“I read somewhere that everybody on this planet is separated by only six other people. Six degrees of separation. Between us and everybody else on this planet.” — Ouisa, in John Guare’s “SIX DEGREES OF SEPARATION”

NOTE: for the bio of this man’s 19th-Century namesake, the Reverend Samuel Eliot Sewall: SAMUEL E. SEWALL HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

“NARRATIVE HISTORY” AMOUNTS TO FABULATION, THE REAL STUFF BEING MERE CHRONOLOGY

“Stack of the Artist of Kouroo” Project Samuel Sewall HDT WHAT? INDEX

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1652

March 28, Sunday (Old Style): Samuel Sewall was born at Horton, near Basingstoke, County Hants, . [I extrapolate mainly from the genealogy by James Savage: Samuel SEWALL of , eldest son of the 2nd Henry SEWALL, born in England at Horton, near Basingstoke, County Hants, was baptized at the church of Basingstoke taught his rudiments at Rumsey school and came with his mother at 9 years of age to our country, admitted freeman 1678, artillery company 1679, of which he was Captain in 1701, a supervisor of the press in 1681, and printed with his own hand the catechism, chosen an Assistant from 1684 to 1686, when charter was abrogated and again, on its restoration from 1689 to 1692, and named of the council in new charter by King William and Queen Mary under advice of the Reverend , of which list he was the last survivor when he withdrew in 1725; was made a judge of Superior Court in 1692, and one of a special, but unlawful, commission with others under deputy-governor Stoughton for trial of the witches; several years judge of probate and died on January 1, 1730. For his partaking in the doleful delusion of that monstrous tribunal at Salem, that caused the death of so many innocents, he suffered remorse for long years with the highest Christian magnanimity supplicating for mercy on the Lord’s day, in the open congregation tho less tenderness of conscience was shown by a very religious magistrate the chief in that cause. See Hutchinson II. 61. He may also claim the honor of being one of the earliest in exertions against domestic slavery, and in answer to him one of his associate judges published a defence. By his 1st wife Hannah Hull, only surviving child of , the mintmaster, married on February 28, 1676, he had John SEWALL, born April 2, 1677, baptized April 8, 1677, who died next year; Samuel SEWALL, born June 11, 1678, baptized June 16, 1678; Hannah SEWALL, born on February 3, 1680, baptized on February 8, 1680, who died unmarried at 44 years; Elizabeth SEWALL, born on December 29, 1681, baptized on June 1 June, 1682; Hull SEWALL, born on July 8, 1684, baptized on July 13, 1684, died young; Henry SEWALL, born on December 8, 1685, baptized on December 13, 1685, died in few days; , born on January 31, 1687, baptized on February 6, 1687, died in a few months; Joseph SEWALL, born on August 15, 1688, baptized on August 19, 1688, graduated from in 1707; Judith SEWALL, born on August 13, 1690, baptized on August 24, 1690, died soon; Mary SEWALL, born on October 28, 1691, baptized on November 1, 1691, another child born on August 7, 1696, baptized on August 13, 1696, died soon; Sarah SEWALL, born on November 21, 1694, baptized on November 25, 1694, died young; one more, born sometime in 1696, died very soon; and Judith SEWALL, again, born on January 2, 1702, baptized on January 4, 1702; so that only six of the fourteen children grew to maturity. A 2nd wife Abigail Meylen Woodmansey Tilley, daughter of Jacob Meylen, who was widow of William Tilley, as she had been of James Woodmansey, married on October 29, 1719, died on May 26, 1720 and a 3rd wife married on March 29, 1722, Mary Shrimpton Gibbs, daughter of Henry Shrimpton, widow of Robert Gibbs, outlived him; but neither had brought him children. Elizabeth SEWALL married on October 17, 1700 with Grove Hirst, and died on July 10, 1716; Mary SEWALL married Samuel Gerrish, and died on November 16, 1710; and Judith SEWALL, married on May 12, 1720 with the Reverend William Cooper, and died on December 23, 1740. Folly has never been gratified by any tradition more than the story of the marriage of this Judge SEWALL as Hutchinson I. 178, tells, that he received with his 1st wife “as commonly reported thirty thousand pounds in shillings.” Easy was it for credulity to accept the addition to that tale, that she was put into the scales against an equal load of her father’s coin. Slight arithmetic would prove, that father and daughter together would scarcely balance one tenth of the silver; so that if we strike out one of the cyphers from that 30,000, and assume that dollars were the true read instead of pounds, it might be less marvelous if equally ridiculous. Probably he was the richest man in the Province at his death yet he left no will, and his administrators saw no use in return of inventory. Amicable partition, no doubt, was sufficient for the heirs. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

The Reverend Joseph SEWALL of Boston, son of Samuel SEWALL (1) born on August 15, 1688, baptized on August 19, 1688, graduated from Harvard College in 1707, ordained on September 16, 1713, colleague with the Reverend Ebenezer Pemberton at the , got married on October 29, 1713 with Elizabeth Walley, daughter of the Honorable John Walley, received a PhD from Harvard College, had Samuel SEWALL (2), born in Boston on May 2, 1715, baptized on May 8, 1715, graduated from Harvard College in 1733, died during 1771; Joseph SEWALL, born on July 13, 1714, baptized on July 19, 1714, died during the following month. His wife died on October 27, 1756, and he died on June 27, 1769, after having the opportunity for declining in 1724, to be President of Harvard College, the honor of which election was ascribed to his piety by a competitor of more learning than decency or discretion, who solaced his mortification in defeat by the happiness of his sneer. His firstborn son Samuel SEWALL (2) would become the father of the excellent Chief Justice Samuel SEWALL (3), who would be born on December 11, 1757, and would graduate from Harvard College in 1776, and would make himself the third Chief Justice given by this family to the Court of highest civil and criminal jurisdiction in before dying in 1771. A daughter of this Chief Justice Samuel SEWALL (2), Dorothy SEWALL, would be born in 1758, and she would get married with Colonel Joseph MAY, by whom she would have 12 children, the youngest of whom was Abigail MAY — and thus would become the grandmother of Louisa May ALCOTT, though she died in 1825 and thus didn't live to see Louisa, who would be born on November 29, 1832.]

May 4, Tuesday (Old Style): Samuel Sewall was baptized at Stoke Church in Bishop Stoke in Hampshire, England.

NOBODY COULD GUESS WHAT WOULD HAPPEN NEXT

Samuel Sewall “Stack of the Artist of Kouroo” Project HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1661

July 6, Saturday (Old Style): Samuel Sewall disembarked from the Prudent Mary in the port of Boston accompanied by his mother, his sisters, and his brothers. Soon the family would meet the father there and be taken to the town of Newbury.

Until the year 1667, little Samuel would be receiving his schooling there from the Reverend .

LIFE IS LIVED FORWARD BUT UNDERSTOOD BACKWARD? — NO, THAT’S GIVING TOO MUCH TO THE HISTORIAN’S STORIES. LIFE ISN’T TO BE UNDERSTOOD EITHER FORWARD OR BACKWARD.

“Stack of the Artist of Kouroo” Project Samuel Sewall HDT WHAT? INDEX

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1667

August: Samuel Sewall matriculated at Harvard College, where he would reside until 1674.

THE FUTURE IS MOST READILY PREDICTED IN RETROSPECT

“Stack of the Artist of Kouroo” Project Samuel Sewall HDT WHAT? INDEX

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1669

October 4, Monday (Old Style): Samuel Sewall was made a Scholar of the House by the Corporation of Harvard College.

Rembrandt Van Rijn died.

DO I HAVE YOUR ATTENTION? GOOD.

Samuel Sewall “Stack of the Artist of Kouroo” Project HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1671

August 8, Tuesday (Old Style): Samuel Sewall and William Adams graduated at Harvard College with the Bachelor of Arts degree. Adams wrote in his diary “I was admitted to ye degree of Batchelour of Arts in Harvard Colledge in N.E. under ye Reverend Charles Chancey President.”

THE FUTURE CAN BE EASILY PREDICTED IN RETROSPECT

“Stack of the Artist of Kouroo” Project Samuel Sewall HDT WHAT? INDEX

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1673

March 1, Saturday (1672, Old Style): Samuel Sewall became Keeper of the Colledg Library at Harvard College.

November 5, Wednesday (Old Style): Samuel Sewall was chosen Fellow of Harvard College.

November 26, Wednesday (Old Style): Samuel Sewall was installed as Fellow before the Overseers of Harvard College. He would be serving as a Tutor until 1674.

CHANGE IS ETERNITY, STASIS A FIGMENT

Samuel Sewall “Stack of the Artist of Kouroo” Project HDT WHAT? INDEX

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1674

Samuel Sewall began his diary. DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

March 1, Thursday: Samuel Sewall was reinstated for a second term as Keeper of the Colledg Library at Harvard College.

April 2, Monday: According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, Benjamin Gourd of Roxbury (being about 17 years of age) was executed for committing Bestiality with a Mare, which was first knocked in the head under the Gallows in his sight. N.B. He committed that filthines at noon day in an open yard. He after confessed that he had lived in that sin a year. The causes he alledged were, idlenes, not obeying parents, &c. DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

The Reverend (1626-November 19, 1674) of Roxbury, Massachusetts, inspired by this case of Benjamin Goad, preached a sermon against the sort of “Confusion” that would blur the boundary between man and “bruit Beast.” The young culprit had been born on September 7, 1656 in Roxbury, Massachusetts, 10th and youngest child of Richard Goad (1618-1683) and Phoebe Hawes Goad (1622-1678), and had been excommunicated from the Roxbury church at which the Reverend Danforth was Associate Pastor on March 15, 1674. The good Reverend would have his crowdpleasing sermon printed in Cambridge and distributed as THE CRY OF SODOM ENQUIRED INTO; UPON OCCASION OF THE ARRAIGNMENT AND CONDEMNATION OF BENJAMIN GOAD, FOR HIS PRODIGIOUS VILLANY.

This document describing the various practices associated with the sins of Sodom and Gomorrah, including self-pollution (masturbation), whoredome (prostitution), adultery, fornication, incest, sodomy, buggery, and bestiality, has become perhaps the most available 17th-Century statement and discussion of “non-standard” sexuality. Benjamin had been born into the Reverend’s congregation and would have been well known to him. Since eight of his own children had died, the Reverend would have been aware of the anguish of Benjamin’s parents. We note that the execution of criminals is defended as edifying to the spectators, who share in man’s fallen and immoral nature: “The gross and flagitious practises of the worst of men, are but Comments upon our Nature. Who can say, I have made my heart clean? The holiest man hath as vile and filthy a Nature, as the Sodomites, or the men of Gibeah.” Such public spectacles remind spectators to beware the sins of pride, gluttony, drunkenness, sloth and idleness, disobedience to parents and masters, evil company, irreligion, and profaneness. READ THE FULL TEXT “John Sherman (1618-1685)”: Pastor of the church in Watertown and a fellow of Harvard College. HDT WHAT? INDEX

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(circa 1631-1681)”: Minister of the church in Cambridge and a fellow of Harvard College. “Thomas Shepard (1635-1677)”: Assistant pastor of the church in Cambridge; son of Thomas Shepard (1605- 1649).

“Amnon, and Absalom, and Herod the Tetrarch”: Amnon raped his half-sister Tamar (2 SAMUEL 13) and was killed by his half-brother Absalom. Herod took Herodias, his brother’s wife, and killed John the Baptist for deeming this unlawful (MATTHEW 14). “Theodosius and Arcadius”: Flavius Theodosius II (401 CE-450 CE), Roman Emperor of the East 408 CE- 450 CE, in 438 CE promulgated a Codex Theodosianus. His father Flavius Arcadius (377 CE-408 CE) was emperor in the Eastern Roman Empire from 395 CE until his death. “childe of Belial,” “Sons of Eli,” “Hophni and Phinehas”: These are references to Eli’s sons, the priests Hophni and Phinehas, in 1 SAMUEL 2: “Now the sons of Eli were sons of Belial; they knew not the Lord ... they lay with the women that assembled at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.” They also ate sacrifices offered by the people. In Hebrew, “Belial” is literally “without a yoke,” and the expression “sons of Belial” generally refers to non-Israelites. “Higgaion, Selah”: “Higgaion” indicates a sound of the harp to accompany meditation, “Selah” indicates a musical pause.

“Gibeah”: In JUDGES 19/20 the inhabitants of this town rape and kill the concubine of a travelling Levite and are destroyed by the Israelites. “Comminations”: Threatenings of divine punishment or vengeance. “Epicures”: In this context, persons devoted to sensuous pleasure and luxurious living.

