. de refraccion mfrarrojo,-ja adj infrared | nm infrared index of refraction | f. de Reynold Reynold's infrayacente adj underlying number | i. K index infundible adj infusible indicios nmpl traces, indications mfusorio,-ria adj infusorial indigacidn nf search | examination infusoriolita nf indigo adj/nm indigo | i. de cobre covellite ingenieria nf engineering | e. minera mining indigolita nf indicolite engineering | e. petrolera petroleum indio nm indium | i. de faltriquera Indian who engineering avoided the mita by means of a fee paid to his ingeniero nm engineer | i. de lodos mud employer engineer | i de minus mining engineer | i. de indisolubilidad nf indisolubility nivel [Ec] levelman | i. minero mining engineer indistinto,-ta adj indistinct | i. petrolero petroleum engineer indos nmpl [Vz] invert ingenio nm mill, usually consisting of two induction nf induction | inference | i. estadistica stamps | smelting works | sluice statistical inference ingresion nf ingression inducido,-da adj induced ingreso nm entrance | nmpl earnings, revenues inducidor,-dora adj inducing inhalante adj incurrent | nm inducer inhomogeneidad nf inhomogeneity inducir vtr to induce inmadurez nf immaturity inductancia nf inductance inmaduro,-ra adj immature inductivo,-va adj inductive inmersion nf immersion inductor,-ora adj inducing | nm inductor | i. de inmerso,-sa adj immersed tierra earth inductor inmiscibilidad nf immiscibility induracion nf induration inmiscible adj immiscible indurar vtr to indurate inorganico,-ca adj inorganic indurado,-da adj indurated inosilicato nm inosilicate industria nf industry | i. extractiva mining inquilinato nm leasehold industry | i. minera mining industry | i. insecuente adj insequent petrolera petroleum industry msito,-ta adj in situ inerte adj inert | nmpl aggregates insolito nm insolith inestable adj unstable insolubilidad nf insolubility inestabilidad nf instability insula nf island inexacto,-ta adj inaccurate insularidad nf insulosity inexplotable adj unexploitable intensidad nf intensity inexplotado,-da adj unexploited interarrecife nm interreef inexplorado,-da adj unexplored intercalation nf intercalation | inset | i. en forma infeccionar vtr [Pe] to contaminate, pollute lenticular interlensing infecundo,-da adj barren of ore, sterile intercalado,-da adj intercalated, interjacent | nm inferior adj lower | inferior intercalate infiltracion nf infiltration intercalar vtr to intercalate infiltrar vtr to infiltrate intercapa nf interbed infiltrarse en vpr to infiltrate into intercarga nf interburden inflacion nf tumescence | inflation interclusidn nf intercalation 1-3 intercorriente adj inters tream exploration intercrecimiento nm intergrowth investigar vintr to research, investigate, explore intercuenca nf interbasin inyeccidn nf injection | i. de agua water flood or intercumulo nm intercumulus injection | i. de espuma foam injection | i. de gas interdigitacidn nf intertounging, interfingering gas injection | i. de vapor steam flooding or interdigitado,-da adj intertounged, injection | i forzada forced injection | i. interfingered magmdtica magmatic injection interduna nf interdune inyectado,-da adj injected interestratificacidn nf inyectarirfr to inject interestratificado,-da adj interbedded idnico,-ca adj ionic interestratiflcar vtr to interbed ionizacidn nf ionization interfaz nf interface ionizar vtr/pr to ionize interferencia nf interference iondgeno,-na adj inorganic interfluvio nm interfluve ipabismal adj hypabyssal interlacustre adj interlacustrine ir a pena vtr [Col] to hit a paystreak in a placer interlobulado,-da adj interlobate iridio nm iridium | /. nativo native iridium intermedio,-dia adj intermediate iridiscencia nf iridescence intermitente adj intermittent iridiscente adj iridescent interno,-na adj inner, interior | internal iridosmina nf iridosmine, iridosmium interparticula nf interparticle iris nm iridescent hyaline quartz | i. calcedonia interplegamiento nm interfolding iridescent chalcedony | i. citrino yellow hyaline interpolacidn nf interpolation quartz interpolar vtr to interpolate irisacidn nf iridescence interprecipitado nm interprecipitate irisado,-da adj iridescent interseccidn nf [math] intercept irisar vintr to iridesce, be iridescent | vpr to intersticio nm interstice become iridescent intervale nm interval | i. de aceptadon irradiacidn nf irradiation acceptance interval or region | /'. de close class irradiar vtr to irradiate interval | i. de confianza confidence interval | i. isla nf island | /'. de barrera barrier island | i. en de erosion erosional interval | i. de rechaza rosario island chain | i. ocednica oceanic island rejection interval or region | i. intercuartilar isleo nm | island | /". cobijante erosional interquartile interval remnant interyacente adj interbedded isleta nf islet intradelta nf delta plain islete nm islet intrafiloniano,-na adj between veins islilla nf islet intraformacional adj intraformational islote nm islet intratelurico,-ca adj intratelluric isoanomalia nf isoanomaly intruido,-da adj intrusive isoandmalo,-la adj isoanomalous intruir vtr to intrude isoantracita nf isoanthracite intrusivor-va adj intrusive | nf intrusive isobara nf isobar intumescencia nf intumescence, swelling isobarico,-ca adj isobaric inundable adj easily flooded isobarometrico,-ca adj isobarometric immdacidn nf flood | flooding isobata nf isobath inundado,-da adj flooded, inundated isocarbono nm isocarbon inundar vtr to flood, inundate isoclinal adj isoclinal | nm isocline inverso,-sa adj inverted, inverse isoclinico,-ca adj isoclinic invertido,-da adj inverted | nm invert isoclino,-na adj isoclinal invertimiento nm [Pe] discharge, outfall isocora nf isochore invertir vtr to invert | to plunge (transit) | to isocromo nm isochrome revert | to invest | [Pe] to discharge, empty isocrona nf isochron investigacidn nf research, investigation, isdcrono,-na adj isochronous 1-4 isodina nf isomagnetic line isotipo nm isotype isodinamico,-ca adj isodynamic isotdpico,-ca adj isotopic isofana nf franklinite isdtopo nm isotope isdgala nf isogal isotropia nf isotropy isdgama nm isogam isotrdpico/-ca adj isotropic isogeoterma nf isogeotherm isotropismo nm isotropism isdgono,-na adj isogonic | nf isogonic line isdtropo,-pa adj isotropic isohalina nf isohaline isoyeta nm isohyet isofeta nf isohyet istmo nm isthmus isoipsa nf contour line itabo nm [Vz] inlet isolmea nf isopleth itacolumita nf flexible sandstone isomegatia nf isomegathy itali nm [Mex] obsidian isomerismo nm isomeric italita nf isomerizacidn nf isomerization iteracidn nf iteration isdmero,-ra adj isomeric | nm isomer iterar vtr to iterate isometamorfismo nm isometamorphism iterativo,-va adj iterative isomdrfico,-ca adj isomorphic iterbico,-ca adj ytterbic isomorfismo nm isomorphism iterbio nm ytterbium isomorfo nm isomorph itria nf yttria isopaca nf isopach itrico,-ca adj yttric isdpaco nm isopach itrio nm yttrium isoparafina nf isoparrafin itrocerita nf yttrocerite isopentano nm isopentane itrofluorita nf yttrofluorite isopleta nf isopleth itroilmenita nf samarskite isdpora nf isopore itrotantalita nf yttrotantalite isopreno nm isoprene itrotitanita nf isoquimico,-ca adj isochemical itztle or itztli nm [Mex] obsidian isorrumbado,-da adj follows the same strike iu nm , nephrite isosista nf isoseismic line ixtajale nm [Tasco, M£x] earthy iron oxide | isostasia nf isostacy [Zacualpan, Mex] silver sulphide disseminated isostasis nf isostacy in iron oxides | [Sultepec, M£x] native wire isostatico,-ca adj isostatic and leaf silver with gypsum, cerargyrite, isotangente nm isotangent argentite, and oxides isoterma nf isotherm izadornm hoist isotermico,-ca adj isothermic, isothermal izaje nm hoisting isotermo,-ma adj isothermal izar vtr to hoist isotipico,-ca adj isotypic izcu nm [Pe] lime J-l

jagiiey nm [Arg] pit or trench filled with water jais nf jet jaki nm khal jabalcdnnm trench brace jalatocle nm [M6c] alluvium jabalconar vtr to shore, brace, prop jalde adj deep yellow Jabalinense nm Acadian jaldo,-da adj deep yellow jabeca [Almaden, Sp] a type of furnace used to jaldre adj deep yellow d is till mercury jales nmpl [M£x] tailings jable nf a fine, white sand jali nm khal jabdn nm [Guanajuato, Mex] friable, talcose, jaldn nm [surv] rod, range pole | ;. de cadeno silver-bearing ore | [Villa Nueva, Hon] friable, chaining pin | j. de mira level rod talcose, siliceous, gold and silver sulfide- jalonar vtr [surv] to run a survey line bearing ore | [Col] slickenside | ;'. de montana jalonero nm [surv] rodman steatite | halloysite | ;'. de sastre steatite, jamasquita nf jamaskite (obs, hornblende soapstone | ;. de soldado smectite | j. de vidrieros jacupirangite) | j. mineral smectite Janitorense nm Janitorian (sub-stage of the jaboncillo nm clay, gouge, generally as an Corallian) alteration product of country rock | [Potosi, janosita nf copiapite Bol] kaolinite | [Ch] nitrate of soda streaked japanita nf penninite with lime | [Mex] clay selvage on a vein | jaquelado nm checkerboard pattern steatite, talc jardin nm spot which disfigures an emerald jabre nm [Gal] a fine, white feldspathic sand jargon nm jargoon, jargon (pale yellow jem derived from altered granite variety of zircon) jacintina nf idocrase Jarkov nm Kharkov jacinto nm hyacinth, jacinth (a transparent red jaspagata nf agate jasper, jaspagate, jaspachate var of zircon) | cinnamon-stone (a var of jaspe nm jasper | veined marble | /. de garnet) | j. de Ceildn zircon | j. de Compostela banded brown and green jasper | ;. egipcio dark red crytalline quartz | j. de disentis Egyption jasper | ;. florido multicolored jasper cinnamon-stone, a variety of garnet | ;. de los | j. heliotrope bloodstone | _;'. jaspeado mixture volcanes idocrase | _;'. occidental bright yellow of green jasper and agate | ;. negro touchstone variety of topaz | _;'. oriental orange variety of | j. opalo jaspopal | j. porcelana jasper corundum | j. volcanico idocrase | j. sanguineo bloodstone | /. veteado ribbon Jacksoniense nm/adj Jacksonian jasper | ;'. zonar ribbon jasper jacksonita nf prehnite jaspeado,-da adj spotted | mottled, variegated jacupirangita nf jacupirangite | ;'. apatitica | marbled, streaked, veined | like jasper, apatite jacupirangite | j. feldespdtica feldspar jaspideous jacupirangite jaspear vtr to marble, mottle, vein, streak jacupirangitico,-ca adj jacupirangitic jasperado,-da adj jasperated jacutinga nf jacutinga, itabirite jasperina nf jasperine jade nm jade | j. de saussure | j. jasperita nf jasper oriental jasperizacidn nf jasperization jade-albita nf maw-sit-sit, jade-albite jasperoide adj jasperoid | jasper jadeita-egirina nf a mixture of jadeite and jasperizar vtr to jasperize aegirine jaspideano,-na adj jaspidean, jaspery jagua nf [Col] powdery, sulfide ore | black jaspilitico,-ca adj jaspilitic in placers | concentrates rich in gold and jaspoide adj jaspoid | nm tachylyte heavy minerals | j. de recorte heavy mineral jaspdn nm a variety of marble, stained red and residues from gold recovery in an arrastre yellow jaguadero nm outlet (of a river) jaspdnix nm jasponyx jagiiel nm [Arg, Ch] pit or trench filled with jaspopal nm jasper opal, jaspopal, opal jasper water jaula nf cage (in a shaft) | j. de extraccion mine J-2

cage jotun-norita nf jotunite (obs, ) jayet nm jet Jovarense nm/adj middle part of the middle jazido nm layer, bed or seam | ore or mineral deposit jovenadj young | recent | undeformed jebe nm [Sp] alum Joviano nm part of the Quaternary jefe nm chief, boss | ;'. de brigada [surv, expl] jovin adj uneroded, little eroded party chief | ;'. de cuadrilla squad boss | ;'. de juagada nf [Col] alluvial gravel lacking sand oficina office manager | j. de punta shift boss | and gold j. de turno shift boss juan blanco nm [Col] placer platinum | mica jejo nm stone, rock jucu nm [Bol] high grader, ore thief jelinita nf kansasite (a fossil resin) juddita nf Mn-hornblende jelletita nf pale green andradorite juego nm set | suite | ;'. de colores play of colors jemal adj a palm in length | j. de diaclasas joint set | ;. de mare the jeme nm palm (measure of distance) complete tidal cycle | stretch of beach or coast jenkinsita nf ferroan bounded by the tidal cycle jentschita nf lengenbachite jugar nm tidal movement of the sea (rise and jenzschita nf chalcedony fall) jeroglifico,-ca adj hieroglyphic | nm hieroglyph jugo de la tierra nm hydrocarbon Jerseyense nm Jerseyian (glacial stage) jugo lapideo nm parent magma | residual melt jerulfina nf altered to apatite | intersitial glass | cement in conglomerates jet nm jet julianita nf tennantite jewreinowita nf vesuvianite julio nm joule jezekita nf morinite jumo nm [Col] scarcely visible flake of gold jilopalo nm wood opal junckerita nf variety of siderite jinyunita nf mixture of mordenite and junkerita nf siderite junta nf joint | junction (of a river) jiwaarita nf Ti-melanite juntarse vpr to coalesce Johannense nm/adj Olenidian juntura nf joint | ;'. de estratificacion bedding johnita nf green variety of turquoise plane johnstonita nf | galena junturamiento nm jointing johnstontonita nf variety of juquear vtr [Bol] to high grade, steal ore johnstrupita nf mosandrite juqueo nm [Bol] ore theft, high-grading jolita nf iolite juquero nm [Bol] ore-thief jollyita nf Al- Jura nf | /. blanco Malm | /. negro Lias | jorfe nm precipice /. pardo Dogger Jorgense nm/adj [Arg] local age name equivalent Jurasico,-ca adj Jurassic | nm Jurassic | /. to Danian inferior lower Jurassic | /. media jorgyanita nf scoredite | /. superior upper Jurassic jornada nf a day's work, working day, shift | a jurinita nf brookite day's journey | expedition | ;'. doble double jurupaita nf Mn-xonotlite shift | j. simple single shift jusente adj that rises or falls with an ebb tide | jornal adj by the day's work | [Col] by the nm ebb tide hour's work | nm day's wage | day's work | justipreciacion nf appraisal [Col] hourly wage justipreciador nm appraiser jornalar vtr to employ by the day justipreciar vtr to appraise, rate jornalero nm workman, laborer justiprecio nm appraised value Josarense nm lower part of the Pontian Juvarense nm/adj Juvavian josefinita nf nickel-iron, ferronickel juvenil adj juvenile josena nf josen, hartite juventud nf youth jossaita nf a mixture of crocoite and sphalerite K-l

K karbonatberesita nf beresite (obs, altered ) karbonatita nf karbonatitalnoita nf alnoite kafehidrocianita nf kafehydrocyanite karlsteinita nf carlstainite (obs, alkali granite) kainolitico,-ca adj Cenozoic karniense adj Carnian k'ajcha n/[Potosi, Bol] member of a cuadrillo or karst nm karst | k. cubierto covered karst | k. gang of weekend indio miners who worked desnudo naked or bare karst | k. elevado relict their employer's mines for their own benefit karst | k. subterrdneo interstratal or subjacent from Saturday night to Monday morning and karst on feast days karstenita nf rock anhydrite, anhydrock kakirita nf protomylonite karstico,-ca adj karstic kakoxena nf kakixen karstificacidn nf karstification Kalaviense adj lower Algonquin | nm lower kasaita nf kassaite (obs, hauyne monzonite or Algonquin syenodiorite porphyry) kalicamptonita nf cascadite (obs, sodic minette) Kaskasia nm Kaskasia kaligranito nm kaligranite (obs, granite) kasparite nf cobaltoan kalikeratdfido nm kalikeratophyre (obs, kataforita nf kataphorite ) kataforit-solvsbergita nf solvsbergite (obs, kalinefelinita nf kalinephelinite (obs, nephelinte) trachyte) kaliofilita nf kaliophilite katapleitsienita nf - kalifita nf kaliphite katatectico,-ca adj katatectic kalipirocloro nm kalipyrochlore katavotre nf abyss kalipiroxerita nf pyroxenolite (obs, ) katazona nf katazone kaliqueratofiro nm kalikeratophyre (obs, katogemco,-ca adj katogenic keratophyre) katogeno nm katogene kaliriolita nf kalirhyolite (obs, potash rhyolite or kaukasita nf caucasite (obs, sanidine granite) ) kaulaita nf kauaiite (obs, olivine-augite diorite) kalisienita nf kalisyenite (obs, alkali syenite) Kazan nm Kazanian kalitinguaitpdrfido nm kalitinguaite porphyry kazansquita nf kazanskite (obs, magnetite- (obs, phonolite) d unite) kalitraquita nf kalitrachyte (obs, trachyte) keelyita nf zinkenite kalkafanita nf amygdaloidal diabase Keewatino nm Keewatin, Keewatinian kalkbostonita nf maenaite (obs, plagioclase keiviita nf keivyite ) kelifitico,-ca adj kelyphytic kalkdiabasa nf amygdaloid al diabase kelyfitico,-ca adj kelyphitic kalkgranito nm calcigranite (obs, granite) kelifito nm corona kalkuranita nf uranite kellerita nf cuprian pentahydrite kaluszita nf singenite kenngotita nf miargyrite kam or kame nm kame kenyita nm kenyte (obs, olivine phonolitic kamarezita nf brochantite trachyte) kammgranito nm kammgranite (obs, granite) kenyta nm kenyte (obs, olivine phonolitic kammgramtico,-ca adj kammgranitic (obs, trachyte) granitic) kerabitumen nm Kansan nm Kansan kerargirita nf kerargyrite kansita nf keratita nf hornfels | compact ground mass in kantografia nf kantography melaphyres kaolin nm kaolin keratofido nm keratophyre | k. cuardfero quartz kaolinico,-ca adj kaolinic keratophyre kaolinita nf kaolinite keratdfiro nm keratophyre | k. cuardfero quartz kaolinitko,-ca adj kaolinitic keratophyre kaolinizacidn nf kaolinization keratofirospilita nf spilitized keratophyre K-2 keratospilita nf keratospilite (obs, spilitized kirunavaarita nf magnetitite, kiirunvaarite albite diabase) klaprotita nf mixture of wittichenite and kerogeno nm kerogen emplectite kerogenita nf oil shale klausenita nf clausenite (obs, diorite , keros£n nm kerosene quartz gabbro) | kerosene nm kerosene kmaita nf kerosina nf kerosene knoxvillita nf copiapite kersantita nf kersantite | k. aplita aplitic Koblenzense nm Coblenzian kersantite | k. augitica augite kersantite | k, kodurita nf kodurite (obs, ) | k. biotitica brondtica bronzite kersantite | k. cuarcica biotite kodurite | k. cuardfera quartz kodurite | quartz kersantite | k. esferoidal or esferolitica k. piroxenica kodurite spheroidal kersantite | k. hornablendica kodoritico,-ca adj koduritic hornblende kersantite | k. olivinica olivine koelbingita nf kenigmatite kersantite | k. orbicular orbicular kersantite koivinita nf florencite kersantitpegmatita nf kersantite kokkokonita nf cocconite (coccolith limestone) keuperiano,-na adj Keuper kolbeckina nf herzenbergite Keuprico nm Keuper kolskita nf mixture of lizardite and sepiolite keweenawiano,-na adj Keweenawan komatiita nf K-feldespato nm K-feldspar kongadiabasa nf Konga diabase (par quartz khajcha nf [Potosi, Bol] member of a cuadrillo or dolerite) gang of weekend indio miners who worked Kongurense nm Kungurian their employer's mines for their own benefit Konialnikense nm Konialnikian, Pontian? from Saturday night to Monday morning and koppita nf on feast days kornerupina nf khareo nm [Bol] hand sorting (of ore) korund-anorthosita nf kyschtymite (obs, khareadora nf ore sorter (usually a woman) corundum anorthosite) khibinita nf mosandrite (mineral) | chibinite korund-gabro nm corundum hornblend gabbro (rock) korundmagnetitita nf corundum magnetitite khinganita nf korundnefelindiorita nf dungannonite (obs, khuniita nf alkali corundum diorite) kieselgur nm kieselguhr, kiselgur korundoligoclaspegmatita nf plumasite (obs) kiirunavaarita nf magnetitite korundplagioklasita nf kyschtymite (obs, kilaje nm [Arg] weight in kilograms corundum anorthosite) kilbrickenita nf As-geochronite kosmocloro nm , ureyite kiliarea nf kiliare kramerita nf probertite kilita nf kylite (obs, olivine ) kratogeno nm shield kilo nm kilogram kraurita nf dufrenite kilobara nf kilobar kreuzbergita nf pleystenite kilocaloria nf kilocalorie kriptdn nm krypton kilociclo nm kilocycle kristianita nf cristianite (obs, biotite granite) kilogramo nm kilogram kryokonita nf cryoconite kilometraje nm distance in kilometers Kungurnm Kungurian kilometrico,-ca adj kilometric Kunguriense nm Kungurian kildmetro nm kilometer kurskita nf carbonate-fluorapatite kimmeriano,-na adj Kimmerian kiirunavaarita nf magnetitite, kiirunvaarite kimmerico,-ca adj Kimmerian kuselita nf cuselite (obs, biotite-augite kimmeridgiano,-na adj Kimmeridgian lamprophyre) kimmeridgense adj Kimmeridgian kusuita nf wakefieldite-(Ce) Kinderhook nm Kinderhookian L-l

by weathering laguna nf lagoon | small lake | reservoir used to store water to supply water-powered stamp labfl adj unstable | labile | friable mills | /. costera coastal lagoon | /. de labio nm lip, edge | /. defalla fault limb decantacion tailings pond labor nf miner working or work | working lagunato nm [Cu] pool, pond place or face | a measure of area (177.14 acres) lagunero nm person in charge of the upkeep of | /. a cielo overhand working | /. a cielo abierto lagunas open pit working | 1. a traves cross cut | /. lagunoso,-sa adj full of lagoons abandonada abandoned working | /. alia [Col] laja nf thin, flat stone | bed, layer or sheet | placer working above water level | /. auxiliar stone slab | /. chavera [Cartagena, Sp] highly development work | /. baja [Col] placer decomposed slate working below water level | /. de buncos lajeado,-da adj [Mex, Ur] laminated underhand stoping | /. de beneficio mill, milling lajillan/[Vz] shale | /. de cantera stone quarry, open pit work | /. lajoso,-sa adj [Ur] laminated de hacienda all workings in a mine not leased | lama nf slime, mud, silt | tailings | ore in the /. de realce overhand stoping | /. de form of dust or fine powder within veins | reconocimiento exploratory workings | /. de [Tipuani, Bol] gravel beds forming false testeros overhand stoping | /. en rebajo bedrock to gold placers underhand stoping | /. par lajas slabbing, lamelaradj laminated slashing | /. preparativas development work lamelifonne adj lamelliform laboreo nm mining, exploitation, working | art lamina nf lamella (pi lamellae) | slab | thin of mining | /. a cielo abierto open pit mining | /. plate or sheet | scale | /. de pirita scare | /. de de crestones surface workings | /. de grada pizarra slab of slate, slate stoping | /. de subniveles sublevel stoping | /. en laminacidn nf lamination avance advancing system | /. en retirada laminado,-da adj laminated | tabular retreating system | /. minero mining, laminilla nf lamella (pi lamellae) | thin sheet | exploitation | /. par cuadras panel working | /. flake par socavon adit cut mining lamoso,-da adj slimey | [Aguascalientes, Mex] labra nf working, cutting, carving, or dressing copper ores in a steatite matrix of stone lamprdfiro nm lamprophyre labrado,-da adj worked, wrought, cut, carved | lancanstriano,-na adj Lancastrian nm cutting, carving lancastriense nm Lancastrian labrar vtr to work a mine | to work metals | to lancha nf thin, flat stone | stone slab dress, cut or carve stone | /. enfacetas to facet lanchar nm quarry yielding lanchas lacolito nm landeniano,-na adj Landenian lacunario,-ria adj lacustrine landeniense nm Landenian lacustre adj lacustrine, lake lantano nm lanthanum ladera nf declivity, slope, side, hillside | highly lapa«/[Pe] footwall inclined flanks of a saddle or anticline | flank lapiez nm karren ladiniano,-na adj Ladinian lapili nf | /. de acrecion accretion lapilli ladiniense adj Ladinian lapislazuli nf lago nm lake | /. alcalino alkaline lake | /. de agua lapiz nm graphite, black lead, plumbargo | dulce fresh water lake | /. de agua salada salt black chalk | /. encarnado or rojo red chalk or lake | /. de circo | /. de crater | /. de erosion erosion lake ! /. de erosion glaciar \ I. lapizarnm graphite mine defractura tectonic lak i | 1. de glaciar glacier laque nm druse lake | /. en herradura oxbow lake | /. endicado la sea nf small, thin fragment of stone | chip, barrier lake | /. salado salt lake, saline lake | /. spall semilunar oxbow lake lascarufr to spall laguena nf decomposition of argillaceous schist lastra nf flat stone, stone slab, flagstone | L-2

[Serrata de Lorca, Sp] bed of native sulphur, of legitima n/[Real del Monte, Mex] vein having which there are several: /. de arriba the upper an east-west trend bed, /. de abajo or defuego middle bed, and /. de legua nf league, a measure of distance of 5000 agua the lowermost which was not worked footsteps (about 5572 meters) (a day's ride on lastre nm weathered stone of poor quality found horseback is about six leagues) at the surface of quarries leguaje nm an advance for travel expenses that lastronnm large flagstone should have but was rarely paid to mitayos by lateritico,-ca adj lateritic mine owners when they left their communities laterizacidn nf laterization for the mines latilla nf lath lenar nm karren, lapiaz latitud nf latitude | breadth, width | total lengua del glaciar nf glacial tongue extent of a region, belt, , district, etc | lengiiebuey nm [Antioqua, Col] a trachyte so a 30° latitud sur 30° south named because its texture resembles that of an lattorfiano,-na adj LattorBan ox's tongue lattorfiense adj Lattorfian lente nm lense | magnifying glass | lenticular lauegrama nm lauegram mass of rock | /. ocular eyepiece laurencio nm lawrencium lenteja nf lenticular mass of rock, ore or mineral lava nf lava | washing of ore | /. cordada pillow lentejon nm lense (of sedimentary rock) lava | /. de blocjue block lava | /. en alhomada lenoso,-sa adj woody, ligneous | /. escoriacea aa lava | /. pahoehoe lepidoblastico,-ca adj lepidoblastic pahoehoe leucito nm leucite lavada nf washing of placers or ore leucocratico,-ca adj leucocratic lavadero nm site for washing placers or ore | leucopirita nf leucopyrite [Ch, Pe] placer deposit | act of washing placers leucozafiro nm leucosapphire or ore levantada nf lavado nm washing | /. de surcos \ I. superficial levantamiento nm elevation | uplift | survey | lavador nm gold pan | surveying | creep (soil) | /. aerofotogrametrico lavadora nf gold pan | /. de carbon coal washer aerial survey | /. stsmico siesmic survey lavadura nf washing of placers or ore | nfpl levantar vtr to survey | to uplift, elevate washings levee nf levee | /. natural natural levee lavaje nm washing of placers or ore levigacidn nf levigation lavar vtr to wash placers or ore levogiro,-ra adj sinistral lazada nf bow, knot | en lazada loop ley nf law | grade of ore | legal standard of lazo nm bow, knot | en forma de L loop quality or fineness | statistical distribution lazurita nf lapis lazuli, function | /. beta beta distribution | /. binomial lechada nf mixture of lime and gypsum or of binomial distribution | /. binomial negativa lime and sand | slurry, paste negative binomial distribution | /. de leche de luna nm calcareous clay Boyle's law | /. de Charles Charles's law | /. de F leche de tierra nm magnesia F distribution | /. de Henry Henry's law | /. de leche fosil de luna nm mineral agaric minas mining law | /. de metal grade | /. de lechecilla nf [Tasco, Mex] a var of limestone Pareto Pareto distribution | /. de Poisson lechedor nm [Pe] huantajaite | [Atacama, Ch] Poisson distribution | /. de student student t- oxidized ore or gossan rich in silver chlorides distribution | /. de Weibull Weibull distribution lecho nm river bed | thin layer, bed or stratum | /. discreta uniforme uniform distribution | /. | /. de canter a bed of stone | /. de creciente flood exponential exponential distribution | /. gamma plain | /. de rio stream bed | /. de roca bedrock gamma distribution | /. geometrica geometric | /. mayor flood plain distribution | /. hipergeometrica hypergeometric lediano,-na adj Ledian distribution | /. ji cuadrado chi-squared lediense adj Ledian distribution j /. lognormal lognormal legamo nm slime, mud, ooze | loam distribution | /. media average grade | /. legamoso,-sa adj slimey, oozey, loamy mineral mining law | /. mulitinomial L-3

multinomial distribution | /. normal normal limpia nf low-grade ore or waste distribution | /. rectangular Rectangular limpiar vtr to clean up, as for a mill, dredge, etc distribution | /. superior a grade greater than | limpio nm cobbed or sorted ore /. t t-distribution | /. unifomre uniform linde nm boundary, limit distribution | con ley de of a grade of | de baja lindero nm boundary, especially of a mining (alta) ley of low (high) grade claim leyenda nf legend (to a map) linea nf line | twelth part of a pulgada or inch | Iherzolita nf Iherzolite /. ach'nica aclinic line, magnetic equator | /. de lias nm Lias costa coastline, strandline | /. de crecimiento lia"sico,-ca adj Liassic, Lias | nm Liassic growth line | /. de charnela hinge line | /. de libra nf pound, a measure of weight | /. esterlina fractura fracture line | /. de literal shoreline | /. pound sterling de nieves perpetuas snow line | /. de tierra libreadj free ground line | /. geodesica geodesic line | /. libreta nf notebook | /. de campo field book isodindmica isodynamic line | /. isogonica licuacidn nf liquification isogonic line | /. transversal traverse licuefaccidn nf liquification lineacidn nf lineation liquifacer vtr to liquify lineamiento nm lineament lidita nf lyd ite, touchstone lingote nm ingot | /. de hierro pig iron | /. de lienza nf measuring tape plomo pig of lead lievrita nf ilvaite liparita nf rhyolite liga nf alloy | alloy of gold and silver used in lipis nm copper sulfate coinage | [Mex] smelting ore, or ore used as a lipta nf [Bol] grey silver ores which accompany flux in smelting | [Potosi, Bol] galena | /. de tin ore metal alloy liquado nm liquid | /. newtoniano Newtonian ligacidn nf bond liquid ligar vtr to alloy (metals) liso,-sa adj even | nm an extensive flat face of a ligero,-ra adj light rock | slickenside | [Col] fault lignftico,-ca adj lignitic lista nf stripe, band lignito nm lignite or brown coal | /. duro \ I, listado,-da adj striped | in thin layers, lenoso lignite proper | /. xiloide xyloid lignite laminated limadura n/[Mex] refined silver or silver listones nmpl riffles amalgam produced by the patio process of litarge nm litharge | /. nativo lead ocher amalgamation litargirio nm litharge limbo nm limb (of a fold) litificacidn nf limite nm boundary | limit | /. conservador de litico,-ca adj lithic placas transform plate boundary | /. de litio nm confianza confidence limit | /. de contraccion litoclasa nf lithoclase shrinkage limit | /. de nieve snow line | /. de litoestratigrafico,-ca adj lithostratigraphic placa plate boundary | /. de placas convergentes litofacies nfpl lithofacies converging plate boundary | /. de placas litdfilo,-la adj lithophile divergentes diverging plate boundaries litofisuras nfpl lithophysae limitrofe adj bordering litogenesis nf lithogenesis limnico,-ca adj lacustrine, limnic litologia nf limnologia nf limnology litoldgico,-ca adj lithological limo nm silt, mud | /. de derrubios | litomargo nm lithomarge, kaolin /. defaldeo literal adj coastal, littoral | nm shore | /. entre lomolito nm mareas foreshore | /. submarino offshore limonita nf limonite litosfera nm limomtico,-ca adj limonitic litosiderita nf lithosiderite limonitizado,-da adj limonitic litostatico,-ca adj lithostatic limoso,-sa adj muddy, silty litraje nm [Arg] volume in liters L-4 litro nm liter [Coquimbo, Ch] shell-bearing conglomerate lixivacidn nf , lixivation | /. amoniacal losero nm quarry for losa or flagstone | ammonia leaching [Guanajuato/ Mex] sandstone quarry lizote nm [Sinaloa, Me"x] blue speckled quartz lotaringiano/-na adj Lotharingian rich in silver lotaringiense nm Lotharingian local nm site | /. del ingenio mill site loza nf [Pe] bedrock to a placer localidad nf locality | /. tipo type locality ludiano,-na adj Ludian lodazal nm marsh/ bog ludiense adj Ludian lodo nm mud/ ooze/ sludge | /. calcareo ludloviano,-na adj Ludlovian calcareous ooze | /. de slliceo | /. ludloviense adj Ludlovian de diatomeas diatomaceous ooze | I. de lumbre nm flint | fires tone rodiolarios radolarian ooze | /. mineral slime | /. lumbrera nf shaft rojo red mud luminescente adj luminescent lodolita nf mudstone luminiscencia nf luminescence | /. catodica lodoso,-sa adj muddy loes or loess nm loess luminoso,-sa adj luminous logaritmico/-ca adj logarithmic lupa nf magnifying glass/ lens | hand lens logaritmo nm logarithm lurte nm landslide loma nf ridge/ rise/ hill/ hillock | /. de lusitaniano,-na adj Lusitanian acumulacion accretionary ridge lusitaniense adj Lusitanian lomada nf [ Arg] hill/ ridge or lustro nm luster lomerio nm [Me"x] a range of hills lustroso,-sa adj shiny/ glossy/ lustrous lomo nm ridge | /. eolico windrow ridge luteciano,-na adj loncha nf flagstone luteciense adj Lutetian longana nf [Guanajuato/ Mex] cylinders of clay lutecio nm lutetium with embedded rich ore, or cylindrical pieces lutita nf shale | /. petroUfera oil shale of ore concealed in the anus as a means of lutitico/-ca adj shaly stealing ore luz nf light | /. ambiente available light | /. longitud nf longitude | length | departure/ ie natural natural or ordinary light | /. polarizada easting or westing polarized light lopolito nm lopolith losa nf flat stone/ stone slab/ flagstone | LL-1

