# Introduction to Plasma Physics:! a 1-Hour Taste* of Key Concepts & Results for Astrophysics Graduate Students"

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• Glossary Physics (I-Introduction)
1 Glossary Physics (I-introduction) - Efficiency: The percent of the work put into a machine that is converted into useful work output; = work done / energy used [-]. = eta In machines: The work output of any machine cannot exceed the work input (<=100%); in an ideal machine, where no energy is transformed into heat: work(input) = work(output), =100%. Energy: The property of a system that enables it to do work. Conservation o. E.: Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it may be transformed from one form into another, but the total amount of energy never changes. Equilibrium: The state of an object when not acted upon by a net force or net torque; an object in equilibrium may be at rest or moving at uniform velocity - not accelerating. Mechanical E.: The state of an object or system of objects for which any impressed forces cancels to zero and no acceleration occurs. Dynamic E.: Object is moving without experiencing acceleration. Static E.: Object is at rest.F Force: The influence that can cause an object to be accelerated or retarded; is always in the direction of the net force, hence a vector quantity; the four elementary forces are: Electromagnetic F.: Is an attraction or repulsion G, gravit. const.6.672E-11[Nm2/kg2] between electric charges: d, distance [m] 2 2 2 2 F = 1/(40) (q1q2/d ) [(CC/m )(Nm /C )] = [N] m,M, mass [kg] Gravitational F.: Is a mutual attraction between all masses: q, charge [As] [C] 2 2 2 2 F = GmM/d [Nm /kg kg 1/m ] = [N] 0, dielectric constant Strong F.: (nuclear force) Acts within the nuclei of atoms: 8.854E-12 [C2/Nm2] [F/m] 2 2 2 2 2 F = 1/(40) (e /d ) [(CC/m )(Nm /C )] = [N] , 3.14 [-] Weak F.: Manifests itself in special reactions among elementary e, 1.60210 E-19 [As] [C] particles, such as the reaction that occur in radioactive decay.
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• Plasma Physics and Pulsars
Plasma Physics and Pulsars On the evolution of compact o bjects and plasma physics in weak and strong gravitational and electromagnetic fields by Anouk Ehreiser supervised by Axel Jessner, Maria Massi and Li Kejia as part of an internship at the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, Bonn March 2010 2 This composition was written as part of two internships at the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy in April 2009 at the Radiotelescope in Effelsberg and in February/March 2010 at the Institute in Bonn. I am very grateful for the support, expertise and patience of Axel Jessner, Maria Massi and Li Kejia, who supervised my internship and introduced me to the basic concepts and the current research in the field. Contents I. Life-cycle of stars 1. Formation and inner structure 2. Gravitational collapse and supernova 3. Star remnants II. Properties of Compact Objects 1. White Dwarfs 2. Neutron Stars 3. Black Holes 4. Hypothetical Quark Stars 5. Relativistic Effects III. Plasma Physics 1. Essentials 2. Single Particle Motion in a magnetic field 3. Interaction of plasma flows with magnetic fields – the aurora as an example IV. Pulsars 1. The Discovery of Pulsars 2. Basic Features of Pulsar Signals 3. Theoretical models for the Pulsar Magnetosphere and Emission Mechanism 4. Towards a Dynamical Model of Pulsar Electrodynamics References 3 Plasma Physics and Pulsars I. The life-cycle of stars 1. Formation and inner structure Stars are formed in molecular clouds in the interstellar medium, which consist mostly of molecular hydrogen (primordial elements made a few minutes after the beginning of the universe) and dust.