“Nicolaitans”: Or Nicholaitans; they are condemned by name in REVELATIONS 2.14-15. They appear to have been a 1st-Century sect named after Nicholas, one of the first deacons, whom Hippolytus claimed “departed from correct doctrine, and was in the habit of inculcating indifference of food and life.” Irenaeus wrote in AGAINST HERESIES that they “lived lives of unrestrained indulgence.” Clement of Alexandria wrote in Book 3 of STROMATA that “They abandon themselves to pleasure like goats ... leading a life of self-indulgence.” Elisha Coles’s AN ENGLISH DICTIONARY (, 1724) defined them as “Nicholaitans, Hereticks who had their Wives in common &c.” This may refer to the legend related by Clement that Nicholas was reproached by the Apostles for being jealous of his beautiful wife, and so brought her to an assembly and declared that any might “marry” her. According to John Marchant’s AN EXPOSITION ON THE BOOKS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT (London, 1743), Clement wrote that this led his followers to “commit all Kind of Filthiness, without any Kind of Shame.” Laurence Echard’s A GENERAL ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY (London, 1729, 7th edition), had it that one of their branches, the Cainites, “had abominable Opinions, and held that the Way to be saved, was to make Tryal of all manner of Things, and satisfy their Lusts with all wicked Actions.” “Menandrians”: Predecessors of the Gnostics, named for Menander, a disciple of Simon Magus, and a practitioner of magic arts. They seem to have been centered in Antioch, to have practiced a heretical form of baptism, and to have denied the corporal humanity of . Edward Ambrose Burgis, in THE ANNALS OF THE CHURCH FROM THE DEATH OF CHRIST (London, 1737-1738), wrote that they “agreed in running down virginity, and giving a loose to the pleasures of the flesh.”

“Abner ... Asabel”: In 2 SAMUEL 2, Abner tried to avoid killing Asabel in battle in order not to offend his brother Joab. “Parthians”: The Parthians defeated several invading Roman armies. Their most effective tactic was launching arrows after having ridden past the enemy. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

“Otia si tollas, periere cupidinis arcus”: (Publius Ovidius Naso (Ovid), REMEDIA AMORIS, 139: “If you avoid idleness, you will be immune to Cupid’s bow.”

“Joseph ... his Mistresses”: Potiphar’s wife (GENESIS 39). “timously,” “timous”: Obsolete variants of “timishly” meaning “in a timely fashion.”

“Samuel ... Agag”: In 1 SAMUEL 15; Agag was the king of the Amalekites captured by Saul.

August 11, Tuesday (Old Style): Samuel Sewall received the degree of Master of Arts from Harvard College.

Père Louis Hennepin tended the wounded after the Battle of Seneffe between the forces of Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé and a Dutch/German/Spanish army under William III of Orange (there were 8,000 dead or wounded on the one side, 11,000 on the other; both sides claimed victory). He would afterward receive orders from his superiors to go to Rochelle, France, to embark there for Canada as a missionary. While waiting for the sailing of his ship, he would perform for nearly two months at a place near Rochelle the duties of a curate at the request of the local pastor, who had occasion to absent himself.

WHAT I’M WRITING IS TRUE BUT NEVER MIND YOU CAN ALWAYS LIE TO YOURSELF

August 14, Friday (Old Style): Samuel Sewall returned from Cambridge and Harvard College to his family home in Newbury.

Samuel Sewall “Stack of the Artist of Kouroo” Project HDT WHAT? INDEX

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December 11: Samuel Sewall was replaced as Keeper of the Colledg Library at Harvard College by .

The Librarian’s Sword, as mighty as his pen HDT WHAT? INDEX

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1675

1675/1676: Major Samuel Sewall commanded a regiment of white men in the race war. HDT WHAT? INDEX

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February 28, Sunday (1674, Old Style): Samuel Sewall and Hannah Hull were married before . Hannah was the daughter of John Hull, the mint-master of the Massachusetts-Bay Colony. The newlyweds took up residence in the Hull family home on what is now Washington Street in Boston, which would become their life-long residence. The bridegroom determined at this point to “follow Merchandize.”

A placard threatening the lives of Daniel Gookin and was posted about Boston. It would eventually appear that the threatener had been Richard Scott, whose complaint was that he and two or three others had designed to go out to Deer Island and there “cut off all Gookin’s brethren” –that is, slaughter the disarmed Praying Indians there interned– their plot had been discovered by “some English dog” and their agenda of genocide had been forestalled: “KING PHILLIP’S WAR” Boston, February 28, 1675 Reader thou art desired not to supprese this paper but to promote its designe, which is to certify (those traytors to their king and countrey) Guggins and Danford, that some generous spirits have vowed their destruction; as Christians wee warne them to prepare for death, for though they will deservedly dye, yet we wish the health of their soules. By ye new society A.B.C.D. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

September 19, Sunday (Old Style): During September, bands of warriors had been roaming the valley of the Connecticut River. The military garrison at Hadley MA had been growing, and provisions for these troops needed to be sent from the individual villages. On this day, while Captain Thomas Lathrop with 80 men were riding convoy for a wagon train from Deerfield loaded with threshed wheat on its way to the mill just north of the Hadley garrison, the convoy needed to traverse a narrow, swampy thicket with a brook, near what is now Northampton. During the extended period of time that it took to get the heavily laden carts across the brook, the soldiers had tossed their rifles atop the loads. Some were gathering the grapes that grew alongside the brook. Hundreds of warriors lay in concealment. When they opened fire, the captain fell immediately and only 7 or 8 of the whites would escape; not one of the Deerfield men who were driving the carts would survive. Captain Moseley and his troop of 60 soldiers were close enough to hurry to the scene. In among the corpses, one of the wounded, Robert Dutch of Ipswich, had been able to successfully play dead:

Captain Mosely came upon the Indians in the morning; he found them stripping the slain, amongst whom was one Robert Dutch, of Ipswich, who, having been sorely wounded, by a bullet that raised his scull, and then mauled by the Indian hatchets, was left for dead by the savages, and stript by them of all but his skin; yet, when Captain Mosely came near, he almost miraculously, as one raised from the dead, came towards the English, to their no small amazement; by whom being received and clothed, he was carried off to the next garrison, and is living, and in perfect health at this day.

For approximately six hours, neither side could gain the upper hand. Finally a troop of 100 Connecticut soldiers with a band of Mohegans arrived on the scene, whereupon the ambushers faded into the forest. The surviving soldiers straggled back to Deerfield and that night would be taunted by warriors who from a safe distance would wave items stripped from English corpses.1 The surviving soldiers returned the next day to dig a mass grave. The sluggish stream would be known as Bloody Brook. Shortly afterward, Deerfield would be abandoned and would be torched by Phillip’s warriors. In the town of South Deerfield MA a stone shaft marks the edge of the swampy area in which this ambush occurred. “KING PHILLIP’S WAR”

(However, Samuel Sewall has it in his diary that “Sept. 13. Saturday, was that lamentable fight, when Capt. Latrop with sixty-four killed.”)

December 19, Thursday: Samuel Sewall has it in his diary that “Decem. 19. Sabbath day, that formidable engagement at Narraganset, 34 English put in one pit, 3 after” “KING PHILLIP’S WAR” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

1. Among the corpses was that of Samuel Crumpton of Salem. His widow Jane Crumpton would remarry with Captain Richard More and help him keep his tavern. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL HDT WHAT? INDEX

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1676

February 10, Thursday (1675, Old Style), sunrise: In the absence from Lancaster of her minister husband Joseph, Mistress Mary Rowlandson and her family were attacked in their garrison house there by some 400 Nipmuc who had enlisted in this race war after three of their fellows had been executed in Plymouth MA. These were the same warriors who had marched into the villages on November 1st of the previous year and taken, among others, James Printer. (Printer eventually would help produce Rowlandson’s narrative at the Cambridge Press. Was he a willing participant in this attack? Does it matter?)

Printer realized that his future lay with her (and hers with him). In the coming weeks Printer served as scribe during negotiations for Mary Rowlandson’s redemption. Then, when amnesty was offered to Christian Indians who had joined the enemy, Printer turned himself in to colonial authorities, bringing with him, as required by special instruction, the heads of two enemy Indians — testaments to his fidelity. Eventually Printer returned to his work at the press in Cambridge and, in 1682, in one of the most sublime ironies of King Philip’s War, James Printer set the type for The Soveraignty and Goodness of God. Mary Rowlandson and James Printer are indeed a curious pair. Their intricately linked stories are at once uncannily similar and crucially divergent. Before the war, Mary’s husband, Joseph Rowlandson, was the minister of her town, while James’s brother, Joseph Tukapewillin, was the minister of his. Both Rowlandson and Printer spent the winter of 1675-1676 with enemy Nipmuks. Both returned to Boston months later to live, again, among the English. But while Rowlandson came to terms with her time among enemy Indians by writing a book, Printer supplied body parts.

Of the 50 white families resident at Lancaster, 37 whites had taken refuge in this particular garrison house. The first alert was hearing the sound of shots, as attacks were made on three of the other four garrison houses in the settlement. Four of the five fortifications would be able to withstand the attack,2 but from her own garrison house and its surroundings, none of the pack of “six stout Dogs belonging to our Garrison,” she would complain, would be willing to stir,3

though another time, if any Indian had come to the door, they were ready to fly upon him and tear him down. The Lord thereby would make us the more to acknowledge his hand, and to see that our help is always in him.

CAPTIVITY AND RESTAURATION

After two hours of assault, the attackers managed to set the house ablaze. Of the occupants, 12 would be killed, 2. These surviving colonists of Lancaster, including the family of Daniel Hudson (1), would seek shelter in Concord. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

one would escape, and 24 would be held for ransom.

By now, Indian captivity is just another roadside attraction. In Lancaster MA, a sign recounts where hostage Mary Rowlandson camped with Indians after they burned the town in 1676. In Letchworth State Park (NY) is a statue of Mary Jemison.... Virginia’s Hungry Mother State Park.... In eastern Kentucky, Jenny Wiley State Resort Park.... Texas marks the spot where, in 1836, Cynthia Ann Parker was grabbed.... You don’t have to drive far in America to find the roadside story of a white woman in distress.

Refer to “1” on the map below:

Mistress Rowlandson would relate, “Then I took Children (and one of my sisters, hers) to go forth and leave the house: but as soon as we came to the dore and appeared, the Indians shot so thick that the bulletts rattled against the House, as if one had taken an handfull of stones and threw them, so that we were fain to give back.” Finally she was forced to leave the burning house. Immediately she saw her brother-in-law fall, dead from wounds; her nephew, whose leg was broken, killed, and her sister shot. She herself was shot through the side, the child she carried in her arms being struck by the same bullet. There were 13 killed and 24 taken captive. According to her account, “I had often before this said, that if the Indians should come, I should chuse rather 3. You can consult Mistress Mary Rowlandson’s captivity narrative THE SOVERAIGNTY AND GOODNESS OF GOD, TOGETHER WITH THE FAITHFULNESS OF HIS PROMISES DISPLAYED; BEING A NARRATIVE OF THE CAPTIVITY AND RESTAURATION OF MRS.MARY ROWLANDSON most conveniently (on paper) in Richard VanDerBeets’s edition HELD CAPTIVE BY INDIANS: SELECTED NARRATIVES, 1642-1836 (Knoxville TN: U of Tennessee P, 1973). Also see Slotkin, Richard and James K. Folsom, ed., SO DREADFULL A JUDGEMENT: PURITAN RESPONSES TO KING PHILIP’S WAR, 1676-1677 (Middletown OH: Wesleyan UP, 1978). Those of us who interest themselves in this sort of thing will be interested to learn that, according to Friend William Edmundson’s journal, pages 79-80 (Dublin, 1715), some of that period were carrying the doctrine of nonresistance to evil to such a point that when the Indian alarm was given, they were refusing to take refuge in the community blockhouses. Our history books tell us that this refusal to play war was very annoying to the other white people, to the point of beginning to persecute these refusers for their persistent utterly selfish refusal to stand guard in the common defense — strangely our history books do not inform us that nothing of the sort actually happened, because in fact despite what Friend William asserted, the Quakers did indeed seek refuge in blockhouses protected by guns, just like all the other white people! HDT WHAT? INDEX

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to be killed by them then taken alive but when it came to the tryal my mind changed; their glittering weapons so daunted my spirit, that I chose rather to go along ... then that moment to end my days....” Mary Rowlandson would sojourn as a servant with her captors for almost three months, as they journeyed westward to the Connecticut River and northward into Vermont and . Wounded in her side and carrying the wounded child, for the first three days there would be not only no roof over their head, but nothing whatever to eat. At times a warrior would carry the child for her, but when she and the child were put on a horse she fell off, not knowing how to ride bareback. Finally she and her feverish child would be able to ride behind a warrior.