LL | //. de piamonte piedmont plain llanura nf tropical plain (of very great extent) | //. aluvial alluvial plain | //. aluvio-glatiar llabana nf smooth or polished flat slab of rock | //. costanera coastal plain | //. llacorella nf [Valencia, Sp] a white or bluish costera coastal plain | //. de agradation marl of age aggradation plain | //. de inundation flood plain llama nf swamp, marsh | flame | pack animal | //. de piamonte piedmont plain | //. de relleno used in Andean countries to haul ore, fluviogladar overwash plain | //. del rto valley concentrates, supplies, etc. | //. de oxidation floor, bottom land | //. glatiarica kettle plain | oxidizing flame | //. de reduction reducing //. salina alkaline or salt flat | //. troncal flame llamado/-da adj known as, called, so-called (not llanvirniense adj Llanvirnian | nm Llanvirnian always translated, e.g. el llamado Pluton llapa nf mercury used to amalgamate silver Disputada 'the Disputada Pluton1) llapar vtr to add mercury to produce silver llamargo nm swamp, marsh amalgram llamazar nm swamp, marsh llapana nf [Pe] debris flow occaisioned by flash llambria nf cliff flooding of a normally dry quebrada llamenga nf [Asturia, Sp] mud llauca «/[Pe] a smooth, black clay with greasy llamo nm [Ch] fine ore | coal dust | lustre found in veins [Chuquicamata, Ch] ground low grade copper llaucana nf [Ch] miner's pry bar or pick axe ore | [Pe] earthy, reddish oxidized silver ore llaucanero nm [Ch] miner who breaks up large llampera nf [Bol] talus, landslide | ore found in fragments of ore with a llaucana talus deposits | [Ch] soil or ground which llaucar vtr [Ch] to use a llaucana contains easily worked ore llauckana nf [Bol] pointed metal bar used to bar llampero nm [Chuquicamata, Ch] Stockwork of down the roof and walls of a mine atacamite-bearing veinlets in porphyry copper Have nf section of ore or wall rock in the form of ore an arc which is left in place to support the roof llampo nm [Bol, Ch] finely broken or otherwise of a mine | [Sp] crib easily exploitable ore llegada nf [seis] arrival | //. sismica cable break llampu nm [Bol] pure sublimate of sulfer llegar a planes vtr to bottom (mine workings) liana nf plain lleira nf deposit of pebbles and coarse gravel llanada nf plain (of great extent but fully in llena nf alluvium | flood, overflow of a river view) llenado nm filling llanadora nf [Arg] grader llenamiento nm filling of veins, etc. llanca «/[Ch] any blue-green copper silicate llenante nf flood tide mineral used by the Aurucanian Indians of llenar vtr to flood, overflow | to fill | nm rise Chile as jewelry or fall of the sea llandeiliano,-na adj Llandeilian lleno,-na adj flooded | high () llandeilense adj Llandeilian | nm Llandeilian Hera nf quarry | stony or rocky ground | sandy Llandeilo nm Llandeilian ground llandilo,-la adj Llandeilian Heron nm ground covered with large boulders llandoveriano,-na adj Llandoverian llevar vtr to carry, transport | to bear, have, llandoveriense adj Llandoverian | nm contain | //. en suspension to carry in Llandoverian suspension (rivers) | //. inclusiones de to contain llaneza nf plain inclusions of | //. una poligonal [surv] to run a llanita nf llanite (obs, rhyolite) traverse llano,-na adj even, flat, smooth | level | nm 1 Helena n/[Bol] plain | flatland | //. aluvial alluvial plain | //. llimpe nm [Mex] cinnabar aluvio-glaciar outwash plain | //. arenoso sandy llimpi nm [Bol] finely laminated ores with the plain | //. costero coastal plain | //. de inundation appearence of mica | [Pe] ores of red color, flood plain generally cinnabar LL-2 llinqui w/[Sandia, Pe] clayey, sterile beds within lluvia nf rain | //. de lodo mud flow | ll.fosil rain auriferous glacial deposits print llipita nf [Bol] brown, ashy silver ore lluvial adj pluvial llosa n/[Galicia, Sp] flat stone or slab lluvioso,-sa adj rainy lluscka nf [Bol] vein selvage, salband | slickenside M-l

M a reagent in the patio process of amalgamating silver ores magma nm magma maarnm maar magmatico,-ca adj magmatic maceton nm [Mex] stone sledge magnesiano,-na adj magnesian macino nm a u«r of sandstone with less quartz magnesico,-ca adj magnesic and more feldspar than molasa magnesifero,-ra adj magnesiferous macizo,-za adj compact, solid, hard | nm massif magnesio nm | nm massiveness, bulk | massif | shield, magnetico,-ca adj magnetic basement | virgin, unmined ground | ore magnetismo nm magnetism | m. fosil blocked out but not yet mined | m. cristalino crystalline basement | m. intrusive stock | m. magnetizable adj magnetizable laurentico | m. mineralizado magnetizacidn nf magnetization orebody | m. tectonico magnetar vtr to magnetize macla nf twinning | twin, made | twinned magneto nm magnet crystal | m. de la albita albite twin law | m. magnetometro nm magnetometer polisintetica polysynthetic twin magnltud nf magnitude (of an earthquake) madado,-da adj twinned magnometria nf magnetic exploration maco nm [Cartagena, Sp] ancient mine tailings magro,ra adj lean macroclastico,-ca adj macroclastic mainel nm mullion macrocristalino,-na adj coarsely crystalline maja nf pestle macrofdsil nm macrofossil majadero nm pestle mactosismico,-ca adj macroseismic majamiento nm crushing, grinding, pounding macrosismo nm macroseism majar vtr to crush, pound, grind, break machacamiento nm crushing mal de choco nm machacar vtr to crush, break, buck, spall or malaquita nf malachite | m. azul azurite | m. stamp ore | to grind verde malachite machado nm [Pe] ore containing visible native maleabilidad nf maleability silver or gold maleableadj maleable machador,-dora adj crushing, grinding | nf malico adjm malic crusher, grinding machine malpais nf badlands machaqueo nm crushing | [Sp] crushed stone malquita nf malchite (obs, lamprophyre) macharitfr to spall ore | to hammer malta nf asphalt machays nm [Ec, Pe] sulfur lined cavities in malla nf mesh, screen | network | m. ancha coarse mesh | m. angosta fine mesh macho nm dike | [Col] barren or unproductive mana nf source, spring vein manatial adj spring | nm spring, source | m. machonga nf [Col] pyrite ariesiano artesian spring | m. ascendente artesian machucar vtr to crush, break, buck, spall or spring | m. caliente hot spring | m. de stamp ore desbordamiento contact spring | m. de estrato madera nf wood | m. silidficada agatized wood hillside spring | m. defalla fissure spring | m. madre nf river bed | mineralizing fluid | m. de defisura fissure spring | m. de grieta fissure sal [Ch] crystalline soda sulfate | m. del ore spring | m. de hondonada depression spring | [Col] pebbles or cobbles of hematitic iron ore m. de ladera gravity or contact spring | m. de madurez nf maturity voile valley spring | m. descendente depression maduro,-ra adj mature spring | m. rebosante gravity spring | m. maestrichtiano,-na adj Maestrichtian resurgente contact spring | m. surtidor artesian Maestrichtiense nm Maestrichtian spring mafico,-ca adj mafic mancomunidad nf joint responsibility assumed magistral nm flux used for smelting ores | by an association of miners (gremio de mineros) roasted or crude copper sulfate used as for the repayment of member's debts to a bank M-2

| pooling of properties to obtain an exploration maquina diamantina n/[Bol] diamond drill permit mar nm ocean, sea | m. abisal abyssal sea | m. mancha nf stain or spot of ore | flaw in a crystal adentro offshore | m, epicontinental epeiric sea | m. de metal spot of ore marca nf framework | district or province | manchado,-da adj spotted | stained symbol stamped on bullion to indicate that mandon ntn mine foreman taxes or duties have been paid | m. de arrastre manganato nm manganate scour mark | m. de escurrimiento rill mark | m. manganesa nf pyrolusite, manganese peroxide de oleaje ripplemark | m. de remolino eddy mark manganesia nf pyrolusite | m. lunada gouge mark manganeso nm manganese | manganese ore | marco nm a weight of 8 onzas \ m. de oro weight m. gris | m. negro pyrolusite of 50 castellanoSf 400 tomines or 4800 granos \ m. mang£nico,-ca adj manganic de plata weight of 8 onzas, 64 ochavas, 128 manganoso,-sa adj manganous adarmes, 384 tomines or 4608 granos manifestation nf occurrence, showing (of ore marcha nf \ m. aleatoria random walk etc.) marea nf tide | m. alta high tide | m. baja low manta nf bedded vein or deposit | blanket tide | m. gravimetrica tidal gravity | m, lunar deposit, "manto" | v de manta [Col] horizontal lunar tide | m. muerta \ m. roja red tide | m. vein viva spring tide manteado,-da adj flat, blanket-like marecanita nf obsidian mantenimiento de presidn nm pressure maremotar,-triz adj tidal maintenance marejada nf cross-bedding manteo nm bedding | [Bol] cover rock | [Bol, marengo adj/nm dark grey Ch] dip marga nf marl | loam | marlstone | [Titiribi, mantilla n/[Tex] pocket or bunch of ore Col] spathic iron | m. limica bog lime mantisa nf mantissa margen nm margin, fringe, edge, border | river manto nm bed, layer, stratum | nappe | bank | m. continental stratified or stratbound mineral deposit | margoso,-sa adj marly, loamy bedded or blanket vein | lenticular deposit or marguero nm marl pit pocket | flat or horizontal vein | | marino,-na adj marine [Atacama, Ch] a thick breccia zone | marisma nf salt lake [Maravatio, Mex] gold-bearing gossan | m. marismeno,-na adj marsh broceador [Atacama, Ch] unmineralized bed | marjal nm marsh, bog m. de azul [Cartagena, Sp] bed containing azul, mannaja nf [Mex] pyrite | [Col] pyrite or disseminated galena and pyrite | m. de marcasite corrimento nappe | m. freatico water-bearing mannita nf pothole | m. de gigante pothole | m. bed | m. hidraulico water-bearing bed | m. glacial kettle negro augite porphyry | m. pintador [Atacama, manndl nf marble | m. brecha brecciated marble Ch] mineralized bed | m. sobreescurrido | m. brocatel spotted or veined marble | m. de overthrust puebla [Teocalli, Puebla, M£x] onyx marble | m. manzana nf [Arg] a land measure (about 2.5 estatuario or m. de estatuas statuary marble | m. acres) | [CAm] a land measure (about 1.75 lumacjuela marble rich in shells | m. mexicano acres) lime alabaster | m. pintado spotted marble | m. mapa nm map | m. administrative plat | m. rayado streaked marble | m. serpentine basico base map | m. de base base map | m. de serpentine marble superficie surface map | m. estructural structure marmolete nm [Vz] a var limestone contour map | m. geologico geologic map | m. marmor nm marble | [Almaden, Sp] melaphyre topografico topographic map marna nf [Arg] marl mapamiento,-ta adj mapping marquesita nf marcasite mapoteca nf map archive masa nf mass of metal or ore | irregular deposit mapula nf [Popayan, Col] a precious stone | sedimentary deposit | m. blanda soft, semi- maquila nf [Bol] smelting charges, smelting toll consolidated sediment such as clay or coal | m. M-3

del criadero vein filling | m. dura quartzose mediana nf median consolidated sediment | m. echada irregular medidornm meter | m. depHpH meter deposit more or less stratiform | m. filonia ore medio nm middle | mean shoot | m. firme quartzose consolidated medioambiente nm environment sediment | m. floja soft sediment such as sand medir vtr to measure or peat | m. fundida melt | m. levantada megafdsil nm macrofossil, megafossil irregular deposit discordant with bedding | m. megascdpico,-ca adj megascopic movizada soft sediment | m. muy duro or muy melaconisa nf tenorite firme very hard rocks such as chert, granite, melafido nm melaphyre (obs, basalt) gneiss, etc. | m. cjuebrizada consolidated, clayey mela*firo nm melaphyre sediments | m. suelta soft, unconsolidated melanocratico,-ca adj melanocratic sediment melita nf masicote nm masicot membrana nf membrane masivo,-va adj massive memoria nf report, record | [Me"x] payroll (at a matan/[met] matte | matas de oro [Col] bunches mine) of gold ore mena nm vein of ore | ore in general | m. bruto matar un pozo vtr to kill a well or crudo raw ore | m. de los pantanos bog iron matatena nf [Mex] pebble, cobble ore | m. grueso ore in large lumps | m. recto mate adj unpolished | slaked massive ore matera n/[Col] mine in which gold is found in mencidn nf record bunches or matas de oro mensura nf survey | m. con brujula Brunton materia nf material | matter | overburden | m. Brunton survey | m. con estadia stadia survey bituminosa kerabitumin | m. esteril barren mensura do,-da adj surveyed material mensurarufr to survey material nm material | m. en bruto raw material mercurico,-ca adj mercuric | m. esteril overburden mercuric nm mercury | mercury ore | m. matloquita nf argental argental mercury | m. argenteo argental matriz nf matrix, gangue | m. de las variancas- mercury | m. corneo or dulce calomel | m. covariancas variance-co variance matrix hepatico liver ore, hepatic cinnabar | m. nativo matutina nf morning vein native mercury maximo nm high, upper part of a structure or mercurioso adjm mercurous anomaly | m. magnetico magnetic high meridiano nm meridian maxvelio nm Maxwell merma nf waste, loss in processing nf [Col] imperfect and accidental meroedrico,-ca adj merohedral working meroxeno nm meroxene mazomorrear vtr [Col] to wash gold mesa nf mesa, table mountain | principal facet mazut nm fuel oil of a precious stone | [Chanarcillo, Ch] smooth meandro nm meander | m. abandonado face of sterile limestone along the footwall of abandoned meander | m. devalle valley mineralized limestone | m. de concentration meander | m. libre free meander concentrating table | m. de glaciares glacial table medano nm sand dune | sand bar | m. fijado | m. para lamas slime table anchored dune | m. lateral shifting dune \ m. meseta nf plateau | m. basdltica basalt plateau | ligado attached dune | m. ondulado stable sand m. continental continental plateau hill | m. vivo active dune mesosfera nf mesosphere media nf half | mean | m. aritmetica arithmetic mesoroca nf mesorock mean | m. armonica harmonic mean | m. barreta mesotipo nm mesotype [Bol, Pe] an irregular inclined shaft | m. cana \ mesozoico,-ca adj | nm Mesozoic m. cuadratica cuadratic mean | m. geometrica mesozona nf mesozone geometric mean | m. mavil moving average | metal nm metal | alloy | ore | m. acopolado [San m. pepena [Mex] medium quality ore | m. vida Alto, Me"x] fine yellow cassiterite obtained by half-life washing tierras \ [Sultepec, Me"x] ore M-4 containing 50 to 60 ounce per ton silver | m. argentite | m. regular average grade ore | m. amarillo | m. antimonioso [Huitzuco, verde embolite | [Mex] silver ore with copper M£x] | m. azul galena | m. azul de carbonates, oxides and sulfides | m. virgen plata silver-bearing galena | [Almade"n, Sp] rich native metal mercury ore | m. azulado selbite | m. barreteado metalada «/[Mex] a discovery of ore in a ore freshly cut from a working face and yet to previously unproductive working be sorted and crushed | m. blanco cerargyrite | metalico,-ca adj metallic m. calichoso [Me"x] feldspathic ore | m. calido metalifero,-ra adj metalliferous [Ch] silver ore suitable for amalgamation by metalizacion nf metallization the tina process | m. caracal [M£x] spiraly wire metaloge'nesis nf metalligenesis silver | m. cenizo silver chloride | m. colgado metalogenetico,-ca adj metallogenic [Ch] ore-in-sight, ore reserves | m. comun third metaloide nm metaloide class or ordinary ore | m. corrida placer ore | metalurgia nf m. de acarreo secondary ore | m. de ayuda flux | metalurgico,-ca adj metallurgical | nm m. de azogue ore amenable to amalgamation metallurgist with mercury | m. de cazo [M£x] silver chloride metamictico,-ca adj metamict ore | m. de cebo [Me"x] very rich, direct metamorfico,-ca adj metamorphic reducing silver ore | m. de crudo [Pe] oxidized metamorflsmo nm metamorphism | m. caustico ore | m. de color [Cerro de Pasco, Pe] oxidized regional metamorphism | m. de cargo y descarga copper ore | m. de correa [San Luis Potosi, Mex] burial metamorphism | m. de contacto contact ore of nearly pure cassiterite | m. defuego metamorphism | m. de dislocacion dynamic smelting ore | m. defundicion smelting ore | m. metamorphism | m. de presion burial de labores smalls from mine workings | m. de pie metamorphism | m. dinamico dynamic [Mex] ore amenable to benificiation by the patio metamorphism | m. general regional process of amalgamation | m. de pinta silver- metamorphism | m. geotermico thermal bearing ore | m. de primera (close) first-class ore metamorphism j m. regional regional | m. de (\uema [Pe] sulphide ore | m. de segunda metamorphism (close) second class ore | m. de tonel pyritic ore metamorfosear vtr to metamorphose with little silver | m. despoblado [Me"x] ore with metano nm methane much gangue, low-grade ore | m. en barra metasedimento nm metasediment bullion | m. en bruto ore | m. en piedra crude, metasomatico,-ca adj metasomatic uncrushed ore | m. flor surface ore | m. gabarro metasomatismo nm metasomitism large, coarse ore | first-class ore | large piece metasomatosis nf of slag | m. grafico | m. granza smalls metavulcanita nf metavolcanic | m. hierroso [Peras, M£x] masses of iron ore in meteorite nm meteorite cubical fragments | m. hecho selected ore, prill meteorizacidn nf weathering | m. diferencial | m. hojoso nagyagite | m. humiento differential weathering | m. fisica mechanical [Guadalcazar, Mex] complex silver ore | m. weathering | m. mecanica mechanical jugoso [Mex] lead ore | m. machacado native weathering | m. (juimica chemical weathering gold and silver leaf | m. mogino [Guadalcazar, meteorizado,-da adj weathered M£x] mixture of argentiferous galena, argentite meteorizar vtr to weather and silver telluride | m. mosqueado [Taviches, metodo nm method, process | m. de encasdillado Mex] pyrargyrite disseminated in quartz square setting | m. de los momentos method of matrix | m. nativo native metal | m. negro moments | m. de monte carlo monte carlo sphalerite [Cerro de Pasco, Pe] sulfuretted method copper ore | m. negro argentifero tetrahedrite | meteoro nm meteor m. noble free-milling ore | m. ordinario low- metro nm meter | m. cuadrado cubic meter | m. grade ore | m. pastoso argentiferous galena | cubico cubic meter [M^x] bournonite | m. pepena rich ore | m. mezcla nf mixture, admixture, blend | mixing | plateado [Pe] ore of copper assaying about 60% melange copper | m. plomoso lead ore | m. plomoso mezclable adj miscible reluciente silver-bearing lead ore | m. polvorilla M-5 mezclar vtr/pr to mix, admix mililitro nm milliliter mezcuitlatl nm opal milimetro nm millimeter miargirita nf miargyrite milonita nf mylonite miarolitico,-ca adj miarolitic milonitizacidn nf mylonitization miascita nf miaskite (obs, nepheline syenite) milla nf mile mica nf mica | miner's term for small crystals of milldn nm [Mex] an ore pile pyrite | | [Col] lead molybdate | m. mimatesa nf blanca | m. caliza | m. de mimetita nf mimetite litio | m. dilatada expanded mica | m. mimetesita nf mimetite ferrolttica | m. negra biotite | m. mimetismo nm mimetism parda phlogopite | m. potasica muscovite mina nf mine | mineral deposit | ore | spring | mica'ceo/-cea adj micaceous m, ahogada [Col] placer mine covered by an micacita nf mica schist active landslide | m. alt a [Col] placer mine mica-pizarra nf mica schist situated above available water | m. amparada micasquisto nm mica schist mine maintained in posession by paying the micela nf micelle necessary fees but not necessarily worked | m. micra nf micron antigua mine worked in Indian or Spanish microbrecha nf microbreccia colonial times | m. aunfera graphic | microcl£stico,-ca adj microclastic m. baja [Col] placer mine situated below microclina nf available water | m. capotera [Col] shallow microclino nm microcline placer | m. cateada mining claim explored by microcristalino adj microcrystalline catas or shallow shafts or pits | m. ciega [Bol] microelemento nm trace element abandoned working | m. cogollera [Col] mine microestructura nf micros tincture which was profitable when worked at the micro-fildn nm veinlet, microvein surface but became unprofitable once workings micromilimetro nm micron were extended underground | m. colindante mkrdnnm micron adjacent or bordering mine | m. de aluvion microperfil nf microlog placer | m. de arena sand pit | m. de balasto micropertita nf microperthite ballast pit | m. de bronce bell-metal ore | m. de micropliegue nf microfold cacho [Col] placer mine where boulders are microregistro nm microlog small enough to be removed by hand | m. de microscopia nf microscopy capacho [Col] mine with spotty mineralization | microsc6pico,-ca adj microscopic m. de cerro [Col] mine on a hill top where water microscopic nm microscope | m. binocular is scarce | m. de cueva [Col] placer covered by binocular microscope | m. estereoscopico large boulders | m. degrava gravel pit | m. de stereroscopic microscope | m. polarizante invierno [Col] placer mine that can only be polarizing microscope worked during the rainy season | m. de saca microsismico,-ca adj microseismic [Col] placer mine that must be continuously dewatered to be worked | m. de verano [Col] microsismo nm microseism mine that can only be worked during dry miche nm [Fresnillo, Mex] a ore of argentiferous season | m. despilado mine robbed of its pillars galena, sphalerite and pyrite | [Santa Cruz de | m. en labor working mine | m. hervida [Col] A lay a, Mex] any black amorphous mineral pay-dirt in a pothole | m. hullera coal mine | m. found in veins jornalera [Col] mine which covers costs but miembro nm member yields little profit | m. tonga mine that can be migmatita nf drained by gravity | m. de tope [Col] mine migmatizacidn nf migmatization where gold is found in shoots but is otherwise migracidn nf migration | m. de los continentes barren | m. de transilvania graphic tellurium | m. primaria primary minado nm underground working, mining | migration | m. secundaria secondary migration mine working milibarnm millibar minador,-dora adj mining | nm miner miligramo nm milligram M-6 minal adj pertaining to a mine employed to pay off debts owed to their minar vtr to mine, undermine employers or were obliged to work on behalf minera nf mine of their kurakas with their pay being used by mineraje nm mining the kuraka to make payments in lieu of sending mineral adj mineral, ore mitayos to the mines) | m. repasiri Indian hired mineral nm mineral, ore | spring | mine | to mix, ladle and trod ore in the patio process mining district | m. ala vista ore in sight | m. of amalgamation of silver ores accesorio accessory mineral | [Mex] minimo nm cut-off independent rural town whose principal minio nm minium, red lead activity was mining | m. arrancado broken ore minutas nfpl survey notes | m. bajo de ley low grade ore | m. beneficiable mioceno,-na adj Miocene | nm Miocene pay ore | m. calido [Ch] silver ore suitable for mioce'nico,-ca adj Miocene amalgamation by the tina process | m. de miogeosinclinal nm miogeosyncline acarreo secondary ore | m. de alia ley high grade mira nf rod | m. de nivelacion levelling rod | m. ore | m. de azogue ore amenable to taquimetrica stadia rod amalgamation with mercury | m. de contacto misisipiano,-na adj contact mineral | m. de coral cinnabar misisipico,-ca adj Mississippian contaminated by organic matter | m. de maquila mispiquel nm mispickel, arsenopyrite custom ore | m. de montana ore disseminated in mita nm Quechua word for "turn" which in the country rock (generally uneconomic) | m. time of the Incas referred to a period of desmenuzado fine-grained ore | m. en rueda mandatory public service; under the Spanish bournonite | m. filoniano gangue mineral | m. this evolved into the mita minera, a system of gongorado [Col] vuggy ore | m. graso rich ore | forced labor in the mines of Potosi, Cerro de m. guia type mineral | m. indice index mineral | Pasco and elsewhere in what is now Bolivia m. intacto ore in place | m. neumatolitico and Peru | [Bol] a day's work | m. mortiri pneumatolytic mineral | m. pesado heavy service tending stamp mills used to crush mineral | m. piritoso pyritic ore | m. pobre low silver ore | m. nueva a new system of forced grade ore | m. poroso honeycombed ore | m. labor set up by the Codigo Carolina in 1792 recurrente \ m. tipomorfo typomorphic mineral | under regulations intended to improve the m. verde de plomo conditions under which mitayos served mineralizacidn nf mineralization mitayo nm Indian serving his mita mineralizador,-dora adj mineralizing mixtura nf mixture, blend mineralizar vtr to mineralize moco nm iron scoria, slag | m. de hierro [El mineralogia nf mineralogy Caratal, Vz] brown iron ore, occuring as mineraldgico,-ca adj mineralogical ferruginous conglomerate, sandstone, breccia mineralogista nm or/ mineralogist or pisolitic iron ore and is considered to be an mineraloide nm mineraloid indicator of gold mineralization mineria nf art and science of mining | mining | mocoruna nm Indian serving his first mita in a m. chica small mines | m. hidrdulica hydraulic mine, i.e. a "greenhorn" mining, hydraulicking | m. mediana medium- mocheta blanca nf [Pachuca, Mex] rhyolitic tuff size mines | m. pequena small mines | gran m. used as building stone large mines mocheta morada w/[Pachuca, Mex] used minero,-ra adj mineral | mining, pertaining to as building stone mining | economia minera mineral economics moda nf mode minero nm miner | mine | mineral deposit | modelo nm model | m. aleatorio random model [Bol, Pe] mine owner | [Potosi, Bol] mine | m. de crecimiento growth model | m. foreman determinista deterministic model | m. estocastico mineta nf little mine | minette stochastic model minga nm [Bol, Pe] hired Indian labor (this modo nm mode, manner | m. deyacer mode of should not be construed as indication that occurrence mingas were free laborers since most were modulo nm modulus | m. de precion modulus of M-7

precision | m. de volumen bulk modulus | m. de montmorillonita nf Young Young modulus montdn nm heap or pile | pile of ore | [Me"x] a mo feta nf mofette measure of weight | [Col] irregular deposit | mogote nm [Pe] surficial, outcropping portion of m. acostada stratiform deposit | m. estrelazado an ore deposit or estoverca stockwork | m. redo a wide vein mogrollo nm [Me"x] silver sulfide ore connecting stratiform and non-stratiform mojtin nm claim corner, monument deposits mojona nf land survey morado,-da adj violet, purple mojonamiento nm monumentation morallidn nf [Col] an inferior emerald mojonar vtr to set monuments morena nf moraine | m. basal ground moraine | mol nm mole m. central medial moraine | m. de ablacion molaridad nf molarity ablation moraine | m. defondo ground moraine, molasa nf limey sandstone | molasse basal moraine | m. de kames kame moraine | m. molde nf mold | m. de carga load mold depositada deposited moraine | m. interna moldura de rompiente nf cove ground moraine | m. en movimiento moving mole nm large mass of rock | [chem] mole | moraine | m. frontal | m. [Col] galena | ores or concentrates consisting lateral lateral moraine | m. superior surface mostly of galena moraine | m. terminal end or terminal moraine molecula nf morenico,-ca adj morainic, morainal moledor nm grinder, mill moreno,-na adj brown moledora nf grinder, mill morfoestructural adj morphostructural molejdn nm [Cuba] reef | ridge of rock morfogenesis nf morphogenesis moler vtr to grind, comminute morfografia nf morphography molibdato nm molybdate morfologia nf morphology molibdenita nf morfotectdnica nf morphotectonics molibdeno nm molybdenum moro,-ra adj color of red molienda nf grinding, crushing | m. con pisones moromoro nm [Moquegua, Pe] argillaceous rock stamp milling morrillo nm cobble, boulder molinera nf [Sierra Almagrera, Sp] siderite morro nm a conical or pyramidal hill molino nm mill | ore sent to a mill | [Col] mortiri nm an Indian serving his mita tending alluvial material that collects in a ground sluice stamps used to crush silver ore | m. glaciar ice mill | m. de mazos stamp mill mosca nf [Mex] spot of black ore, usually silver molonque nm [Mex] silver ore in which silver sulfide, in quartz matrix sulfides predominate over gangue | m. mosornm monadnock relumbroso stephanite mosqueado,-da adj spotted moloquita nf dull green variety of agate moteado,-da adj mottled monacita nf movilizacidn nf mobilization monoclinal nm movimiento nm movement | m. bascular monoclinico,-ca adj monoclinic oscillation | m. de masas mass movement | m. montana nf mountain | country rock | m. de epirogenetico epirogenetic movement | m. cobijadura overthrust mountain | m. de eustdtico eustatic movement | m. orogenetico plegamiento folded mountain | m. troncal orogenesis truncated upland moya nf volcanic clay monte nm mountain | m. isla \ m. residual muela nf hillock monadnock muera nf salt-water or brine montera nf outcrop | [Huelva, Sp] gossan | muestra nf sample | specimin | m. alzada a mano overburden on placer deposits grab sample | m. de pared core sample | m. montiano,-na adj Montian sesgada biased sample monticelita nf muestrador nm sampler | m. de nucleos core montfculo nm hillock, monticule sampler | m. de testigos core sampler montiense adj Montian muestrario nm sampling by core drilling M-8 muestreo nm sampling multicolinealidad nf multicollinearity muestro nm sampling | m. multiple multiple or multicolor adj multicolored repetitive sampling | m. secuendal sequential munon nm mullion sampling muro nm sole | footwall | m. colgante hanging mulata n/[Col] well rounded quartz grains that wall accompany gold in placers muscovita nf muscovite mulato nm dark green or coppery green silver muy minado,-da adj honeycombed or dog holed ore | [Pe] silver oxysulfide ore | [Atacama, with workings Ch] silver sulfide ore below paco and above negrillo N-l