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• VISCOSITY of a GAS -Dr S P Singh Department of Chemistry, a N College, Patna
Lecture Note on VISCOSITY OF A GAS -Dr S P Singh Department of Chemistry, A N College, Patna A sketchy summary of the main points Viscosity of gases, relation between mean free path and coefficient of viscosity, temperature and pressure dependence of viscosity, calculation of collision diameter from the coefficient of viscosity Viscosity is the property of a fluid which implies resistance to flow. Viscosity arises from jump of molecules from one layer to another in case of a gas. There is a transfer of momentum of molecules from faster layer to slower layer or vice-versa. Let us consider a gas having laminar flow over a horizontal surface OX with a velocity smaller than the thermal velocity of the molecule. The velocity of the gaseous layer in contact with the surface is zero which goes on increasing upon increasing the distance from OX towards OY (the direction perpendicular to OX) at a uniform rate . Suppose a layer ‘B’ of the gas is at a certain distance from the fixed surface OX having velocity ‘v’. Two layers ‘A’ and ‘C’ above and below are taken into consideration at a distance ‘l’ (mean free path of the gaseous molecules) so that the molecules moving vertically up and down can’t collide while moving between the two layers. Thus, the velocity of a gas in the layer ‘A’ ---------- (i) = + Likely, the velocity of the gas in the layer ‘C’ ---------- (ii) The gaseous molecules are moving in all directions due= to −thermal velocity; therefore, it may be supposed that of the gaseous molecules are moving along the three Cartesian coordinates each.
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• Viscosity of Gases References
VISCOSITY OF GASES Marcia L. Huber and Allan H. Harvey The following table gives the viscosity of some common gases generally less than 2% . Uncertainties for the viscosities of gases in as a function of temperature . Unless otherwise noted, the viscosity this table are generally less than 3%; uncertainty information on values refer to a pressure of 100 kPa (1 bar) . The notation P = 0 specific fluids can be found in the references . Viscosity is given in indicates that the low-pressure limiting value is given . The dif- units of μPa s; note that 1 μPa s = 10–5 poise . Substances are listed ference between the viscosity at 100 kPa and the limiting value is in the modified Hill order (see Introduction) . Viscosity in μPa s 100 K 200 K 300 K 400 K 500 K 600 K Ref. Air 7 .1 13 .3 18 .5 23 .1 27 .1 30 .8 1 Ar Argon (P = 0) 8 .1 15 .9 22 .7 28 .6 33 .9 38 .8 2, 3*, 4* BF3 Boron trifluoride 12 .3 17 .1 21 .7 26 .1 30 .2 5 ClH Hydrogen chloride 14 .6 19 .7 24 .3 5 F6S Sulfur hexafluoride (P = 0) 15 .3 19 .7 23 .8 27 .6 6 H2 Normal hydrogen (P = 0) 4 .1 6 .8 8 .9 10 .9 12 .8 14 .5 3*, 7 D2 Deuterium (P = 0) 5 .9 9 .6 12 .6 15 .4 17 .9 20 .3 8 H2O Water (P = 0) 9 .8 13 .4 17 .3 21 .4 9 D2O Deuterium oxide (P = 0) 10 .2 13 .7 17 .8 22 .0 10 H2S Hydrogen sulfide 12 .5 16 .9 21 .2 25 .4 11 H3N Ammonia 10 .2 14 .0 17 .9 21 .7 12 He Helium (P = 0) 9 .6 15 .1 19 .9 24 .3 28 .3 32 .2 13 Kr Krypton (P = 0) 17 .4 25 .5 32 .9 39 .6 45 .8 14 NO Nitric oxide 13 .8 19 .2 23 .8 28 .0 31 .9 5 N2 Nitrogen 7 .0 12 .9 17 .9 22 .2 26 .1 29 .6 1, 15* N2O Nitrous
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• Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusor Cody Boyd Virginia Commonwealth University
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• Optimization of Ion Flow Rates in a Helicon Injected IEC Fusion System
Aeronautics and Aerospace Open Access Journal Research Article Open Access Optimization of ion flow rates in a helicon injected IEC fusion system Abstract Volume 4 Issue 2 - 2020 The Helicon Injected Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) offers an attractive D-D Qiheng Cai, George H Miley neutron source for neutron commercial and homeland security activation neutron analysis. Department of Nuclear, Plasma & Radiological Engineering, Designs with multiple injectors also provide a potential route to an attractive small fusion University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, USA reactor. Use of such a reactor has also been studied for deep space propulsion. In addition, a non-fusion design been studied for use as an electric thruster for near-term space Correspondence: Qiheng Cai, Department of Nuclear, Plasma applications. The Helicon Inertial Plasma Electrostatic Rocket (HIIPER) is an advanced & Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Champaign- space plasma thruster coupling the helicon and a modified IEC. A key aspect for all of these Urbana, Urbana, IL, 61801, Tel +15712679353, systems is to develop efficient coupling between the Helicon plasma injector and the IEC. Email This issue is under study and will be described in this presentation. To analyze the coupling efficiency, ion flow rates (which indicate how many ions exit the helicon and enter the IEC Received: May 01, 2020 | Published: May 21, 2020 device per second) are investigated by a global model. In this simulation particle rate and power balance equations are solved to investigate the time evolution of electron density, neutral density and electron temperature in the helicon tube. In addition to the Helicon geometry and RF field design, the use of a potential bias plate at the gas inlet of the Helicon is considered.