On the fourth day, Mistress Rowlandson would meet Robbert Pepper, who had been captured during the ambush at Beers Plain in Northfield the previous September. He would suggest that she put a poultice of oak leaves on her wound, as that had earlier cured a wound on his own leg. On February 18th, Mary’s child would die in her arms and be buried by the warriors on a hillside. Her other daughter was in the custody of another warrior and she would soon learn that her son was alive, in a nearby encampment. Although she was a captive, the natives would make no attempt to prevent her from seeing her children. They would give her a Bible to read. At the end of February, Mary Rowlandson and her master and mistress would leave the main body of warriors behind, so she would not see her daughter again until she was ransomed. In March the small warrior band with which she traveled moved on to Miller’s River (Baquaug) in Orange, Massachusetts, followed closely by a troop of English. Again, according to her account, “... then they made a stop, and chose some of their stoutest men, and sent them back to hold the English Army in play whilst the rest escaped: And then, like Jehu, they marched on furiously, with their old, and with their young: some carried their old decrepit mothers, some carried one, and some another.” When the group would reach Miller’s River, everyone would begin cutting dry trees to make rafts to cross the stream on that very cold day. Mistress Rowlandson would rejoice at being able to cross without chilling her feet. “The chief and commonest food was Ground-nut: They eat also Nuts and Acorns, Harty-choaks, Lilly roots, Ground-beans, and several other weeks and roots, that I know not. They would pick up old bones, and cut them to pieces at the joynts, and if they were full of wormes and magots, they would scald them over the fire to make the vermine come out, and then boile them, and drink up the Liquor, and then beat the great ends of them in a Morter, and so eat them. They would eat Horses guts, and ears, and all sorts of wild Birds which they could catch: also Bear, Vennison, Beaver, Tortois, Frogs, Squirrels, Dogs, Skunks, Rattle-snakes; yea, the very Bark of Trees; besides all sorts of creatures, and provision which they plundered from the English.” Rowlandson would be part of a very large Amerindian encampment at Squakeag (Northfield, Massachusetts). While the group remained there, her son Joseph would be able to come for a short visit. During her stay in this area, she would meet Metacom and he would offer her a pipe of tobacco, which she would decline “though I had formerly used Tobacco, yet I had left it ever since I was first taken. It seems to be a Bait, the Devil layes to make men loose their previous time: I remember with shame, how formerly, when I had taken two or three pipes, I was presently ready for another, such a bewitching thing it is. But I thank God, he has now given me power over it; surely there are many who may be better imployed than to ly sucking a stinking Tobacco-pipe.” Mrs. Rowlandson would make clothes and barter them to her captors. In this way, for instance, she would obtain a broth thickened with the bark of a tree, and a knife. When HDT WHAT? INDEX

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Metacom would give her a shilling for making a shirt for his boy, she would offer the shilling to her master and he would allow her to keep it. From Squakeag, the tribe would move up into New Hampshire near the Ashuelot valley and then up to Chesterfield. During this period of her captivity, Mistress Rowlandson would see her son several times, but then he would be sold to a new master and she wouldn’t see him again until he would finally be ransomed in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Finally, when she thought she would never be taken eastward again, the group began to retrace its route to Miller’s River, then to Petersham, and finally to Mount Wachusett. Here negotiations for her ransom would begin toward the end of April. On May 2, 1676, Mary Rowlandson would be exchanged at Redemption Rock for a ransom of twenty English pounds. When she would return to Lancaster, there would be not a single English to be seen and not a single house still standing. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

On this same date, or perhaps a week later than this: When the Praying Indians of Concord, who were Nashobah, were restricted to within a mile of their settlement on Flint’s Pond or Sandy Pond, “KING PHILLIP’S WAR”

(or to within a mile from the outskirts of beautiful downtown Concord, for it doesn’t seem to be clear where the white people intended their local free-fire zone to begin and end) one of the things this meant was that they would starve. For this restriction prevented them from cultivating their cornfields. During a period of heavy snow the Native American villages of the Concord area, praying-ized by the Reverend John Eliot4 and not, were surrounded while in their lodges by troops from Marlborough led by Captain Samuel Mosely, roped together at the neck, and herded through Concord to what can only be described as a concentration camp on barren Deer Island, a site chosen of course because no white people had been able to subsist there.5 “’Tis Satan’s policy, to plead for an indefinite and boundless toleration.” Most of the hostages would die there of exposure and starvation. There were only 58 of the Reverend Eliot’s Praying Indians left in the Concord area, mostly Nashobah women and children. John Hoar of Concord delegated himself to supervise these people, and built a stockade for them, with workshops, near his home south of the millpond:6

4. The Reverend John Eliot was doing what he could to shield his flock “when some of the people of Massachusetts, actuated by the most infuriate spirit, intended to have destroyed them” (ALLEN’S BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY), but his position was inevitably a compromised and therefore a compromising position. It was much easier to make them be Christians than it was to force Christians to treat them like Christians. 5. A concentration camp for Praying Indian hostages would also be set up on Clark’s Island, off Plymouth MA.

6. The John Hoar stockade was near where the Alcott home known as “Orchard House” would one day stand. HDT WHAT? INDEX

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These people worked during the day and were locked into the stockade at night, at least in part for their own defense. At one point John Hoar hitched up an ox team and went back the eleven miles to Nashobah Plantation, to retrieve some of the supply of corn that had been laid by for their winter sustenance. Because of this, these people would be in the very last of the detachments sent out to Deer Island. However, some townspeople were not in favor of this, and surreptitiously sent word to the infamous Captain Samuel Mosely.

An attempt was made to separate the friendly Christian Indians from the wild savages, and some were brought in to Deer Island in Boston harbor. Others [primarily women and young children, and excluding any males of warrior age] were brought to Concord and entrusted to John Hoar, who built a workshop and stockade for them next to his own house, which is now known as Orchard House. This caused a furor in Concord. Many considered the Christian Indians just spies and informers. The town defenses were in a precarious state [due to the fact that many of the white men were away, fighting in the race war]. HDT WHAT? INDEX

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One Sunday soon afterward Captain Samuel Mosely, acting on his own authority, came with his soldiers to Concord worship, and afterward addressed the congregation. He then marched out to the Hoar stockade, followed by a rabble of townspeople, and demanded that John Hoar allow him to “inspect” the remaining Praying Indians. He placed his soldiers on guard around the stockade that night, and the next morning caused the Native Americans to be assembled and marched between two files of horsemen to internment on Deer Island. His soldiers of course stripped the Nashobah even of their shirts and shoes, stealing anything worth taking.7 The town council of Concord did not reprove Mosely: of course not, for the Nashobah being gone meant more arable fields that could be seized by white farmers. We have a note that the wife of Joseph Petuhanit8 was in this group of hostages. “KING PHILLIP’S WAR”

Meanwhile, it has been alleged, on February 10th at their farm near Concord, the white brothers Isaac and Jacob Shepard were being killed by Americans, and their 15-year-old sister Mary Shepard was being kidnapped. —That, however, on the night of the 12th this intrepid Mary would be able to take a saddle from under her kidnapper’s head as he slept, and saddle a horse he had stolen in Lancaster, and swim the Nashua River to safety:

two Men were killed at a Farm about Concord, Ifaac and Jacob Sheppard by Name, about the middle of February; and a young Maid that was fet to watch upon an Hill, of about 15 Years of Age, was carried Captive; who ftrangely efcaped away upon an Horfe that the Indians had taken from Lancafter a little before.

Lemuel Shattuck tells us he obtained his information as to this incident from page 25 of “Hubbard. Foster’s Century Sermon”: About the middle of February, Abraham and Isaac Shepherd were killed near Nashobah in Concord village while threshing grain in their barn. Apprehensive of danger, says tradition, they placed their sister Mary, a girl about fifteen years old, on a hill a little distance off to watch and forewarn them of the approach of an enemy. She was, however, suddenly surprised and captured, and her brothers were slain. She was carried captive into the Indian settlements but with great heroism made her escape. While the Indians were asleep in the night, probably under the influence of spiritous liquors, she seized a horse, which they had a few days before stolen at Lancaster, took a saddle from under the head of her Indian keeper, mounted, swam across the Nashua river and rode through the forest to her home.9

7. Major Daniel Gookin, “An Historical Account of the Doings and Sufferings of the Christian Indians in New England in the Years 1675, 1676, 1677,” 1836 edition, pages 495-7; MASSACHUSETTS STATE ARCHIVES XXX, 185a. 8. She had a name, but we don’t know it, do we?

9. Lemuel Shattuck’s 1835 A HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF CONCORD;.... Boston: Russell, Odiorne, and Company; Concord MA: John Stacy (On or about November 11, 1837 Henry Thoreau would indicate a familiarity with the contents of at least pages 2-3 and 6-9 of this historical study.) HDT WHAT? INDEX

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Unfortunate for this atrocity story, we can corroborate only that one such Concord farmer was killed, with the report of the brother seeming to have been merely a doubled report of that one killing, and, since Mary “got away from the Indians” so readily, and since no other traces of these marauding Americans ever turned up, there is a raw possibility, even a probability, that what we had here was a very ordinary family murder,

not interracial at all, involving no strangers at all — a very ordinary family murder of the too-familiar Susan “A Nigger Must Have Done It” Smith variety followed by a criminal fabrication, in which this Mary had offed her loving bro and then blamed the bleeding corpse on persons unknown of another race. (That’s problematic, of course, but please do note, it would be quite as problematic to accept at face value the “ftrangely efcaped” above.)

The same source lists under the date of March 10th what is apparently yet another version of or exaggeration of the same rumor, that:

At Concord, two Men going for Hay, one of them was killed.

We can see here how it has been, that the actual 100-200 white body count of this 18-month race war would become exaggerated over time and retelling, to the point that the war has been characterized as the bloodiest, in terms of percentage of deaths among the white population, of any war in our history, bloodier even that the US Civil War of 1862-1865! HDT WHAT? INDEX

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In 1947, Townsend Scudder told the story in the following manner, on pages 30-31 of his CONCORD: AMERICAN TOWN, making the incident responsible for the willingness of the Concordians to have the Praying Indians they had been protecting roped together by the neck and marched down to the racial concentration camp that had been established on Deer Island:

At Nagog Pond, near the deserted Praying Indian village of Nashoba, Isaac Shepard, with his brother Abraham, was threshing grain in the barn. News of the attack on Lancaster had increased the household’s caution. To warn of danger, the men posted their fourteen-year-old sister, Mary, on a boulder part way up the snow-covered hillside behind the house. But the pounding of the flails drowned the girl’s shriek. A moment later, Isaac Shepard sprawled in death near the musket he had not had time to fire; his brother Abraham lay unconscious near him. From the barricaded house, the two men’s wives saw Indians make off with the girl. Abraham Shepard rallied enough to set out through the snow with his dead brother’s wife, his own wife, and his wife’s small baby, for refuge at Concord. A week later the Shepard girl rode into the village. She told how the Indians had taken her on a three days’ journey inland to Winnisimmet — their camp northwest of ruined Brookfield. Many Indians, she said, were at this place. She thought they had other prisoners with them. There, in the night, she had slipped from her captor’s wigwam, untethered a horse, then followed her back track home. Concord felt no mood to temporize. The neighborhood was rife with rumors that Praying Indians still at large had taken part in the Lancaster massacre and raid on the Shepard farm. On the Sunday following Mary’s return, just as the people were filing into meeting, a troop of horsemen clattered into town. At their head was Captain Samuel Moseley.... If the citizens wished it, he would take these vermin to Deer Island. HDT WHAT? INDEX

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Now more recently, on page 58 of John Hanson Mitchell’s WALKING TOWARDS WALDEN: A PILGRIMAGE IN SEARCH OF PLACE (Reading MA: Addison-Wesley, 1995), an extrabogus version of the Mary Shepard story has resurfaced without references being cited. According to this author Mitchell’s inventive elaborations, the native Americans were under the influence of a Warrior Queen, a “renegade leader,” and had killed not two white men but three (the father, in addition to the two brothers), and the sister had been taken to a wickiup near Mt. Wachusett, from which she then escaped. Thus it is that history gets rewritten to serve the self-respect of the descendant children of the victor:

On the western slopes of the hill, in the place known as Quagana Hill, there was a farm held by a family from Concord named Shepard. There were three children in the Shepard family, the youngest of whom, Mary, in 1675 was a fair young woman of some fourteen years. According to the local histories, one February afternoon in 1676, during the hostilities of “King Phillip’s War”, Isaac Shepard and his two sons went out to thresh wheat in the barn at the base of Quagana Hill. Mary was posted at the summit to watch for Indians. As subsequent events indicate, Mary was a feisty, independent young woman, but she was not a good guard. Sometime in the afternoon, a small raiding band of Indians fighting in alliance with the great renegade leader Queen Weetamoo attacked the Shepard family; they killed the father and brothers and took Mary prisoner. She was carried down to Weetamoo’s camp at Weninessit near present-day Mount Wachusett and imprisoned in one of the wickiups, guarded by the women or one of the warriors, possibly Weetamoo’s consort, Netus. That same night, the story goes, she stole a horse and a blanket and escaped. She fled through the primeval wilderness, swam the horse across the Nashua River, and some days later arrived in Concord to report the atrocity. HDT WHAT? INDEX

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According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, 2 1676. Feb. 10, 7. Mr. Sanford dyes. DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

April 5, Wednesday (Old Style): According to the diary of Samuel Sewall,10 the governor of Connecticut died: April 5, Wednesday, Governour Winthrop dyes. DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

April 10, Monday (Old Style): In Woburn MA, Samuel Richardson’s wife and children were killed by Indians. “KING PHILLIP’S WAR”

According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, on this day the governor of Connecticut was being buried: April 5, Wednesday, Governour Winthrop dyes. Interred old Burying place Monday following. DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

10.Thomas, M. Halsey, ed. THE DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL 1674-1729. NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1972. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

April 21, Tuesday: Late in the previous night, and early on this morning, a war party of more than 500 Nipmuc warriors from the Mount Wachusett area attacked Sudbury, perhaps in retaliation for the white sneak attack on their camp in that vicinity in the previous month. An alarm was sent out and, in response, individuals or troops rallied there from Marlborough, Watertown, Concord, and even Charlestown, arriving piecemeal. The English were forced to retreat but the greater part of Sudbury was saved from destruction. “KING PHILLIP’S WAR”

However, the native American warriors had succeeded in burning the home there of Concord resident Daniel Goble’s father-in-law John Brewer. (Did this make Daniel so righteously, racially angry that he would be seeking vengeance against any and all redskins regardless of gender or age?)

Also killed in the Sudbury fight on this day, near the Haynes Garrison, was James Hosmer (2) of Concord.

According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, Nota bene. Friday about 3 in the afternoon, April 21, 1676, Capt. Wadsworth and Capt. Brocklebank fall. Almost an hundred, since, I hear, about fifty men, slain 3 miles off Sudbury: the said Town burned, Garrison houses except. DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL In Boston meanwhile, a proposal was being made for the use of mastiffs to control the Indians. On the 21st of April an alarm was spread abroad that a large number of Indians, said to be 1,500, were about to attack Sudbury. They had already burned several houses [footnote: According to Gookin’s MS] and the day before killed Thomas Plympton, and a Mr. Boon and his son, returning from the west part of the town, where the former had been to bring the two latter to a garrison-house [footnote: a tradition]. A company from Watertown aided by several of the citizens, had attacked them on the east side of Concord river; where a severe battle was fought and they were compelled to retreat across it. At this time several of the citizens of Concord immediately went to their relief. Arriving near the garrison house of Walter Haynes [footnote: a tradition], they observed several squaws, who, as they drew near, danced, shouted, powwawed, and used every method to amuse and decoy them. Eleven of the English pursued and attacked them, but found themselves, too late, in an ambuscade, from which a large number of the Indians rushed upon and attacked them with great fury. Notwithstanding they made a bold resistance, it was desperate, and ten of them were slain. The others escaped to the garrison, where the neighboring inhabitants had fled for security, which was bravely defended [footnote: a tradition]. Of those who were killed at this time belonging to Concord, I have been able to ascertain the names of five only — James Hosmer, Samuel Potter, John Barnes, Daniel Comy, and Joseph Buttrick. HDT WHAT? INDEX

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Capt. Samuel Wadsworth of Milton was then at Marlborough, having been left there to strengthen the frontiers on the return of the army from the interior. Understanding the situation of Sudbury, he marched with 32 soldiers to its relief. Capt. Broclebank, whose quarters had been at Marlborough, also accompanied him as a convoy to Boston, where he was intending to go to communicate with the Council. They marched in the night, and fell into an ambuscade early in the morning, when all but a few, who escaped to a mill, were slain. These unfortunate soldiers were buried the next day, principally by a company of Christian Indians, who had been organized and sent out the day before by direction of the English, under Capt. Hunting of Charlestown. Four dead Indians only were found.11 From this time, which was more propitious to the Indians than any other, their success gradually diminished. This battle was the turning point. The principal body of the Indians, however, tarried in the vicinity of Groton, Lancaster and Marlborough, whence they could easily make incursions to annoy the English.12

April 23, Sunday: According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, Sabbath day, evening, 23 April, considerable thunder shower. DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

April 24, Monday: Simon Willard died of old age in Charlestown, Massachusetts.

According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, Monday 24, about 6 afternoon, a Woman taken, and a Man knocked in the head, at Menocticot, Braintrey. “KING PHILLIP’S WAR” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

11. It will be perceived that these statements differ somewhat from Hubbard and particularly in the date. He places it on the 18th while Gookin in the Manuscript from which I [Shattuck] have extracted, says it was the 21st. Judge Sewall’s Manuscript Journal says: “Friday about 3 o’clock in the afternoon, April 21, 1676, Capt. Wadsworth and Capt. Broclebank fall. About 50 men slain 3 miles off Sudbury - the said town burnt - except the garrison-houses.” The Middlesex Records, in speaking of the settlement of James Hosmer’s estate, have this expression: “Being slayene in the engagement with the Indians at Sudbury on the 21st of the second month [April] in the year 1676.” The order of the Council on the 22d of April affords presumptive evidence that the unfortunate loss of the Concord party was on the same day, though Hubbard does not positively assert it. The Roxbury Records say: “Samuel Gardner, John Roberts, Nathaniel Seaver, Thomas Hawley, sen., William Cheaver, Joseph Pepper, John Sharp, Thomas Hopkins, Lieut. Samuel Gardner, slain by the Indians at Sudbury under command of Samuel Wadsworth, April 27, 1676.” This was probably the day of entry, or a mistake for the 21st. 12. Lemuel Shattuck’s 1835 A HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF CONCORD;.... Boston: Russell, Odiorne, and Company; Concord MA: John Stacy (On or about November 11, 1837 Henry Thoreau would indicate a familiarity with the contents of at least pages 2-3 and 6-9 of this historical study.) HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

April 25: According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, April 25 Tuesday, Major Willard dyes at Charleston, buryed 27th. “KING PHILLIP’S WAR” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

April 26, Saturday (Old Style): The government of the in Boston sent out six cartloads of provisions. In Concord, John Flint took charge of these supplies as commissary. “KING PHILLIP’S WAR”

According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, Mr. Lidget dyes: interred the 28th 1676. DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

John Evelyn’s diary entry for this day was in part as follows: Din’d with P, discovered her Marriage by her sister:

May 5, Friday (Old Style): According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

Friday, May 5. 16 Indians killed: no English hurt: near Mendham. DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL Peace negotiations began: May 5th, the court addressed a letter to the Indians, requesting them to meet the English at Concord or Boston, to find out their wishes, and try to effect a peace. Concord was now a distinguished military post, and the center of many of the operations against the enemy. The detachments of soldiers for the relief of the frontier towns were frequent and heavy in May. Early in that month 80 from the troops of Essex, Suffolk, and Middlesex, were ordered to repair to Concord for the country service.13 “KING PHILLIP’S WAR”

May 8, Monday (Old Style): Wait Gould was born to Wait Coggeshall Gould and Daniel Gould.

According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, Monday, May 8. Considerable Thunder and rain in the night. Mrs. Wharton Dyes: Buried Wednesday afternoon. “KING PHILLIP’S WAR” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

May 9, Tuesday (Old Style): According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, Monday, May 9. Cold encreases mightily, all night burning Fever: next night rested indifferently. Tuesday, Fast, Magistrates, Deputies. Sisters sail toward Newbury. “KING PHILLIP’S WAR” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

May 14, Sunday (Old Style): According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, Sabbath, May 14, 1676. 2 or 3 in the morning, Mr. Usher dyes.

13. Lemuel Shattuck’s 1835 A HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF CONCORD;.... Boston: Russell, Odiorne, and Company; Concord MA: John Stacy (On or about November 11, 1837 Henry Thoreau would indicate a familiarity with the contents of at least pages 2-3 and 6-9 of this historical study.) HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

At night Mr. Russel dyes, being drowned in flegm. “KING PHILLIP’S WAR” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

May 16, Tuesday (Old Style): According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, Mr. Tho. Shepard buried Tuesd. 5, afternoon. Tuesd. 16. Mr. Atwater dyes: buried Thursday following, after Lecture. “KING PHILLIP’S WAR” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

May 17, Wednesday (Old Style): According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, Wednes: aftern. Mr. Usher buried. “KING PHILLIP’S WAR” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

May 18, Thursday (Old Style): According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, Three such Funerals, one after another, imediately, I never before saw. Mr. Atwater was at meeting in the forenoon and afternoon the Sabbath before. N.B. As we came from the Funeral, we saw an huddle of persons, who were bringing Jabez Eaton that died just then in the street. DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL HDT WHAT? INDEX

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In the small hours before dawn near Cheapside (Peskeompscut or Great Falls, now Turners Falls), north of Deerfield, the Hatfield garrison of 150 soldiers under the leadership of Captain William Turner crept toward

its target of opportunity, which happened to be an unsuspecting fishing encampment of native American women and children. The soldiers were able to fire upon the sleepers, killing more than a hundred, with the loss of only one white man. Later that day, pursued and intercepted by warriors, they would panic, and their losses would rise to more than 40 not inclusive of Captain Turner who, wounded, was abandoned in the forest. This would be called “the Falls Fight” and, merciful Providence, it would end the race struggle in the valley of the Connecticut River.

“KING PHILLIP’S WAR”

On the night of May 13th a group of warriors had raided Hatfield and driven off some cattle, taking them to the campsite by the falls. Local inhabitants, some from as far south as Springfield, and a few garrison soldiers, had responded to the call, and a total of 150 men and boys had assembled in Hatfield. Turner led the group past Bloody Brook, site of the native ambush during September 1675, and the edge of Deerfield, where they crossed the Deerfield River. They then traversed a couple of miles of forest, crossed the Green River, and pushed on to Mount Adams within a mile of the falls. The next morning by daybreak, leaving their horses behind, the colonials got into position on a slope overlooking the native encampment. No sentinels had been posted and no scouts sent out, and the camp was still asleep. The 150 men and boys were able to walk right up to the wigwams and fire directly onto the sleepers. Many natives who leapt into the Connecticut River were swept over the falls to drown. The colonials proceeded through the camp, slaughtering the women, children, HDT WHAT? INDEX

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and old men. Two forges that had been set up to repair guns and make ammunition were destroyed, and two pigs of lead heaved into the river. The sounds of attack had alerted other groups of natives camped along the river. One of these groups crossed the river below the falls and took up a position across the track leading back to Deerfield. Captain Turner had apparently given no thought to securing his force’s retreat. They broke into small groups as disagreements arose as to how to get back to where they had left their horses. A few men managed to get to the horses just before the warriors. Other settlers were forced to push homeward on foot. Captain Turner was killed as he tried to re-cross the Green River. Of the 150 whites, at least 40 were killed during the retreat. Some got separated from the main body and had to find their way alone; a few of these were successful while others vanished. Turner’s body would be found about a month later and buried on a bluff just to the west. A tablet marks the spot.

May 19, Friday (Old Style): Governor William Berkely wrote about Bacon’s Rebellion.

According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, 19 May. Capt. Turner, 200 Indians. “KING PHILLIP’S WAR” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

May 22, Monday (Old Style): According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, about 12 Indians killed by Troop. “KING PHILLIP’S WAR” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL HDT WHAT? INDEX

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John Evelyn’s diary entry for this day was in part as follows:

Trinity Monday preached a Chaplaine of my L[ord] Ossories, after which we tooke barge to Trinity house in Lond, where was a greate feast, Mr. Pepys (Secretary of the Admiralty) chosen Master, & succeeding my Lord.