N nadi nm [Ch] broad, shallow swamp nakha nf finely crushed concentrates nato,-ta adj flattened (topography) nuzco nm [Pe] small coal | [Hualgayoc, Pe] ore spalled to the size of a walnut N-l

N [Arg, Mex] argentite | [Bol, Ch] complex silver sulfarsenate and antimonate ore | [Caracoles, Ch] complex sulfiodide-sulfchloride-sulfide- nacarado,-da adj pearly, nacreous carbonate silver-lead ore | [Huelva, Sp] copper nacarar vtr to give a pearly luster to rich ore | [Hualg£yoc, Pe] dark mixture of nacarita nf kaolinite copper, iron and manganese oxides naciente nm rising | east | nmpl headwaters | negro,-ra adj black | nm black | [Ch, Pe] dark [Col] outcroppings colored caliche | [Guadalcazar, Mex] lead- nacimiento nm spring or source | headwaters | grey, hepatic cinnabar | [Mex] silver-rich n. de un rfo head of a river tetrahedrite | [Me"x] sulphuretted silver ore nafta nf crude oil (obs) \ naptha | [Arg] gasoline [Fresnillo, Mex] finely disseminated native | [Vz] high octane gasoline silver and argentite in a pyrite matrix | naftalina nf naphthalene [Charcas, Me"x] silver ore consisting of nafteina nf naphthine (a fossil wax) sphalerite, galena, arsenopyrite, and naftina nf napthene chalcopyrite | n. de carbono carbon black | n .de nagiagita nf nagyagite humo lamp black | n. de plomo graphite naife nm uncut diamond negro-negro nm [Col] a black micaceous schist namaqualita nf that hosts weathered out and hence barren namuriano,-na adj Namurian silver veins namurense adj Namurian | nm Namurian negrueco,-ca adj blackish, darkish nanofdsil nf nannofossil neis nm gneiss | n. agmatitico agmatic gneiss | nanosegundo nm nanosecond n. de ojos augen gneiss | n. filoniano aldergneiss nantoquita nf nantokite | n. glandular augen gneiss napa nf plate | aquifer | n. artesiana artesian ne"isico,-ca adj gneissic aquifer | n. cautiva confined groundwater | n. nematoblastico,-ca adj nematoblastic colgada perched aquifer | n. de agua subterrdnea Nemausense nm Nemausian, Valanginien water table | n. rebajada lowered groundwater neme nm [Col] manganese oxide napoleanita nf corsite neoautdctono nm neoautochthon naranja adj orange | n. claro light orange neoblasto nm neoblast nari nf nari (par of caliche) neoceno,-na adj nariz nf nose (of a fold) Nedcico nm Neocomian narria nf a type of sledge neocomiano,-na adj Neocomian nata nf slag | [Mex] litharge neocomiense adj Neocomian | nm Neocomian nativo,-va adj native neocristalizacidn nf neocrystallization natroborocalcita nf ulexite neocristico,-ca adj neocryst natrofilita nf neocristo nm neocryst natrofosfato nm natrophosphate neodimio nm neodymium navaja nf pocket knife neoespato nm neospar nebraskiense adj Nebraskan neoformacion nf neogenesis nefelina nf nepheline neogenico,-ca adj neogenic nefelinita nf nedgeno,-na adj Neogene | nm Neogene nefelinitoide nm nephelinitoid neoglaciacidn nf neoglaciation nefelino nm nepheline neohexano nm neohexane nefelita nf nepheline neomineralizacidn nf neomineralization nefeloideoJ/ nepheloid neomorfismo nm nefinolito nm nephinolith neoporfiritico,-ca adj neoporphyritic nefrita nf jade, nephrite | nephritoid neosomo nm neosome nefritico,-ca adj jade, nephritic neotectonico,-ca adj neotectonic | nm neotectonics negativo,-va adj negative neotipo nm neotype negrillo nm native silver black in color | stephanite | dark colored copper-silver ore | neovolcanico,-ca adj neovolcanic N-2 neozoico,-ca adj Quaternary nitreria nf bed | nitrate reduction works neptunio nm nitrico/-ca adj nitric neritico,-ca adj neritic nitrificacidn nf nerviense ad;' Nervian | nm Nervian nitro nm nitrate | niter, saltpeter | n. de chile nesofitico,-ca adj diabasic, nesophitic soda niter | n. potdsico potash niter | n. sodico nesosilicato nm nesosilicate soda niter neudeckense adj Neudeckian | nm Neudeckian nitrdgeno nm nitrogen neumatdgeno,-na adj pneumatolytic nitroso,-sa adj nitrous neumatolitico,-ca adj pneumatolytic nitruro nm nitride neumatolosis nf pneumatolysis nivacidn nf nivation neutroviscoso,-sa adj viscous neutral nivel nm level, height | level (tool) | neuvizense adj Oxfordian | nm Oxfordian [Santander, Sp] bed of calamine, worked as nevadiense adj Nevadan benches in a quarry | n. de agrimensor nevado adj snow-covered | nm firnfield, neV£ | surveyor's level | n. de(l) agua water level | n. snowcapped mountain, mountain with de agua fredtica water table | n. de arrastre perpetual snow haulage level | n. de base base level | n. de nevero nm perrenial snowcap or snowfield burbuja level | n. de confianza confidence neviza nf f irn, nev£ level | n. de creciente flood water level | n. de niagariense adj Niagaran erosion \ n. de la galena adit level | n. de nicle nm a var of chalcedony with some bands explotadon working level | n. de extraccion darker than others hoisting level, winding level | n. defluido fluid nicol nm nicol | nicoles cruzados crossed nicols level (in a well) | n. de la napa fredtica phreatic nicolita nf niccolite, nicolite, water level | n. de rebanada slice level | n. de nicopirita nf saturacion level of saturation | n. de suelo nicho nm niche | n. de nwacion nivation hollow ground level | n. del mar | n. esferico | n. de rompiente [geomorph] cove spherical level | n. estdtico static water level | nidada or nida de oro nf nest of gold n. estructural structural stage | n. fondo grade nido nm pocket (of ore) | nest (of minerals) level | n. fredtico water table | n. hidrdulico niega nf [Cartagena, Sp] sterile portion of a vein level of saturation | n. hidrostdtico nieve nf snow | n. penitente penitent, sun spike (ground)water level | hydrostatic level | n. | n. pulverulenta powdery snow iluvial illuvial horizon | n. inferior lower level | nife nm earth's inner core, nife, n. intermediario Intermediate level | n. nifesima nf earth's inner core intermedia blind level | n. media del mar mean nikel nm nickel sea level | n. paralelo parallel heading | n. niobio nm niobium piezometrico hydraulic gradient | piezometric niobofilita nf niobophyllite level | n. principal Main level | n. superior niquel nm nickel | nickel ore | n. arsenical upper level | al mismo n. at the same level | al niccolite | n. blanco chloanthite | n.-hierro n. de on a level with | a n. level nickel-iron nivelacidn nf leveling, aplanation niquelhexahidrita nf nickelhexahydrite nivelador,-dora adj levelling | nm or nf leveller niquelifero,-ra adj nickel-bearing, nickeliferous nivelar vtr to level, survey (topographic niquelina nf nickeline, niccolite mapping) niquelocre nm annabergite niveles nmpl water-bearing strata nitral nm nitrate bed or deposit | nitrate works niveleta nf levelling staff no alterado,-da adj unaltered nitratina nf soda niter, nitratite, caliche no asfaltico,-ca adj nonasphaltic nitratita nf soda niter, nitratite, caliche nobelio nm nobelium nitrato nm nitrate | n. de amonio ammonium nitrate | n. de chile saltpeter | n. de potasio nobleza nf richness (of ore) potassium nitrate | n. de sodio | nocerita nf n. sodico sodium nitrate no concordancia nf nonconformity nitrera nf nitrate bed or deposit | nitrate works nochistle nm [M£x] chalcopyrite | [Tasco, M£x] N-3

proustite north nddulo nm nodule | [Col] ore shoot | n. northfieldita nf esmeraldite ferruginoso ferruginous nodule | n. ferrtfero ball noseanolito nm noseanolith ironstone nosena nf , noselite noduloso,-sa adj nodular Notosilopeano nm [Patagonia, Arg] a local age no estratificado,-da adj unstratified at the base of the Miocene no explorado,-da adj unexplored novaculitico,-ca adj novaculitic no explotado,-da adj unexploited, unworked novato nf worker with no experience in drilling no ferroso,-sa adj nonferrous wells, "boll weevil" no indurado,-da adj not indurated nube nm cloud | n. ardiente ash flow | n. de noli nm [Col] antimony oxysulphide derived by cenizas ash cloud oxidation of stibnite nucleo nm nucleus | core | [Rio Tinto, Sp] no metalico nm nonmetallic nodule of copper ore | n. antiguo shield | n. nomogramo nm nomograph atomico atomic nucleus | n. de la tierra earth's no polar adj non-polar core | n. de pliegue arch core | «. del sinclinal noque nm [Ch] large stone receptacle for trough core | n. mineralizado ore shoot | n. calicining ores | stone through which amalgam terrestre earth's core | n. testigo drill core is washed in the patio process | [Pe] canvas nucleogenesis nf nucleogenesis sack used to recover mercury from amalgam nudo nm kink | knot of ore, etc. | junction of nordfieldita nf esmeraldite two mountain ranges no renewable adj nonrenewable nudoso,-sa adj knotty, bunchy norfolkense adj Norfolk | nm Norfolk nuevita nf samarskite noriano,-na adj Norain nuevoleoniense adj Nuevoleonian norienseo^y Norian numerico,-ca adj numerical norilsquita nf norilskite numero nm number | n. al azar random number norma nf norm | pattern | n. atomico atomic number | n. de octano normalization nf normalization octane number normalizar vtr to normalize (math) numulitico,-ca adj normativo,-va adj normative nusco nm [Amazonas, Pe] gold-bearing iron and norte nm north | n. de brujula compass north | n manganese oxide-talc-quartz ore magnetico magnetic north | «. verdadero true O-l

o annabergite | o. de plomo cerussite | o. de tungsteno | o. marcial limonite | o. negro wad | o. plomifero , litharge | o. obducidn nf rojo red ocher | o. tungsteno tungstite, obispo nm [Calif] condensed oil extracted from ferrotungstite some crude oils | [Ch] caliche with a purplish ocroita nf hue ocrolita nf objective nm objective, objective lens octaedrico,-ca adj octahedral oblicuo,-cua adj oblique octaedrita nf (meteorite) | anatase oblongo,-ga adj oblong (mineral) obra nf work, labor | piece of work | obra de octaedro nm desfrute workings in ore | obra muerta dead octafilita nf octaphyllite workings, workings in barren rock octano m octane obiador nm workman, labororer oculto,-ta adj occult obradora w/[Mex] rock that breaks easily (o. ochava nf two adarmes or 72 granos buena) or or with difficulty (o. mala) when ochoenseadj Ochoan worked ochran nm [Oravieza, Sp] a yellow clay obrajero nm foreman, overseer oerstedio nm oersted obrero nm worker, laborer | o. minero Mine oficalcita nf ophicalcite worker | o. sondista roughneck oficarbonato nm ophicarbonate obrizo,-za adj pure, refined oficina nf[Pe, Ch] nitrate works | [Me"x] obrizo nm fine gold furnace used to retort mercury | o. de beneficio obsecuente adj obsequent mill | o. de concentration concentrator | o. de observacidn nf remark | observation | fundicion smelter observaciones aparejadas paired observations ofiolita nf observado,-da adj observed ofiolftico,-ca adj ophiolitic obsidiana nf obsidian | o. de penjamo a var of ofita adj ophite obsidian highly valued by natives of Mexico ofitico,-ca adj ophitic obsidianita nf obsidianite (obs ) ohmio nm ohm obsta'culo intermedio nm stable zone between oikocristnm oikocryst mobile belts oitava nf [Me"x] a weight of approximately 17.5 obstruido,-da adj obstructed | [Bol] blocked out carats (ore) ojiva nf ogive obturacidn nf obturation, filling ojo nm small irregular bunch of ore | (SWUS) obtuscingulo nm obtuse angle very small lake, pond | o. de agua spring obtuso,-sa adj obtuse discharging on a plain | o. de gato cat's eye, a occidental adj occidental, of inferior quality variety of agate | o. de muerto [Cauca, Col] a (gems) porphyry with large white | o. ocelaradj ocellar de pavo real a var marble | o. de perdiz finely- ocelo nm ocellus crystalline galena | o. de pescado a var of odusidn nf occlusion, absorption apohyllite | o. de polvillo patch of rich ore | o. ocre adj ocherous | nm ocher | o. almagro red de tigre tiger's eye | o. de vibora [Zacatecas, ocher | o. amarillo (de hierro) yellow ocher, M6c] yellow sphalerite | o. termal hot spring limonite | o. antimonial antimony ocher, olefina nm olefin stibconite, | o. azul blue ocher, olenekiense adj Olenkian azurite | o. Colorado red ocher | o. de antimonio oleoducto nm pipeline antimony ocher | o. de Armenia a dark red clay Olenense nm Potsdam from Lemnos, Greece | o. de bucares an orange- Olenidense nm Potsdam red ocher from Portugal | o. de cobre malachite oligisto nm specular hematite | o. micaceo | o. de hierro rock | o. de manganeso wad | micaceous iron ore | o. rojo hematite o. de montana red ocher | o. de niquel oligocenico,-ca adj Oligocene O-2 oligoceno,-na adj Oligocene | nm Oligocene scour | o. de resaca backwash ripple mark | o. oligoclasa nf linguloide cuspate or linguloid ripple mark | o. oligoclasita nf oligoclasite (obs, variety of simetrica symmetric ripple mark | o. transversa diorite) transverse ripple mark oligoelemento nm trace element dnice nm onyx | 6. de Argelia calcite stalagtite or oligofiro nm oligophyre (obs, variety of diorite) stalagmite oligomictico/-ca adj oligomictic dnique nm onyx oligopelico,-ca adj oligopelic 6nix adj onyx | nm onyx | o. Mexicano alabaster oligosita nf oligoclasite (obs, variety of diorite) onokoide nm onokoid oligotrofia nf oligotrophy onondagiense adj Onondagan oligotr6fico,-ca adj oligotrophic Ontariano nm Ontarian olisoglifo nm olistoglyph onza nf ounce olistrostroma nf olistrostrome ooide nm ooid olivina nf olivine impr oofasmico,-ca adj oophasmic olivinita nf olivinite oolita nf oolite | o. ferrica oolitic iron ore, olivino nm olivine minette olivinoide nm olivinoid oolitico,-ca adj oolitic olla nf whirlpool | [Mex] slag pot | [Sp] cirque oolitizacidn nf oolithization | o. de gigante pot hole | o. de remolineo pot hole oolito nm oolith ollero nm [Mex] a worker who handles slag pots oolitoide nm oolitoid olleta nf [Antioqua, Col] pot-holes in bedrock of ooloide nm ooloid placers oovoide nm oovoid olio de sapo nm [Sp] augengneiss opacidad nf opacity ombrogenuo,-nua adj ombrogenous opacita nf opacite omfacita nf opaco,-ca adj opaque omisidn nf [strat] omission opalado,-da adj opalized onda nf wave (electromagnetic or sonic) | o. opalescencia nf opalescence acustica acoustic wave | o. de explosion opalescente adj opalescent detonation wave | o. longitudinal longitudinal opalino,-na adj opalescent, opal, opaline | nf wave | o. parasita de superficie ground roll | o. opaline reflejada reflected wave | o. refractada refracted opalizado,-da adj opalized wave | o. sismica siesmic wave | o. sonora dpalo nm opal | o. comun common opal | o. de wave | o. superficial surface wave | o. fuego fire opal | o. de madera wood opal | o. transversal transverse wave | o. trasmisora dorado fire opal \ o. fino fine opal | o. jospeodo carrier wave jaspopal | o. lechoso milk opal ondeanteod/ undulating operario nm working miner dndula nf [ Arg] ripple | 6 descendente operacidn nf operation downslope ripple | 6 incompleta star ripple operational adj [strat] operational ondulacidn nf undulation | [Sp] ripple | ripple operador,-dora nm/f operator mark | o. asimetrica asymmetric ripple mark | opisometto nm opisometer o. conjugada compound ripple mark | o. de opoca nf Opoka cauce ripple scour | o. de interferencia cross- optaliov-ca adj optalic, caustic ripple | o. de resaca backwash ripple mark | o. dptica nf optics | 6 critalogrdfica optical linguloide cuspate or linguloid ripple mark | o. crystallography simetrica symmetric ripple mark | o. transversa 6ptico,-ca adj optic, optical transverse ripple mark optimacidn nf optimization | o. en la ondulado,-da adj undulate, undulated recuperadon de petroleo enhanced oil recovery ondulante adj undulating opuesto,-ta adj opposite ondulita nf [Arg] ripple mark | o. asimetrica oquedad nf pore, cavity, vug | channel of asymmetric ripple mark | o. conjugada communication between orebodies compound ripple mark | o. de cauce ripple orbiculo nm orbicule O-3 drbita nf orbit [Col] distal placer gold | o. cristalizado natural orden nm order | o. de cristalizacian order of crystal of gold | o. de aluvian placer gold | o. de crystallization barranca [Col] gold from the cerros of Santa ordenacidn nf [Sp] data processing Rosa | o. de escama [Col] spangle gold | o. de Ordenanzas de Mineria nfpl mining laws espuma [Col] float gold | o. de gato (de los gatos) introduced to Mexico in 1784 and remaining biotite with a gold-like or metallic color, fool's in effect until the codigo de minus of 1884 gold | o. de lavadero gold that can be panned or Ordenanzas de Nueva Espana nfpl mining laws washed | o. de ley fine gold | o. de molino gold in force in Peru from 1786 to 1900 obtained in trunking | o. de monte [Col] gold Ordenanzas del Nuevo Cuaderno nfpl mining from the mines of Angostura, Antioquia (distal law established by King Phillip II of Spain placer gold deposits) | o. de Nagyag nagyagite ordonezita nf ordonezite | o. de recogida [Col] a lot of gold obtained from Ordovicense nm several mines | o. de veta vein gold | o. ordoviciano,-na adj Ordovician empolvado gold dust | o. en barras gold bullion ordovicico,-ca adj Ordovician | nm Ordovician | o. en hojas gold leaf | o. en panes gold leaf j o. orelliense adj en pasta gold bullion | o, en polvo gold dust | o. orfeita nf orpheite filoniano vein gold | o. fino [Col] distal placer organal nm [Col] gold-bearing gravels gold | o. greda [Vz] placer gold | o. guantn gold intercalated with boulders and cobbles under legal standard | o. libre free gold | o. rendering exploitation difficult mate unpolished gold | o. molido a mono gold oig£nico,-ca adj organic obtained by hand grinding | o. moscorrofio oiganigrama nm chart [Col] wire gold found in placers | o. nativo organdgeno,-na adj organogenic native gold | o. negro [Vz] gold covered by iron oiganometalico,-ca adj organometallic oxide and organic matter which will not oiganosedimentario,-ria adj organosedimentary amalgamate | o. nino [Col] float gold | o. orientacidn nf direction | orientation | o. paradojico native tellurium | o. puro fine gold | preferencial preferred orientation o. refinado refined gold | o. verde gold of a oriental adj oriental, genuine (gems) greenish color | o. virgen gold bullion orientacidn nf orientation oroclino nm orocline orientado,-da adj oriented orocr£tico,-ca adj orocratic orientarpfr to orient oroche nm [Mex] bullion containing both gold oriente nm orient (gems) and silver | o. natural electrum orificio nm opening orogennra erogenic belt orilla nf river bank | shore (sea or lake) | edge, orogenesis nm mountain building, orogenesis, side | selvage | rim | o. concava concave bank orogeny | o. convexa convex bank | o. de arcilla or de orogene>tico,-ca adj orogenetic barro clay selvage | o. de deslizamiento landslide orogenia nf mountain building, orogenesis, scar or terrace orogeny orillo nm selvage orogenico,-ca adj erogenic orin nm rust ordgeno nm erogenic belt, orogen oriskaniense adj Oriskanian orogeosinclinal nm orogeosyncline onto nm [Col] color, traces of gold found in a orografia nf orography gold pan orogr£fico,-ca adj orographic orizita nf epistilbite orometria nf orometry orla nf border, fringe | o. continental continental oropimente nm orpiment borderland | o. fredttea capillary fringe oropidn nf a soft, brown or reddish black clay » a nm gold | o. argental copper-bearing oroseita nf eiectrum | o. bajo gold ore of low grade | o. ortita nf orthite, allanite batito beaten gold | o. blanco white gold | o. ortoanfibol nm orthoamphibole blanco de Colombia amalgam | o. bruto gold ortoandesita nf orthoandesite (obs, bullion | o. corrida [Ch] placer gold | o. crespo orthopyroxene andesite) 0-4 ortobituminoso,-sa adj orthobituminous osificacidn nf ossification ortobromita nf embolite osificar vtr to ossify ortocaliza nf ortholimestone osificarse vpr to become ossified ortoclasa nf osipita nf ossipite (obs, var of ) ortoclasita nf orthoclasite (obs, granite, syenite) osmio nm ortoclino nf orthocline osmiridio nm osmiridium ortodorita nf orthoclorite ostra'codo nm ostracod ortoconglomerado nm orthoconglomerate otajanita nf ottajanite (obs, leucite ) ortocronologia nf orthocronology oulofolita nf oulofolite, cave flower ortocrisotil nm orthchrysotile ovillo nm skein | en forma de o. tangle-shaped, ortocuarcita nf orthoquartzite tangled-up ortocuarcitico,-ca adj orthoquartzitic ovoide adj ovoid, oviform, egg-shaped ortodolomia nf orthodolostone ovoideo,-da adj ovoid, oviform, egg-shaped orto-eje nm orthoaxis oviforme adj oviform, ovoid, egg-shaped ortoesquisto nm orthoschist oxalita nf humboldtine ortoestratigrafia nf orthostratigraphy oxamita nf oxammite ortofelsita nf orthophyre oxfordiano,-na adj Oxford ian ortofirico,-ca adj orthophyric oxfordenseadj Oxfordian | nm Oxford ian ortdfiro nm orthophyre (obs) oxibasiofitico/-ca adj oxybasiophitic ortogeosinclinal nm orthogeosyncline oxicloruro nm oxychloride | o. de cobre ortogneisnm orthogneiss atacamite ortogonal adj orthagonal oxidacidn nf oxidation, oxidizing ortogra'fico,-ca adj orthographic oxidadante adj oxidizing ortogranito nm kaligranite oxidarirfr to oxidize ortohidrico/-ca adj orthohydrous oxidate nm oxidate ortolignitico,-ca adj ortholigneous oxidita nf oxidite, shale-ball ortomagma'tico,-ca adj orthomagmatic dxido nm oxide | 6. cuprico tenorite | 6. de calcio ortomaimdl nm orthomarble quicklime | 6. de cine calamine, zincite | 6. de ortomatriz nf orthomatrix circonio | 6. de cobre cuprite, ortome*trico/-ca adj orthometric tenorite | 6. de estano cassiterite | 6 de hierro ortomimico,-ca adj orthomimic iron oxide | 6 .de manganese manganese oxide, ortom6rfico,-ca adj orthomorphic, conformal pyrolusite | 6. de mercurio hydrargyrite | 6. de ortomorfismo nf orthomorphism, conformality paladio paladite | 6. de titano dioxide | ortoneis nf orthogneiss 6. de urano | 6. de zinc zinc oxide | 6. ortopiroxenita nf orthopyroxenite ferrico ferric oxide | 6. hidratado hydrated oxide ortopiroxeno nm orthopyroxene | 6. rojo de cine zincite ortorroca nf orthorock oxigenador-da adj oxygenated ortorr6mbico,-ca adj orthorhombic oxigeno nm ortosa nf orthoclase | o. descompuesta kaolinized oxihornblenda nf oxyhornblende, basaltic orthoclase | o. sodica sanidine hornblende ortosilicato nm orthosilicate oximagnita nf oxymagnite, ortosita nf orthosite oximesostasis nf oxymesostasis ortotectico,-ca adj magmatic oxiofitico,-ca adj oxyophitic ortotectordsmo nm orthotectonics, alpinotype oxisfera nf oxisphere tectonics oxoferrita nf oxoferrite oruga nf bulldozer, caterpillar tractor, "cat" Ozarkense nm Ozarkian (obs) oscilacidn nf oscillation ozoquerita nf ozocerite, native parrafin oscilartrfr to oscillate p-1

paleoambiente nm paleoenvironment paleoautoctono nm paleoautochthon paleobatimetrico,-ca adj paleobathymetric pabelldn nm pavilion (of a precious stone) paleobotanica nf paleobotany paco nm [Bol, Pe] gossan, oxidized or partly paleocanal nm paleochannel oxidized ore of a reddish color | [Ch] silver paleocarstnm paleokarst chloride ore paleocenico,-ca adj pacoso,-sa adj [Pe] oxidized, gossany paleoceno,-na adj Paleocene | nm Paleocene pack nm pack ice paleoclima nm paleoclimate nf [Pe] a small reverboratory paleoclimatko,-ca adj paleoclimatic furnace paleoclimatoldico/-ca adj paleoclimatologic pachapampa nf [Pe] ore cobbed from waste paleoclimatologia nf pachas nfpl [Pe] gypsum paleodrenaje nm paleodrainage padrastal nm sterile vein cutting a mineralized paleoecuador nm paleoequator vein paleofiro nm paleophyre (obs, andesite) padre del sal nm crystalline selenite paleofitico,-ca adj paleophytological padrdn nm register of a denounced (filed) claim paleofitologia nf paleophytology pago nm payment | p en production production paledgeno,-na adj Paleogene | nm Paleogene payment loan paleogeografia adj paleogeography paigeita nf vonsenite paleogeografico,-ca adj paleogeographic nf large pan | p. de amalgamation paleogeoldgico,-ca adj paleogeologic amalgamating pan paleogeomorfologia nf paleogeomorphology pais nm country | p. bajo flatland | p. marginal paleohidrologia nf paleohydrology borderland paleolatitudino nm paleolatitude paisaje nm landscape paleolimnologia nf paja quemada nf [Potosi, Bol] plumosite which paleolitoldgico,-ca adj paleolithologic resembles burnt straw paleomagnetico,-ca adj paleomagnetic pajaro minero nm [Vz] a species of which paleomagnetismo nm paleomagnetism was thought to be a sure indicator of placer paleorelieve nm paleorelief gold paleontologia nf pajuela nf ore that glitters | pajuela de oro grains paleontoldgico,-ca adj paleontological of gold paleontdlogo,-ga nm and nf paleontologist pala nf shovel | [Mex] treading oftorta by foot paleosalinidad nf paleosalinity in the patio process of amalgamation of silver paleosol nm paleosol | hard ground ores | p. de turbero peat cutter paleotectdnico,-ca adj paleotectonic palacra or palacrana nf nugget of native gold | paleotermal adj paleothermal gold ingot paleotermometria nf paleothermometry paladio nm paladioarseniuro nm palladioarsenide paleotopofraffa nf paleotopography paleoviento nm paleowind paladiobismutoarseniuro nm palladiobismutharsenide paleovolcanico,-ca adj paleovolcanic, pre- palagonizacidn nf palagonization paleovulcanologia nf paleovolcanology palaita nf paleozoico,-ca adj | nm Paleozoic palasita nf palasomo nm palasome palero nm shoveller palatiense adj Palatinian, Pfalzian paleta nf small shovel | [Alicante, Sp] tool for breaking up and lifting thin layers of paleador nm shoveller precipitated salt paleaduro nm shovelling paleta pa nf palstage paleaje nm shovelling palevento nm palevent palear vtr to shovel paligorskita nf paleoacuifero nm paleoaquifer palingenico,-ca adj palingenic P-2 palingenisis nf palingenesis pantanoso,-sa adj swampy palinologia nf paynology papa nm nugget of native gold | nodule of any palinspatico,-ca adj palinspastic mineral | [Arg] nodule of ulexite found in palita nf pallite, ferrian millesite saline marshes palmo nm one quarter of a vara paquete nm complex, series | p. de estratos palse nm pingo sedimentary complex | p. de mantos series of palustre adj swampy overthrust sheets palla nf a fixed amount of ore to be carried out parabituminoso,-sa adj parabituminous of a mine by an apiri during a workshift | [Bol, paracelsiano nm Paracelsian Pe] hand sorted ore, hand sorting paraclasa nf fault pallaco nm [Bol, Pe] a piece of ore found in paraconcordancia nf paraconformity tailings or waste heaps | tailings paraconcordente adj paraconformable pallador nm [Bol, Pe] ore sorter paracrisotil nf parachrysotile pallaquear or pallar vtr to sort or pick pallacos paracronologia nf parachronology from waste dumps | [Bol, Pe] to hand sort ore parada nf [Me"x] work gang or crew, pare | p. a pallaqueo nm [Bol, Pe] hand-sorting of ore la carga crew paid by the load | p. de busca crew palliri nm a worker employed to sort ore paid by proportion of ore worked | p. de (usually a woman) hacienda or de obra crew paid by the day palldn nm assay button worked | p. rayada crew paid by eight hour pampa nf pampa, a grassy plain shiftr worked panabas or panabasa nf [Pe] tetrahedrite, paradiagenetico,-ca adj paradiagenetic tennantite paradiscordancia nf paraunconformity panal de rosa nm [Amazonas, Pe] gold-bearing paraestratigrafia nf parastratigraphy quartz occuring in a stockwork (this ore was of paraestratigrafico,-ca adj parastratigraphic less value than nusco as it was more difficult to paraflna nf paraffin extract and crush) parafinico,-ca adj paraffinic pandermita nf priceite paragenetico,-ca adj paragenetic panetita nf panethite parageosinclinal nm parageosyncline panidiomorfo,-fa adj idiomorphic paragneis nm paragneiss panidiomorfo-granular adj idiomorphic paragon nm paragon (variety of diamond) panino nm [Mex] country rock (classified by paralelo,-la adj parallel | nm parallel | gallery miners according to strength: p muy blando rock driven paralel to a main gallery easy to work but too soft to be timbered; p. paraliageosinclinal nm paraliageosyncline blando soft rock that can and must be timbered; paralico,-ca adj paralic, marginal p. favorable ordinary ground worked by drilling paraloctono nm parallochthon and blasting; p. macizo and p. muy pacizo rock paramagnetico,-ca adj paramagnetic difficult or very difficult to work) | p. cenizo paramagnetismo nm paramagnetism [Guadalcazar, M£x] clay stringers and pipes paramento nm face of hewn stone resembling moist bone ash closely associated paramera nf desert | altiplano with mercury mineralization parametrico,-ca adj parametric paniso or panizo nm [Bol, Pe] altered rock, parametro nm parameter gangue, gouge | [Hualgtiyoc, Pe] feldspathic paramilla nf [Ch] low range of mountains gangue | [Pataz, Pe] argillized feldspar rich pa'ramo nm altiplano rock associated with gold ore | [Ch, Pe] paramorfismo nm paramorphism trachytic country rock | p. ahuesado, ahumado or paramorfo nm paramorph verde [Chanarcillo, Pe] diabase sills intruding paradndula nf para-ripple limestone pararizadura nf para-ripple pannoniense adj Pannonian parasitico,-ca adj parasitic pantalla nf [Bol] dike paratectonico,-ca adj paratectonic | nm pantano nm swamp, marsh | depression where paratectordcs, Germanotype tectonics water collects paratelurita nf paratellu rite P-3 paratipo nm paratype [Guerrero, Mex, Ch] silver-rich tetrahedrite | parautdctono,-na adj parautochthonous | nm [Zacualpan, Mex] silver-bearing pyrite | parautochthon [Sinaloa, Mex] coating of ore on a rock | [Mex] paravannm paravane amalgam of gold and silver | p. china silver paravolastonita nf parawollastonite ores in rounded pieces | p. morada silver ores parcionero nm [Me"x] partner in a mining purplish in color | p. mantecosa silver ores lead venture gray in color, considered to be of inferior parche nm patch of rock quality | p. negra black silver ores considered parchetita nf parchettite (obs, leucite to be of better quality | p. mixta silver bullion trachyandesite) | p. vitrea glass pardo,-da adj earth-colored, brown, grey pastoso nm [Asientos, Mex] high grade copper pardo nm the color of earth | [Mex] oxidized ore ore | p blanquizo silver grey pata de perro nf dog leg, deviation of a well pardusco,-ca adj earth-colorish, brownish, patente «/[Bol, Ch] an annual tax on mines greyish figured as a fixed rate per hectare or claim pared nf wall | side or wall of a vein paternoita nf kaliborite paria nf [Pe] cinnabar patrdn nm pattern, framework, as in el patron pariente adj allied estructural 'the structural pattern1 | template parogenetico,-ca adj parogenetic patina nf patina | p. del tiempo weathering | p paroxismo nm paroxysm desertica desert varnish paroxisiino,-ma adj paroxysmal patinacidn nf patination parragdn nm standard silver for assayers patio nm yard, court or floor used in the process parranthina nf scapolite of beneficio de patio, a cold heap amalgamation parte nf part, share | p. bien mineralizada pay method for extracting silver from ores shoot | p. del propietario landowner royalty invented by Bartolome" de Medina at Pachuca, participacidn nf share, interest | p. del Mexico in 1557 and introduced into Peru in concesionario working interest 1574 | p. de amalgamation amalgamation floor particula nf particle | p. alfa alfa particle | p. paurocristalino,-na adj paurocrystalline beta beta particle | p. gamma gamma particle | pavonado,-da adj dark blue | blued, bronzed p. libre free particle pavonado nm [Pe] tetrahedrite, (sometimes partidano nm [Cartagena, Sp] miner who works used for tennanite, jamesonite, , iron ore to a shallow depth only bournonite and other sulfarsenides and partido nm [Me"x] division of ores between sulfantimonides of lead) | deeper, unoxidized owners, investors, workers, etc | portion of ore silver ores, below the bronces, consisting of paid by miners to owners or by owners to silver sulphides and sulphoantimonates | p. miners fino malinowskite partidornm ore sorter pechblenda nf pitchblende partridgeita nf pecho de paloma nm [Chacas, Pe] iron staining parva nf charge or mixture for a smelter on the surface of coal seams parvero nm persons who mix charges for a pedernal nm flint | chert | [Pe] silver ore smelting furnace consisting of iron oxide bearing quartzose pasadeniense adj Pasadenian sands paseo de tierras nm transport on the backs of pedimentacidn nf pedindentation laborers pedimento,-ta adj pediment | nm pediment pasivo,-va adj passive pedragal nm gravel bet | stony ground | quarry paso nm pass | any underground passage, drift pedregdn nm[Ch] boulder or gallery | linear measure equivalent to two pedregoso,-sa adj stony, rocky footsteps | p. real main gallery pedregullo nm gravel | p. de ladera [Arg] talus pasta nf paste | matrix, groundmass | [Bol] pedrejal nm quarry refractory ore | [Mex] silver ores of less than pedrera nf quarry high grade | [Ozamatlan, Me"x] argentite | pedreria nf precious stones P-4 pedrero nm stone cutter | [Ch] stony ground pedriscal nm stony or rocky ground pensilvanico,-ca adj Pennsylvanian | nm pedrizo,-za adj stony, rocky | nf stony or rocky Pennsylvanian ground | gravel bed | quarry pentahidrita nf pentahydrite, allenite pedrosita nf hornblendite pentahidroborita nf pentahydroborite pedrusco nm rough stone, boulder | [Mex] pentano nm pentane cobble penutiense adj Penutian pegadura nf dirt, mud, smudge, etc., found on pefia nm boulder, rock | [Col] bed rock beneath the walls of old mines a placer | [Col] country rock | p. desprendida pegmatita nf pegmatite boulder | p. viva stone not yet quarried | p. pegmatitico,-ca adj pegmatitic hervida, caladora or picadora [Col] fissured pegmatitizacidn nf pegmatitization bedrock in which placer gold has accumulated pegmatoide nm pegmatoid | p. mora [Col] red granite bedrock to a placer pegmatofirico,-ca adj granophyric | p. subida [Col] soft bedrock to a placer | p. pegmatofiro nm granophyre falsa [Col] fragments of bedrock which, when pegmatolita nf orthoclase encountered in a placer, give the appearance of peladilla nf small quartz pebble having reached actual bedrock | p. sarabiada pelagico,-ca adj pelagic [Col] gneiss | p. bobo [Col] shaley country rock peleano,-na adj Peelean in which veins are barren pelftico,-ca adj pelitic penascal nm rocky ground pelitomdrfico,-ca adj pelitomorphic penasco nm large rock, boulder, crag | klippe | pelo nm opaque streak that gemstones | p. escarpment de venado [Chacas, Pe] stibnite in fine needles penascoso,-sa adj rocky, craggy pelodita nf pellodite, pelodite penol nm large rock peloide nm peloid pendn nm large rock | [Huelva, Sp] iron oxide pelolitico,-ca adj argillaceous bearing jasperoid found in manganese deposits peltre nm spelter peon nm common laborer | bull gang | p. de pella nf mass of native metal | amalgam cuadrilla roustabout | p. suelto roustabout produced by the patio process of amalgamating peonaje nm work gang | work force (of a mine, silver ore, well washed, squeezed and pressed etc.) into sugarloaf-shaped mounds | p. fecal fecal pepa n/[Ch] nugget pellet | p. natural native amalgam pepena nf [Mex] hand cobbed ores | rich or pendiente nm slope, declivity | grade, gradient smelting ore | silver-bearing galena ore | | hanging wall, roof | pendant | p continental [Huitzuco, Mex] high grade mercury ore, 10 to 12% mercury | medio p. medium grade ore pendulo nm plum bob pepenado,-da adj [Mex] hand cobbed peneconcordante adj peneconcordant pepenador,-dora nm/f cobber, ore sorter penecontemporaneo,-nea adj pepenar vtr [Mex] to hand sort ore penecontemporaneous peperita nf volcanic sand peneplanizacion nf peneplanation pepino nm karst tower penecontemporaneo,-nea adj pepita nf nugget penecontemporaneos peracidita nf silexite peneplanacion nf peneplanation peralcalino,-na adj peralkaline peneplanicie nf peneplain peraluminoso,-sa adj peraluminous penesalino,-na adj penesaline perbitutninoso,-sa adj perbituminous penillanura nf peneplain percolacion nf percolation peniplanicie nf peneplain percolar vtr to percolate peniplano nm peneplain percristalino,-na adj percrystalline pennina nf penninite perderse vpr to become lost, pinch out, as for a penokeiense adj Penokean vein, seam or bed pensylviano,-na adj Pennsylvanian | nm perdida nf loss, generally from treatment of ores P-5