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• Ionic Liquid and Supercritical Fluid Hyphenated Techniques for Dissolution and Separation of Lanthanides, Actinides, and Fission Products
Project No. 09-805 Ionic Liquid and Supercritical Fluid Hyphenated Techniques for Dissolution and Separation of Lanthanides, Actinides, and Fission Products ItIntegrat tdUied Universit itPy Programs Dr. Chien Wai University of Idaho In collaboration with: Idaho National Laboratory Jack Law, Technical POC James Bresee, Federal POC 1 Ionic Liquid and Supercritical Fluid Hyphenated Techniques For Dissolution and Separation of Lanthanides and Actinides DOE-NEUP Project (TO 00058) Final Technical Report Principal Investigator: Chien M. Wai Department of Chemistry, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 Date: December 1, 2012 2 Table of Contents Project Summary 3 Publications Derived from the Project 5 Chapter I. Introduction 6 Chapter II. Uranium Dioxide in Ionic Liquid with a TP-HNO3 Complex – Dissolution and Coordination Environment 9 1. Dissolution of UO2 in Ionic Liquid with TBP(HNO3)1.8(H2O)0.6 2. Raman Spectra of Dissolved Uranyl Species in IL 13 3. Transferring Uranium from IL Phase to sc-CO2 15 Chapter III. Kinetic Study on Dissolution of Uranium Dioxide and Neodymium Sesquioxide in Ionic Liquid 19 1. Rate of Dissolution of UO2 and Nd2O3 in RTIL 19 2. Temperature Effect on Dissolution of UO2 and Nd2O3 24 3. Viscosity Effect on Dissolution of UO2 in IL with TBP(HNO3)1.8(H2O)0.6 Chapter IV. Separation of UO2(NO3)2(TBP)2 and Nd(NO3)3(TBP)3 in Ionic Liquid Using Diglycolamide and Supercritical CO2 Extraction 30 1. Complexation of Uranyl with Diglycolamide TBDGA in Ionic Liquid 31 2. Complexation of Neodymium(III) with TBDGA in Ionic Liquid 35 3. Solubility and Distribution Ratio of UO2(NO3)2(TBP)2 and Nd(NO3)3(TBP)3 in Supercritical CO2 Phase 38 4.