May 24, Wednesday (Old Style): According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, Wednesday, May, 24, about 10 M., Capt. Davis dies, fever, he had been delirious severall times between while before his death. Mr. Willard preaches the Lecture. Mr. Woodrop, Hobart Ger., Nehem. Phips, Weld, Faild, came after lecture and sat with me. God grant we may sit together in heaven. DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL Captain of Boston, with about 50 mounted men and a body of infantry, marched to the Pawtucket Falls, where, from the eastern bank of the river, they were able to spy a group of natives on the opposite bank in Rhode Island. The horsemen dashed up the river to a fording-place, crossed, and came back to mount a sudden attack. The group, caught between the horsemen on the west bank and the foot soldiers on the east bank, hid in a swamp. Several of them were killed and a boy was captured, with two horses and some guns and ammunition. In this action one horseman was killed and Lieutenant Jacob Elliot was wounded in the hand. “KING PHILLIP’S WAR”

May 25, Thursday (Old Style): According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, May 25. Mr. Adams had a very pithy and pertinent discourse from HDT WHAT? INDEX

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Nahum 2. 2. Old Church. “KING PHILLIP’S WAR” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

June 5, Wednesday (Old Style): At the annual town meeting of Providence, Rhode Island, five men, among them Thomas Angell, were asked to decide what to do with the surviving Narragansett and Wampanoag. Although some had urged that they be executed, or sold as life slaves in a distant land, what these commissioners recommended was that they be reduced to servitude for a number of years, according to their present ages. “KING PHILLIP’S WAR” 1676. Thirty houses were burnt by the Indians. The war commenced the year previous, and the master-spirit who moved all the tribes was the famous king Philip. He was killed in battle this year, and peace was restored.

According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, Monday, June 5. Mr. Hutchison chosen Capt., Mr. Turin, Lieut., Mr. Bendal, Ensign of the Artillery. DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

June 6, Saturday: According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, Tuesd. 6, late in the Afternoon, a violent wind, and thunder shower arose. Mr. Bendal, Mrs. Bendal, Mr. James Edmunds, and a Quaker female were drowned: their Boat (in which coming from Nodle’s Iland) being overset, and sinking by reason of ballast. Mr. Charles Lidget hardly escaped by the help of an oar. Tuesday, June 6, Hatfield fight, 5 English killed, about 14 Indians. “KING PHILLIP’S WAR” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

June 7, Sunday: According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, Wednesday, June 7., 5 Afternoon Mr. Bendal, Mrs, carried one after another, and laid by one another in the same grave. Eight young children. Wednesday, June 7, Ninety Indians killed and taken by Conecticut HDT WHAT? INDEX

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ferry: 30 and odd by C. Henchman. “KING PHILLIP’S WAR” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

June 10, Wednesday: The war council of the Massachusetts Bay Colony wrote from Boston to Captain Daniel Henchman (it was at about this point that the Captain and his soldiers left Concord). Capt. Henchman, — The bearer, John Hunter, with ten Indians was intended a scout for Concord, but through his much importunity and our persuasion of his capacity and intention upon the service, he is dispatched to the enemy, and in lieu of him and his party we send ten Indians to Concord, for the scout service, and if possible to attempt something upon Philip. In marching upward with him are several sachems, but few fighting men, and having planted at Pacacheog and Quabadge, they will scarce depart thence. Deal kindly with Hunter and as much as may be, satisfy him. His spleen seems to be such against Philip [Metacom], that we are persuaded of his resolution against him. “KING PHILLIP’S WAR” According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, June 10th., Received a Letter from Unckle St. Dumer, dated March 24, 1675 [6] i. e. last March, for it was in answer to one wrote, Oct. 29. ‘75. Aunt Sarah died about a year and 1/2 before. Peace and plenty. Nothing of Father’s buisiness. DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

June 16, Friday (Old Style): According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, June 16, 1676. Went with my Father to Mr. Smith’s, there to see the maner of the Merchants. DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL HDT WHAT? INDEX

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June 22, Thursday (Old Style): The Reverend John Eliot was walking to attend a sermon in Boston when he came upon a marshal who was handing out the announcements of the upcoming Day of Thanksgiving. (This would be the marshal who on that day, June 29th, would be escorting the Christian native American, Captain Tom Indian, or Watasocamponum, to the gallows.)

According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, June 22. Two Indians, Capt. Tom and another, executed after Lecture. Note, at the Execution I delivered 2 Letters, one to Unckle Steph, another enclosed to unckle Nath, unto John Pike, to be by him conveyed. Last week two killed by Taunton Scouts, as they were in the river, fishing. Note. This week Troopers, a party, killed two men, and took an Indian Boy alive. “KING PHILLIP’S WAR” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

June 27, Tuesday (Old Style): According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, Father Sewall came Tuesday June 27. Went home Friday last of June. DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL HDT WHAT? INDEX

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John Evelyn’s diary entry for this day was in part as follows:

My Marriage Anniversarie, I din’d with Mrs. Godolphin at Berkeley-house, being the first day of her house-keeping since her Marriage & returne into England.

July 3 (Old Style): din’d with my Lo[rd] Chamberlaine, & sealed the Deedes of Mortgage for security of 1000 pounds lent by my friend Mrs. Godolphin to my Lord Sunderland. July 19 (Old Style): dind at L[ord] Chamb[erlain] Went to Sir William Sandersons funerall (husband to the Mother of the Maides, & author of two large, but meane Histories of KK. James & Charles the first): he was buried at Westminster: HDT WHAT? INDEX

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June 29, Monday: In accordance with the unanimous decision that had been taken on June 20th in Charlestown by the governing council, Massachusetts observed its 1st colony-wide day of Thanksgiving since the beginning of the race war:

The Holy God having by a long and Continual Series of his Afflictive dispensations in and by the present Warr with the Heathen Natives of this land, written and brought to pass bitter things against his own Covenant people in this wilderness, yet so that we evidently discern that in the midst of his judgements he hath remembered mercy, having remembered his Footstool in the day of his sore displeasure against us for our sins, with many singular Intimations of his Fatherly Compassion, and regard; reserving many of our Towns from Desolation Threatened, and attempted by the Enemy, and giving us especially of late with many of our Confederates many signal Advantages against them, without such Disadvantage to ourselves as formerly we have been sensible of, if it be the Lord’s mercy that we are not consumed, It certainly bespeaks our positive Thankfulness, when our Enemies are in any measure disappointed or destroyed; and fearing the Lord should take notice under so many Intimations of his returning mercy, we should be found an Insensible people, as not standing before Him with Thanksgiving, as well as lading him with our Complaints in the time of pressing Afflictions: The Council has thought meet to appoint and set apart the 29th day of this instant June, as a day of Solemn Thanksgiving and praise to God for such his Goodness and Favour, many Particulars of which mercy might be Instanced, but we doubt not those who are sensible of God’s Afflictions, have been as diligent to espy him returning to us; and that the Lord may behold us as a People offering Praise and thereby glorifying Him; the Council doth commend it to the Respective Ministers, Elders and people of this Jurisdiction; Solemnly and seriously to keep the same Beseeching that being perswaded by the mercies of God we may all, even this whole people offer up our bodies and soules as a living and acceptable Service unto God by Jesus Christ.

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Thanks were given to God for the signal victories of the English over their savage enemies.

The Reverend John Eliot accompanied Captain Tom Indian, or Watasocamponum, one of the Praying Indians who had been carried off to the forest by the warriors, to the Thanksgiving Lecture. After that sermon, HDT WHAT? INDEX

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Watasocamponum addressed the assembly of white people, explaining that

I never did lift up hand against the English, nor was I at Sudbury, only I was willing to goe away with the enemise that surprized us.

Then he and another native American man were hanged by the neck until dead. Watasocamponum was observed to die “praying to God not like the manner of the heathen.”

“As the star of the Indian descended, that of the rose ever higher.” HDT WHAT? INDEX

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— Tourtellot, Arthur Bernon, THE CHARLES, NY: Farrar & Rinehart, 1941, page 63

Major Samuel Sewall jotted in his diary:

Two Indians, Capt. Tom and another, executed after Lecture.

Jill Lepore hypothecates, on her page 144, that Captain Tom was executed at least in part not on account of his being red but on account of his being a male: “[I]t was more difficult for men to explain why they had chosen captivity over death than it was for women.” She points at the contrast between the treatment accorded a white woman, Mistress Mary Rowlandson, who chose captivity rather than death, and the treatment accorded a white man, Joshua Tift, who chose captivity rather than death. Rowlandson was allowed to write a book and redeem herself; when Tift was reclaimed from the savages, the English men who reclaimed him and began to interrogate him professed to not find him credible and executed him, on January 20, 1676: “[S]ince Tift was a man and Rowlandson a woman, Tift’s submission, his surrendering of his will, his willingness to go along with the Indians, were all the more culpable” (page 134).

Also according to the diary of Samuel Sewall, Just between the Thanksgiving, June 29, and Sab. day, July, 2, Capt. Bradfords expedition 20 killed and taken, almost an 100 came in: Squaw Sachem. “KING PHILLIP’S WAR” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

July 1, Saturday (Old Style): Edward Byllinge transferred his rights to New Jersey land to the Quakers William Penn, Gawen Lawrie, and Nicholas Lucas, with Fenwick to receive one-tenth of the property as his fee for settling it, followed by the formal division of the province into East New Jersey and West New Jersey through the Quintipartite Deed, along an East/West line drawn by John Lawrence. This, it should be noted, did not eliminate Edward Byllinge as a New Jersey proprietor but was a step taken in anticipation of bankruptcy proceedings by his creditors. In fact, in the release signed by the Duke of York in 1680 and confirmed by the King in 1682, Byllinge would be not only named as one of the proprietors but also would be clothed with full power to govern in person.

The name of this document is “Quintipartite Deed of Revision, Between East and West Jersey.” READ THE FULL TEXT

According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, July 1., 9 Indians sold for 30£. Capt. Hincksman took a little before. The night after, James the Printer and other Indians came into Cambridge. Saturday, July 1, 1676. Mr. Hezekiah Willet slain by HDT WHAT? INDEX

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Naragansets, a little more than Gun-shot off from his house, his head taken off, body stript. Jethro, his Niger, was then taken: retaken by Capt. Bradford the Thorsday following. He saw the English and ran to them. He related Philip to be sound and well, about a 1000 Indians (all sorts) with him, but sickly: three died while he was there. Related that the Mount Hope Indians that knew Mr. Willet, were sorry for his death, mourned, kombed his head, and hung peag in his hair. “KING PHILLIP’S WAR” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

July 8, Saturday (Old Style): Samuel Shrimpton wrote to his wife Elizabeth:

I doe verryly thinke that the warr with the Indians draws nigh an End. Wee have lately killed abundance of them & taken as many Captives. I bought 9 the other day to send to Jamaica but thinke to keep 3 of them.

“As the star of the Indian descended, that of the Puritans rose ever higher.” — Tourtellot, Arthur Bernon, THE CHARLES, NY: Farrar & Rinehart, 1941, page 63

According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, Saturday, July 8, 9 Indians, 2 English sallied out, slew 5 and took two alive. These Indians were killed not many miles from Dedham. “KING PHILLIP’S WAR” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

July 9, Sunday (Old Style): According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, July 9, 10, &c. This week Indians come in at Plymouth to prove themselves faithful, fetch in others by force: among those discovered are some that murdered Mr. Clark’s family: viz, two Indians: they accuse one of them that surrendered to the English. All three put to death. “KING PHILLIP’S WAR” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL HDT WHAT? INDEX

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July 15, Saturday (Old Style): From Major Samuel Sewall’s diary in Boston:14After, heard of an hundred twenty one

Quaker marcht through the town, crying, “Repent, &c.”

RELIGIOUS SOCIETY OF FRIENDS Indians killed and taken. Note. One Englishman lost in the woods taken and tortured to death. Several Indians (now about) come in at Plymouth, behave themselves very well in discovering and taking others. Medfield men with volunteers, English and Indians, kill and take Canonicus with his son and 50 more. “KING PHILLIP’S WAR” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

July 27, Thursday (Old Style): At Boston, in pursuit of the proffered amnesty, the surrender of a band of 180 starving Nipmuc led by Sagamore John. They brought with them in bonds the sachem Matoonas and his son. Since this man was reputed to have led the first attack of the war, grateful Bostonians tied him to a tree on Boston Common and suggested to the Nipmuc that they might consider using him for target practice.

While these sorts of going-on were going on in beautiful downtown Boston, the had organized a company of 150 white men and about 50 friendly Indians to patrol its western boundary. After a skirmish at Bridgewater MA, Metacom’s uncle had been found among the dead, leading to suspicions that the sachem of the surviving Wampanoag might have returned to the Mount Hope area.