| p. de lodo mud losses | p. par absortion geocratico geocratic period absorption loss peripedimento nm peripediment perdido,-da adj lost peritectico,-ca adj peritectic, reaction perdigdnnm iron pellet peri to nm expert | appraiser | skilled worker perenneod; perennial perknita nf , ultramafite perfeccionar vtr to follow up, rexamine perla espata nf pearl spar perfil nm cross-section, side-view | profile | log perlado,-da adj pearly j p. de estratos strata profile | p. de equilibria perliforme adj bead-like graded profile | p. de perforation drill log, well perlitico,-ca adj perlitic log | p. de pozo well log | p. de suelo soil profile perlofita nf perloffite | p. edafico soil profile | p. eletrico electric log | permeabilidad nf permeability p. estratigrdfico columnar section | p. permeable adj permeable gravimetrico gravity profile | p. longitudinal permeacidn nf longitudinal profile | p. litologico lithologic permeametro nm permeameter section | p. segun muestras sample profile | p. permiano,-na adj | nm Permian transversal transverse profile permico,-ca adj Permian j nm Permian perfiladora nf grader permineralizacion nf permineralization perfilaje nm logging | p. de activation activation permiso nm license | lease | p. de cateo logging | p. de pozo well-logging exploration license | p. marginal edge lease perforabilidad nf drillability permutacidn nf permutation perforacidn nf drill or bore hole | perforation | perofskita, perovskita, perowskita adj p ancha large hole | p. a nucleos core drilling | p a percusion percussion drilling | p con cable pertenencia nf mining claim cable drilling | p con diamante diamond drilling pertiga nf rod (measure of length) | p dirigida directional drilling | p con extraction pertita nf perthite de testigos core drilling | p. de disparo shot hole pertitico,-ca adj perthitic | p de exploration exploration drilling | p. pertitoide adj perthitoid desuiada deflected well | p. initial spudding in pertosita nf perthosite (obs, syenite) | p. por gas gas drilling j p. por percusion perturbacion nf perturbation | dislocation | p. percussion drilling | p. por rotation rotary de una veta disruption of a vein or lode | p. drilling | p. redutida slim hole | p. rotativa tectonica tectonic rotary drilling | p. termica jet piercing perturbado,-da adj disturbed perforado nm boring, drilling | perforation pesado,-da adj heavy | of high specific gravity perforador,-dora adj boring, drilling | nf borer, peso nm weight | silver coin of about 25 grams driller, drilling machine | p. a percusion | [ Almaden, Sp] a weight of 20 arrobas \ p. percussion drill | p. con diamantes diamond atomico atomic weight | p. bruto gross weight j drill | p. de diamantes diamond drill | p. de p. de oro coin equivalent to two (silver) pesos j percusion percussion drill | p. rotativa rotary p. espicifico specific gravity j p. neto net weight drill | nm driller (person) petlanque nm [Mex] argentite, usually, perforante adj drilling, boring pyargyrite in places | any high-grade silver ore perforar vtr to drill or bore | p. acerado | p. Colorado, encarnado perhialina nf perhyaline or rojo proustite | p. oscuro pyrargyrite | p. periclasa nf negro argentite periclinal adj periclinal, pericline | nm pericline petreo,-rea adj stone, of stone | stony | rocky, peridoto nm , olivine stone-like, petrous periferico,-ca adj peripheral petrificacion nf petrification perigenico,-ca adj perigenic petrificado,-da adj petrified perimetro nm perimeter | p. de influencia area or petrificar vtr to petrify circle of influence petrificarse vpr to petrify periodo nm period | p. de amortization pay back petrifico,-ca adj petriferous period | p. de glatiation glacial period | p. petroclastico,-ca adj detrital P-6 petrofa>brico,-ca adj fabric | nm fabric, sledge hammer | a pico vertically petrofabric picdn de cantera nm quarry pick petrofisica nf petrophysics picota nf peak of a mountain petrogenesis nf petrogenesis picritico,-ca adj picritic petrogenetico,-ca adj petrogenetic picrocromita n/picrochromite, petrogenia nf petrogenesis magnesiochromite petrografia nf petrography picrofarmacolita nf petrografico,-ca adj petrographic picurita nf pitch coal petrdgrafo,-fa nm and/ petrographer pie nm foot (measure of length) j foot or base of petroleno nm petrolene a mountain | p. de cobra claw-end crowbar petrdleo nm petroleum j p. bisulfuro disulfide piedra nf rock, stone | mineral j p. acanterada oil | p. (en) bruto or crudo crude oil j p. [Durango, Mex] rhyolite j p. (de) alumbre clandestine "hot oil" produced above allowables alunite j p. aprieta [Me"x] limestone j p. arcillosa | p. de base asfaltica asphalt-base crude oil | p. claystone j p. arenisca sandstone j p. arenosa de contrabando contraband oil | p. del propietario sandstone | p. (de) azufre rock sulphur | p. azul landowner's oil | j p. humedo wet oil j p. , chalcanthite | [Mex] blue limestone lampante parrafin oil, kerosene | p. ligero light | [Vz] mineralized diorite wall rock to gold oil, straw oil | p. muerto dead oil | p. petratado veins | p. berroquena granite | p. blanca pretreated crude oil | p. pobre lean oil j p. granulite j p. bruta [Mex] country rock, barren sintetico synthetic oil | p. sulfuroso sour crude rock | p. cachumba [Cu] native oil j p. verde green oil | p. calamina calamine | p. calarea limestone | petrolero,-ra adj oil, petroleum | oil-bearing | p. caliza limestone | p. canela hessonite | p. nm tanker capilar var of quartz j p. ciega any hard, opaque petrolifero,-ra adj petroliferous, oil-bearing semiprecious stone | p. conglomerada petrologia nf petrology conglomerate | p. conglutinada breccia j p. petroldgico,-ca adj petrological cornea hornstone, jasper j p. de acarreo erratic petrologo,-ga nm and/ petrologist block or boulder j p. de arena [Col] sandstone | petromorfo nm petromorph p. de barilla [Tamaulipas, Mex] limestone with petroquimica nf petrochemistry clay partings | p. de berrocjuena coarse grained petroquimico,-ca adj petrochemical granite | p. de cat or de caliza chalk/ limestone | petrosilexnm flint | amausite | hornstone p. de campana phonolite | p. de candela flint | p. pez nf tar, pitch | [Sp] isolated lens of coal | p. de canelo grossularite | p. de canteria [Me"x, Sp] mineral asphalt granite | p. de canto dressed stone | p. de cine pfalziense adj Pfalzian cassiterite | p. de cruz staurolite | p. de chispa piacentino,-na adj Piacenzian flint | p. de churumbela [Col] decomposed piamonte nm piedmont felsite wall-rock to veins j p. de escopeta flint j piamontita nf piedmontite p. defrijol [Guanajuato, Mex] red conglomerate nf pick j p. defuego fires tone | p. degrano [Me"x] picacho nm pointed peak or summit granite | p. dejabon talc | p. de labrador greenstone | p. del dguila a nodular, clayey iron picada nf survey line ore | p. de la luna | p. de las picado nm [Pe] surface outcropping of a vein amazonas labradorite | p. de lumbre flint | p. de picador nm miner who works with a pick or luna blue adularia | p. de mono [Mex] good hammer and gad | [Sierra Almagrera, Sp] ore- specimin of ore, sometimes used for religious sorter purposes j p. de mobre flint | p. de moco white, picapedrero nm stonecutter transparent var of chalcedony with dendritic picaporro nm pick staining | p. de moler [Col] syenite | p. de picar vtr/intr to cut stone | to hew, work with a mollejon [Col] sandstone | p. palo [Ch] asbestos pick or hammer and gad j p. un hilo [Col] to | p. de pipas meerschaum | p. de remedar uncover a known vein [Guadalcazar, Mex] large fragment of granite | picnita nf pycnite (par of topaz) [San Nicolas, Mex] basalt | [Mazapil, Mex] pico nm peak | pickaxe | miner's pick | [Mex] P-7

feldspathic porphyry | p. de sapo mica | p. de pildnnm stone trough silleria dressed stone | p. de sol precious variety pilotaxftico,-ca adj pilotaxitic, felty ofoligoclase | p. de toque }asper, touchstone | pinacoide adj pinacoidal | nm pinacoid p. de yeso rock gypsum | p. del lobrodor pinaculo nm pinnacle labradorite | p. dura any hard, siliceous stone | pinado,-da adj pinnate p. en bruto rubble stone | p. fetida stinkstone | pingo nm a drill hole terminated short of its p. filtrante porous rock | p. fina | p. objective frailesca [Almadem, Sp] breccia consisting of pinguita nf fragments of schist and serpentine cemented pinta nf [Me"x] the appearance of an ore which by dolomite and clay | p. franca easily worked discloses its tenor according to its color, grain, stone | p. guisante pisolite | p. hematitas weight and other physical properties | [Ch] hematite | p. hedionda [Guadalcazar, Mex] silver ore assaying better than 50 diezmilesimos black limestone | p. imdn magnetite | p. inga | [Vz] gold placer | color or gold seen on pyrite | p. jaspe jasper | p. labrada dressed washing gravel in a pan | p. azul [Pachuca/ stone | p. lipe [Pe] chalcanthite | p. litografica Mex] silver sulfide ore | p. de metal indications argillaceous limestone | p. loca meerschaum | of ore p. maciza stone lacking defects | p. marmol pintar vintr to exhibit indications of ore marble | p. meteorica meteorite | p. mineral ore pinula nf sight of a surveying instrument | p. molar sandstone used for millstones | p. pinza nf fishing tool used for extracting objects molena burstone | p. mora [Guadalcazar, Mex] that have fallen down a drillhole diorite | p. nefritica]ade \ p. negra [Vz] pina nf cone-shaped ingot of refined silver | greenish gray felds tone | p. ollar serpentine | [Ch/ Pe/ Bol] bullion steatite | p. oniquina onyx | p. ovar oolite | p. piocha nf pick palo [La Serena, Ch] asbestos | p. para piotina nf brownstone | p. parda manganese oxides | p. pipa nf pipe partida broken stone | p. pez pitchstone/ pique nm bottom or ground | [Bol, Ch/ Pe] retinite | p. picada crushed or broken stone | p. shaft | a pique [Mex] vertically | p. maestro [Ch] pomez pumicestone | p. preciosa gemstone | p. main shaft radiante actinolite | p. rodada boulder/ cobble/ piquero nm miner pebble | p. sarabeada or sarabiada [Col] piqueta nf mattox, pickaxe | p. con cabeza poll- or gneiss | p. sonora pick phonolite | p. tosca pumice stone/ pumice | p. piquetero nm boy who carries picks to workers verde green stone | p. viva very hard stone, in a mine ledge rock | piedras de acarreo glacial erratics | piquetilla nf gad | small pickaxe p.-bola [Mex] boulder pir nm [Ch] lead amalgam piemontita nf / manganese epidote piralmandita nf pyralmandite piezoclasa nf compression joint piralspita nf pyralspite piezocristilizacidn nf piezocrystallization piramirade nm piezoelectricidad nf piezoelectricity pirargirita nf pyrargyrite piezoelectrico,-ca adj piezoelectric pireneita nf melanite piezogeno,-na adj piezogene pirex nm pyrex piezomagnetismo nm piezomagnetism piriforme adj pear-shaped piezome'trico,-ca adj equipotential, piezometric pirita nf pyrite | sulfides (in general) | p. pila nf basin/ trough, tank or vessel | pothole | arsenical arsenopyrite | p. blanca marcasite | p. evaporation tank in salt works | [Col] pit dug capilar | p. cobriza chalcopyrite | p. on a river bank used to wash placer ore | p. de comun pyrite | p. de azufre iron pyrite | p. de mineral heap of ore carbon pyrite found in coal seams/ "scud" | p. de pilar nm pillar | p. de tierra pinnacle | p. cobalto linnaeite | p. de cobre chalcopyrite | p. de tectonico horst cresta de gallo marcasite | p. de estano stannite | pilita nf pilite (actinolite pseudomorphous after p. de fierro or hierro iron pyrite | p. de olivine) | tinder ore manganese | p. ferroniqueltfera P-8

pentlandite | p. magnetica pyrrhotite | p. piso nm stage | floor or level | bottom level in a marcial iron pyrite | p. prismatica marcasite | p. mine | footwall | p. estructural structural stage radianite pyrite, firestone | p. roja niccolite | p. pisolita nf pisolite j pisolith | p. volcanica sana [Ch] unaltered pyrite volcanic pisolith piritico,-ca adj pyritic pisolitico,-ca adj pisolitic piritizacidn nf pyritization pisones nmpl [Bol] stamps (in a stamp mill) piritizar vtr to pyritize piticita nf pitticite piritoedro nm pyritohedron pivote nm stock piritoso,-sa adj pyrite-bearing pizarra nf slate | schist | p. arcillosa argillaceous piroaurita nf pyroaurite slate or schist | [Sp] shale | p. arenosa sandy pirobelonita nf pyrobelonite schist | p. astittoso splintered slate | p. azul pirobitumen nm pyrobitumen [Cartagena, Sp] slate stained by iron silicate | piroclastico,-ca adj pyroclastic p. bituminosa bituminous slate | p. carbonifera pirocloro nm pyrochlore coaly shale | p. doritica chloritic schist | p. pirochroita nf pyrochroite cristalina schist | p. de talco talc schist | p. de pirofana nf pyrophane, fire opal tejar roofing slate | p. en gavillas cordierite pirofanita nf schist | p. fetida bituminous slate | p. gredosa pirofilita nf clay slate | p. marcellus marcellus shale | p. pirogenesis nf pyrogenesis micacea mica schist | p. ojosa augen schist pir6geno,-na adj pyrogenic | pyrogenetic pizarral nm slate quarry pirolita nf pyrolite pizarreno,-na adj slatey | with or having slaty pirolusita nf pyrolusite cleavage piromagma nf pyromagma pizarreria nf slate quarry piromelana nf brookite pizarrosidad nf schistosity | slaty cleavage piromerida nf pyromeride (obs, nodular pizarroso,-sa adj slatey rhyolite) placa nf plate | slab | p. litosferica lithospheric pirometamorfismo nm pyrometamorphism plate pirometasoma'tico,-ca adj pyrometasomatic placer nm placer | p. aurifero gold-bearing pirometasomatismo nm pyrometasomatism placer | p. de costa marina beach placer | p. pirometria nf pyrometry metaltfero ore-bearing placer pirometro nm pyrometer plagioclasa nf plagioclase piromorfita nf pyromorphite plagioclasita nf anorthosite pironafta nf pyronaphtha plaisanciano,-na adj Plaisancian piropisita nf pyropissite plaisanciense adj Plaisancian piropo nm plan nm program | bottom level in a mine piroretinita nf pyroretinite planacidn nf planation pirosfero nm pyrosphere planctonnm pirosmalita nf pyrosmalite plancha nf plate or sheet of native metal pirostibina nf kermesite plancheta nf plane-table pirostilpnita nf pyrostilpnite planear vtr [Mex] to extract gold in fissures in piroxena nf pyroxene bedrock beneath placers piroxenita nf piroxenite planicie nm plane | [geomorph] sides of a piroxeno nm pyroxene saddle | p. de abrasion denudation plane | p. piroxenoide nm piroxenoid troncal peneplain piroxferroita nf planificacidn nf planning piroxmangita nf planimetria nf planimetry pirquin nm [Bol, Ch] contract mining planimetrico,-ca adj planimetric pirquinero nm [Bol, Ch] contract or tribute planimetro nm planimeter miner, tributor piano nm map, plan | plane | p. axil axial plane pirrotina nf pyrrhotite | p. de clivaje cleavage plane | p. de crucero pisar vintr to dip cleavage plane | p. de ensayes assay map | p. de P-9

estratificacion bedding plane | p. defalla fault shelf | p. de abrasion wave-cut platform | p. de plane | p. defractura fracture plane | p. de junta perforacion drilling platform, drilling rig | p. de joint plane | p. de nivel datum | p. de referenda produccion production platform | p. datum plane | p. de resbalamiento slickenside, epicontinental continental shelf | p. replegable fault plane | p. de simetria \ p, reticular jack-up rig | p. submarina continental shelf planofirico,-ca adj planophyric (obs) plateado,-da adj silvered, silver, silvery planta nf floor or level | horizontal cut | map, platillo nm [Mex] a red earthen plate used for plan | plant, factory, facility | p. de recuperacion testing ore de acidos acid recovery plant platina nf platinum ore | crude native platinum plantar vtr to erect a mill, machinery, etc platiniridio nm platiniridium planteaje nm plant, mill platinita nf playnite planteamiento nm plant, mill platino nm platinum | p. nativo native platium plantel nm plant, mill plato para la var mineral nm gold pan plasma nf plasma (var of chalcedony) platdn nm pan used for washing ore plasticidad nf plasticity platoncito nm small gold pan plastico,-ca adj plastic playa nf beach, shore, strand | river bank | p. plastotipo nm plastotype alta backshore | p. baja gold placer beneath the plata nf silver | silver ore | p. agria argentite, level of the adjacent stream | p. levantada polybasite or stephanite | p. antimonial discrasite | p. azul [Tlalpujahua, Mex] playero nm [Bol, Pe] worker employed in aregentite [Zacatecas, Mex] silver chloride | p. washing gold azul acercado polybasite | p. azul de catorce plazolita nf selbite | p. blanca native silver | p. blanca pleamar nm high tide pardusca argentiferous galena | p. bruto native plegado,-da adj folded | nm folding silver | p. ceniza silver chloride | p. color de rosa plegadura nf folding native silver with reddish tinge | p. cornea plegamiento nm folding | p. cabrio chevron cerargyrite | p. cornea amarilla iodyrite | p. folding | p. en acordeon accordian folding | p. cornea blanca cerargyrite | p. cornea verde entrecruzado cross-folding | p. imbricado embolite | p. cruda sponge silver | p. de clavos imbricate folding | p. verdadero flexure, true [Batopilas, Mex] wire silver in calcite gangue | folding p. de ley standard silver for assayers | p. de plegar vtr to fold patio or de pie silver produced by the patio pleistoce"nico,-ca adj process of amalgamation | p. ductil argentite | pleistoceno,-na adj Pleistocene | nm p. en barra silver bullion | p, esponja sponge Pleistocene silver | p. gris argentite | p. labrada wrought plenargirita nf matildite silver | p. maciza [Pe] native silver in sheets | pleocristalino,-na adj holocrystalline p. mixta electrum | p. nativa native silver | p. pleocroico,-ca adj pleochroic natural native silver | p. negra argentite, pleocroismo nm stephanite | p. negra prismatica stephanite | p. pleocroisto,-sta adj pleochroic parda cerargyrite | p. pella silver amalgam | p. pleonasta nf roja clara proustite | p. roja oscura pyrargyrite | plicacion nf plication p. seca silver ore which does not amalgamate pliegue nm fold | p. acostado recumbant fold | with mercury | p. sulfurea agria stephanite | p. p. armonico harmonic fold | p. asimetrico verde embolite [Plateros, Mex] bromyrite | asymmetric fold | p. buzante dip fold | p. cabrio [Catorce, Mex] mixture of bromyrite and chevron fold | p. cerrado closed fold, isoclinal iodyrite | p. virgen native silver | p. vitrea fold | p. competente competent fold | p. argentite compuesto compund fold | p. de arrastre drag plataforma nf platform | p. continental fold | p. diapirico diapir fold | p. disarmonico continental shelf | continental mass | p. disharmonic fold | p. echado overfold | p. en continental exterior outer continental shelf | p. abanico deflujo fan fold | p. escanolado en costera coastal plane | p. cratogenica cratogenic Echelon fold | p. hacia abajo downfold | p. P-10

inclinado inclined fold | p. incompetente plutonico,-ca adj plutonic, intrusive incompetent fold | p. intraformacional plutonio nm plutonium intraformational fold | p. invertido overturned plutonismo nm fold | p. isoclinal isoclinal fold | p. normal plutonita nf plutonist normal fold | p. parado upright fold, normal pneumatolitico,-ca adj pneumatolytic fold | p. recostado recumbant fold | p. nf population | p. cerrada closed recumbente recumbant fold | p. silla anticline | population | p. de referenda parent population p. simetrico symmetric fold | p. simple simple | p. estable stable population | p. estacionaria fold | p. suprateneu supratenous fold | p. stationary population | p. madre parent tumbado overturned fold | p. verdadero true population | p. tipo type population fold, flexure | p. vertical upright fold | p. poblador nm [Me"x] mine foreman volcado overturned or inverted fold, overfold | poblar vtr to set miners to work in a mine p. yacente recumbent fold pobre adj barren, sterile, unmineralized | low pliensbaquiano,-na adj Pliensbachian grade pliensbaquense nm Pliensbachian pobreza nf poverty | p. de la mina said when ore pliniano,-na adj Plinian grade is low pliocenico,-ca adj pocero nm well sinker | shaft digger, pitman plioceno,-na adj Pliocene | nm Pliocene pocillo nm small well or drill hole | pass or pliomagma'tico,-ca adj pliomagmatic shoot in a mine plisamiento nm microfolding poder nm thickness | p. calorifico fuel ratio plomada nf plumb podolita nf carbonate-apatite plombagina nf graphite podrido,-da adj rotten, decomposed plomifero,-ra adj lead-bearing, plumbiferous podrir jaguas vtr [Col] to leave ores exposed to plomillo nm [Me*x] hematite rich tin ore the atmosphere in the hope that the sulfides plomilloso,-sa adj lead-bearing will thus be oxidized over time plomizo,-za adj leaden | p. de acarreo alluvial poiquilitico,-ca adj deposit of broken fragments of galena poiquiloblastico,-ca adj poikiloblastic plomo,-ma adj lead colored | leaden poiquilofitico,-ca adj poikilophitic plomo nm lead | lead ore, usually galena | p. poiquilotdpico,-ca adj poikilotopic abigarrado pyromorphite | p. afinado refined poiquilotopo nm poikilotope lead | p. agrio lead slag | p. amarillo wulfenite polaridad nf polarity | p. blanco cerussite | p. corneo fosgenite | p. de polarimetria nf polarimetry obra [Me"x] argentiferous lead | p. dulce refined polarimetro nm polarimeter lead | p. negro graphite | p. pardo polarizacidn nf pyromorphite | p. pobre lead poor in silver | p. polarizado,-da adj polarized rico lead rich in silver | p. rojo crocoite | p. polarizador,-dora adj polarizing | nm ronco [Arg, Ch, Pe] compact, massive argentite polen nm pollen | p. verde pyromorphite polenita nf pollenite (obs, olivine phonolite) plomogoma nf poliargirita nf poiyargyrite plomoso,-sa adj lead-bearing polibasita nf polybasite plumbagina nf graphite, plumbargo policiclico,-ca adj polycyclic pliimbeo,-bea adj leaden policdnico,-ca adj polyconic plumbogumita nf policraso nm pliunbopirocloro nm plumbopyrochlore policristal nm poly crystal plurivalencia nf polyvalence policromo,-ma adj polychrome, multicolored plutdn nm pluton, intrusion, intrusive | p. policuarzo nm polyquartz atectonico a tectonic pluton | p. pretectonico polidimita nf pretectonic pluton | p. post-tectonico post- poligenetico,-ca adj polygenetic tectonic pluton | p. sincronico syntectonic poligenico,-ca adj polycyclic | polygenic pluton | p. sintectonico syntectonic pluton | p. poligeosinclinal nm polygeosyncline subsecuente post-tectonic pluton poligonal adj polygonal p-11