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• Plasma Physics I APPH E6101x Columbia University Fall, 2016
Lecture 1: Plasma Physics I APPH E6101x Columbia University Fall, 2016 1 Syllabus and Class Website http://sites.apam.columbia.edu/courses/apph6101x/ 2 Textbook “Plasma Physics offers a broad and modern introduction to the many aspects of plasma science … . A curious student or interested researcher could track down laboratory notes, older monographs, and obscure papers … . with an extensive list of more than 300 references and, in particular, its excellent overview of the various techniques to generate plasma in a laboratory, Plasma Physics is an excellent entree for students into this rapidly growing field. It’s also a useful reference for professional low-temperature plasma researchers.” (Michael Brown, Physics Today, June, 2011) 3 Grading • Weekly homework • Two in-class quizzes (25%) • Final exam (50%) 4 https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/sdo/overview/ Launched 11 Feb 2010 5 http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/sdo/news/sdo-year2.html#.VerqQLRgyxI 6 http://www.ccfe.ac.uk/MAST.aspx http://www.ccfe.ac.uk/mast_upgrade_project.aspx 7 https://youtu.be/svrMsZQuZrs 8 9 10 ITER: The International Burning Plasma Experiment Important fusion science experiment, but without low-activation fusion materials, tritium breeding, … ~ 500 MW 10 minute pulses 23,000 tonne 51 GJ >30B \$US (?) DIII-D ⇒ ITER ÷ 3.7 (50 times smaller volume) (400 times smaller energy) 11 Prof. Robert Gross Columbia University Fusion Energy (1984) “Fusion has proved to be a very difficult challenge. The early question was—Can fusion be done, and, if so how? … Now, the challenge lies in whether fusion can be done in a reliable, an economical, and socially acceptable way…” 12 http://lasco-www.nrl.navy.mil 13 14 Plasmasphere (Image EUV) 15 https://youtu.be/TaPgSWdcYtY 16 17 LETTER doi:10.1038/nature14476 Small particles dominate Saturn’s Phoebe ring to surprisingly large distances Douglas P.
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• Plasma Physics and Advanced Fluid Dynamics Jean-Marcel Rax (Univ. Paris-Saclay, Ecole Polytechnique), Christophe Gissinger (LPEN
Plasma Physics and advanced ﬂuid dynamics Jean-Marcel Rax (Univ. Paris-Saclay, Ecole Polytechnique), Christophe Gissinger (LPENS)) I- Plasma Physics : principles, structures and dynamics, waves and instabilities Besides ordinary temperature usual (i) solid state, (ii) liquid state and (iii) gaseous state, at very low and very high temperatures new exotic states appear : (iv) quantum ﬂuids and (v) ionized gases. These states display a variety of speciﬁc and new physical phenomena : (i) at low temperature quantum coherence, correlation and indiscernibility lead to superﬂuidity, su- perconductivity and Bose-Einstein condensation ; (ii) at high temperature ionization provides a signiﬁcant fraction of free charges responsible for in- stabilities, nonlinear, chaotic and turbulent behaviors characteristic of the \plasma state". This set of lectures provides an introduction to the basic tools, main results and advanced methods of Plasma Physics. • Plasma Physics : History, orders of magnitudes, Bogoliubov's hi- erarchy, ﬂuid and kinetic reductions. Electric screening : Langmuir frequency, Maxwell time, Debye length, hybrid frequencies. Magnetic screening : London and Kelvin lengths. Alfven and Bohm velocities. • Charged particles dynamics : adiabaticity and stochasticity. Alfven and Ehrenfest adiabatic invariants. Electric and magnetic drifts. Pon- deromotive force. Wave/particle interactions : Chirikov criterion and chaotic dynamics. Quasilinear kinetic equation for Landau resonance. • Structure and self-organization : Debye and Child-Langmuir sheath, Chapman-Ferraro boundary layer. Brillouin and basic MHD ﬂow. Flux conservation : Alfven's theorem. Magnetic topology : magnetic helicity conservation. Grad-Shafranov and basic MHD equilibrium. • Waves and instabilities : Fluid and kinetic dispersions : resonance and cut-oﬀ. Landau and cyclotron absorption. Bernstein's modes. Fluid instabilities : drift, interchange and kink. Alfvenic and geometric coupling.