According to the diary of Samuel Sewall, July 27. Sagamore John comes in, brings Mattoonus and his sonne prisoner. Mattoonus shot to death the same day by John’s men. “KING PHILLIP’S WAR” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

Friday, July 28. Mr. Chickery dyes, about 5, afternoon. Comencement day: Mr. Phips married. Saturday Even. Aug. 12, 1676, just as prayer ended Tim. Dwight sank down in a Swoun, and for a good space was as if he perceived not what was done to him: after, kicked and sprawled, knocking his hands and feet upon the floor like a distracted man. Was carried pickpack to bed by John Alcock, there his cloaths pulled off. In the night it seems he talked of ships, his master, father, and unckle Eliot. The Sabbath following Father went to him, spake to him to know what ailed him, asked if he would be prayed for, and for what he would desire his friends to pray. 14.Thomas, M. Halsey, ed. THE DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL 1674-1729. NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1972. HDT WHAT? INDEX

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He answered, for more sight of sin, and God’s healing grace. I asked him, being alone with him, whether his troubles were from some outward cause or spiritual. He answered, spiritual. I asked him why then he could not tell it his master, as well as any other, since it is the honour of any man to see sin and be sorry for it. He gave no answer, as I remember. Asked him if he would goe to meeting. He said, ‘twas in vain for him; his day was out. I asked, what day: he answered, of Grace. I told him ‘twas sin for anyone to conclude themselves Reprobate, that this was all one. He said he would speak more, but could not, &c. Notwithstanding, all this semblance (and much more than is written) of compunction for Sin, ‘tis to be feared that his trouble arose from a maid whom he passionately loved: for that when Mr. Dwight and his master had agreed to let him goe to her, he eftsoons grew well. 1Friday, Aug. 25. I spake to Tim of this, asked him whether his convictions were off. He answered, no. I told him how dangerous it was to make the convictions wrought by God’s spirit a stalking horse to any other thing. Broke off, he being called away by Sam. Sabbath day, Aug. 20, we heard the amazing newes of sixty persons killed at Quinebeck, by barbarous Indians, 1 “Aug. 3. 5. Capt. Henchman began. Aug. 12. 7. Philipus exit. 16. 4. Mr. Buckley. Mr. Zech. Long, Comr. 31st. 5. The great ship stops in launching; falls on one side out of her cradle.

August 27, Sunday (Old Style): From Major Samuel Sewall’s diary: “We hear of Major Talcots coming on Indians travailing towards Albany, to dwell on this side Connect. river. He slew some, took others with most of the plunder.” “KING PHILLIP’S WAR” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

Sept: 11. 2. Mock Fight. Indian Fight. 14. 5. Miss Brown. -- 16, 7. Wheler Henry.” Almanacs.- - EDS. of which were Capt. Lake, Mr. Collicot, Mr. Padashell. Dilati sunt in futurum. Aug. 31. Cousin Allah Quinsey is taken ill of the flux, accompanied, as it is said, with a Fever. Note, Aunt Quinsey is providentially here. My dear Mother, Mrs. Judith Hull grows sick the same night and is extreamly distrested. Sept. 1. Her Face very much swelled. Night following, Mother’s pains something abated: humours dissipated. HDT WHAT? INDEX

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Sept. 3. Anna Quinsey Died about ten of the Clock, A. M. Buried Monday Sept. 4. N. B. Cousin Ana’s Water was carried to Dr. Snelling on Sab. morn. He affirmed her not to be dangerously ill. My Father-in- Law from the first feared her death, from her trembling pulse, restlessness, Wormes coming away without amendment, and the well-looking of her Water, when she was manifestly very ill. Relations at the Funeral: Unckle and Aunt Quinsey, Parents, Epr. Savage, Ruth Quinsey, germans, Experience, whom my Father led, Sam. and Hannah Sewall, Cousin Henchman, Pounden. Bearers, Henry Philips, Tim. Dwight, Joseph Tappi[n], John Alcock. Note. This is the first person that I know of buried out of an house where I was then dwelling. The Lord in his mercy Sanctify it to me, and overcome death for me by Jesus Christ. Sept. 13. The after part of the day very rainy. Note, there were eight Indians shot to death on the Comon, upon Wind-mill hill. This day a Souldier, Thorn. Fisk, leaves part. of a Libel here by accident. His debent. was signed to Muddy River, when it should have been to Cambridge, which he came to have altered. The paper he wrapt them in was wet, wherefore I profered him dry, that so his writings might not be spoyled. He accepted it and left his old wet paper, which, coming after into the room, I read. Sept. 14, at night my Mother Hull, praised be God, had comfortable Rest. Sept. 15. Friday, received Letters by Mr. Clark from my Unckle St. Dumer, to Father and Mother Sewall, where in he informs, “We do through some difficulty hear Mr. Cox most Lords dayes.” Letter to Mother of May 29, ‘76. In that to my Father of same dates, “Mr. Quinsey is copying out your Writings. He shall also take my Account. I am at a weak Hand. Something hangs about me like a consumption. You must imploy some other man in your Buisiness, for I think I shall not be able to doe it. You may see that the Leases (in that of June 20, mentions onely Stoak Lease) of your Bargains are almost run out. You must take some course to new Let your Land, or come and live in it, or else it will lye to the wide world, and nothing will be made of it &c.” Paulo ante. “The Bill of £20 you ordered me to pay Tho. Papil. of London, I have paid, also Dr. Oakes, Jno. Saunders’ Bills. Mrs. Hatten’s Bill is not yet paid. I am out of purse already, and if I pay hers I must borrow money, the which I think to doe this time, but hope that you or some other of my Cousins will come over, or get some other to doe your business here. I have done it a long time, and am unwilling to meddle of paying or receiving any more. I desire you would send me in your next what Goods and money you have received of mine. Before finishing my Letter in comes Mr. Quinsey, &c.” DEAR BRO., &c., Jonas Clark being at my house about Miss. Hatten’s Bill, &c. I have been sick this Spring, and am at a weak Hand still. Therefore did desire you and doe still, that HDT WHAT? INDEX

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you will now take some speedy course to have your Business done by some other. I have sent you an Account, with Copyes of your Leases and Lee Deeds. Stoak Lease (you may see) will quickly be out. The Tenant is a good Tenant, but tells me he will not give so much Rent, when his time is out. Amongst all your Writings, I can’t find, nor never did see the Copy of your Bargain at Stoake. Mr. Clark told me you were resolved, or minded, to come over with him. I should be glad to see you. It seems you have charged another Bill upon me, payable to Mr. Papil. [Papillon] or his order. I shall leave that for some other. I told him he would be paid as soon as the money could be gotten. I have paid all the other Bills that I could hear of. Thus with my love, &c. Your loving Brother, STEPHEN DUMER. June 20, 1676. “DEAR SISTER, -- From what I heard from Mr. Clark I have great hopes that your enemyes, the Indians, are conquered before this. Yourselves and troubles have been much upon my spirit. I should be glad to hear of the prosperity of New England. I have so to much love to you and the Country that, had I my health, I could willingly undertake the journey to see you. But I was very glad to hear that God had preserved you and yours, when so many have lost their lives and Estates. Its a time of great sufferings in many places of the World. London and several other towns have had great loss by fire this summer. Its said a 1000 houses burnt at London, in Southworke; and its judged set on fire by Rogues. Yet, through great mercy, we enjoy the Gospel, though it be with some hazard. I hope it will please God to continue his Gospel to poor England, for I hope here are many thousands that have not bowed the knee to Baal. I of think I writ to you in my last of the death of sister Sarah. She hath left two children. They are far from us, 8 miles beyond Chichester, or and so can hear from them or see them but seldom, &c. I have desired my Brother, your Husband, to receive, and send you your Rents. My Reason chiefly is because I am very unhealthy. Yours, &c., STEPHEN DUMMER.” June 20, ‘76. In the Letter to Father of May 24, ‘76: “I find that you are Debtor, £24. 4. 2. which, when I have received, Ile meddle no more.” Here followeth a Copy of the Account. Disbursements at several times and for several things. £515. 14. 2. More to Mrs. Hatten, 010. 00. 0. This Account till March 26, 1676. Receipts: Fifteen years Rent at Lee. £300. 00. 00. Thirteen years Rent at Stoke. 275. 10. 00. HDT WHAT? INDEX

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Two years at Stoke when the land was cast on me, 020. 00. 00. The Total. 495. 10. 00. This Account is till Lady-day, 1676. From me STEPHEN DUMER.” My Aunt Mehetabel writes to Mother, May 26, ‘76. Informs that she hath four children living, viz: Thomas, Robert, Jane and Mehetabel. Cousin Thomas, enclosed “We have been in many fears for you, because your enemies are many, both at home and abroad. But I hope the Lord will deliver you out of all their Hands, in his due time.” Unckles of May 29, saith “before I finished my Letter, in comes Mr. Quinsey. Mr. Quinsey’s to me from London, is dated May 27, so that Mr. Quinsey made very little stay at Bishop Stoke: ex consequentia. Sept. 16, ‘76. Mother Hull rested not so well on Friday night, as before. Mrs. Brown was buried, who died on Thursday night before, about 10 o’clock. Note. I holp carry her part of the way to the Grave. Put in a wooden Chest. Sept. 18. Mr. Broughton and his son George being here, said Mr. George agreed to deliver up his Writings of the Mills, and give up the management of it to Father Hull. Mement: sent Letters to Newbury by Mr. G. B. imprimis, a little packet 6 Letters, Stoke Lease, Unckles Account, one letter, which had enclosed two from England to my Father, Unckle Riders, Mary Gouldings: one to Mrs. Noyes, the last to Richard Smith. Mr. Reyner, of Sept. 25, saith that their Indian Messengers returned the night before, and informed they saw two Indians dead, their Scalps taken off; one of them was Canonicus his Captain. Tis judged that Canonicus himself is also killed or taken by the same Hand, viz, of the Mohawks. This day, viz, Sept. 18. Goodman Dull, meets with a Lively Spring, the Well 23 foot deep. Sept. 19. Mane, Eliza Alcock informs that Mother had a good night, though she Rested ill on Sabbath day night. Laus Deo qui orationem non vult non exaudire. Sept. 20. Judith Hull slept better last night than at all since her sickness. Note, mark Kerseyes, &c. Sept. 21, ‘76. Stephen Goble of Concord, was executed for murder of Indians: three Indians for firing Eames his house, and murder. The wether was cloudy and rawly cold, though little or no rain. Mr. Mighil prayed: four others sate on the Gallows, two men and two impudent Women, one of which, at least, Laughed on the Gallows, as several testified. Mothers last nights rest was inferiour to the former. Dr. Brackenbury called in here. Note. Mr. Joseph Gillam comes in from St. Michaels, five weeks pasage, HDT WHAT? INDEX

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Loading, Wheat, Wine.

September 22, Friday (Old Style): Major Samuel Sewall participated in what may have been an attempt to discover whether Native Americans are human beings:

Spent the day from 9 in the M[orning] with Mr. [Dr. Samuel] Brackenbury, Mr. [Benjamin] Thomson, Butler, [Richard] Hooper, Cragg, [Thomas] Pemberton, dissecting the middlemost of the Indian executed the day before. [Richard Hooper] ... taking the [heart] in his hand, affirmed it to be the stomack.

We can be quite assured that these men did not cook any part of the body, their interest being scientific. Scientific investigation was, however, only in its beginning stages in these English colonies: for instance, in the late summer of the previous year, to find out whether it was true as rumored that Native American children, little animals, could swim at birth, you will remember that some sailors had upset a canoe in the mouth of the Saco River. The white men had disproved their hypothesis, but they had also gotten into trouble, because the mother of the child managed to retrieve her child and escape, and the child died, and was the child of the sagamore Squando in .

Squando was so provoked, that he conceived a bitter antipathy to the English, and employed his great art and influence to excite the Indians against them.