poligonizacidn nf polygonization pontico,-ca adj Pontic polfgono nm polygon pontiense adj Pontian polihalita nf populacidn nf [stats] population polikinem£tico,-ca adj polykinematic poquiri nm Indian required to work overtime polilitarenita nf polylitharenite on account of not fulfilling his tarea polilitionita nf polylithionite poercelainita nf porcellanite | polimerizacidn nf polymerization porcelana nf porcelain polimerizado,-da adj polymerized porcelana'ceo/-cea adj porcellaneous polimetalico,-ca adj polymetallic porcelanita nf porcellanite polimetamorfismo nm polymetamorphism porcentaje nf percentage | rate | ratio polimignita nf polymignyte purcentual adj percentage polimineralico,-ca adj polymineralic porfidico,-ca adj porphyritic polimodal adj polymodal porfidita nf porphyry, porphyrite polimorfia nf polymorphism pdrfido nm porphyry | [Vz] gold-bearing polimorfismo nm polymorphism jasperoid | p. acanterado [Me"x] rhyolite polimorfo,-fa adj polymorphic, polymorphous | porphyry | p. cuarcifero quartz porphyry | p. nm polymorph feldesdtico feldspar porphyry | p. granitico polinigritita nf polynigritite granite porphyry | p. metaltfero [Pachuca and polisintetico,-ca adj polysynthetic Real del Monte, M£x] porphyritic pyroxene politipismo nm polytypism andesite host rock | p. negro [Almaden, Sp] politipo nm polytype melaphyre | p. traquito trachyte porphyry polo nm pole | p. geogrdfico geographic pole | p. porfidoblastico,-ca adj porphyroblastic magnetico magnetic pole porfidoblasto nm polonio nm polonium porfiroclastico,-ca adj porphyroclastic polucita nf porfirogranulitico,-ca adj porphyrogranulitic polveo nm [Mex] amalgam formed by the cazo (obs) or caldron process composed of two parts porfmco,-ca adj porphyritic mercury and one part silver by weight porfirita nf porphyry, porphyrite polvillo nm fine dust | tailings | [Mex] rich ore pdrfiro nm porphyry | p. buenogood ore | p. yjabon [Guanajuato, porfiro-afanitico,-ca adj porphyro-aphanitic Mex] richest ore mined yielding about 2000 porfiroide adj porphyritic | porphyroid | nm ounces to the ton porphyroid polvo nm dust | pinch | powder | oro en p. gold porfirotdpico,-ca adj porphyrotopic dust | p. de carbon coal dust | p. volcanico porfirizacidnn/[Mex] to pulverize ore volcanic dust poro nm pore | p. mural mural pore polvorilla nf argentite | polybasite | [Tamaya, porosidad nf | p. efectiva effective Ch] -bearing copper ore | [Peras, porosity | p. primaria primary porosity | p. Mex] gold-bearing marcasite | estanodep. secundaria secondary porosity | p. total absolute [Durango, Mex] friable, rhyolite hosted tin ore or total porosity | [Pe] stephanite (but usually used for porosimetro nm porosimeter | p. de mercurio argentite or polybasite) | [Cerro de Pasco, Pe] mercury pump porosimeter sternbergite poroso,-sa adj porous polio nm [Pe] small bag of rich ore given by a porra nf sledge miner on Saturday to the mine owner porronguito nm [Pe] a crude mercury measure pomaceo,-cea adj pumaceous portal nm rock arch, pdmez adj and nm pumice portlandiano,-na adj Portland ian ponce nm pumice portlandiense adj Portland ian pongo nm [Pe, EC] worker employed to portdnde glaciar nm glacial outlet maintain underground workings | canyon, poruna nf [ Arg, Ch] pan used to wash gold gorge posglacial adj Holocene | postglacial pontiano,-na adj Pontian poskinematico,-ca adj posttectonic P-12 posmagm£tico,-ca adh postmagmatic well | p. subyacente well cutting accross several posmineral adj postmineral pools posobsecuente adj postobsequent pozolano,-na adj posorogenico,-ca adj postorogenic praseodimio nm praseodymium pospaisnm hinterland prasio nm green variety of quartz, prase postarrecife adj back reef prasdpal nm prasopal postectdnico,-ca adj posttectonic prasma nf dark green variety of agate post-litoral adj backshore praetigliense adj Praetiglian postura nf [Pe] separation of silver from prealpino,-na adj prealpine amalgam by distillation precambriano,-na adj Precambrian potam6geno,-na adj potamic preca"mbrico,-ca adj Precambrian potamologia nf precio nm price | p. de referenda posted price | potasa adj potash | nf potash p. de refineria refinery price, rack price | p. pota*sico,-ca adj potassic oficial posted selling price potasio nm potassium | p.-argon K-Ar | p.-calcio precioso,-sa adj precious K-Ca precipicio nm precipice, cliff potencia nf thickness | power | strength (of a precipitacidn nf precipitation vein) | p. de una prueba power of a test | p. precipitado,-da adj precipitated nuclear nuclear power precipitar ufr precipitate potential adj potential | nm potential | p. preconsolidacidn nf preconsolidation espontaneo spontaneous potential | p. nominal precursor nm preliminary seismic wave rated potential, rated production capacity | p. predazita nf predazzite zeta zeta potential prediagenesis nf prediagenesis potenciometrico,-ca adj potentiometric predio minero nm mining property potsdamiano,-na adj Potsdamian prefosa nf foredeep potsdamiense adj Potsdamian preorogenico,-ca adj preorogenic pottsvilliense adj Pottsvillian preparar minerales vtr to dress ores poza nf [Sandia, Pe] potholes in bedrock of presa nf dam placer gold deposits presentar vintr to show or display a pozaco nm [Cartagena, Sp] winze characteristic (this verb is generally lost in pozo nm well, drill hole | shaft, pit | p. translation, eg que presenta gradaciones entre abandonado abandoned well | p. artesiano granito y tonalita 'that grades from granite to artesian well | p. cdrstico yama | p. cerrado ') close in well | p. de alivio relief well | p. de presentarse vpr to occur, be found, eg las rocas avancada step-out well | p. de coyote natural siluricas se presentan cerca de la mina 'Silurian water hole | p. de desarollo development well | rocks occur adjacent to the mine' p. de descarga disposal well | p. de preserver vtr to preserve descubrimiento discovery well | p. de mina shaft presidn nf pressure | drive (in an oil or gas | p. de servicio service well | p. direccional pool) | p. absoluta absolute pressure | p. directed well, slant well | p. dirigido directed atmosferica | p. cerrada well, slant hole | p. excavado dug well | p. closed pressure | p. deflujo fluid pressure, exploratorio exploratory or wildcat well | p. flowing pressure | p. dirigida directed pressure eruptivo gusher | p. improductivo , | p. efect'wa working pressure | p. estatica static "duster" | p. inyector injection well | p. lateral pressure | p. hidrostatica hydrostatic pressure | flank well | p. marginal marginal well | p. a presion under pressure muerto dead well (must be pumped to produce) presupuesto nm cost estimate | p. obligatorio obligation well | p. parado shut pretectdnico,-ca adj pretectonic in well | p. pobre stripper well | p. salado salted pretilnm[Vz] cliff well | p. seco dry hole | p. sin control wild well, pretratamiento nm pretreatment well out of control | p. sin consentimiento de una previtriano nm previtrian parte non consent well | p. sin entubar open priaboniano,-na adj P-13 prieto,-ta adj blackish, black, very dark | an irregular deposit or mass | p. fangoso mud- rebellious, refractory (ores) lump prima nf bonus | p. de petroleo oil bonus propano nm propane primario,-ria adj primary | nm Paleozoic propilita nf propylite (obs porpylitized andesite) primordial adj primordial, essential propilitizacidn nf propylitization prisma nm proporci<5n nf proportion | ratio prism£tico,-ca adj prismatic proporcional adj proportional prismoide afj prismoidal | nm prismoid prorrateo nm proration probabilidad nf probability | p. compuesto prospeccidn nf prospecting | p. geofisica compound probability | p. conditional geophysical prospecting | p. geoquimica conditional probability | p. total total geochemical prospecting probability proterozoico,-ca adj Proterozoic | nm probado,-da adj proven, proved Proterozoic procedimiento nm process (industrial or protocl4stico,-ca adj protoclastic chemical) protocuarzita nf protoquartzite proceso nm process | processing | p. aleatorio protog£nico,-ca adj protogenic random process | p. armonico random process protomatriz nf protomatrix | p. autoregressivo autoregressive process | p. de protomena nf protore Markov Markov process | p. discrete discrete protomilonita nf protomylonite process | p. estacionario stationary process | p. protrusivo,-va adj protrusive homogeneo homogenous process | p. numerico provincia nf province | p. metalogenica numeric process metallogenic province | p. petrografica proclorita nf ripidolite petrographic province produccidn nf production | p. anual annual provitriano nm provitrian production | p. de un pozo yield of a well | p. proximo,-ma adj near, close | nearby, proximal del yacimiento field or pool potential | p. diario | next daily production | p. mensual monthly proyeccidn nf projection | p. cristalina crystal production | p. permisible allowable production projection | p. Lambert Lambert projection | p. | p. permitida allowable production | p. Mercator Mercator projection | p. policonica potential draw down potential | p. rdpida polyconic projection gutting of a well | p. real actual production | p. proyectar vtr to project regulada ratable take | p. suplementaria bonus proyectil nm projectile | p. volcdnico volcanic allowable bomb, volcanic ejecta producirufr to produce proyecto nm project | plan, design | draft productivo,-va adj productive | producing prueba nf test | preprint | p. bilateral two-sided producto nm product, return, yield | material | test | p. de asfalto tar test | p. de catda shatter product (result of an industrial or chemical test | p. de calcination char test | p. de cheque process) | p. blanco white hydrocarbon izod test | p. de elutration elutriation test | p. de products (gasoline, kerosene etc) | p. de goma gum test | p. de hipotesis hypothesis test | eruption eruptive material | p. negro black p. de homegeidad test of homogeneity | p. de hydrocarbon product (diesel, etc) independentia test of independence | p.deji productor nm producer | p. independiente cuadrado chi-squared test | p. de Kolmogorov- independent producer Smirnov Kolmogorov-Smirnoff test | p. de razon profundidad nf depth | footage (of a well) | de versimilitud likelihood ratio test | p. de [Almaden, Sp] winze resistentia drop test | p. de signification test of pro fund izar vtr to sink or deepen significance | p. de student student t test | p. profundu,-da adj deep | poco p. shallow robusto robust test | p. sin sesgo unbiased test | progradacidn nf progradation p. unilateral one-sided test promedio nm average | middle psamita nf psammite prometeo,-tea adj promethium psaturosa nf stephanite | [Pe] polybasite promontorio nm promontory, headland | [Me"x] psefita nf , P-14 pseudobrecha nf pseudobreccia a particular mine pseudocirco nm pseudocirque puntero nm stonemason's chisel pseudodorita nf swelling chlorite | septchlorite punterola nf small pick | pseudochlorite puntiagudo,-da adj pointed pseudocrisolita nf pseudochrysotile puntista nf [Me"x] miner who knocks down pseudocristal nm pseudocrystal loose rock from a working face preparing the pseudodifusidn nf pseudo-diffusion way for the next shift pseudofalla nf pseudofault punto nm point | p. de burbuja or burbujeo pseudomalaquita nf bubble point pressure | p. de concensacion pseudomatriz nf pseudomatrix condensation point | p. de ebullicion boiling pseudomontana nf pseudomountain point | p. defluidez pour point | p. de imagen pseudom6rfico,-ca adj pseudomorphous image point | p. de inflamacion flash point | p. pseudomorfismo nm pseudomorphism de marca [surv] station | p. de niebla cloud point pseudomorfo nm | p. de partida point of discovery of a vein, from pseudonddulo nm pseudonodule which claim boundaries are measured | p. de pseudopofirico,-ca adj pseudoporphyritic referenda reference point | p. de rocio dew pseudorutilo nm pseudorutile point | p. muerto break even point | p. nulo null pseudosimetria nf pseudosymmetry point pseudovolca'n nm pseudovolcano puntoagudo,-da adj taper pointed pseudowavelita nf puntualo^' point psitacinita nf pvmzdadj flame red pteroceriano,-na adj Pterocerian punzdnnm gad pteroceriense adj Pterocerian puquio nm [Ch, Pe] spring | [Pe] narrow pucha nf [Col] one sixteenth of an almud galleries driven by Indians or Jesuits to reach pudinga nf conglomerate water-bearing strata | a natural outlet of pudrir jaguas vtr [Col] to leave ores exposed to groundwater from gently dipping stata the atmosphere in the hope that the sulfides purbeckiano,-na adj Purbeckian will thus be oxidized over time purbeckiense adj Purbeckian puerciense adj Puercan pureza nf purity puente nm bridge | plugging of a well | head purga nf [Cartagena, Sp] charge of slag added frame of a mule whim | pillar (of ore in a after a charge of ore to clean out a lead mine) | p. natural natural bridge, arch smelting furnace puerta nf , passage | [Me"x] hard rock or purgar vtr to bleed off | p. un pozo to blow a boulders that conceal a vein well puerto nm pass, gap puro,-ra adj pure, refined | native puesta en produccidn nf bringing in a well puro plateado nm [Pe] exceptionately high pulgada nf inch | pinch | p. de minero miner's grade copper ore, essentially pure copper inch | p. de oro en polvo pinch of gold dust mineral pulimentacidn nf polishing (by wind or purpureo,-rea adj purple glaciers) purpurino,-na adj purple pulimento nm polish | p. eolico desert polish | p. puruna nf long trough for vanning silver glaciar glacial polish amalgam | [Pe] earthenware or wood disk used to test ore in the patio process of pulperia nf company store at a mine amalgamating silver ores pulsacidn nf [strat, tect] pulsation puzol nm pumita nf pumice puzolana nf pozzolana pumpeliita nf puzolanico,-ca adj pozzolan punta nf source | point | sharp end of a tool or instrument | work shift and hence, by extension, one-third of the mitayos assigned to -l

Q quemado,-da adj porcellaneous | nm porcellanite | gossan having a burnt appearance | [Mex] manganese oxide staining quebrada nf fissure or break in a rock | narrow | any dark, cindery mineral staining that looks pass | ravine, gorge, gully, draw, small valley similar to manganese oxide | stream, brook | broken, uneven ground quemador nm [Guadalcazar, M£x] calciner of quebradizo,-za adj brittle, friable mercury ores quebrado,-da adj broken, rough, uneven | quemahlita nf kemahlite (obs, pseudoleucitic bankrupt | ntn fraction | [Cu] channel between micromonzonite) reefs quemar vtr to roast or calcine ore | to retort quebrador ntn crusher | [Me"x] ore breaker, ore amalgam | c\. piedra to heat a rock and then cobber break it by plunging in cold water quebradura nf fracture, break | crack, fissure | quemazdn nm outcrop | [Pachuca, M£x] silver ravine | crushing | q. de dzalladura shear joint ore in which native silver and silver chlorides quebrantador,-dora adj crushing | nm stone are found in a matrix of manganese oxides crusher or breaker | tool used for breaking queme nm retorting of amalgam or mercury ore stone | [Mex] roasting of ore in the patio process of quebradora nf crusher | c\. de carbon coal amalgamation of silver ore breaker | c\. de cono cone crusher | c\. de quenita nf kenyte (obs, olivine phonolitic mandtbula jaw crusher | c\. de quijadas jaw trachyte) crusher | q. giratoria gyratory crusher quentalenita nf kentallenite ( obs, augite-olivine quebraja nf break, crack monzonite) quebrajar vtr to crack, split queramiquita nf keramikite (obs, cordierite quebrantable adj brittle hyalorhyolite) quebrantamiento nm breaking, breaking up, queramohalita nf breakage, shattering querargira nf cerargyrite quebrantar vtr to break | to crush | to split | to querargirita nf cerargyrite crack | to spall queratdfido nm keratophyre | q. cuardfero quebrantarse vpr to break, crack, split quartz keratophyre quebrantador nm stone crusher or breaker | queratdfiro nm keratophyre tool used for breaking stone queratoporfirita nf keratophyre | q. cuarzosa quebrantura nf ravine quartz keratophyre quebrar vtr to break | to cob ore | vintr to quercyita nf carbonate-hydroxylapatite break quermesita nf kermesite quebrarse vpr to break, be broken querogeno nm kerogen quebrazdn de veta nm [Me"x] break in a vein querol nm kerol quedada nf [Bol] voluntary overtime by contract querosene nm kerosene workers queroseno nm kerosene quedar determinado vtr delineated in space queroteno nm kerotene queenstownita nf Darwin glass quersantita nf kersantite quelidonia nf chelidon Quersoneso nm Kertch quelonita nf pyrite or marcasite with a shape quesenita nf kasenite (obs, pyroxene nepheline that resembles a tortise shell carbonatite) quema nf retorting of amalgam | burning, quesilita nf azurite roasting | [Me"x] roasting of ore in the patio queso nm [Mex] small cake of silver resulting process of amalgamation of silver ore | from roasting of silver sulfides with litharge in [Guadalcazar, Mex] calcining of mercury ore in a small clay furnace or vaso | [Cerro de Pasco, clay retorts Pe] pressed cake of amalgam quemadero nm [Mex] retort used to recover quespi nm [Pe] quartz mercury from amalgam in the patio process of quetenita nf botryogen amalgamating silver ores quetzalcoatlita n/ Q-2 quetzalztli nm [Mex] transluscent green vareity quincita nf quincite (pink sepiolite) | quinzite of jade (rose-colored common opal) quevellita nf kvellite (obs, ultrabasite) quine nm Kinne diabase (obs, olivine diabase) quiastolita nf chiastolite quintal nm hundredweight | a weight quiebra nf fault fracture, break, fissure | equivalent to 4 arrobas \ fifth part of 100 | breaking or crushing of ore | bankruptcy, [ Almaden, Sp] weight of ore found in an failure ordinary espuerta terrera \ q. metrico 100 quieselgurnm kieselguhr kilograms quijo nm gangue or matrix, generally quartzose quintalaje nm [Ch] weight in quintals | gold- or silver-bearing quartz | q. azucarado. quintear vtr [Bol] to sort or cob ore by hand [Hualgayoc, Pe] very finely crystalline, sugary quiroguita nf [Sierra Almagrera, Sp] antimonial quartz | q. de hierro gossan | q. podrido [Pe] galena porous quartz often containing gold quirunavaarita nf magnetinite quilatador nm assayer (of gold or silver) quiselgurnm kieselguhr quilatar vtr to assay (gold or silver) quisqueita nf [Quisque, Pe] quisqueite (var quilate nm | a weight of 4 granos, the third asphalti te) part of a tomin \ orodelS quilates 18 carat gold quitar vtr to remove | to take away | to extract, quilaveita nf kilaueite (obs, olivine-magnetite separate | q. el mineral remove or extract ore | basalt) cj. las impurezas a un mineral separate waste quilita nf kylite (obs, olivine theralite) from ore, concentrate ore quilo nm kilo, kilogram quitarse vpr to be removed, taken away, quilogramo nm kilogram extracted, separated quilolino nm kiloline quinto nm fifth | [Linares, Sp] one lead- quildmetro nm kilometer smelting operation of a boliche furnace quillo nm [Pe] pyrite quinto real nm old Spanish colonial tax on quimbalete nm [Pe] large stone used in hand mines originally set at a fifth or 20 percent, but grinding of ore later reduced quimberlita nf quitina nf chitin quimica nf chemistry | chemist | q. geologica quitinoso,-sa adj chitinous geochemistry | q. inorgdnica inorganic quitdnnm chiton chemistry | q. mineral | q. quitzalitztli nm [Mex] a green, transluscent jade orgdnica organic chemistry quivita nf kivite (obs, olivine-leucite ) quimico,~ca adj chemical | nm chemical | q. geologico geochemist quimismo nm chemism R-l

R rambla nf rambla, a dry ravine or bed of an ephemeral stream | sandy place | ground covered with sand after floods rabdomancia nf rhabdomancy, dowsing rameo nm [Ch] zone of disseminated copper rabidnnm rapids | riffle ores that separates richer ores rabos nmpl [Antioqua, Col] silver-rich slimes ramificackm nf division of a vein into branches from the final (third) settling-vat used for the ramificado,-da adj branching, braided treatment of tailings ramificarse vpr to split up into or divide into radiacidn nf radiation | r. defondo background branches, to branch, to feather out radiation | r. gamma gamma radiation ramita de fildn nf branch or leader vein radiactividad nf radioactivity ramito nm stringer radiactivo,-va adj radioactive ramiza nfpl branches radiado,-da adj radiate ramo nm small branch | branch of a vein radial adj radial ramosita nf scoria radioactivacidn nf radioactivation raxnpa nf working face | ascent | [struc] ramp | radioactividad nf radioactivity slope radioactivo,-va adj radioactive, rampla nf ramp, shallow incline radiocoloide nm radiocolloid rampl6n,-ona adj upright radiodetector nm water monitor (for ramsayita nf radioactivity) rancholabreiense adj Rancholabrean radioge"nico,-ca adj radiogenic ranquilita nf haiweeite radiohidrologia nf radiohydrology ranura nf groove | r. de deslizamiento striae radiolario nm radiolarian rana nf fanglomerate | [Sp] alluvial deposits of radiolisis nf radiolysis Villafrankian age radiolitico,-ca adj radiolitic rapasa nf any easily worked stone radioluminiscencia nf radioluminescence rapidez nf rate | r. de crecimiento growth rate radiom£trico,-ca adj radiometric rapido nm rapids radioquimica nf radiochemistry rasa nf high mountain plain | r. costera coastal radioquimismo nm radiometrics plain raedera nf semicircular rake used for collecting rascar vtr to rework the surface of an ore abandoned mine rafa nf subsidence rasgo nm characteristic, feature, trait | [Me"x] raiz nm root length of underground workings along the raja nf cut | crack, split strike of a vein rajado,-da adj split cracked | [Bol] stoped raspador nm [Mex] miner who works the rajadura nf fissure, crack, split surface of a vein or deposit, rajar vtr to split, crack | [Bol] to extract blocked- raspadura nf streak | scrapings out ore, stope raspar vtr to abrade | to scrape | to clean up an rajarse vpr to split, crack arrastre \ [Bol] to clean up any ore remaining in rajo nm [Bol] block (of ore in a mine) | stope | old workings shallow open cut | r. abierto glory hole | r. al raspinar vtr [Bol] to clean up any ore remaining sol glory hole in old workings rama nf branch | branch vein | principal gallery rasposo nm [Comanja, Mex] native silver in a mine rastro nm track, trace ramada nf branches ratonera nf [Bol] dog-hole, coyote-hole, rat-hole ramaje nm collection of branches or any other shallow working of little ramal nm secondary branch | secondary gallery consequence in a mine | branch or offshoot of a vein rauda nf rapids ramalearse vpr to split off, branch off rauraciano,-na adj Rauracian ramaleo nm [Guanajuato, Mex] irregular, rauraciense adj Rauracian twisted veins of quartz and calcite rayado,-da adj striped, banded R-2 rayano,-na adj bordering, adjacent recolectar vtr to collect rayo nm ray | r. gamma gamma ray | r. x X-ray recompresion nf repressuring (an almost razon nm ratio | rate | r. de correlacion depleted well) correlation coefficient | r. de verosimilitudes reconcentrado nm [Mex] concentrate likelihood ratio reconcentrar vtr to concentrate reaccidn nf reaction | r. esotermica exothermic recongelacion nf refreezing reaction reconocer vtr to search or explore for mineral reaccionar vintr to react deposits | to prospect reacondicionar vtr to workover (a well) reconociendo nm prospecting, exploration reactivacidn nf reactivation reconocimiento nm exploration, prospecting, reactivo,-va adj reactive | nm reagent search | reconnaissance real nm [Me"x] mining district, traditionally reconsecuente adj reconsequent, resequent consisting of at least six operating mines and reconstructivo,-va adj recontructive four reduction works adjacent to a town recorrer vtr to traverse governed by the appropriate civial authorities recorrimiento nm [surv] traversing | coin used in colonial Spanish America equal recorte nm [Bol] cross-cut to 1 /4 of a peseta or 25 centimes | r. de recostado,-da adj recumbant fontanero measure of the rate of water flow | r. recostar vintr to dip de aro [Col] a weight, equivalent to a half a recristalizacion nf recrystallization tomin and 1/16 a castellano rectificacion nf rectification | correction of a realce nm any working face that is raised above mining claim haulage ways | r. lateral overhand stoping rectilineo,-nea adj rectilinear realizar vtr [Bol] to classify ores prior to recto,-ta adj straight selective mining recubrimiento nm covering reavance nm readvance recuesto nm inclination or dip | slope rebajar vtr to stope underhand recumbente adj recumbent rebaje nm butting against | cut | r. de cabeza recuperacion nf recovery (of ore etc.) | r. overhand stope | r. descendente underhand secundaria secondary recovery stope recurso nm resource | r. no renewable rebajo nm [Mex] working of a mineral deposit | nonrenewable resource r. del cielo overhand stoping | r. lateral rechazo nm fault offset or displacement | r. underhand stoping horizontal horizontal displacement | r. vertical rebanada nf a slice of mineral or rock vertical displacement, throw rebanado nm slicing (in mining) red nf network, stockwork | | rebosdadero nm [Ch] isolated, irregular pocket r. alveolar network | r. atomica atomic structure of ore | [Pe] gold placer | r. cristalogrdfica crystal structure | r. de rebotallero nm [Mex] person who scavenges fracturas fracture network | r. de iones ionic dumps for ore structure | r. filoniana stockwork reciente adj recent redenominado,-da adj renamed recincho nm [Villanueva del Rio, Sevilla, Sp] redeposicion nf redeposition pyrite-bearing, fine-grained sandstone partings redepositado,-da adj redeposited, reworked found in coal beds redepositar vtr to redeposit recial nm rapids redeposito nm redeposition reciclaje de gas nm cycling of gas rediferenciacidn nf redifferentiation recincho nm [Sevilla, Sp] pyritiferous sandstone redoma nf laboratory flask occurring in coal seams redondeado,-da adj rounded recio,-ia adj coarse | nm [Sierra Almagrera, Sp] redondez nf round ness highest grade ore redoniense adj Redonian recobro nm recovery (expressed in percent) redoxomdrfico,-ca adj redoxomorphic recodo nm river bend redruthita nf chalcocite recoger vtr to collect | to gather or collect ores reduccidn nf reduction | r. de escorias slag R-3

fuming (reduction of zinc oxide in lead slag) aceptacion acceptance region | r. de hundimiento reducir vtr [chem] to reduce graben | r. de rechazo rejection region reductor,-tora adj reducing | nm reducing registracidn nf [maps] registration agent reducer registrar vtr to file, to register (a mining claim) reempiazamiento nm replacement registro nm record | log | logging | r. acustico reemplazar vtr to replace acoustic log | r. de pozo well log | well logging reempiazo nm replacement | r. electrico electric log reentrante adj reentrant | nm reentrant regla nf rule | pattern | [surv] rod used in refinado,da adj refined | r. alfuego fire refined measuring base of triangulation | r. de calculo reflnadura nf refining slide rule refinar vtr to refine regldn nm [surv] vertical measuring rod refineria nf refinery | r. petrolifera oil refinery regmatico,-ca adj regmatic refino nm refinery | refining regola nf undercut reflectancia nf reflectance regolita nf regolith reflejado,-ja adj reflected regradacidn nf regradation reflejo,-ja adj reflected | nm fluorescence of regresionn/fstrat, stats] regression | r. lineal petroleum, "bloom" linear regression | r. polinomica polynomial reflexion nf reflection | r. fantasma ghost regression reflection regresivo,-va adj regressive reflujo nm ebb tide | reflux reguero nm undercut refoga nf [Pe] retort used for vaporizing regular adj average, usual, normal mercury from amalgam rehabilitacidn nf rehabilitation, reopening (of refogar vtr [Pe] to retort amalgram mines, workings, etc.) refoliacidn nf refoliation rejalgarnm realgar reformacidn nf reformation (petroleum rejilla nf ripple products) rejuvenado,-da adj rejuvenated reformar vtr to reform (petroleum products) rejuvenecimiento nm rejuvenation refraccidn nf refraction | r. de clivaje cleavage relacidn nf ratio, proportion | rate | r. de refraction | r. del crucero cleavage refraction | actividad activity ratio | r. gas/petroleo gas oil r. de la esqiustocidad cleavage refraction | r. ratio doble double refraction relacionado,-da adj allied refractar vtr to refract relajacidn nf relaxation refractario,-ria adj refractory | nm refraction relativo,-va adj relative refractivo,-va nm refractive relaves nmpl residues remaining after washing refractometria nf refractometry of placer ores | second washing of ore | tails refractdmetro nm refractometer relece nm [Col] ore left behind in former refringencia nf refractivity, refringence workings as unprofitable refringente adj refringent relevamiento nm topographic survey refringir vtr to refract relevar vtr to take topography refugiense adj Refugian relicto,-ta adj relict regadura nf undercutting, undermining, holing relieve nm relief | r. de erosion erosional relief | | undercut r. estructural structural relief | en r. in relief regato nm pool | stream reliquia nf relict regatdn nm [Col] kind of chopper used in reliz nm [Mex] wall-rock separating branches of washing gold a vein | bounding plane between wall rock and regelacidn nf regelation ore regenerado,-da adj regenerated reluciente adj clear | [Mex] finely crystalline regente nm [Bol] mine foreman (said of galena) region nf region | r. abisal abyssal area | r. relumbroso,-sa adj shining, glistening adiabatica adiabatic region | r. asismica aseismic relleno nm filling | | backfill (in a mine) | region | r. de ablation ablation area | r. de rellena defisura fracture filling R-4 remanso nm pool of still water | backwater resbaladero nm ore chute remate nm pinch out, thinning or wedging out. resbalado,-da adj overlapping remocidn nf denudation resbalamiento nm overlapping remolenita nf atacamite resbalarse vpr to run side-by-side (as for veins) remolino nm whirlpool, eddy, swirl | pocket, resbalo nm hill with steep slopes | abrupt slope mass or bunch of ore | [Pampa de Nevar, Pe] resbaldnnm overlapping | landslide | fault supergene ores consisting of native gold and rescater vtr [Me"x] to buy ore silver spun together like thread or wire rescate nm [Mex] tribute of gold demanded of rendicidn nf yield native peoples by the conquering Spanish | rendimiento nm yield, return | product, output public sale of ore | daily production rate for oil and /or gas wells rescatin nm person who buys ore from Indians | r. de un pozo yield of a well in small lots rendir vintr to yield | to produce reseco nm [Santa Eulalia, M<§x] lead carbonate renglonadura nf ruled lines | nfpl ruling ore reniforme adj reniform, kidney-shaped resecuente adj resequent renio nm rhenium | r.-osmio rhenium-osmium resedimentecidn nf resedimentation renta nf income | rent | interest, return | r. neta resedimentado,-da adj resedimented de amortization decredente net income for reservas nfpl reserves | r. especulativas depletion allowance | a r. on lease speculative reserves | r. hipotetica hypothetical rentabilidad nf profitability reserves | r. no descubiertos undiscovered rentable adj profitable reserves j r. no desarrolladas undeveloped renter vtr to yield, produce | to let, rent proven reserves | r. posibles possible reserves | reoignimbrite nf rheoignimbrite r. primaria primary reserves | r. probadas reologia nf proven reserves | r. real actual reserve. | r. reoldgico,-ca adj rheologic secundaria secondary reserves | r. reomdrfico,-ca adj rheomorphic suplementarias supplementary reserves reomorfismo nm rheomorphism residue nm residuum, residue | [math] reotropismo nm rheotropism remainder | waste from cobbing ore | r, aluvial repacho nm slope alluvium repartemiento nm allotment of mitayos to a mine resiliencia nf resilience or mill resina nf resin reparto de la demanda nm prorationing resinero,-ra adj resin repasiri nm minga employed to mix, ladle and resinite nf resinite (variety of chalcedony) | trod ore in the patio process of amalgamation fossil resin | hydrated quartz of silver ores resinoide nm resinoid repecho nm declivity, slope resinoso,-sa adj resinous, resin repeticidn nf repeatability resistencia nf resistance repetido,-da adj repeated resistente nm resistant repettiense adj Repettian resistividad nf resistivity | r. aparente apparent replica de un terremoto nf aftershock, resistivity represa nf dam | r. para colas tailings dam resorberztfr toreabsorb representecidn de un registro nf [seis] play back resorberse vpr to be reabsorbed reproduccidn nf reproductibility resorcidn nf reabsorption, resorption reptecidn nf creep | r. del suelo soil creep resorte nm spring reptente adj creeping respaldo nm wall of a vein, etc. | country rock requiebro nm crushing of ores after exploitation adjacent to a vein, etc. | [Bol] any remnants of | [Almaden, Sp] medium grade mercury ore ore in an old working | r. de alto or superior resaca nf wave recession, backwash | resaca, a hanging wall | r. de bajo or superior footwall long narrow, meandering lake in the bed of a resquebrajo nm cracked | dessicated former stream channel restinga nf bank, shoal resalto nm rebound restingar nmpl shoals R-5 restita nf rezago nm ore left in a mine | [Bol, Pe] fee paid resto nm residue to avoid the mlta or to avoid having to replace restringido,-da adj restricted mitayos or mingas under one's charge who have restringir vtr to restrict, limit fled resumennm abstract rezumir vtr to ooze, exude | to percolate | vintr resumidero nm [Guerrero, Mex] limestone cave to seep, ooze or cavern rezumirse vpr to ooze, seep resurgencia nf resurgence rhodaniense adj Rhodanian resurgente adj resurgent ria nf ria, creek | mouth of a river | estuary retardacidnn/[cryst] retardation riacolita nf sanidine retencidn nf retention riachuelo nm rivlet retenido,-da adj retained riazaniense adj Ryazanian reticulado,-da adj reticulate, reticulated, riatillo nm rivlet resembling a network | en reticulado. ribazo nm mound, hillock, sloping bank stockwork ribera nf river bank (usually steep) | seashore | reticular ad;' net-like r. alta high bank | undercut stope j r. playa flat reticulo nm lattice bank, slip-off slope retiano,-na adj Rhaetian TLCOf-CAadj rich retiense adj Rhaetian riego nm [Col] float derived from a mineral retinasfalto nm retinasphalt deposit retinita nf retinite | pitchstone riel nm small ingot or bar of metal retorta nf retort rielado,-da adj reduced to ingots retroceso nm recession rielera nf ingot mold retrodiagenesis nf hypergenesis riesgo nm risk retrogradacidn nf retrogradation rifle nm riffle retrogrades-da adj retrograde rigidez nf rigidity retrogresidn nf retrogression rimaya nf , crevasse retrogresivo,-va adj retrogressive rimero nm heap, pile | string of gads retrometamorfismo nm retrogressive rimpilita nf rimpylite metamorphism rincdn nm inside corner | nook | open-ended retroplaya nf backshore basin on a mountain | square-cut recess or retuerta nf bend in a river hollow in a cliff or reentrant in the borders of a retziano nm Retzian palteau or mesa | small secluded valley | revenidero nm rock altered by infiltration of inside bend of a stream surface or underground water rinkita nf mosandrite revenimiento nm subsidence | cave-in rinkolita nf mosandrite reventadero nm rough, uneven ground | rinon nm kidney-shaped mass of ore, nodular outcrop ore | wood tin | point at which the ore in a reventazdn nm [Me"x] outcrop mine becomes abundant reventdn nm mass of fine native silver | outcrop rio nm river | r. ancho stream | r. inadaptado reverberacidn nf calcination or roasting in a misfit river reverberatory furnace rioandesita nf rhyoandesite reverberante adj reverberatory riocristal nm rhyocrystal reverberar vtr to roast (ore) riodacita nf revisador nm worker who examines ore riodiabasico,-ca adj rhyodiabasic separated by miners riolita nf rhyolite revolcar vtr [Bol] to rework (old dumps, etc.) riotaxftico,-ca adj rhyotaxitic revoltura nf [Mex] mixing ore with flux for ripio nm rubble | spalled rock or ore | small smelting ores or fines | drill cutting | residue | gravel | rezaga nf ore left in a mine [Col] spalled ore | [Ch] residue left from rezagado,-da adj [M£x] piled up, heaped evaporating caliche R-6 riqueza nf riches | richness | nfpl wealth | r. zoogena organic rock fosilifera fossil content rocalita nf rockallite (obs, alkalic granite) risco nm crag, cliff, escarpment | [Mex] bull rocalla nf rubble, talus | stone chippings | quartz | [Villanueva del Rio, Sp] country rock striated pebble ritmico,-ca adj rhythmic rocalloso,-sa adj rocky, rubbly | stony ritmita nf rythmite rocoso,-sa adj rocky, rubbly | stony rizadura nf ripple | ripple mark | r. asimetrica rodado,-da adj round | nm float | gravel asymmetric ripple | r. conjugada compound rodesita nf rhodesite ripple | r. de cauce ripple scour | r. de rodio nm rhodium interferencia cross ripple | r. de resaca backwash rodita nf rhodite | ripple | r. incampleta star ripple | r. linguloide rodizita nf rhodizite cuspate or linguloid ripple | r. regresiva rodocrosita nf rhodocrosite regressive ripple | r. simetrica symmetric ripple rodolita nf | r. transoersa transverse ripple rodonita nf rhodonite robado,-da adj robbed (as for pillars) | [Col] rodostannita nf rhodostannite showing signs of having been worked before rodusita nf rhodusite robin nm rust roedura nf erosion | corrosion, attrition robusto,-ta adj robust roela nf round piece of crude gold or silver roca nf rock | r. abisal abyssal rock | r. roeperita nf roepperite abarregada roches moutonees | r. acida acid toervtr to erode rock | r. alcalina alkaline rock | r. alcalinocaldca roeslerita nf roesslerite, rosslerite calcalkaline rock | r. almacen reservoir rock | r. rogianita nf roggianite amigdaloide amygdaloid rock | r. amorfa rojizo,-za adj reddish amorphous rock | r. asquistica aschistic rock | rojo,-ja adj red | nm red | r. blanco white heat | r. autigena authigenic rock | r. basica basic rock r. cereza cherry red | r. calcdrea calcareous rock | r. carbonatada rombal adj rhombic | r. cldstica | r. de rdmbico,-ca adj rhombic anhidrita anhydrock | r. de caja wall rock | r. de rombiforme adj rhombic contacto contact metamorphosed rock | r. rombododecaedro nm rhombic dodecahedron cristalina crystalline rock | r. de cubierta cover romboedrico,-ca adj rhombohedral rock | r. de espaldos country rock | r. de nabos romboedro nm rhombohedron laterite | r. del lugar country rock | r. efusiva romboidal adj rhomboidal, diamond-shaped | r. encajante wall rock | r. romboide nm rhomboid eruptiva | r. esquistosa schistic romboideo,-dea adj rhomboid rock | r. esteril barren rock | r. estratificada rompeolas nm wave breaker, breakwater stratified rock | r. extrusiva extrusive rock | r. rompepiedras nm stone crusher filoniana dike rock | r. fragmentosa clastic rock | romper vtr to break, crush | to pierce, r. hialina | r.-hongo \ r. penetrate, break through intermediaria intermediate rock | r. intrusiva rompiente nm breaking | breaker | reef, shoal | r. madre gangue | source rock rompimiento nm communication between any | r. magmatica magmatic rock | r. maleta two parts of a mine | breaking througj suitcase rock | r. metamarfica metamorphic ronguero nm [Pe] ore carrier who uses a capacho rock | r. muerta bedrock (placers) | r. pelitica roqueda nf rocky place pelitic rock | r. picada crushed stone | r. roquedal nm rocky place plutonica plutonic rock | r. productiva reservoir rock | r. redpiente reservoir rock | r. salina roquedo nm crag, rock evaporite | r. sedimentaria sedimentary rock | roqueno,-na adj rocky r. silicea silicic rock | r. superficial volcanic rock rosa adj pink | nf rose diamond | rose, rosette | r. intrea volcanic glass | r. vecina country | r. de diadasas joint rose or rosette rock, wall rock | r. verde greenstone | r. viva rosado,-da adj pink, rosy, rose-colored unaltered rock | r. volcdnica volcanic rock | r. rosario nm chain | en rosario en echeldn roseta nf rosette copper R-7 rosiclernm bright rosy color | ruby silver bearing partings in iron ore (proustite-pyrargyrite) | r. claro proustite | r. rubidio nm | r.-estroncio rubidium- de cobre cuprite | r. negro stephanite | r. oscuro strontium pyrargyrite rubinblenda nf rubinblende rosolita nf landerite rubio nm limonite | brown hematite rosterita nf vorobyevite rubornm bright red rotacidn nf rotation rugosidad nf rugosity rotacional adj rotational rugoso,-sa adj rugose, wrinkled rotativo,-va adj rotary rumbadero nm ore shoot rotatorio,-ria adj rotary rumbeador nm [Me"x] prospector rotoinversidn nf rotoinversion rumbo nm strike | direction | r. del buzamiento rotoreflexidn nf rotoreflection dip direction rdtulo nm tag rumbdn nm weathering roza nf undercutting | [Cu] land measure of runita nf graphic granite about 1.2 acres rupeliano,-na adj rozadora nf coal cutting machine rupeliense adj Rupelian rozadura nf undercut ruptura nf rupture | r, de pendiente break in rozar vtr to undercut, cut away slope rubelita nf rubellite (variety of tourmaline) rusciniense adj Ruscinian. rubeo,-bea adj reddish rutenarsenita nf ruthenarsenite rubi nm (pi ) ruby | r.balaje balas ruby | r. ruteniridosmina nf rutheniridosmine de bohemia rose quartz | r. de estano red rutenio nm ruthenium crystalline variety of cassiterite | r. del brasil rutenosmiridio nm ruthenosmiridium red topaz | r. del cabo Cape ruby | r. espinela rutilado,-da adj rutilated spinel ruby | r. estrellado star ruby | r, oriental rutilo nm corundum. | r. rosado balas ruby rubial nm [Cartagena, Sp] siliceous, magnesium S-l