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• Application of Supercritical Fluids Review Yoshiaki Fukushima
1 Application of Supercritical Fluids Review Yoshiaki Fukushima Abstract Many advantages of supercritical fluids come Supercritical water is expected to be useful in from their interesting or unusual properties which waste treatment. Although they show high liquid solvents and gas carriers do not possess. solubility solutes and molecular catalyses, solvent Such properties and possible applications of molecules under supercritical conditions gently supercritical fluids are reviewed. As these fluids solvate solute molecules and have little influence never condense at above their critical on the activities of the solutes and catalysts. This temperatures, supercritical drying is useful to property would be attributed to the local density prepare dry-gel. The solubility and other fluctuations around each molecule due to high important parameters as a solvent can be adjusted molecular mobility. The fluctuations in the continuously. Supercritical fluids show supercritical fluids would produce heterogeneity advantages as solvents for extraction, coating or that would provide novel chemical reactions with chemical reactions thanks to these properties. molecular catalyses, heterogenous solid catalyses, Supercritical water shows a high organic matter enzymes or solid adsorbents. solubility and a strong hydrolyzing ability. Supercritical fluid, Supercritical water, Solubility, Solvation, Waste treatment, Keywords Coating, Organic reaction applications development reached the initial peak 1. Introduction during the period from the second half of the 1960s There has been rising concern in recent years over to the 1970s followed by the secondary peak about supercritical fluids for organic waste treatment and 15 years later. The initial peak was for the other applications. The discovery of the presence of separation and extraction technique as represented 1) critical point dates back to 1822.
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• Specific Latent Heat
SPECIFIC LATENT HEAT The specific latent heat of a substance tells us how much energy is required to change 1 kg from a solid to a liquid (specific latent heat of fusion) or from a liquid to a gas (specific latent heat of vaporisation). �����푦 (��) 퐸 ����������푐 ������� ℎ���� �� ������� �� = (��⁄��) = 푓 � ����� (��) �����푦 = ����������푐 ������� ℎ���� �� 퐸 = ��푓 × � ������� × ����� ����� 퐸 � = �� 푦 푓 ����� = ����������푐 ������� ℎ���� �� ������� WORKED EXAMPLE QUESTION 398 J of energy is needed to turn 500 g of liquid nitrogen into at gas at-196°C. Calculate the specific latent heat of vaporisation of nitrogen. ANSWER Step 1: Write down what you know, and E = 99500 J what you want to know. m = 500 g = 0.5 kg L = ? v Step 2: Use the triangle to decide how to 퐸 ��푣 = find the answer - the specific latent heat � of vaporisation. 99500 퐽 퐿 = 0.5 �� = 199 000 ��⁄�� Step 3: Use the figures given to work out 푣 the answer. The specific latent heat of vaporisation of nitrogen in 199 000 J/kg (199 kJ/kg) Questions 1. Calculate the specific latent heat of fusion if: a. 28 000 J is supplied to turn 2 kg of solid oxygen into a liquid at -219°C 14 000 J/kg or 14 kJ/kg b. 183 600 J is supplied to turn 3.4 kg of solid sulphur into a liquid at 115°C 54 000 J/kg or 54 kJ/kg c. 6600 J is supplied to turn 600g of solid mercury into a liquid at -39°C 11 000 J/kg or 11 kJ/kg d.
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• Glossary of Terms
GLOSSARY OF TERMS For the purpose of this Handbook, the following definitions and abbreviations shall apply. Although all of the definitions and abbreviations listed below may have not been used in this Handbook, the additional terminology is provided to assist the user of Handbook in understanding technical terminology associated with Drainage Improvement Projects and the associated regulations. Program-specific terms have been defined separately for each program and are contained in pertinent sub-sections of Section 2 of this handbook. ACRONYMS ASTM American Society for Testing Materials CBBEL Christopher B. Burke Engineering, Ltd. COE United States Army Corps of Engineers EPA Environmental Protection Agency IDEM Indiana Department of Environmental Management IDNR Indiana Department of Natural Resources NRCS USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service SWCD Soil and Water Conservation District USDA United States Department of Agriculture USFWS United States Fish and Wildlife Service DEFINITIONS AASHTO Classification. The official classification of soil materials and soil aggregate mixtures for highway construction used by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Abutment. The sloping sides of a valley that supports the ends of a dam. Acre-Foot. The volume of water that will cover 1 acre to a depth of 1 ft. Aggregate. (1) The sand and gravel portion of concrete (65 to 75% by volume), the rest being cement and water. Fine aggregate contains particles ranging from 1/4 in. down to that retained on a 200-mesh screen. Coarse aggregate ranges from 1/4 in. up to l½ in. (2) That which is installed for the purpose of changing drainage characteristics.
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