Were these white sailors hanged for such conduct? We don’t know, of course our histories are silent on such points, but my guess would be, no.15 “KING PHILLIP’S WAR”

Sept. 23. Looked into Mr. Russels Accompts. Mother rests indifferent well now a-nights. Father ill of a pain caused in his shoulder, and then on his left side, by reason of taking cold. Mr. Reynor, in a Letter dated at Salisbury, Sept. 21, ‘76., hath these passages: “God still is at work for us. One:-ey’d John, with about 45 of your Southern Indians, have been apprehended since the Souldiers went Eastward. They we judge them All of our Southern Indians. And nothing yet lately heard of damage in the Eastern parts. A Sagamore of Quapaug is one of the Indians taken and sent. Canonicus we believe was killed by the Mohawks, when his Captain

15. It has recently been pointed out that, although it is commonly assumed in history books that the period of hostilities began with sneak attacks by red warriors upon defenseless isolated farming families, in fact the peace treaty of the time was arranged in such a way that the native American peoples and cultures would be exterminated whether in their desperation they held to these treaties, and were humiliated and abused individually, or violated these treaties, and made themselves subject to punitive expeditions against entire groupings. Noticing that the situation was constructed in such a manner as to make it a win-win situation for the white people and a lose-lose situation for the red people, one may legitimately infer that it was not constructed in that manner by any accident. HDT WHAT? INDEX

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was slain. N. B. We have in our Business here great discoveries of our shameful Natures. Pray that the Sanctification and Reconciliation by Xt. may prevail to his honour.” Sept. 26, Tuesday, Dr. Hawkins takes away from my Mother Hull about 4 ounces of blood. Sagamore Sam goes, and Daniel Goble is drawn in a Cart upon bed cloaths to Execution. T. Mat. Tep. pomor. [?] One ey’d John, Maliompe, Sagamore of Quapaug, General at Lancaster, &c, Jethro, (the Father) walk to the Gallows. Note. One ey’d John accuses Sag. John to have fired the first at Quapaug, and killed Capt. Hutchison. Mothers two last nights were very restless. Sep. 27, Brother John Sewall came to visit me. Told me of my friends Wellfare, and of the death of Goodman Titcomb last Sabbath day, after about a fortnight sickness of the Fever and Ague. One week or thereabout lay regardless of any person, and in great pain. Sept. 28. Brought my Brother John going so far as the little Locust tree, beyond the Causy, on the Neck. Sept. 30. This morn. about the dawning of the day, H. Sewall is called up by the Flux, which it seems troubled her Friday in the afternoon, though unknown to me. Oct. 1, Sabbath day. The last night H. Sewall rose twice. Had sundry Stools this day. Mother recovers more and more. Oct. 2. H. S. had a very ill night and day. Oct. 3. Last night I watched. Han. S. had an extream restless night. 8 or 10 Stools. Dr. Brackenbury advises to Diacodium to move Rest, and approves. Peppar boyled in Milk and Water, alike of each. Diacod. 6 ounces. Mother hath scarce any Rest. Oct. 4. Mrs. Herlakendine Simonds watches: two stools. Considerable sleep. 6 ounces Diacod. I lodge in the Chamber over the Kitchen. Mother hath a very ill night: concerned for her daughter. I should have noted before that Dr. Brackenbury said such malignity in the lower bowels was most times accompanied with an extream binding in the upper, and therefore things tending to solubility most proper, though he was loath to give an absolute purge unless necessity required. Monday, first visit in the even. Tuesday two visits, to-day one. Oct. 5. Wednesday. I lodge with my wife. Nurse Hurd watches. But one Stool, that in the morn., tho. slept not all night, yet rested indifferently. Note. Mother had very little or no sleep. Chirur. Hawkins Breaths two veins in her Foot, takes away about 7 or 8 ounces of blood. Drs. Brakenbury and Avery present. Dr. Avery saith the Diacodion would render persons faint. News of Canon. Squaw and Sonne taken at Salmon Falls Mill, being seen as they went over the Boom. Information of Canon. being killed by Mohawks, (according with the first Story, and that they had not seen a fire of some weeks eastward. Wife rose in Lecture time. Oct. 6. One Stool. I rose about 10., went not to bed again. Betty is taken ill. Mother rests finerly, had not Betty been ill. My HDT WHAT? INDEX

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wife sits up almost all day, without faintness: so that I mistrust Diacodion. Oct. 7. last night, H. and S. S. sleep together (small intervals except) till break of day, then I rise. She hath one Stool. Mother hath little or no sleep: Betty no good night. Cousin Mary Savage dies about noon. Oct. 8. Last night no Stool: all 3 sick persons had a very good night, praised be God. Note. this Even. Mr. [Dr.] Brak. visits Mother, Wife; Dr. Alcock, Betty: both together at our chamber. Oct. 9. Sabbath night a good night of all hands. An hard Frost, Teste Isabele Pierce Nutrice. Oct. 9. Cousin Mary Savage buried in the afternoon. Father and I at the Funeral. Bro. Stephen visits me in the evening and tells me of a sad accident at Salem last Friday. A youth, when fowling, saw one by a pond with black hair, and was thereat frighted, supposing the person to be an Indian, and so shot and killed him: came home flying with the fright for fear of more Indians. The next day found to be an Englishman shot dead. The Actour in prison. Mr. Dwight tells that the Minister, Mr. Woodward, dyed ravingly distracted. Dei Semitoe investigabit. Oct. 10. Last night, H. S. somewhat feverish, slept not so well as formerly, yet indifferently; cheerly notwithstanding, this day. Violent rain and cold. Oct. 11. Had a comfortable night, tho. rose once. Oct. 12. Had a comfortable night. Betty extream ill of the bloody Flux, which almost casts Mother down. 1Note, went not to Lecture Two Indians executed. Oct. 13. Mother and wife had a good night. Betty indifferent. Mement. Made an Hen Coop. Mr. Clark came and stood by me. He, Capt. Henchman, C. Green, Mrs. Flint, Mrs. Plaisted, dined with me. Gave Mrs. Williams Letter and my own to Mr. Broughton to be given Mr. Hill for conveyance. Oct. 14. Last night very comfortable to wife and Mother. Oct. 15, a good night. This day we have intelligence that the Garrison at Blackpoint is surrendered to the Indians. Note, Capt. Scottow at home, here at Boston. 16. Good night. Mr. Brackenbury, the 17th. Best night that mother has yet had, slept without so much as dreaming. 18, 19, 20, all Good nights. Mother conversant in the Kitchen and our chamber. My Wife every day since the Sabbath goes to Mothers chamber without hurt. 21 Good night, all Hands. Cousin Reynor comes 1 “Oct. 12 (Thurs.) turned to a fast, and two Indians executed. -- 30, 2, Anderson sets sail. Nov. 4, 7, Mugge comes in. Dec: 4, 2. Gillam sails.” Almanacs. -- EDS. to Town: in the night passes to Braintrey, because of ‘s wife HDT WHAT? INDEX

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there. A Copy of the first Letter I ever wrote to my Cousin, Mr. Edward Hull: MR. EDWARD H. AND LOVING COUSIN, Although I never saw you, yet your Name, Affinity to me, and what I have heard concerning you, make me desirous of your acquaintance and Correspondence. Your Remembrance to me in my Father’s I take very kindly. And I, with your Cousin, my Wife, do by these, heartily re-salute you. My Wife hath been dangerously ill, yet is now finely recovered and getting strength. It hath been generally a sick summer with us. The Autumn promiseth better. As to our enemie’s, God hath, in a great measure, given us to see our desire on them. Most Ring leaders in the late Massacre have themselves had blood to drink, ending their lives by Bullets and Halters. Yet there is some trouble and bloodshed still in the more remote Eastern parts. What is past hath been so far from ushering in a Famine, that all sorts of Grain are very plenty and cheap. Sir, my Father in Law hath consigned to yourself two hh of Peltry, to be for his and my joint Account, as you will see by the Letter and Invoice. I shall not need to entreat your utmost care for the best Disposal of them according to what is prescribed you: which shall oblige the writer of these Lines, your loving friend and Kinsman, SAMUEL SEWALL. BOSTON, Oct. 23, 1676. Now dies Capt. Tho. Russel, well the preceding Sabbath, and intended for England in Mr. Anderson. Homo prop. Deus disp. Omnia. Mother slept not so well as formerly, yet went to Church in the Afternoon. Oct. 23. Went from Boston about five T. P.l to Milton, there accidentally meeting with Moses Collier, Mr. Senderlen and I went on to Hingham, to John Jacobs. Oct. 24, Tuesday, went from thence to Plymouth, about noon; refreshed there. Note, James Percival met us there, and so we went cheerfully together from thence about 2. T. P.; got to Sandwich about a quarter of an 1 This same contraction occurs below. We find, by the entry on p. 489, that it stands for tempore post- meridiano. --EDS. hour by sun: lodged at Percivals with Mr. Senderlen. Oct. 25, Wednesday, Breakfasted at Stephen Skiphs. He, Percival and I rode out about 12 miles, within sight of Marthah’s Vinyard, to look Horses: at last happily came on 11, whereof five my Fathers, viz, three chessnut coloured Mares, and 2 Colts: put them in Mr. Bourns sheeppen all night. Note. Supped at Mr. Smiths, good Supper. Oct. 26, Thursday, Took up the young four yeer old Mare, slit the two near ears of the Colts, their colour was a chesnut Sorrel, whiteish Manes and Tails. The Bigger had all his Hoofs white: the Lesser all black. Both Stone- Colts. The Hair of the Tails cut square with a knife. After this Mr. Smith rode with me and shewed me the place which some had thought to cut, for to make, a passage from the South Sea to the North: said ‘twas about a mile and a half between the utmost flowing HDT WHAT? INDEX

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of the two Seas in Herring River and Scusset, the land very low and level, Herrin River exceeding Pleasant by reason that it runs pretty broad, shallow, of an equal depth, and upon white sand. Showed me also the 3 Hills on the which 4 towns kept Warders, before which was such an Isthmus of about 3 miles and barren plain, that scarce any thing might pass unseen. Moniment Harbour said to be very good. Note. Had a very good Supper at Mr. Dexter’s. Being in trouble how to bring along my Mare, in came one Downing and Benjamin his son, who, being asked, to my gladness promised Assistance. Oct. 27, Got very well to Plymouth, Tailing my Mare, and Ben strapping her on, though we were fain to come over the Clifts the upper way because of the flowing Tide. There saw Acorns upon bushes about a foot high, which they call running Oak; it is content with that Stature. From Plimouth Ben and ‘s father mounted a Trifle before me, I waved my Hat and Hankerchief to them, but they left me to toil with my tired jade: was fain at last to untail and so drive them before me, at last ride and lead the Mare with great difficulty. When came to Jones his Bridge, (supposing the house had been just by) put the bridle on the Horses neck, drove him on the Bridge, holding the Halter in my Hand. When I came on the other side, could not catch my Horse, but tired myself leading my tired Mare sometimes on the left Hand into the Marsh, sometimes on the right Hand: at last left him, went to the Bridge to ensure myself of the path, so led her to Tracies about ½ mile. He not at Home, could scarce get them to entertain me, though ‘twas night. At length his son John put up my Mare, then took up his own Horse, and so helped me to look for mine, but could not find him: after his Father and he went on foot, and met him almost at the House, Saddle Cover lost, which John found in the Morn. Oct. 28, Saturday, Goodman Tracy directed and set me in the way, so I went all alone to the end, almost, of rocky plain, then, by God’s good providence, Mr. Senderlen overtook me, so we came along cheerfully together, called at my Aunt’s [in Braintree], refreshed, left my tired jade there, set out to Boston ward about half an hour by Sun, and got well home before shutting in, Praised be God. Note. Seeing the wonderfull works of God in the journeye, I was thereby more perswaded of his justice, and inhability to do any wrong: put in mind likewise of Mr. Thachers Sermon, Oct. 22. The Humble Springs of stately Sandwich Beach To all Inferiours may observance teach, They (without Complement) do all concur, Praying the Sea, Accept our Duty, Sir, He mild severe, I’ve (now) no need: and when -- As you are come: go back and come agen. Novem. 6. Very Cold blustering wether. Note, I and John went on board. of Mr. Downe, to see Father’s Horse and my Mare Shipped. 7, clear wether. Wednesday, cloudy. In the night great deal of rain fell. Thurs. Thanksgiving day, cloudy, soultry, wind, S. E. Friday, Nov. 10 clears up, westerly, wind roars. Mr. Downe sets sail. Nov. 11. Brave, mild, clear whether, and fresh Gale of Wind. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