considered worthless | s. de desescombro beds of potassium and magnesium salts | s. de garza rock salt intermediate in purity and porosity saaliense adj Saalian between s. de barca and s. de corazon \ s. de sa'bado nm a piece of high grade ore, of the sort manantiales brine salt j s. de roca rock salt | s. de that Mexican miners were once permitted to tierra impure salt found in dried lake beds | s. search for on the mine dumps each Saturday (el dura salts of the group, e.g. sylvite, sabado) or might otherwise help themselves to and | s. gema sock salt, halite | on any other day of the week s. gorda or en grumos clotty salt evaporated sabana nf savannah | a placer mine located from brine | s. marina sea salt | s. pedres or above water, on the banks of a river piedra rock salt | s. potasica potassium salt | s. sabanalamar nm [Col] low-lying area frequently principal carnalite, kieserite and halite | s. roja flooded by the sea unwashed salt sabanazo nm [Col] small stretch of flat land salacuifer nm saline aquifer sabanera nf diorite salada nf [US] salt covered plain where a lake sabiniense adj Sabinian has evaporated sabldn nm coarse sand saladar nm | pool filled with tide or sa'bulo nm fine gravel flood waters in which salt deposits are formed sabuloso,-sa adj sandy, gritty, arenaceous, by evaporation | , salar sabulous, sabulose, sabuline salado,-da adj saline, salty, salt saca nf extraction, taking out, withdrawl, salar nm saline lake deposits consisting largely removal of ore, etc. | [Bol] drill cuttings of evaporites and | salt marsh | salt flat sacador nm sampler | s. de muestras sampler, | salting of a mine or prospect sampling device salazdn nm [Arg] salinity sacamuestras nfpl sampler, sampling device | salbanda nf thin layer of clay between a vein core barrel | s. defondo bottom sampler | s. de and wall-rock, selvage, salband pared side wall sampler salero nm salt mine sacanucleo nm core barrel | s. de pared wall salfemico,-ca adj salfemic sampler salico,-ca adj salic sacar vtr to extract, take out, remove ores, etc. salida nf outcrop | leak or seep sacatestigo nm core barrel saliente nm salient saco nm sack | s. de ixtle. sack made from the salifero,-ra adj saliferous fibre of the lechaguilla plant that holds 5 to 6 salina nf salt mine | salt marsh | salina | salt arrobas of ore | de s. or en s. irregular, sack-like pan | salt basin | salt flat | [Arg] salt desert sacudida nf shaking | s. stsmica earthquake salina s nfpl salt works | salt marsh saetin nm chute, headrace, flume salinero,-ra adj salt | requiring much salt in the sagenitico,-ca adj rutilated, sagenitic patio process of amalgamation of silver ore | saheliano,-na adj Sahelian nm person employed to add salt to ore in the saheliense adj Sahelian patio process of amalgamating silver ore sajoniano,-na adj Saxonian salinidad nf salinity sajdnico,-ca adj Saxonian saliniense adj Salinan sajoniense adj Saxonian salinizacidn nf salinization sajonita nf saxonite salino,-na adj saline, salty sakmariense adj Sakmarian salinometro nm salinometer sal nf salt | s. amarga | s. blanca salitrado,-da adj saltpetrous washed salt | s. comun rock salt, halite | .s. de salitral adj saltpetrous | nm salt deposit | agua salt crystallized from water | s. de l^-co saltpeter deposit | saltpeter/nitrate works | porous, impure rock salt | s. de compds sock salt basin | [Arg] salt marsh, salt steppe salt | s. de corazon. pure, nonporous salt | s. de salitre nm salpeter, niter | [Ch] sodium nitrate desecho salts such as kieserite, sylvanite, salitrera nf salpeter deposit or bed | [Ch] carnalite, and polyhalite that were once deposit of sodium nitrate S-2 salitreria nf salpeter or nitrate works sapropel nm sapropel salitrero,-ra adj salpetrous | nm salpeter worker sapropelico,-ca adj sapropelic salitroso,-sa adj salpetrous sapropelita nf sapropel salma nf ton saprosammita nf sandy sapropel salmoita nf sarabiado,-da adj gneissic salmuera nf brine sarcopsida nf sarcopside salobral adj saline sardiense adj Sardic salobre adj brackish, briny or salty sardio nm sard salobreno/na adj saline sardo nm sard salobridad nf saltiness, brackishness sarddnica nf sard salon nm cavern or chamber of ore sarddnice nm sardonyx saloneo nm [Bol] room with roof supported by sardonic nm sardonyx pillars or timbering sarddnique nm sardonyx salopiense adj Salopian sarddnix nm sardonyx salsa nf mud volcano sarmatiano,-na adj Sarmantian salsedumbre nf salinity sarmantiense adj Sarmantian salsima nf salsima, sialsima sano nm scale, incrustation saltacidn nf saltation sarroso,-sa adj scaley, incrusted saltierra nf impure salt derived from dried lake sasasa nf [Vz] a local variety of sandstone beds sassolina nf salto nm throw of a fault | fault | s. aparente a satelita nf satelite, fibrous serpentine younger vein which intersects an older vein at saturacidn nf saturation | s. pendular pendular an acute angle such that it follows the older water saturation vein for a distance | s. de agua waterfall | s. saturado,-da adj saturated horizontal horizontal displacement, shift | s. saturar&fr to saturate neto slip | s. vertical vertical displacement, saucesiense adj Saucesian throw saukovita nf samario nm samarium | s.-neodimio samarium- saussuritizacidn nf saussuritization neodymium scachita nf scacchite sammita nf psammite scytiano,-na adj Scythian sammitico,-ca adj psammitic scytiense a^j Scythian sammogenico,-ca adj psammogenic schapbachita nf matildite sandfa nf [NMex] oblong, oval or rounded scheibeita nf mountain resembling a watermelon schoenita nf saneado,-da adj drained secano nm sand bar saneamiento nm drainage secas nfpl refined silver sanear vtr to drain, dry out seccidn nf section | 5. delgada thin section | 5. sangamoniense adj longitudinal longitudinal section | s. sangria nf a tunnel that joins two main shafts pulimentada polished section | s. transversal sanguinaria nf bloodstone cross section sanidina nf sanidine secadal nm moorland sannoniano,-na adj Sannonian secrecidn nf secretion | segregation sannoniense adj Sannonian sectil adj sectile sano nm whole, virgin, unworked ground secron nm sechron santoniano,-na adj Santonian sector nm section, part, sector | area, zone santoniense adj Santonian secuaniano,-na adj Sequanian sanukitoide nm orthoandesite secuaniense adj Sequanian sapantracita nf sapanthracite secuencia nf sequence | s. estratigrafica saperita nf sapperite sedimentary sequence saponita nf soaps tone, saponite secundario,-ria adj secondary | supergene | nm saprolitico,-ca adj saprolitic Mesozoic S-3 sedentario,-ria adj sedentary semicrat6nico,-ca adj quasicratonic sedifluccidn nf sedifluction semicristalino,-na adj hyalocrystalline sedimentacidn nf sedimentation | s. euxina senda nf foot trail, path euxenic sedimentation senecaniense adj Senecan sedimentar nf to aggrade, sediment senectud nf senescence sedimentario,-ria adj sedimentary senescente adj senescent sedimento nm sediment deposit | s. abisal senil adj senile (erosion) | s. anemogeno aeolian senilidad nf senility (erosion) sediment | s. cldstico clastic sediment | s. de seno nm trough mar profundo pelagic sediment | s. efestogeno senoniano,-na adj Senonian volcaniclastic sediment | s. eolico aeolian senoniense adj Senonian sediment | s. biogeno organic sediment | s. sensitividad nf sensitivity cldstico clastic sediment | s. criogeno glacial sentarse en vpr to intersect, as in a shaft sediment | s. eolico aeolian sediment | s. intersecting a vein eupeldgico \ s. fluvial fluvial sediment | s. sentazdn nm rock slide or landslide hemipeldgico hemipelagic deposit | s. limnico sentido nm sense or direction of throw on a lacustrine sediment | s. litoral coastal sediment fault | s. marino | s. mecdnico senoraje nm royalty paid to the crown or state mechanical sediment | s. orgdnico organic senorial nm [Huancavelica, Pe] smelter tolls sediment | s. organogeno organic sediment | s. paid to owners of pachamanca furnaces peldgico pelagic deposit | s. quimico chemical separacidn nf sorting or classification of ore | sediment separation | parting sedimentos nmpl drill cuttings separar vtr to sort or classify ore sedimentologia nf separata nf reprint sedimentorio nm sedimentation sepe" nm [Col] layer of iron stained clay found sedoso,-sa adj silky above auriferous gravels seelandiense adj Seelandian separador nm separator | s. de gas gas separator seficidad nf psephicity septentrional nm vein having a north-south sefita nf sudite, psephite trend sefitico,-ca adj psephitic septima nf one seventh of the able-bodied work segmentacidn nf segmentation force of an Indian community drawn for segmentado,-da adj segmented service in the mita segmento nm segment sequaniense adj Sequanian segregacidn nf segregation ser un oral v. intr. [Col] to be a rich mine segregado,-da adj segregated sericitico,-ca adj sericitic segullo nm overburden on a gold mine sericitizacidn n/serialization segundo nm second serie nf series | s. calco-alcalina calc-alkaline seismo nm earthquake, seism series | s. isocjuimica isochemical series | s. seleccidn nf selection, sorting | s. a mano hand ordenada ordered series | s. petrolifera oil- sorting bearing series or strata seleccionado,-da adj sorted, selected serir nm serir, stony desert selectivo,-va adj selective serpenteado,-da adj having a serpentine or selenio nm selenium highly variable strike or trend (veins) selenato nm selenate serpentina nf serpentine | s. fibrosa crysotile | s. selenida nf selenide hojosa antigorite selenita nf selenite serpentinizacidn nf sepentinization selen-telurio nm selen-tellurium serpofita nf serpophita semialto nm [Tepezala, Aguascalientes, Mex] serrado,-da adj serrate, serrated furnace used for smelting copper ore serrania nf ridge semiantracita nf semianthracite serravalliense adj Serravallian semibituminoso,-sa adj semibituminous sesgadura nf shearing S-4 sesgo,-ga adj biased | nm bias | sin s. unbiased seudovitrinoide nm pseudovitrinoid sesgoconglomerado nm edgewise structure seudovolcan nm pseudovolcano seudoautunita nf pseudoautunite seudowavellita nf crandallite seudoboleita nf pseudoboleite sial nm sial, upper crust, sal, granitic layer seudobomba nf lava ball sialico,-ca adj sialic seudobrecha nf pseudobreccia sialita nf sialite, clay mineral seudobrookita nf siallitico,-ca adj siallitic seudocapa nf pseud obed sicilienseadj Sicilian seudocarst nm pseudokarst siderazote nm siderazot seudocirco nm pseudocirque siderodote nm siderodot (par siderite) seudodorita nf pseudochlorite siderofilita nf seudoconcrecidn nf pseudoconcretion siderdfilo,-la adj siderophile seudoconglomerado nm pseudoconglomerate siderdfiro nm siderophyre seudocotunita nf pseudocotunnite siderolito nm aerosiderite seudocrisolita nf pseudochrysolite sideroso,-sa adj siderose | nf siderite seudocrital nm pseudocrystal siderosfera nf siderosphere, inner core seudo-difusidn nf pseudo-diffusion siderotilo nm siderotil seudofalla nf pseudofault sidurgia nf iron and steel industry seudofenocristo nm pseudophenocryst siderurgico,-ca adj iron and steel seudofibroso,-sa adj pseudofibrous siegeniano,-na adj Siegenian seudofita nf pseudophite siegeniense adj Siegenian seudofdsil nm sienido,-da adj syenide seudogalena nf sphalerite sienita nf syenite seudogradacional adj pseudogradational sienitoide nm syenitoide seudolaguna nf pseudolagoon sienodiorita nf syenodiorite seudolaueita nf pseudolaueite sienogabro nm syenogabbro seudoleucita nf pseudoleucite sierra nf mountain range | ridge seudomalaquita nf pseudomalachite sierranita nf sierranite seudomatriz nf pseudomatrix siferna nf siferna, sima seudomicrita nf pseudomicrite sigmoideo,-dea adj sigmoid, sigmoidal seudomicrosparita nf pseudomicrosparite sil nm yellow ochre seudomonoclinico,-ca adj pseudomonoclinic silcreta nf silcrete seudomontana nf pseudomountain silesiense adj Silesian seudomdrfico,-ca adj pseudomorphic silex nm flint, silex, chert | silica seudomorfismo nm pseudomorphism silexita nf , silexite | chert seudomorfo nm pseudomorph silhidrita nf silhydrite seudonddulo nm pseudonodule silicacidn nf silication seudo-ofitico,-ca adj pseudo-ophitic silicado,-da adj silicated seudo-oolito nm pseudo-oolith silicalita nf seudoporfiritico,-ca adj pseudoporphyritic silicate nm silicate | 5. aislado nesosilicate | s. de seudoporfiroblastico,-ca adj aluminio | 5. en andamiaje pseudoporphyroblastic tectosilicate | 5. en anillo ring silicate, seudosefita nf peudobreccia, cyclosilicate | 5. en cadcna chain silicate, pseudoconglomerate inosilicate | s. en grupo sorosilicate | s. en hoja seudorutilo nm pseudorutile phyllosilicate seudosecundario,-ria adj pseudosecondary silice nf silica seudosparita nf pseudosparite siliceo,-cea adj siliceous seudostratificacidn nf pseudostratification siliciclastico,-ca adj siliciclastic seudosimetria nf pseudosymmetry silicico,-ca adj silicic seudotaquilita nf pseudotachylite silicificacidn nf silicification seudovitrinita nf pseudovitrinite silcificado,-da adj silicified S-5 silicificar vtr to silicify system silicilito nm silicilith siniense adj sinian, siphean silicinato,-ta adj silicinate siniestro,-tra adj sinistral silicic nm silicon sinkinematico,-ca adj synkinematic siliciofita nf siliciophite sinopal nm sinople silicoso,-sa adj siliceous sinorogenico,-ca adj synorogenic silicotelico,-ca adj telehemic sintectdnico,-ca adj syntectonic silificacidn nf silicification sinsedimentario nm synsedimentary silo nm sill sintactico,-ca adj syntactic silomelana nf sintectico,-ca adj syntectic siluriano,-na adj Silurian | nm Silurian sintectita nf syntectite silurico,-ca adj Silurian | nm Silurian sintect6nico,-ca adj syntectonic silvanita nf sylvanite sintesis nm synthesis silvina nf sylvite sint£tico,-ca adj synthetic silvinita nf sylvinite (mixture of halite and sirca nf [Ch] vein sylvite) sircar vtr [Ch] to strip overburden from a vein silvita nf sylvite sismicidad nf seismicity silla nf saddle, as in a vein, fold, etc. sismico,-ca adj seismic | nf seismic | s. aplicada sillar nm sillar | nonwelded ash-flow tuff seismic reccording silleria nf ashlar stone sismita nf seismite sillina n/[Pe] sulfur sismo nm earthquake | s. cercano nearby sima nf sima, intermediate layer, basaltic layer | earthquake | s. de dislocation tectonic chasm, abyss, cavern earthquake | s. distante distant earthquake | s. simatico,-ca adj simatic final aftershock | s. lejano distant earthquake | simetria nf symmetry s. local nearby earthquake | s. preliminar sim£trico,-ca adj symmetric, symmetrical foreshock | s. precursor foreshock | s. -principal simictita nf symmictite | main shock | s. tectonico tectonic earthquake | simpl£ctico,-ca adj symplectic s. volcanico volcanic earthquake simplectita nf symplectite sismoescopo nm seismoscope simplesita nf symplesite sismografo nm seismograph | s. de relexion sinadelfita nf synadelphite reflection seismograph | s. de refraccion sinant£ctico,-ca adj synantectic refraction seismograph | s. sintetico synthetic sinclinal adj synclinal | nm syncline | s. seismograph acostado recumbant syncline. | s. asimetrico sismograma nm seismogram asymmetric syncline | s. recostado recumbant sismologia nf seismology syncline j s. recumbente recumbant syncline | s. sismometria nf seismometry simetrico symmetric syncline | s. volcado sismometro nm seismometer overturned syncline sismondina nf sismondine sinclinorio nm synclinorium sistema nm system | process | s. cantera sincroneidad nf synchroneity quarrying | s. cristalino | s. de sincr6nico,-ca adj synchronous falias fault system | s. de parados [Ch] recovery sinchisita nf synchysite of sodium nitrate by evaporating caliche in an sindeposicidn nf syndeposition iron caldron | [seis] s. de tiro shooting system | sindeposicional adj syndepositional s. digitalizador digitizer | s. hidrogrdfico river sineclisa nf synclise system sinemuriano/-na adj Sinemurian sistematico,-ca adj systematic sinemuriense adj Sinemurian sitaparita nf bixbyite sinforma nf synform sitio nm location, site | s. de labor [Me"x] a land singe'nesis nf syngenesis measure of 5000 by 5000 varas | s. de ganado singene'tico/-ca adj syngenetic mayor I square league = 4338.1123 acres | s. de singonia cristalografica nf crystallization ganado menor 3333 and 1/3 acres S-6 situacidn nf location, site | s. de sondeo well site sodalitita nf sodalithite | sodalitite or location sddico,-ca adj sodic situadista nm worker employed to transport sodio nm sodium situados sofocado,-da adj abandoned on account of situados nmpl payments in silver from silver flooding (mines) mines to the Spanish royal exchequer (often sofocarse vpr to flood incorrectly applied to all silver shipments from sol nm sun | [Potosi, Bol] the eastern side of ) Cerro Rico de Potosi situar vtr to locate solapado,-da adj overlapped, overlapping skiddaviano,-na adj Skidd avian solapar vtr to overlap skiddaviense adj Skiddavian soldadura nf coalescence | fusion skytienseflJ; Skythian soldarse ypr to coalesce smirnovita nf thorutite negra or solera pobre n/[Almaden, Sp] smithiense adj Smithian sandstone impregnated with cinnabar sobrecapa nf overburden soleta nf clay or shale parting found in coal sobreconsolidacidn nf overconsolidation seams sobreempuje adj overthrust solevamiento nm uplift sobreescurrimiento nm overthrust solevantamiento nm uplift sobreexcavacidn nf overexcavation solfatarico,-ca adj solfataric sobreguia nf intermediate level (in a mine) solidificacidn nf solidification sobreimposicidn nf super-imposition solido,-da adj solid sobreplegamiento nm overfold solifluccidn nf solifluction sobreponer vtr to overlap soligenuoso,-sa adj soligenuos sobreposicidn nf overlap solubilidad nf solubility sobrepuesto,-ta adj superimposed, overlapping solucidn nf solution | s. hidrotermal sobrerrajado nm [Bol] overbreak hydrothermal solution | s. molar molar sobresabana nf alluvial deposit solution | s. solido sobresaliente adj overhanging, projecting solvacidn nf sobresalir vtr to overhang, project, jut out solvente nm solvent sobresaturacion nf over-saturation sombra nf grayish tinge exhibited by some ores sobresaturado,-da adj oversaturated | de s. [Col] horizontal, bedded, manto-like sobresaturar vtr to oversaturate sombrero de alteration nm gossan sobrevega nf [PR] highest part of a low-lying sombrio nm [Potosi, Bol] the western side of the area Cerro Rico de Potosi sobreyacente adj overlying somero,-ra adj shallow sdcalo nm basemant nm sonar | s. de superficie surface sonar socava nf undermining sonda nf sonde | drill | s. caliza limestone socavacidn nf undermining sonde | s. de cable cable drill | s. de corona core socavadora nm undercutter drill | s. de cuchara earth auger | s. de diamantes socavamiento nm undermining diamond drill | s. de nucleo core drill | s. de socavar vtr to undermine, undercut, dig under prospeccion prospecting drill | s. de rotadon socavon. nm excavation | gallery, tunnel, adit | rotary drill | s. de tierra earth auger subsidence | s. de cateo prospecting adit | s. de sondador nm echo sounder desague drainage adit, drainage tunnel sondaje nm boring, drilling | sounding | s. a socavonero nm worker who drives a tunnel or diamante diamond drilling | s. con corazon core gallery drilling | s. de exploracion test drilling | s. de socaz nm tailrace testigo core drilling socio,-ia adj companion, associated sondar vtr to drill, bore | to take soundings socorro nm assistance, aid | s. voluntario [Pe] sondear vtr to drill, bore | to investigate or forced labor in mines abolished in 1812 explore ground | to take soundings sodaclaso nm albite sondeo nm drilling, boring | sounding | s. a la S-7

granalla adamantine shot drilling | s. ascendente subartesiano,-na adj subartesian upward hole | s. desviado deviated hole | s. subautomdrfico,-ca adj subautomorphic estratigrdfico core drilling | s. marino offshore sub-bentonita nf metabentonite drilling | s. oblicuo drilling at an angle | s. par sub-bituminoso,-sa adj sub-bituminous, aire air drilling subclase nm subclass sonico,-ca adj sonic subconsecuente adj subconsequent sondgrafo nm sonograph subcontinento nm subcontinent sonrosado,-da adj rosy, pink subcortical adj subcrustal soplado nm deep fissure | open pocket in a subcuenca nf sub-basin vein, generally lined by druse | alluvium poor subdiabasico,-ca adj subdiabasic in gold subdrenaje nm subdrainage sorbencia nf seepage subduccidn nf sordawalita nf tachylyte subestrato nf sole | substratum soroche nm argentiferous lead ore, usually subetapa nf substage galena | s. plomoso lead carbonate | s. reluciente subfabrico nm subfabric argentiferous galena subfelspatico,-ca adj subfeldspathic soroque nm gangue, matrix subfillarenita nf subphyllarenite sorosilicato nm sorosilicate subfluvial adj underriver sosa nf soda ash | natrona subfdsil nm subfossil sdtano nm [M£x] vertical cave subgrafita nf metagraphite sotavento,-ta adj leeward, lee subgrauwacke nm subgreywacke soterrado,-da adj buried, underground, blind subgrupo nm [strat] subgroup soterrano,-na adj subterranean, underground subhedrdn nm subhedron sotlanque nm calcopyrite subherciniense adj Subhercynian sotominero nm subforeman (in a mine) subhorizonte nm substratum Southern nfrr [Pe] "La Southern", the Southern subidiomdrfico,-ca adj hypidiomorphk, Peru Copper Corporation subautomorphic soyota nf Mineralized vug or cavity subjacente adj subjacent spamaciense adj Sparnacian sublacustre adj sublacustrine spatiense adj Spathian sublevacidn nf uplift spencita nf tridymite-(Y) sublimacidn nf sublimation staffordiense adj Staffordian sublimado nm sublimate | s. amarillo orpiment stampiense adj Stampian | s. rojo realgar stefaniense adj Stephanian sublimar vtr to sublimate sterrettita nf kolbeckite sublitarenita nf sublitharenite stipoverita nf sublitoral adj sublittoral, neritic struniense adj Strunian sublitwacke nm sublithwacke styrienseod; Styrian submarino,-na adj submarine suavizado,-da adj smoothed submaturado,-da adj submature subactivo,-va adj subactive submetalico,-ca adj submetallic subacuatico,-ca adj underwater, subaquatic submuestreo nm subsampling subacueo,-cuea adj underwater subofitico,-ca adj subophitic subafloramiento nm subcrop subperiodo nm subperiod subalcalico,-ca adj subalkalic subpresidn nf underpressure subalcalino,-na adj subalkaline subproducto nm byproduct subaluvial adj suballuvial subrampa nf subincline (in a mine) subalpino,-na adj subalpine, montane subrosidn nf subrosion subaluminoso,-sa adj subaluminous subsaturacidn nf subsaturation subarkosa nf subarkose subsaturado,-da adj subsaturated subarkdsico,-ca adj subarkosic subsaturar vtr to subsaturate subarriendo nm sublease subsecuente adj subsequent S-8 subsidencia nf subsidence superetapa nf superstage subsidiario,-ria adj subsidiary superficial adj superficial substancia nf substance superficie nf surface | area, extent | acreage | susbstitucidn nf substitution | s. metasomatica de s. surface | en s. at the surface | s. de metasomatism deslizamiento translation plane or surface | substitute nm substitute slickenslide | s. de equilibria isostatic nm substratum equilibrium surface | s. de erosion erosion subsuelo nm subsoil | subsurface surface | s. de estratificacion bedding surface, subterraneo,-nea adj subsurface, underground bedding plane. | s. de fracturaccion fracture subterrano nm subterrane plane, fault plane | s. listrica listric surface subvolcinnm subvolcano superficies-s nfpl s-surface subvolcanico,-ca adj subvolcanic superfluente adj superfluent subyacente adj underlying supergenico,-ca adj supergene succino nm amber supergrupo nm supergroup succidn nf subduction superior adj upper sucesidn nf superparamagnetismo nm superparamagnetism sudetico,-ca adj Sudetic superperiodicidad nf superperiodicity suelo nm soil, land | ground | surface superplasticidad nf superplasticity suelto,-ta adj loose, unconsolidated superponer vtr to superpose, superimpose suelto nm loose piece of ore superposicidn nf superposition | s. discordance sulfate nm [Tetala de Oro, Puebla, Mex] overstep | s. transgresiva onlap aluminous clay containing iron sulfates superpresidn nf overpressure sulfatita nf sulphatite superpuesto,-ta adj superimposed, sulfato nm sulfate | s. banco barite | s. de calcio supplementary | nm overlap gypsum | s. de plomo anglesite | s. pesado barite supersaturacidn nf supersaruration | s. sodico supersaturado,-da adj supersaturated sulfidizacidn nf sulfurization supersaturar vtr to supersaturate sulfito nm sulfite superserie nf superseries sulfofilo,-la adj sulphophile supersistema nm supersystem sulfosale nm sulfosalt suplementario^ria adj subsidiary sulfurado,-da adj sulfuretted supralitoral adj supralittoral, supratidal sulfurico,-ca adj sulfuric surcamiento nm furrowing sulfurizacidn nf sulfurization surco nm groove, furrow | sill | s. de alud sulfuro nm sulfide or sulfide ore | s. de cadmio avalanche scar | s. de erosion erosion groove | greenockite | s. de cobre chalcocite | s. de plomo s. de escurrimiento sill mark | s. glacidrico galena | s. rojo. realgar | sulfuros en masa discontinue jumping gouge massive sulfides surgencia nf upwelling sulfuroso,-sa adj sulfurous | sour suitido,-da adj sorted | nm sorting suma nf addition susceptibilidad nf susceptibility sumergido,-da adj submerged suspendido,-da adj suspended sumergimiento nm submergence suspensoide nm suspensoid sumergir itfr to submerge sustancia nf substance sumersidn nf submersion sustitucion nf substitution sumidero nm [PR] sinkhole sutura nf sumiivtr to submerge suturado,-da adj sutured sundtita nf superantracita nf superanthracite T-l

nm driller taladradora nf drill taladrarufr to drill or bore | to perforate tabaire nm a variety of soft limestone used for taladro nm drill or auger | drill or borehole | masonry drill bit | t. anular core drill | t. de alma core tabianiense adj Tabianian. drill | t. de diamantes diamond drill | t. de tabique nm [Me"x] 'horse' of rock in a vein, rotacion rotary drill | t. de tierra earth auger | t. unmineralized rock separating bands of ore explorador prospecting drill | t. testigo [PR] core tabla nf slab (of rock) | table, list | side of a drill vein | t. de alto hanging wall | t. de bajo talasocracia nf period in which the earth's footwall covered most of the continents tablazo nm mesa | flat stretch of a river talasocratico,-ca adj charactarized by ocean high tablero nm [Sp] slab | t. digitalizador digitizing stand tablet talasogenesis nf epirogenic processes that form tablero de comprobacidn nm map showing ocean basins allocation of exploration permits talcita nf talcite | damourite tacana nf silver ore | [Pe] argentite talco nm talc tacano nm ore rich in silver talcoide nm talcoid tac6nico,-ca adj Taconic talcoso,-sa adj talcose, talcous taconiense adj Taconian talio nm thallium tacos nmpl [Me"x] stones at the bottom of an talmesita nf arsenate-belovite arrastre talpetate nm talpatate, caliche | [CAm] tafrogenesis nf taphrogenesis limestone tafrogenia nf taphrogeny. talquita nm talc schist tafrogenico,-ca adj taphrogenic talud nm talus, slope | t. continental continental tafrogeosinclinal nm taphrogeosyncline slope | t. de derrubios de ladera talus pile | t. de tafrolito nm taphrolith reposo natural slope, slope of repose | t. de taghanicano/-na adj Taghanican ribera flood plain | t. detritico talus | t. litoral tagilita nf pseudomalachite literal plain | t. redfal reef talus tahona nf [Mex] variety of arrastre driven by a taludarufr to slope water wheel, spoon arrastre talweg nm thalweg tahonero nm [M£x] worker in charge of a tahona talla nf cutting of precious stones | cutting or tahulla nf land measure used in southeast Spain dressing of stone | working face where rock is (1 tahulla = 11.18 ares = 0.28 acres) being cut tajadera nf cold chisel | [Arag6n, Sp] sluice-gate tallado,-da adj cut, dressed (stones) tajado nm slicing (in mining) tallado nm cutting, dressing (stone, gems, etc.) tajamar nm [Arg] basin tallar vtr to cut precious stones | to quarry | t. tajear vtr [Pe] to stope en facet as to facet tajeo nm [Pe] stoping taller nm workshop of the kind where things are tajerias nfpl [Isla San Fernando, Sp] salt-water actually made and /or repaired. | Mill. evaporation ponds tamano nm size | dimensions | volume, tajo nm cut, opening, excavation, trench | capacity working face or cut | t. abierto open cut, open tambeo nm [Bol] large open stope pit | t. ascendente ascending cut | t. descendente tamiz nm sieve, sifter, usually mechanical | descending cut | t. descubierto open cut | t. pasar por el t. to screen, sift recto cut perpendicular to a gallery | a t. abierto tamizar vtr to sift, sieve, or screen open-cutting or open-pitting tampon nm [chem] buffer tajdn nm [Andalusia, Sp] calcareous vein from tanda nf layer | series | work-shift | amount of which lime is extracted work done (i.e. ore mined, distance drifted) talacha nf [Mex] pickaxe, pick, mattock during a work-shift | tour of duty in the mita \ taladrador,-ora adj drilling, boring or piercing | work gang | [pet] run T-2 taneciano,-na adj slate ianecienseadj Thanetian tecalf nm a variety of alabaster, 'Mexican tangeita wf calciovolborthite alabaster', 'Mexican marble' or 'Mexican onyx' tangencial adj tangential tecnecio nm technetium tangente adj tangent | nf tangent tecoral nm [Huitzuco, M£x] waste rock tantalio ntn tantalum tecozahuitl nm yellow ochre tantalo nm tantalum tecpatl nm flint, hornstone, green jade tantear vtr to work out roughly, estimate | to tectita nf tektite size-up, measure | to try out, test | to tectoclino nm geotectocline examine, study a project or proposal tectoestratigrafico,-ca adj tectostratigraphic tanteo nm rough estimate | test | approximate tectogenesis nf tectonics, tectogenesis calculation tectdgeno nm tectogene tapa nf hanging-wall, roof | coffer-dam used in tect6nico,-ca adj tectonic | nf tectonics | t. de placer mining placas | t. salina salt tectonics tapado,-da adj concealed, covered up, blind tectonismo nm diastrophism tapado nm buried tectonita nf tapar vtr to conceal, cover, cover-up tectonizacidn nf tectonization tapdn nf plug | coffer-dam used in placer tectonofisica nf mining | t. volcanico or pipe tectonosfera nf tectonosphere taponar vtr to construct a coffer-dam in order to tectosecuente adj tectosequent work placers tectosfera nf tectosphere taqueo nm [Bol] a caved shaft | shaft or tectosilicato nm tectosilicate working backfilled with waste or low-grade tectotopo nm tectotope ore techo nm layer or bed which caps a deposit | t. taquihidrita nf tachyhydrite degaleria hanging-wall, roof taquilita nf tefra nf taquimetria nf tachymetry, stadia survey tefrita nf taquim£tro nm tachymeter, stadia tefrocronologfa nf tephrochronology taquisismo nm rapid differential movement of tefroita nf the lithosphere tehuilote nm [Mex] quartz crystals | country tardiglacial nm a glacial stage rock tarea nf a certain quantity of ore, drifting, etc. tejo nm ingot, usually of gold | [Mex] cake of set out as a task to be performed in a single silver as the end result of the patio process of work shift | [Bol] a job or task perfomed by reducing silver ores | t. de oro gold bullion contract [Sto Pgo] a measure of area of about tejdn nm wedge, plate or cake of gold | 0.1565 acres [geomorph] tejon tartariense adj Tartarian teleme'tro nm telemeter tasa nf appraisal, valuation | tax | limit on telera nf [Huelva, Sp] heaps of copper ore expenditures or outlays | rate | t. de sondeo roasted or calcined in situ sampling rate telesismo nm distant earthquake, teleseism tasacidn nf appraisal, valuation | calculation teletermal adj telethermal tasar vtr to appraise, value | to tax | to telurantimonio nm tellurantimony regulate, fix or ration telurato nm tellurate tascina nf naumannite telurbismuto nm tellurbismuth tasco nm cupel or crucible | variety of fireclay telurico,-ca adj telluric tasconio nm an argillaceous earth used to make telurido nf telluride crucibles telurio nm tellurium | tellurium ore tases nmpl [Me"x] ore calcined in open air heaps telurita nf tavistockita nf carbonate-apatite telurobismutenita nf telluribismuthenite taylorense adj Tayloran teluroide nm telluroid tecacolote nm [Guerrero, M£x] an aluminous telurometro nm tellurometer T-3 telogen£tico,-ca adj telogenetic teralita nf theralite, foid gabbro tembladero nm [Tobasco, Mex] area with terbio nm terbium asphaltic soil terciario,-ria adj Tertiary | nm Tertiary temblor nm earthquake, tremor | t. de tierra tercio nm half a mule load, which translates to earthquake different weights in different places, not to temiskamita nf maucherite mention with different mules and mule tempano nm ice floe | t. de hielo iceberg skinners templado,-da nm temperate terma nf therm temprano,-na adj early termal adj thermal tenate nm [Mex/Hond] a bag made of hide used termas nfpl hot springs to haul or draw ore, etc. out of a mine (a tenate termio nm therm made from half an oxhide will hold 9 arrobas of tennocarst nm thermokarst ore) te"rmico,-ca adj thermal tenatero nm [Me"x] worker who carries ore in a terminacidn nf completion of a well | t. doble ten at e dual completion | t. multiple multiple tendencia nf trend completion tenderse vpr [Me"x] to become sub-divided or tennoclasa nf crack formed in a rock by a floured by amalgamation sudden change in termperature tendido nm dip termodina'mico,-ca adj thermodynamic tendimiento nm [Bol] dip termoela'stico,-ca adj thermoelastic tenestel nm [Tasco, Me"x] local variety of termogeno nm thermogene limestone termoge'nesis nf thermogenesis tenor nm tenor or fineness | t.fino. fineness of termografia nf thermography gold termogravimetria nf thermogravimetry tentadura nf [Me"x] in the patio process of termolumlniscencia nf thermoluminescence extracting silver from ore, the test washing of termometro nm thermometer | t. geologico silver amalgamated with mercury in order to geologic thermometer adjust the mixture of materials used in the termonatrita nf extraction process | by extension, any test termo-osmosis nf thermo-osmosis made by panning or washing termopla'stico,-ca adj thermoplastic tenido,-da adj stained ternario,-ria adj ternary teodolito nm theodolite terraciense adj Terracian teorema nm theorem | t. central Umite central terrapin nm terrace | slope | terreplain limit theorem | t. de Bayes Bayes theorem terraza nf terrace | t. aluvional alluvial terrace, teoria nf theory | t. anticlinal anticlinal theory | drift terrace | t. cosiera raised beach | t. de t. isostdtica isostacy deposicion aggradation terrace | t. de erosion teotines nmpl [Santa Cruz, Mex] unusually erosional terrace | t. de geiserita sinter terrace | shaped rocks surrounded by volcanic ash t. ^structural structural terrace | t. favorable tepetate nm caliche | [Mex] volcanic tuff used favorable ground | t. fluvial stream terrace | t. in construction | waste rock or gangue | impar unpaired terrace | t. marina marine country rock | hardpan | conglomerate terrace tepostel nm [M£x] precious metal bearing terremoto nm earthquake gossan or supergene oxides terreno nm ground, land | terrain, | tepostete nm [Sonora, M£x] cobbles of specular piece of land | plot, site | earth, rock or hematite sometimes found in gold placers formation, as in t. carbonifero 'carbonaceous tepustete nm [Calamahf, Mex] iron ore rock' | t. baldw government land | t. de encima tequezquite nm [Mex] top soil | t. franco land which may be freely tequio nrr axes, duties or royalty on ore | ore conceded by a government to mining not worth extraction | a task set as a day's enterprises | t. terreno all-terrain work for a miner | the plural tequios can refer terreo,-ea adj earthy | de color t. earth-colored to heaps or stockpiles of ore terrero,-ra adj earth T-4 terrero nm heap or pile of dirt | waste rock | and spherical stones found in alluvial placers dump, tailings pile | alluvium once thought to be favorable indicators for terrestre adj terrestrial, earthly gold placers terrigeno,-na adj terrigenous tiempo nm time | t. absolute absolute time | t. terrojo nm red earth continental continental time | t. de intercepcion terroso,-sa adj earthy | brown, earth-colored | intercept time | t. de propagadon travel time | t. n/[Me"x] vein of clay de retraso delay time | t. relative relative time terruno nm piece of land tienta nf earth auger tertel nm [Ch] hardpan tierra nf earth, land, soil, ground | region, tesis nf thesis | theory, idea | t. de grado thesis native country | any rock or mineral | fine­ written for a five-year degree | t. doctoral grained or finely crystalline ore | gangue or doctoral dissertation matrix | hacer tierras to work a placer | t. testa nf [Mex] test adentro inland. | t. alcalina alkaline earth | t. testero nm overhand stope, back stope | t. aluvial alluvium | t. amarilla yellow earth, abovedado domed stope, pyramid stope | t. de yellow ochre | t. apovillada ore suitable for techo piano flat-backed stope | t. escalonado rill amalgamation in the patio process | t. arcillosa stope clayey ground. | t. azul blue earth, blue ground testificacion nf log | t. acustica acoustic log | t. blanca micaceous clay; calcareous tufa | t. testigo nm core | sample, specimen | barren comun earthy ores somewhat amenable to rock | [surv] reference point | t. de erosion amalgamation | t. de aluvion alluvium. | t. de outlier | t. de perforacion drill core asentar or de afinar [Tamaulipas, Me"x] Tetis nm Tethys weathered marl | t. de asiento [BC, M£x] a fine, tetradimita nf auriferous sand | t. de batan fuller's earth | t. tetraedrita nf tetrahedrite de caparossa red ochre. | t. de diatomeas tetraedro nm diatomaceous earth. | t. de fuller fuller's earth. tetramorfo nm tetramorph | t.deflor [El Caratal, Vz] hematitic, gold- tetramdrfico,-ca adj tetramorphous bearing soil developed on gold veins | t. de tetramorfismo nm tetramorphism ladrillos brick clay | t. de porcelana kaolin | t. de tetratoedro nm tetratohedron tinta red ochre | t. diatomacea diatomaceous tetzontle nm [Mex] a scoracious basaltic rock earth | t. endurecida hardpan | t. firme used as a building stone continent | t. franca top soil | t. grasa pipe clay textura nf texture | t. aplitica aplitic texture | t. | t. gredosa clayey marl | t. de labor smalls fluida fluid texture | t. fluidal flow structure | t. resulting from hand sorting of ore | t. ordinaria granuda granular texture | t. microgranuda [Guanajuato, Mex] an inferior grade of ore microgranular texture | t. microlitica microlitic yielding about 80 ounces of silver to a ton | t. texture | t. pegmatitica pegmatitic texture | t. parda iron oxide rich soil | t. pesada barite | t. porfidica porphyritic texture | t. vitea glassy de porcelana china clay | t. quemada balls of texture residue from mercury reduction furnaces mixed with clayey smalls that are reduced tezontle nm [Me"x] a scoracious basaltic rock again in a smaller furnace | t. rara rare earth | used as a building stone t. refractaria fire clay | t. roja iron rich clay often thalana nf [Bol] small sieve used in hand sorting staining limestone | t. verde greenstone, of pulverized ores chloritically altered rock | t. de yunque smalls thanetiano,-na adj Thanetian resulting from sorting of ore | tierras bajas thanetiense adj Thanetian lowland | tierras inundables tidelands | tierras thojeo nm [Bol] act of estimation by a miner of malas badlands | tierras raras rare the extent of pay ore prior to drilling and tierras nfpl [New Almaden, Calif] fine mercury blasting ore thuringiense adj Thuringian tiffaniense adj Tiffanian tiatales nmpl [Tasco, M£x] local variety of tigliense adj Tiglian limestone tibe nm [Col] corundum | smooth, flat, elliptical tilita nf tillite T-5

tilloide nm tilloid tobaceo,-ea adj tuffaceous tina nf [Cerro de Pasco, Pe] purification of silver tobarnm tuff quarry amalgam tobel nm dobel tinaja nf water pocket developed below a toboso,-sa adj tuffaceous waterfall | natural reservoir | [N. Mex] tocar la greda vtr [Fr Guiana] to reach bedrock temporary pool | spring too feeble to form a in a placer stream | [Guadalcazar, Me"x] small bunch of tocochimbo nm [Pe] blast furnace cinnabar found at the intersections of veins todouno nm unprocessed coal tinajita nf solution pan tofo nm [Ch] fire clay | Durango, Mex] china tinolita nf thinolite clay tinolitico,-ca adj thinolitic tojear vtr [Bol] to support the roof of a mine tinto,-ta adj red, dark red with large fragments of rock tioughniogense adj Tioughniogan tojo nm [Bol] large piece or fragment of rock tipificacion nf classification used to support the roof of a mine tipo nm type, class, kind | rate, as in tipo de tombolo nm sand bar interes 'rate of interest' | percentage tomin nm one eighth of a castellano de oro, one tipom6rfico,-ca adj typomorphic third of an adarme tirada aparte nf reprint tonawadense adj Tonawadan tirar una labor vtr to.prospect and/or work a tonel nm barrel deposit tonelada nf ton, which at one time varied in tiro nm shot (in blasting) | [surv] course | weight from place to place | t. bruta long ton, [Me"x] shaft, winze or pit | depth | t. ciego gross ton | t. corta short ton, net ton | t. de winze | t. de alcanda raise | t. de mina shaft | t, ensayador assay ton | t. metrica metric ton | t. de recueste adit, inclined shaft | t. de velocidad larga tong ton | t. metrica metric ton | t. neta surface velocity profiling | t. de zona alterada short ton, net ton weathering shot | t. en abanico fan shooting | t. tonelaje nm tonnage | t. bruto gross tonnage en pauta pattern shooting | t. inclinado inclined tonelametro nm metric ton shaft tonga nf layer | pile, heap | difference in level, tirolita nf tyrolite or head, between two points | entrar t. to drain £fero,-ra adj titanium-bearing, titaniferous a mine or working by sluices, adits, canals etc. titanio nm titanium | t. de la mina. lowest practical point from tita*nico,-ca adj titanic which a mine may be drained by gravity titanita nf sphene tongada nf layer titanocromita nf titanochromite tongriano,-na adj Tongrian titoniano,-na adj Tithonian tongriense adj Tongrian titoniense adj Tithonian tonolowayense adj Tonolowayan titulacidn nf assay | titration nm claystone titulo nm title | degree | diploma | t. de topacio nm topaz | t. del Brasil reddish, rose or propiedad title to a mining claim purplish yellow varieties of topaz | t. ahumado tiza nf chalk | finely divided gypsum | [Ch] dark brown crystalline quartz | t. de Hinojosa mixture of ulexite with halite, sodium sulfate, or de Salamanca yellow crystalline quartz | t. lime and sand found in salares or dry lake beds oriental yellow corundum tizar nm [Cerro de Mercado, Me"x] a large tope nm rich pocket of ore | [Bol] end or bottom deposit of high purity silica of a working, working face tizate nm [M£x] chalk topo nm league and a half | standard measure toarciano,-na adj Toarcian of ground ore, a fixed amount of which had to toarciense adj Toarcian be delivered weekly by the mortiri toba nf tufa | tuff | chalk | t. calcarea tufa, topografia nf topography | surveying | t. carst calcsinter, travertine | t. caliza calcareous tuff, karst topography travertine | t. de cenizas volcanic tuff | t. silicea topografico,-ca adj topographic siliceous sinter | t. soldada welded tuff topografo nm topographer | surveyor T-6 topologia nf topology sloping | t. de cabeza overhand stoping | t. de topometria nf topometry cielo overhand stoping | t. de reconocimiento. toque nm touchstone exploratory workings | t. de rajo con grandines torca nf sinkhole | basin, depression | sand directos overhand stoping j t. de rajo con pipe/ sand gall grandines invertidos underhand stoping | t. del torcer vtr to change direction | t. el rumbo to antiguo [Col] working dating back to the time change in strike of the Spanish conquistadores \ t. del indio [Col] tordo,-da adj grey working dating back to precolumbian times | torio nm t. por testeras overhand stoping | t. sistema tolva tornasol nm iridescence glory hole | t. transversal cross cut tornasolado,-da adj iridescent trabanca nf [Ec] mine timber torno nm [Bol] hoist traccidn nf traction toro nm [Bol] pillar (in a mine) traccionita nf tractionite torpedeamiento nm artificial fracturing | t. por tragante nm sluice vibracion vibrofrac trama nf structure, framework tone nf tower | t. de extracion or de perforation or tramo nm lot, tract, stretch, plot of land j t. rico. de sondeo oil derrick, head frame | torre-torre rich ore shoot [Pe] towers of hot spring deposits trampa nf trap, as for or ore | torrejoniense adj Torrejonian mercury trap in a gold mill | sluice gate | t. torrente nm ravine, stream | freshet compuesta combination trap | t. diagenetica torrera nfpl [Rio Tin to, Sp] heaps of ore roasted diagenetic trap | t. estratigrdfica stratigraphic in situ trap | t. estructural structural trap | t. petrolifera torridoniense adj Torridonian hydrocarbon trap tortilla nf hardpan tranca n/[Bol] wooden stull (in a mine) tortoniano,-na adj Tortonian trancada nf trench | [Almeria, Sp] inclined tortoniense adj Tortonian gallery with steps tortuosidad nf tortuosity tranquilidadita nf tosca nf hardpan | [Patagonia, Arg] white transfluencia nf transfluence deposits of caclium carbonate occuring in loess transformacidn nf transformation | t. anacldstica | [Col] bed of volcanoclastic sediment in deformation without shearing | t. de Laplace placers above sepe and pay dirt j [Catorce, Laplace transformation Me"x] altered dioritic and porphyritic dikes | trans-formacional adj trans-formational [Mex] talc seams | [Guadalccizar, Mex] altered translacidn nf translation granite porphyry | [Guadalcazar, Me"x] yellow transmisidn nf transmission | t. retardada ochre colored lithomarge at contact of granite transmission lag porphyry with limestone | [PR] soft coral transparente adj transparent limestone used for masonry, road surfacing transporte nm transport | t. eolico aeolian and as transport | L fluvial fluvial transport | t. glaciar tosco,-ca adj coarse, rough glacial transport tostacidn nf roasting, calcination transversal nm cross cut tostador nm [Me"x] roasting furnace | worker tranformacidn nf tranformation | t. adiabatica who operates a roasting furnace adiabatic transormation tostadura nf roasting, calcination transliicido,-da adj translucent tostar vtr to roast ore transluciente adj transluscent tournaisiano,-na adj transmisividad nf transmissivity toumaisiense adj Tournaisian transopaco,-ca adj transopaque trabajadero nm [Col] vein worked by open pit. transparencia nf slide, transparency trabajar vtr to work a mine or placer transparente adj transparent | nm transparency trabajo nm working of a mine or placer | nmpl transporte nm transportation workings | t. a cielo abierto open cutting, open transuranico,-ca adj transuranic pitting, quarrying | t. (de) banca underhand trapezoedro nm T-7 trapiche nm [Ch] crude mill for crushing ore triflita nf trapichero nm [Ch] operator of a trapiche \ triedro,-ra adj trihedral [Potosi, Bol] operator of a trapiche who usually trigiro nm ternary axis of rotation worked stolen ore trilla nf [Mex] heap of ore trapp nm trap, plateau basalt trimorfismo nm trimorphism traquiandesita nf trachyandesite trinchar vtr [Col] to build a trincho, to dam traquibasalto nm trachybasalt trinchera nf trench, ditch | [Me"x] roughly traquidiscontinuidad nf trachydiscontinuity stacked pile of rock or ore | t. de prestamos [PR] traquidolerita nf trachydolerite borrow pit traquiofitico,-ca adj trachyophitic trincho nm [Col] arrangement of dams, trenches traquita nf trachyte etc. used to divert the flow of a stream for traquitico,-ca adj trachytic purposes of working a placer traquitoide nm trachytoid trinitiense adj Trinitian tras nm tuff | tufa triple unidn nf triple junction traslacidn nf translation | t. continental tripolita nf diatomite continental drift | de t. translational triquita nf microlite traslapamiento nm overlap trisoctaedro nm trioctahedron traslucido,-da adj transluscent tritio nm tritium trasluciente adj transluscent trituracidn nf grinding, crushing traslucir vintr to be transluscent triturador,-dora adj crushing, grinding | nf trasluz nm diffused light | reflected light crusher trasversal adj transverse triturar vtr to crush or grind ore tratamiento nm treatment | reworking of a well trivalente adj trivalent to increase production, 'doctoring' trocar la batea vtr [Col] to pass bateas of gravel travecaja nf cross cut from one worker to another by hand travertine nm travertine troje de metal nf [Huitzuco, Me"x] mercury ore travesia nf traverse | [Col] cross cut filling open space in gypsum traviesa nf cross cut troncar vtr to truncate traza nf trace | streak tronco nm stock | t. de montana peneplain | t. trazado nm tracing | t. de mapamiento mapping | fosil coal pipe | t. petrificado woodrock t. de reflexiones reflection picking trozo nm [Chacas, Pe] lump of ore the size of an trazador nm [Mex] underground mine foreman egg trecho nm passing of ore from one worker to truncacidn nf truncation another in baskets truncado,-da adj truncate, truncated tremadociano,-na adj truncamiento nm truncation, as of strata tremadociense adj Tremadocian truncar vtr to truncate tremor nm tremor trunco nm stock trempealeauense adj Trempealeauan tuberia nf piping, tubing | drill string | t. trentoniense adj Trentonian colectora gathering line | t. de production trepano nm drill bit | t. de diamantes diamond producing drill string drill bit tubo nm tube | t. de explosion diatreme | t. de triaquisoctaedro nm trioctahedron perforation drill pipe | t. portatestigos core barrel triangulacidn nf triangulation tucanita nf scarbroite trias nm Trias, . tucurababi nm [Matape", Mex] an altered granite triasico,-ca adj Triassic | nm Triassic tucurubay nm gravel Tribunal de Mineria nm mining court tueste nm roasting of ore established in Peru in 1736 tufaceo,-cea adj tufaceous tributario,-ria adj tributary tufisita nf tuffisite triclmico,-ca adj triclinic tufita nf tuffite tricroismo nm trichroism tuflava nf tufflava tridimita nf trydimite tulio nm thulium T-8 tumbado nm [Bol] vein or ore in the upper part t. sumergida low-level bog of a working | false ceiling in a gallery or stope turbidez nf turbidity tumbaga nf [Col] an alloy of equal parts of gold, turbiedad nf turbidity silver and copper turbio,-bia adj turbid tumbago nm [Col] impure gold turboglifo nm scour cast | t. intersepto furrow tumbamiento nm recumbance flute cast tumbar vtr [M^x] to break ground, win or get turbulento,-ta adj turbulent ore | t. la mina [Col] to carelessly work a mine turingiano,-na adj Thuringian such that it turingiense adj Thuringian tumbe nm [M^x] breaking ground, winning or turingita nf thuringite getting ore turmalina nf tourmaline | t. azul. indicolite | t. tumor «m dome roja. rubellite tunel nm tunnel, gallery turmalinizacidn nf tourmalinization tungomelano nm tungomelane turmalita nf tourmalite tungstato nm tungstate turno nm shift | tour of duty tungsteno nm tungsten turoliense adj Turolian tungst£cor-ca adj tungstic turoniano,-na adj Turonian tuoriense adj Tuorian turoniense adj Turonian tupia«/[Col] dam turquesa nf turquoise tupiar vtr [Col] to dam a stream or river tyrrheniense adj Tyrrhenian turba nf peat tysonita nf turbacidn nf turbation tzinapu nm [Mex] obsidian turbal nm peat bog turbera nf peat bog | t. emergida upland moor | U-l

u cronoestratigrdfica cronostratigraphic unit | u. de cinta magnetica tape drive | u. de disco disk drive | u. de espaciamiento spacing unit, well ubicacion nf location, position, site spacing | u. de muestreo sampling unit | u. ubicado,-da adj located eotvos eotvos unit | u. estratogrdfica ubicar vtr to locate, spot (as for a well) or plot stratigraphic unit | u. gravimetrica gravity unit (on a map) J vintr to be located, situated or J u. litoestratigrdfica lithostratigraphic unit | u. placed tectonica tectonic unit | u. termica inglesa British ubicarse vpr to be located, situated or placed thermal unit (BTU) uchero nm llama dung carrier (llama dung was unification nf unitization (of an oil field) used in the patio process of amalgamation of uniformidad nf uniformity silver ores) unirse vpr to coalesce ufertita nf davidite uneta nf stone cutter's chisel uintenseadj Uintan uralitizacidn nf uralitization ulatsiense adj Ulatsian uranico,-ca adj uranic ulsteriense adj Ulsterian uramfero,-ra adj uraniferous ultramar nm lapis lazuli, lazurite uranio nm ultramilonita nf ultramylonite urano nm uranium oxide ultrarrojo,-ja adj infrared uranocre nm uranocher ultraviolado,-da adj | nm ultraviolet uranofano nm ultravileta nf ultraviolet uranolito nm meteoric stone ultravulcaniense adj Ultravulcanian uranopicco nm uraninite, pitchblende ulvita nf ulvospinel uranosfaerita nf uranosphaerite ulla nf archaic or incorrect spelling of hulla uranotantalita nf samarskite 'coal1, uranothallita nf ullera nf archaic or incorrect spelling of hullera uranotilo nm uranotile 'coal-mine, colliery1, urao nm gaylussite (a form of trona) ullita nf archaic or incorrect spelling for hullita urgue nm [Col] clay selvage on a vein 'anthracite1, uriconiense adj Uriconian umbral nm swell | threshold | u. de circo \ u. usamerita nf greywacke continental swell | u. topografico topographic utahita nf | natrojarosite doorstep utahlita nf undacidn nf megafold utiles nmpl tools, equipment | u. de extraccion undulacion nf undulation, wave fishing tools j «. de labortorio laboratory unia"xico,-ca adj uniaxial equipment | u. de sondeo drilling tools uniclinal adj monoclinal nf karst valley, uvala unidad nf unit | u. absoluta absolute unit | u. uwarowita nf (variety of garnet) bioestratigrafica biostratigraphic unit | u. central uzbekita nf de procesamiento central processing unit | M. V-l

| v. defondo valley with well developed flood plain | v. defractura tectonic valley | v. de hundimiento | v. en artesa trough- vacia nf wacke | v. gris greywacke shaped valley | v.enu U-shaped valley | v. en vaciada nf melt | dumping V V-shaped valley | v. epigenetico vaciadero nm dump, tailings pile, spoils bank superimposed or antecedent valley | v. glatiar vaciado nf emptying | pouring, casting | [Mex] glacial valley | v. longitudinal longitudinal excavation valley | v. maduro mature valley | v. seco strath vaciador nm worker who dumps waste or slag- | v. sinclinal synclinal valley | v. subsecuente pots | v. de carros car dumper subsequent valley | v. sumergido submerged vaciagris nm greywacke valley, firth | v. tectonico structural valley | v. vaciamar nf ebb tide transversal transverse valley vaciante nf ebb tide vanadato nm vanadinite | vanadate vaciar vtr to empty out | to drain | to hollow vanadifero,-ra adj vanadiferous out | to sluice off | to discharge water, etc. | vanadio nm to dump | to bail out a well | [Mex] to vanado-magnetita nf coulsonite excavate | vpr to flow out vapor nm vapor | v. vivo steam vacio,-ia adj empty | nm vacuum, void | vaporar vtr to evaporate vacancy vaporizacidn nf evaporation vacisco nm [Almaden, Sp] fines of mercury ore vara nf the old Spanish yard or rod, which and gangue produced by crushing preparatory varies from 0.8 to 1.1 meters (see section on to concentration and smelting weights and measures) | stick, rod | v. circular vacuo nm vacuum circular rod | v. de agrimensor measuring rod | vagdn nm ore car | v. carboner coal car | v. v. de medir measuring rod | v. de topografia tisterna a railcar load of 10 mt petroleum | v. de surveyor's rod | v. mdgica divining rod | v. bascula, de pica, volcador, or de volquete dumping portabrujula Jacob's staff or tipper car | v. de mineral ore car varada nf three months of work in a mine vagonada nf carload vareo nm measuring in varas vaguada nf lowest part of a valley | watershed, vareta nf rod | v. divinatoria divining rod | v. divide | talweg | channel, watercourse mdgica divining rod vaho nm steam | vapor | fumes variable nf variable | v. aleatoria random vainiforme adj pod-like variable | v. continua continuous variable | v. valangiano,-na adj Valangian de control control variable | v. de ligazon valangiense adj Valangian conditional varriable | v. discreta discrete Valencia nf valency, valence variable | v. endogena endogenous variable | v. valendisiense adj Valendisian exoogena exogenous variable | v. independiente valentiano,-na adj Llandoverian independent variable | v. indicatriz indicator valentiense adj Llandoverian variable | v. latente latent variable | v. normal valioso,-sa adj precious normally-distributed variable | variables no valmeyerense adj Valmeyeran correladonadas uncorrelated variable. valor nm value, worth | v. BTU calorific value, variation nf variation | v. de la aguja compass BTU value | v. contable book value | v. de la variation | v. de tenor variation in grade | v. inclination degree of inclination | v. de la secular secular variation rotation amount of rotation | v. extreme variancia nf variance | v. conditional conditional extreme value | v. limite limit value variance | v. ligada conditional variance valla nf terreplain | embankment varilla nf rod | v. divinatoria divining rod | v. valle nm valley | aclinal | v. antecedente mdgica divining rod antecedent valley | v. anticlinal anticlinal valley variolitico,-ca adj variolitic | v. colgado hanging valley | v. colgante hanging variometro nm variometer valley | v. de aluviones bottom land | v. de variscico,-ca adj Variscan drenaje water gap | v. de erosion erosional valley varisco,-ca adj Variscan V-2 varva nf varve | v. de arcilla glacial varve | v. esmeralda emerald green glaciar glacial varve verdemar o^y sea green | nm sea green vaso nm used in the general sense of Vessel' to verdeoscuro,-ra adj dark green refer to all sorts of smelting and cupellating verdete nm verdigris vessels and furnaces | [Tepecala, M£x] local verdinegro,-gra adj dark green variety of a copper refining furnace verdiones nmpl [Ch] green staining indicative of vauclusiense adj Vauclusian copper mineralization vecino,-na adj contiguous verdoso,-sa adj greenish vega nf open plain | oxbow lake | [Col] a small vergencia nf valley | nfpl flood plain vermiculado,-da adj vermiculated veinteno nm twentieth, a tax of one twentieth vemadskita nf formerly levied on gold production in Spanish verosimilitud nf likelihood America versiliense adj Versilian velaje glaciar nm breaking off of icebergs from vertedera nf [Somorrostro, Sp] inclined shoot glaciers vertice nf apex | [surv] corner | v. de cierre velardenita nf closing corner | v. de referenda witness corner | velocidad nf velocity | v. de filtration v. testigo witness corner rate | v. de una roca [seis] rock speed, speed of vertiente nf slope | aspect | drainage area, propagation of mechanical waves in rock watershed, divide | waterfall | spring | [Sp] vena nf vein | bed | seam | streak or stripe of brook | v. de agua salada brine spring a certain color in a stone | underground vesicula nf vesicle | gall | v. arcillosa clay gall channel for water | v. interfoliada interfoliated vestigio nm in assaying or chemical analysis, a vein trace | vestige venaje nf quantity of water in a river vesubiana nf vesuvianite | leucitite | mixture venera nf spring of calcite and venerillo nm [Tipuani, Bol] pay gravel in a vesubianita nf vesuvianite placer vesuliano,-na adj Vesulian venero nm spring | source | mineralized vein | vesuliense adj Vesulian mineral deposit | bed or seam | [ Arg] hidden veta nf vein or lode, generally of lesser or blind mineral deposit | [Bol] placer tin importance than a///on | mineralized bed or deposit | [Bol, Pe] pay gravel in a placer seam | streak or stripe in a rock | rib of ore in venida nf overflow of a river a vein, leader, or pay-streak | v. al sol vein with venido nm [M£x] talus, debris ore exposed at the surface | v. atravesada cross venilla nf veinlet or stringer | small vein vein | v. bandeada ribbon or banded vein | v. venita nf stringer, veinlet | venite (variety of boba [Ch] large, unmineralized vein | v. migmatite) | v. de cuarzo quartz stringer caldeadaal respaldo vein 'frozen' or 'welded' to venoso,-sa adj veined wall rock | v. cateada vein explored by catas or ventaja estructural n/[pet] structural advantage shallow pits or shafts | v. clavada [Col] vertical ventana nf fenster, window | inlier | v. tectonica vein | v. clavera spotty vein | v. corrida structural window continuous vein | v. cortada cross-cutting vein ventanilla nf [Pe] natural opening in rock | v. crucera cross vein | v. de cajon inclined vein ventisquero nm glacier | v. de carbon coal seam | v. de contacto contact venturiense adj Venturian lode | v. de cuarzo cross vein | v. defisura venturina nf aventurine quartz fissure vein | v. de manto bedded or horizontal verada nf foot path, trail vein | v. de mineral ore vein | v. de relleno de veraneador nm [Col] person who works placers falla fault vein | v. de resbalon vertical vein | v. only during dry season de sombra inclined vein (20° to 60°) | v. de veraneo nm [Col] working of placers during dry segregation exudation or segregated vein | v. de season sombra [Col] horizontal vein, manto | v. de tope verano nm dry season (summer) bunchy or beaded vein | v. debil weak vein | v. vetdeadj green | nm green | verdigris | v. desigual en mineral spotty vein | v. dislocadora V-3

dislocating vein | v. echada inclined vein | v. en viridina nf viridine, manganandalusite cola de caballo horse tail vein | v. en conformidad virutas nfpl cuttings | v. de taladro drill cuttings bedding-plane vein | v. en curia gash vein | v. viscometria nf viscometry en radiacion vein radiating from a common viscometre nm viscometer center with other veins | v. en rosario linked or viscosidad nf | v. cinematica kinematic amygdaloid vein | v. escalonada ladder vein | viscosity | v. extrapolada extrapolated viscosity v. eslabonada linked vein | v. estertl barren vein viscoso,-sa adj viscous | v.-filon fissure vein | v. forastera [Ch] newly viseano,-rta adj Visean discovered vein | v. formal strong vein | v. visiense adj Visean interfoliada interfoliated vein | v. jornalera vein visitademinasn/[Potosi, Bol] annual whose yield just covers expenses leaving no inspection by royal Spanish authorities of all profit | v. madre main or mother lode | v. mines and mills manteada horizontal vein | v. muy tendida flat vista nf sight, view | v. en corte cross section | a vein, bedded vein | v. rechazada dislocated vein la vista in sight | v. robada [Col] vein which on working shows vitreo,-ea adj glassy, vitreous | nf hyaline signs of having been worked before | v. seca vitrico,-ca adj vitric barren vein | v. secundaria secondary vein | v. vitrificacidn nf vitrification sin crestones hidden or blind vein | v. socia vitrificar vtr to vitrify companion vein | v. tabular tabular vein | v. vitrinoide nm vitrinoid transversal cross vein vitrifirico,-ca adj vitriphyric vetarrdn nm a large vein or lode vitriofido nm vitrophyre veteado,-da adj veined vitriolo nm vitriol | v. azul copper sulfate | v. vetica nf veinlet blanco zinc sulfate | v. de cobre chalcanthite | v. veticilla nf veinlet de marto copperas | v. verde copperas vetilla nf veinlet leader | [Mex] vitrita nf vitrian | vitrite vetita nf fiber | stringer | v. de cuarzo quartz vitroclarita nf vitroclarian stringer | v. de mineral streak vitrofidico,-ca adj vitrophyric via nf gallery vitrofiro nm vitrophyre vibertita nf bassanite volastonita nf wollastonite vibrosismica nf Vibroseis volatil adj volatile vicio nm defect, flaw volatilizacidn nf volatilization vicksburgiense adj Vicksburgian volcado,-da adj inverted, overturned vida nf life | v. media half-life volcadura nf tilting vidrio nm glass | v. volcanico volcanic glass volcamiento nm overturning vidrioso,-sa adj glassy, vitrious volcan nm volcano | landslide | [Col] flood | v. vilemita nf active active volcano | v. apagado or extinto villafranqiano,-rta adj Villafranchian extinct volcano | v. de barro mud volcano | v. villafranquense nm Villafranchian de cono compuesto composite cone | v. de cono de vincularse a vpr to be related to | to be bound cenizas cinder cone | v. de escudo shield volcano or tied to | v. de lodo mud volcano | v. en escudo shield vindoboniano,-na adj Vindobonian volcano | v. estratificado | v. vindoboniense adj Vindobonian estromboliano strombolian volcano | v.fango violana nf violan mud volcano | v. hawaiano Hawaiian or shield virgen adj native as well as virgin, e.g. plata volcano | v. peleano Peleean volcano | v. virgen 'native silver' | pure submarino virgencia nf virgence volcanicidad nf virgiliense adj Virgilian volcanico,-ca adj volcanic virgloriano,-na adj Anisian volcanismo nm volcanism virgloriense adj Anisian volcanista nm volcanist virguliano,-na adj Virgulian volcanita nf volcanite virguliense adj Virgulian volcanogenico,-ca adj volcanogenic V-4 volcar vtr to invert, overturn | to dump vortice nm whirlpool volframifero,-ra adj tungsten-bearing, vraconiense adj Vraconian tungstiferous vuelco nm tilting, overturning | dumping | v. volframio nm de estratos tilting of beds volframita nf wolframite vuelta nf whorl | oxbow (of a river) | voltear vtr to dump | to overturn [Almade"n, Sp] one complete operation in the volumen nm volume | v. de los poros pore Bustamente or aludel furnace | dor v. la plata volume | v. de roca rock volume | v. poroso [Mex] to refine silver pore volume vulcanismo nm volcanism volum£trico,-ca adj volumetric vulcanologia nf volumetro nm volumeter vulcanologista nm vomito nm [Col] outcrop vulcanologo,-ga nm and nf volcanologist voragine nf whirlpool vulfenita nf wulfenite W-l

w westfaliano,-na adj Westphalian westfaliense nm/adj Westphalian westgrenita nf bismutomicrolite Waaliense nm Waalian Weybourniense nm Weybournian waca nf wacke whartonita nf nickeliferous pyrite wacka nf wacke wheeleriense nm/adj Wheelerian wackenrodita nf wachenrodite Whitbense nm Whitbian waldheimita nf actinolite whitcliffiense nm/adj Whitcliffian walkerita nf whitherita nf walmstedtita nf breunerite whitneyense nm/adj Whitneyan walpurgina nf walpurgite, waltherite wiborgita nf viborgite (obs, ) walpuigita nf walpurgite, waltherite wichtina nf wichtisite (obs, vitrophyritic waltherita nf walpurgite, waltherite diabase) Waltonense nm Waltonian wilcoxiense nm/adj Sabinian waluewita nf xanthophyllite wilhemita nf willemite walleriannm hornblende wilinita nf idocrase wallerita nf greenstone wiltshireita nf rathite wallongita nf wallongongite williamsita nf antigorite warrenita nf owyheeite or jamesonite | winche nm winch Pennsylvania oil (paraffin rich hydrocarbons) winchellita nf lintonite warringtonita nf brochantite wisconsinense nm/adj Wisconsinan warthita nf blodite wiserina nf anatase | xenotime warwicita nf wismutaurita nf native gold containing up to 3 Wasatchiense nm percent bismuth washingtonita nf ilmenite wittichita nf wittichenite, klaprothite Washitense nm Washitan wittingita nf altered rhodonite wasita nf impure allanite wocheinita nf bauxite Waucobense nm Waucoban wolchita nf bournonite waudi nm wadi wolfachita nf mixture of gersdorfite and way nm oreway, chimney feeding an ore pass ullmanite Wealdense nm/adj Wealden wolfcampiense nm/adj Wolfcampian webnerita nf andorite wolfram nm tungsten | wolframite | w. blanco webskyita nf fibrous serpentine calcium tungstate weibyeita nf bastnesite wolframifero,-ra nf tungsten-bearing, weinschenkita nf churchite tungstiferous weissiannm wolframio nm wolfram weissigita nf lithium allanite wolfsbergita nf Wemmelense nm Wemmelian wolftonita nf hetairite wenlockiense nm/adj Wenlock wolnina nf barite wentzelita nf hureaulite wolnymwm barite werfeniano,-na adj Werfenian | nm Werfenian wollongita nf wollongongite (a carbonaceous werfeniense nm/adj Werfenian shale) werhemannita nf woodbiniense nm/adj Woodbinian wernerismo nm Neptunism woodfordita nf werneritizacion nf dipyritization worobieffita nf cesium and lithium beryl weslienita nf romerite wurtzilita nf asphaltic pyrobitumin westanita nf altered andalusite X-l

xenomorfo nm xenon nm xenon | x.-x. xenon-xenon xenoporfiritico,-ca adj xenoporphyritic xairo,-ra adj [Col] skew, oblique xenotermal adj xenothermal xalostocita nf landerite (par grossularite) xenotima nf xenotime xanotoxeno nm xenotina nf xenotime xanthokon nm a variety of diamond xenotipala nf cenotypal xantiosita nf xanthiosite xenotoba nf xenotuff xantita nf xanthite (par vesuvianite) xenotopico,-ca adj xenotopic xantoarsenita nf xerico,-ca adj xeric xantoconita nf xanthoconite xerotennico,-ca adj xerothermic | nm xantocroita nf greenockite xerothermic xantofilita nf xihuitl nm [Me"x.] turquoise xantopirita nf pyrite xilantita nf fossil wood xantorita nf xanthorthite (altered allanite) xiloide nm xyloide xantosiderita nf goethite xilito/-ta adj xyloid | nm xyloide xantoxenita nf xanthoxenite xilopalo nm wood opal, opalized wood xantiosita nf xanthiosite xilotilo nf xylotile xantotitano nm xanthitane (alteration product of xylantita nf xylanthite sphene) xylenita nf xylenite, xylinite xenoblastico,-ca adj xenoblastic xylinita nf xylenite, xylinite xenoblasto nm xenoblast xylinoide nm xylinoid xenobloque nm xenolith | erratic block xylita nf xylith, xylite | Fe-palygorskite xenocristal nm xenocryst xylito nm xylith, xylite xenocristo nm xenocryst xylochloro nm green apophyllite xenofiro nm xenophyre (obs, dike) xylocriptita nf xylokryptite (par schererite) xenogenito,-ta adj epigenetic xyloide adj xyloid xenogenuoso,-sa adj epigenetic xylolitha nf xenoiquico,-ca adj xenoikic (obs, poikilitic) xylopal nm wood opal xenolita nf xenolite | xenolith xylotilo nm xylotile (probably an altered xenolitico,-ca adj xenolithic chrysotile asbestos) | fibrous serpentine xenolito nm xenolith xylovitrian nm euvitrian xenom6rfico,-ca adj xenomorphic xylovitriano nm euvitrian xenomorfico-granular adj xenomorphic xenomorfismo nm xenomorphism Y-l

yamagutilita nf oyamalite (var zircon) yamasquita nf yamaskite (obs, amphibole jacupirangite) yacente adj lying, deposited | nm footwall yanacona nm a miner who works a mine leased yacer vintr to be lying down, deposited | to be from an absentee owner located | y. con to lie or be deposited with | y. yanolita nf con discordancia to lie discordantly yapa nf mercury added to silver ore to facilitate yaciente adj lying, deposited | nm footwall extraction yacimiento nm bed, deposit | ore deposits | y. yapar vtr to add mercury to silver ore agotado exhausted deposit, worked out deposit yarda nf yard of three feet | y. cuadrada square | y. anticlinal deposit occuring within an yard | y. cubica cubic yard | y. graduada de anticline | y. con capo, gastfera oil field with a medir yardstick gas cap | y. de carbon coal deposit | y. de yardaje nm yardage condensado condensate deposit | y. de contacto yareta nf [Bol, Pe, Ch] a resinous moss found in contact metamorphic deposit | y. de hierro de the Altiplano and used as a fuel los pantanos bog iron ore deposit | y. de Yarmouth nm impregnation impregnation or disseminated yasa nf dry stream deposit | y. de magma liquido liquid magmatic yauca nf [Pe] a smooth, black clay with greasy deposit | y. de segregation segregation deposit | lustre found in veins y. de substitution replacement deposit | y. en yeatmanita nf yeatmanite aluviones placer deposit | y. en masa massive ye"bel nm mountain, djebel, jebel deposit | y. epigenetico epigenetic deposit | y. yelero nm [Ve] a windy place on a snow-capped epitermal epithermal deposit | y. escondido blind mountain or buried deposit | y. estratificado stratified yenita nf ilvaite deposit | y. estratiforme stratiform deposit | y. Yeovilense nm Yeovilian filoniano vein deposit | y. hipogenico hypogene yerba nf a flaw in an emerald deposit | y. hipotermal hypothermal deposit | yermo^maa^/ uninhabited | nm desert y. hullero coal field | y. lenticular alargado shoe yesal nm gypsum mine | gypsum deposit string sand deposit | y. magmdtico magmatic yesarnm gypsum mine | gypsum deposit deposit | y. mesotermal mesothermal deposit | yesera nf gypsum pit | gypsum kiln y. metalifero metalliferous mineral deposit | y. yeseria nf gypsum kiln metasomdtico metasomatic deposit | y. mineral yesero,-ra adj | nm preparer and vendor mineral deposit | y. no metdlico non-metallic of gypsum mineral deposit | y. pegmatitico pegmatitic yesifenvra adj containing gypsum, gypsiferous deposit | y. petrohfero oil filed | y. plutonico yeso nm gypsum | chalk | plaster | y. anhidro plutonic deposits | y. pneumatolitico anhydrous plaster | y. arenoso gypsum sand | pneumatolytic deposit | y. primario primary or y. bandeado banded gypsum | y. blanco whiting, hypogene deposit | y. salino saline or evaporite finishing plaster | y. de enlucir gypsum plaster deposits | y. secundario secondary or supergene | y. de estucar gypsum plaster | y. de Paris deposit | y. singenetico syngenetic deposit | y. plaster of Paris | y. de vatiar casting plaster | y. submarino de hidrocarburos offshore duro cement plaster | y. en cola de golondrina hydrocarbon deposit | y. superficial surface or selenite | y. espdtico selenite | y. especular surficial deposit | y. supergenico supergene selenite | y. fetido bituminous gypsum | y. deposit | y. subvolcdnico subvolcanic deposit | fibroso fibrous gypsum | y. mate plaster of Paris y. tabular tabular deposit | y. virgen | y. negro patent-plaster | y. selenita selenite unexploited deposit yesdnnm gypsum cap | chunk of plaster yakutense adj Yakutsk | nm Yakutsk yesoso,-sa adj gypseous, rich in gypsum | Yakutskense nm Yakutsk chalky yalakomita nf [BC, Mex] yalakomite (a yesosos nmpl [Aguascalientes, M6x] copper ores serpentmized ultrabasic rock used as a having a calcite or flourite matrix decorative stone) yneziense adj/nm Ynezian Y-2 yodado,-da adj iodized | containing yttrialita nf thorium thalenite yod&ivtr to iodize yttrita nf gadolinite-(Y) yoda'rgira nf iodargyrite yttriumapatito nm yttrium apatite yodaigirita nf iodargyrite yttrobetafita nf yttrobetafite yodato nm iodate yttrocalcita nf yttrian fluorite yoderita nf yoderite yttrocerita nf cerian fluorite yodico,-ca adj iodic yttrocolombita nf samarskite yodirita nf iodargyrite yttrofluorita nf yttrian fluorite yodo nm iodine | y.-amonio ammonium iodate yttrogummita nf altered uraninite yodobromita nf iodian bromargyrite yttrohatchettolita nf uranpyrochlore yodoembolita nf iodargyrite yttroniobita nf samarskite yodostonolita nf manganese pyrochlore yttro-ortita nf allanite-(Y) yoduracidn nf iodization yttropirocloro nf yttropyrochlore yodurado/-da adj iodized yttrotitanita nf yttrium yodurar vtr to iodize yu nm yu (var jade) yoduro nm iodide | y. de hidrogeno hydroiodic yuconita nf yukonite acid | y. de plata iodargyrite, iodyrite | y. yuksporita nf pectolite. mercuriosos mercurious iodine yungas nf [Ch, Pe, Bo] humid valleys on the east yohidrico,-ca adj hydroiodic side of the Andes yohnstonolita nf manganese pyrope yusano,-na adj in a lower place (i.e. the yohnstrupita nf mosandrite footwall) Yorkiense nm Yorkian yusente adj that rises or falls with the ebb tide | yosemitgranitico/-ca adj granitic n.f. ebb ypresiano,-na adj yusero,-ra adj in a lower place (i.e. the footwall) Ypresense nm Ypresian | adj Ypresian yuso adv below (i.e. in the footwall) yterbio nm ytterbium yuxtaponer vtr to juxtapose ytrio nm yttrium yuxtaposicidn nf juxtaposition ytriogranate nm yttrian garnet yuxtapuesto,-ta adj juxtaposed ytroilmenita nf samarskite yuxtalineal adj juxtalinear ytterbita nf gadolirdte-(Y) yuxtaposicidn nf juxtaposition ytterita nf tengerite Z-l

zambullir vtr [Col] to extract auriferous gravels from a streambed by diving, with the assistance of ladders, poles etc., the gravels zabaleta nf [Linares, Sp] ash-pit of a furnace usually being collected in bateas for washing zaborra nf paving stone | gravel, grit | zancleano,-na nm/adj screenings | fragments zangarro nm [Asientos, Me"x] small mill zaborro nm [Sp] chunk of plaster zanja nf ditch, channel, trench | trench, zaca nf a large leather bag, like an oversize cutting, or pit, such as those dug to prospect wine-skin (zaque) used to bail water out of a for ores | [Arg, PR] ravine, gully | z. de test trench | z. de lodo mud pit | z. zafareche nm lake | reservoir de prestamo borrow pit zafir nm archaic spelling of zafiro zanjadora nf ditching machine, ditcher zafireo,-ea adj sapphire-colored zanjar vtr to dig a ditch or trench (note: used zafirino,-na adj , sapphire-colored | figuratively, zanjar means to overcome some nf blue chalcedony or agate difficulty or obstacle) zafirita nf a variety of blue chalcedony zanjeador nm ditch digger zafiro nm sapphire | ultramarine, lapis lazuli | zanjeadora nf ditcher z. amarillo yellow topaz, oriental topaz | z. zanjear vtr to dig a ditch asteria star sapphire | z. azul blue hyaline zanjeo nm ditching, ditch digging | underhand corundum | z. azul hembra light blue hyaline s toping corundum | z. azul macho dark blue hyaline zanjdn nm large or deep ditch or trench | [Arg] corundum | z. blanco colorless sapphire, white steep gully | [PR] solution corridor sapphire | z. calcedonioso milky blue sapphire zanoga nf glacial cirque | z. de agua gem cordierite | z. del Brasil blue zapa nf sapping, undermining, or trenching as tourmaline, indicolite | z. Du Puy Du Puy military engineers did in the days of seige sapphire (from Expailly, near Du Puy, ) warfare | intermediate galleries driven | z, estrellado sapphire with asterism | z. falso between main galleries pink tourmaline | z. girasol girasol sapphire | zapadora nf excavator z. ojo de gato cat's-eye sapphire | z. oriental zapapico nm pick-axe, mattock light blue sapphire, oriental sapphire | z. rojo zapar vtr to undermine | to excavate oriental ruby, red corundum | z. verdadero zaranda nf sieve, screen, or riddle, either used saffire | z. verde oriental emerald, green by hand (de mano) or mechanical hyaline corundum | z. violeta oriental zarandado,-da adj sieved, screened amethyst, violet hyaline corundum zarandador,-dora nm/nf screener, siever zafra nf gangue, waste rock zarandar vtr to sift, sieve, screen zafre nm zaffer or zaffre, an oxide of cobalt zarandear vtr to sift, sieve, screen zafrero nm common laborer in a mine (usually zarandeo nm sifting sieving, or screening | z. applied to muckers) grosero rough screening zagalone nm [Cartagena and Almagrera, Sp] zarandero,-ra nm or nf sifter, screen tender youth employed as an orebearer zarandillo nm small sieve zahen adj of fine gold, generally in the case of zarco,-ca adj light blue coinage zarda nf [Arg] a type of bit used for drilling zahena nf doubloon, an old Spanish coin wells zahondar vtr to sink | vintr to deepen zarzo nm roof timber in a mine zahorra nf ballast stone zemorriense nm/adj Zemorrian zala nf borax zenit nm zenith zamarra nf slab | bloom of a Catalonian forge zenital adj azimuthal zamboninita nf mixture of fluorite and zeofilita nf zeophyllite | nontronite zeolita nf zeolite | z. azul lazulite | z. baritica zambullidor nm [Col] workman who dives barium zeolite | z. bronceada dark stilbite | z. underwater to recover auriferous gravels calcica calcium zeolite | z. cubica chabazite | z. Z-2

caldfera calcium zeolite | z. de Borkhult zincteallita nf mixture of and zeolitized anorthite | z. de Bretana zinkaragonito nm nicholsonite | z. de Edelfors edelforsite | z. de Sudermania zinkboothita nf zinc boothite spodumene | z. de Suecia spodumene | z. del zinkhausmannita nf hetairite Cabo prehnite | z. dura analcime | z. ferrica zinkisa nf tin sulfide iron zeolite | z. harinosa laumontite | z. zinkita nf zincite manganesica manganese zeolite | z. nacarada zinkmelanterita nf zinc melanterite stilbite | z. potasica potassium zeolite | z. zinkosita nf zinc sulfate radiada | z. roja edelforsite | z. sodica zinkphyllita nf sodium zeolite | z. sodicalda sodium-calcium zinntitanita nf stanniferous zeolite sphene zeolitico,-ca adj zeolitic zinopel nm red jasper mixed with gold-bearing zeolitizacidn nf zeolitization pyrite zermattita nf chiysotile | antigorite zinque nm zinc (archaic spelling) zeugira nf metabrushite ziquitumba nf dewatering of a mine by hand zeuxita nf acicular ferrous tourmaline labor zeylanita nf ceylonite zircarbita nf zirconium carbonate zeyringita nf calcite | aragonite zircofilita nf zeyssatita nf randanite zircdn nm zircon | z. favas baddeleyite zianita nf kyanite zirconiana nf zincan syenite ziguelina nf a brick-red var cuprite (mixed with zirconio nm zirconium limonite) | dolomite with finely disseminated zirconita nf zircon cinnabar zircdn-jacinto nm rosembuschite zigzag nm zigzag | en z. staggered zircdn-pectolita nm rosembuschite zigzaguear vtr to zigzag zirconolita nf zillerita nf tremolite-actinolite asbestos (var zircosulfato nm zircosulfate mountain cork) zirkita nf mixture of zircon and baddeleyite zillerthita nf tremolite-actinolite asbestos (var zirkofilita nf zircophyllite mountain cork) zirlita nf allophane zimapanita nf zimapanite (a rejected mineral ziszds nm zigzag | en z. staggered species) zoantariense nm Zoantarian zinalsita nf zinalsite zoblitzita nf serpentine zinc nm zinc | z. carbonatado smithsonite | z. zdcalo nm basement, continental platform | z. electrotermico electrothermic zinc | z. continental continental shelf, continental plain hidrocarbonatado hydrozincite, calamine | z. | z. estable table shelf or platform | z. insular oxidado silidfero calamine, hydrozincite insular shelf | z. Idbil tectonically formed zincaluminita nf zincaluminite platform or shelf | z. liminar continental plain zincazurita nf mixture of zinc sulfates and zocollar vtr [Ec] to clear land (preparatory to copper carbonates mining) zincifero,-ra adj zinc-bearing/ zinciferous zoesita nf fossiliferous chalcedony zincobotriogen nm zincobotryogen zoisitaoligoclasapegmatita nf oligoclase zoisite zincocalcita nf zinc calcite pegmatite zincoferrita nf franklinite zona nf zone. | area (as in la zona estudiada 'the zincolivenita nf zinc olivine study area1) | region, belt (as in zona zinconisa nf hydrozincite, calamine mineralizada 'mineralized region' or Ijelt.') | zincoschefferita nf zinc schefferite layer or band of mineral in a vein (as in zonas zincosita nf zinc sulfate de cuarzo, 'quartz bands') | z. abisal abyssal zincoso,-sa adj zincous zone | z. abismal abyssal zone | z. aciete-agua zincrodocrosita nf zinc rhodochrosite oil-water contact | z. aclinal aclinal area | z. zincromerita nf zinc romerite afotica aphotic zone | z. alterada [seis] zincsiderita nf zinc siderite weathered zone | z. batial bathyal zone | z. Z-3 tiega [seis] blind zone | z. comprobada proven building occures | z. internida internal zone (in zone | z. contaminada contaminated zone | z. alpine folding) | z. inundada flooded zone | z. contigua contiguous zone | z. cortical upper Umite limiting zone | z. litoral coastal zone | z. crust | z. costera coastal zone (to 200 m depth) medianida zone of folding | z. medida zone of | z. de ablation ablation area | z. de acumuladon folding | z. mesida zone of folding | z. accumulation zone | z. de aeration zone of metamorfido zone of maximum metamorphism suspended water | z. de agotamiento zone of | z. miogeosinclinal miogeosyncline | z. depletion | z. de alteration alteration zone. | z. miomagmdtica miogeosyncline | z. muerta dead de anamorfismo anamorphic zone | z. de zone | z. no comprobada unproven zone, arrancjtte root zone | z. de Benioff Benioff zone untested area | z. petrolifera oil zone | z. | z. de capos plegadas folded zone | z. de plegada folded zone | z. po/or polar zone | z. capilaridad capillary fringe | z. de cementation por escalones stoping ground | z. por escalones zone of cementation | z. de cizalladura shear en escalon stoping level | z. positiva positive zone | z. de cizallamiento | z. de segment [of earth's crust] | z. productora contacto contact zone | z. de deposition zone of productive zone, producing zone | z. rigida deposition | z. de derrumbamiento zone of stable zone | z. stsmica seismic zone or area | caving (in a well) | z. de desarollo development z. de sombra [gephys] shadow zone | z. zone, pay zone | z. de descargo zone of templada temperate zone | z. torrida torrid discharge | z. de dislocation fault zone | z. de zone | en z. [cryst] zoned drenaje drainage area | z. de erosion zone of zonacion nf zonation. | z. metasomatica erosion | z. de explotadon producing zone | z. metasomatic zoning defalias fault zone, zone of faulting | z. deflujo zonado,-da adj zoned zone of flow or plastic flow | z. de zonal adj zonal fracturamiento or fracturation | z. zonalidad nf zonality, zoning de hundamiento zone of subsidence | z. de zonamiento nm zoning iluviacion zone of illuviation | z. de infiltration zonar adj zoned compositionally (as for a zone of infiltration | z. de inundation flood magma) area | z. de invasion invasion zone | z. de zonga nf [Col] rubble stone inyection injection zone | z. de las coratnas (30- zonificacidn nf zoning 90 m water depth) | z. de las laminarias (0-30 m zonita nf [Ariz] local term for multicolored water depth) z. de fos corales (100-500 m water chert and jasper depth) | z. de meteorization zone of weathering zonizacidn nf [Arg] zoning | z. de mobilidad asthenosphere | z. de perdida zonoclorita nf zonochlorite (par pumpellyite) de circulation de lodo lost circulation zone | z. zonulo nm zonule de saturation saturation zone | z. de saturation zoof£smico,-ca adj zoophasmic intermitente zone of intermittent saturation | z. zo6geno,-na adj of organic origin de sedimentation zone of deposition | z. de zoolita nf sedimentary rock formed exclusively transformation metamorfica metamorphic or predominantly from animal remains | transformation zone | z. de transition biolith | zoolith transition zone | z. de trituracion crush zone | zoolito nm fossilized animal z. de turbulentia zone of turbulence | z. de zopetero nm embankment, slope vortices whirl-zone | z. defe»7 weak zones in the zorgita nf mixture of claustalite, , crust that form | z. disfotica and dysphotic zone | z. eufotica euphotic zone | z. zorra nm [Bol] flatcar used in a mine to carry explotada stope | z. externida external zone (in equipment | [Mex] assistant who carried a alpine folding) j z. fallada fault zone | z. /irme light for the chief miner when the latter went terra firma | z./fwida lower crust | z. underground fracturada fracture zone | upper crust | z. zubia nf channel, pool, swamp glacial glacial zone | z. infiltrada infiltration zuloagense nm/adj Zuloagan zone | z. intermedia intermediate belt | that zunyita nf part of a geosyncline where mountain- zurdo nm a shaft sunk opposite the dipping Z-4

side of a vein, (this is, of course, opposite from the side of a vein one normally sinks a shaft on, unless one intends to stope from below; hence, the use of zurdo, which normally means 'lefty' or 'southpaw1, and in Hispanic cultures carries negative and unlucky connotations) zurlia nf mellilite zurrapa nf dregs, lees or sediment | raw sulpher containing 5 to 6% impurities zurrapiento,-ta adj muddy, turbid zurraposo,-sa adj muddy, turbid zurrdn nm leather bag or sack, holding about 150 Ibs., used to haul ore zurronero nm workman who carries ore or waste in a zurron