Novem. 27, 1676, about 5 M. Boston’s greatest Fire1 1 This was the second great fire in Boston, the first being in 1653. HUBBARD, in his “Narrative of the Troubles,” &c., p. 115, writes: “After all the forementioned Calamities and Troubles, it pleased God to alarm the Town of Boston, and in them the whole Country, by a sad Fire, accidentally Kindled by the Carelessness of an Apprentice that sat up too late over Night, as was conceived; which began an Hour before Day, continuing three or four, in which Time it burned down to the Ground forty six Dwelling Houses, besides other Buildings, together with a Meeting-house of considerable bigness: some Mercy was observed mixt with the Judgment: for if a great Rain had not continued all the time, (the Roofs and Walls of their ordinary Buildings consisting of such combustible Matter) that whole end of the Town had at that Time been consumed.” HUTCHINSON (Hist. I. 349) copies from an interleaved almanack, the following account: -- “Nov. 27, 1676. A fire broke out in Boston, about 5 in the morning, at one Wakefield’s house, by the Red Lion, by a candle carelessly set, which so prevailed, that it burnt down about 45 dwelling-houses, the north meetinghouse, and several warehouses; the wind was at south-east when it began and blew hard; soon after it veered south, and brought so much rain as much prevented further mischief, without which, all that end of the town had probably been laid in ashes, and Charlestown also endangered, by the flakes of fire which were carried over the river.” The church thus burned was that of Rev. Increase Mather, of whom the following story is told by his son in his “Remarkables,” pp. 78, 79 : -- “In the Year, 1676, he had a strange Impression on his mind that caused him, on Nov 19, to Preach a Sermon on those Words, Zeph., iii. 7- . . . and Conclude the Sermon with a Strange Prediction, That a Fire was a coming, which would make a Deplorable Desolation. . . . At the same time, he Earnestly urged upon his Consort, a Speedy Change of Habitation; which could not be Accomplished. On the next Lords-Day, he preached, Not aware of its being so, a Farewel-sermon, on those Words, Rev. iii. 3. “The very Night following, a Desolating Fire broke forth in his Neighborhood. The House in which he with his Flock, had Praised God, was Burnt with the Fire. Whole Streets were Consumed in the Devouring Flames, and laid in Ashes. His own House also took a part in the Ruines: But by the Gracious Providence of God, he lost little of his Beloved Library: Not an Hnndred Books from above a Thousand: Of these also he had an immediate Recruit, by a Generous Offer which the Honourable Mrs. Bridget Hoar made him, to take what he Pleased from the Library of her Deceased Husband. In less than Two Years also, he became Owner of a Better brake forth at Mr. Moors, through the default of a Taylour Boy, who rising alone and early to work, fell asleep and let his Light HDT WHAT? INDEX

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fire the House, which gave fire to the next, so that about fifty Landlords were despoyled of their Housing. N. B. The House of the Man of God, Mr. Mather, and Gods House were burnt with fire. Yet God mingled mercy, and sent a considerable rain, which gave check in great measure to the (otherwise) masterless flames: lasted all the time of the fire, though fair before and after. Mr. Mather saved his Books and other Goods. Dec. 12, Mr. Ben. Davis came from on Board Boon at Marthah’s Vinyard to Boston on foot. Dec. 13, Cousin Savage, my wife and self, visited Mr. Hezekiah Usher and his wife (Note, that she spake for Jane) where saw Mr. Davis. This day at even went to a private meeting held at Mr. Nath. Williams’s. Emaus Smith spake well to Script. Philip 2. 3. latter part. Smith spake more to my satisfaction than before. Note, The first Conference meeting that ever I was at, was at our House, Aug. 30, ‘76 at which Anna Quinsey was standing against the Closet door next the Entry. Mr. Smith spake to Ps. 119. 9. The next was Oct. 18, at Mrs. Olivers: Capt. Henchman spake well to Heb. 6. 18. The Wednesday following I was at Sandwich. The 3d at Mr. Hill’s. Goodm. Needam and my Father spake to Heb. 3. 12. Nov. 1. The 4th, Nov. 15, at Mr. Wings where Mr. Willard spake well to that proper place, Malach, 3, 16. The 5th, at Mrs. Tappins, where Mr. Sanford and Mr. Noyes spake to 1 Peter, 5. 7. Nov. 22. Mr. Fox prayed after. 6th, Nov. 29, at Mrs. Aldens, where Mr. Williams and Wing spake to Heb. 5. 7. Dec. 6. no meeting because House: and though his Flock was now Scattered, for several months, God made it an opportunity for him to Preach every Lords-Day in the other Churches, and Entertain successively the whole City with his Enlightening and Awakening Ministry.” --EDs. of the ensuing Fast. The 7th. at Mr. Williams’s mentioned first. Dec. 14, 1676, Seth Shove was brought to our House to dwell, i. e. Father Hull’s. N. B. In the evening, seeing a shagged dogg in the Kitchin, I spake to John Alcock, I am afraid we shall be troubled with the ugly dogg: whereupon John asked which way he went. I said out at the Street door. He presently went that way, and meeting Seth (who went out a little before) took him for the dogg, and smote him so hard upon the bare head with a pipe staff, or something like it, that it grieved me that he had strook the dogg so hard. There arose a considerable wheal in the childs head, but it seems the weapon smote him plain, for the Rising was almost from the forehead to the Crown, grew well quickly, wearing a Cap that night. ‘Twas God’s mercy the stick and manner of the blow was not such as to have spilled his Brains on the Ground. The Devil, (I think) seemed to be angry at the childs coming to dwell here. Written, Dec. 18, ‘76. Dec. 18, Mr. Rowlandson and Mr. Willard came and visited my Father. While they were here, Mr. Shepard also came in and HDT WHAT? INDEX

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discoursed of Reformation, especially the disorderly Meetings of Quakers and Anabaptists: thought if all did agree, i. e. Magistrates and Ministers, the former I might easily be suprest, and that then, The Magistrates would see reason to Handle the latter. As to what it might injure the country in respect of England, trust God with it. Wished, (speaking of Mr. Dean’s) that all the children in the country were baptised, that religion without it come to nothing. Before Mr. Shepards coming in, one might gather by Mr. Willards speech that there was some Animosity in him toward Mr. Mather: for that he said he chose the Afternoon that so he might have a copious auditory: and that when the Town House was offered him to preach to his Church distinct, said he would not preach in a corner. Dec. 20, Went to the Meeting at Capt. Scottows, where Edward Allin and John Hayward spoke to Provo 3. 11. How get such a Frame as neither to Faint nor Despise. (8) meeting. Mrs. Usher lyes very sick of an Inflammation in the Throat, which began on Monday. Called at her House coming home, to tell Mr. Fosterling’s Receipt, i. e, A Swallows Nest (the inside) stamped and applied to the throat outwardly. Va malum. Dec. 21, being Thorsday, Worthy Mr. Reyner1 fell asleep: was taken with a violent vomiting the Friday before, Lightheaded by Saturday, Lay speechless 24 hours, and then died on Thorsday even. We heard not that he was sick till Friday about 9 at night: on the Sabbath morn. comes William Furbur and brings the newes of Death. After last Exercise Father dispatches Tim to Braintry. Monday morn. Uncle and Tim come back. Uncle concludes from the Winter, his own infirmity and my Cousins indisposedness, to dispatch away Wm. Furbur with Letters onely. O how earnestly did I expect his coming hether, and say with myself, what makes him stay so long? I might have seen him as I went to Sandwich, but God had appointed I should see him no more. The Lord that lives forever, grant us a comfortable joyous meeting at Christ’s appearance. Note. None of us saw Mr. Reyner Oct. 21, for he posted to Braintrey in the night, and he went back when I was at Sandwich. I suppose the last time that I saw and discoursed him was -- [blank]. He was here with Mr. Broughton earnestly urging to make sure Lands of Mr. Broughton at Dover to my Father, and so take him Paymaster for the Anuity laid on it. Mr. Broughton withstood, and Mr. Reyner feared it was because he would not let it go out of his hands, though he pretended other things and seemed to reflect on Mr. Reyner. Note. Mr. Reyner and I dis- 1 This was Rev. John Reyner, Jr., of Dover, who married Judith Quincy, own cousin to Sewall’s wife. --EDS. coursed of it in the orchard, and he professed his integrity in it, and that he thought Father would never have it sure, if not that way. Advised me not to keep over much within, but goe among men, and that thereby I should advantage myself. 1Decem. 27. Ninth Meeting that I have been at. Which was at HDT WHAT? INDEX

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Edward Allin’s. Script. Jer. 10. 24. N. B. Mr. Moody got me to supply his room: Capt. Scottow concluded. Dec. 28. Mr. Willard preaches. N. B. I got but just to hear the text. This day pleasant and smiling were it not the day of Mr. Reyner’s Funeral. Dec. 30, Saturday. Capt. Henchman and I witnessed Mr. Dudlyes Comission for collecting the Customs. HDT WHAT? INDEX

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1677

March 3, Saturday (1676, Old Style): The wife of the Reverend Samuel Whiting died.

January 3, 167 6/7. Mr. Nath. Oliver and Elizabetha Brattle, a Simon Bradstreet, equit. connubio junguntur. Note. This day we have intelligence of Boon’s being at Road Iland. Jan. 6. Note. Mr. Dean came hether this morning, and spent a considerable time in discoursing my Father. Advised me to Acquaint myself with Merchants, and Invited me (courteously) to their Caballs. A great deal of rain last night and former part of this day. Jan. 8. Bro. Stephen came to see us in the even: I walked out after Super and discoursed with him. Jan. 9. Tuesday, at noon stepped out and visited Mr. Nath. and Eliza. Oliver. Snowy day. Jan. 10. Cloudy, Cold, noren wind. Note, went on foot to Mr. Flints at Dorchester, there to be in the company of Ministers: but none came save Mr. Torry. Mr. Fisk was gone to his sick Father: Mr. Hubbard and Adams hindred (as conjectured) by the wether. So that there was Mr. Flint, Mr. Torry, Elder Humphreys, John Hoar, Mrs. Stoughton, Mrs. Flint, Senior, Junior, Mrs. Pool and 1”Dec. 24. 1. Wm. Furbur. 25. Visi Sim. Gates.” Almanacs. --EDS. her daughter Bethesda,1 with a Nurse named Clap. Notwithstanding the fewness of persons, the day (thro. Gods grace) was spent to good purpose. Mr. Flint prayed, then preached singularly well from that place, Cant. 1. 6. But my own Vineyard have I not kept; which he handled well, Pressing every particular person to look to their own Souls Elder H. prayed. After some pause (because the day/much spent and I to goe home) Mr. Torrey prayed onely: which he did divinely, that we might not think strange of fiery Tryal, might be sure not to deceive ourselves as to our union with Christ. Indeed, the exercise was such, preaching and praying, as if God did intend it for me. I prayed earnestly before I went that God would shew me favour at the meeting, and I hope he will set home those things that were by him Carved for me. Mr. Flint sent his Man after the Exercise, so when I had well supped, comfortably rode home. Chief design (it seems) in Meeting to pray for Mr. Stoughton. 2 Jan. 17. Wrote a letter to my Uncle St. Dumer, to desire him to pay Mr. Papil. Bill, and at present (at least) take care of my Fathers Lands, espec. Lee, writing down all his Receipts and payments, &c. Sent it in Father H’s Packet to Cousin Hull. Jan. 17. Went to the Meeting at Mrs. Macharta’s, which is the HDT WHAT? INDEX

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10th I have been at. The Script. spoken to was Hoseah 6. 3. Then shall we have knowledge and endeavour ourselves to know the Lord (as in the Translation I have by me). Capt. Henchman handled it. Jan. 19. Father and self went to visit Mr. Sanford, who was very short-winded. He said he had been a careless Xn. And when I mentioned Mr. Dod’s words, he said 1 The combination of Bethesda and Pool has had similar examples. Buenos Ayres lived in Brookfield a century ago, and Virgil Delphinl Parris was a member of the Legislature of Maine. -EDS. 2 “ Jany. 13. 7. Mr. Alford buried. 17. 4. Thanksgiving at Cambridge.” Almanacs. -EDS. that was his very case, viz: he feared all he had done for God was out of hypocrisy. If so gracious and sober a man say so, what condition may it be expected many will be in on a Death-bed. Monday, 2 of the Clock, P. M. Jan, 22. 167 6/7. went to Mr. Thacher’s, and spake to him about joyning to his Church. Wednesday, Jan. 24. Went to the 11th Meeting at Mr. Haywards, in the Chamber over Mr. Brattles Room, where G. J.ames Hill and Joseph Davis spake to Job, 22. 21. Acquaint thyself with him, &c. Note. Mr. Brattle and his Son-in-Law Mr. Oliver were there. See the Copy of the Letter wherein the Houses of some were threatened to be burnt. Jan. 23. 7 6/7. Thorsday, Jan. 25, Mr. Numan was here, to whome and to Mr. Serjeant (who staid here near an hour) I showed the Copy of the Letter cast into the Governours the Tuesday before. Jan. 26. Went to Charlestown Lecture, was 1/2 an hour too soon, so went in to Sir Allin, whether came also the Governour, his Lady, Mr. Mrs. Dudley, Mr. Hubbard, &c. Jan. 30. Sent a letter to Cousin Quinsey, which enclosed a piece of Gold that cost me 23s. Gave the Letter to Mr. Josson. In it ordered to buy 2 pair of Silk Stockings, pink colored, black, 1 pair Tabby Bodyes, cloath-coloured, 1/2 wide and long wastied: also Turkish Alcoran, 2d Hand, Map of London. Sent him a copy of verses made on Mr. Reynor. Jan. ult., sent a letter to Mr. Thacher, by the Bagg, in which Salutations, and some newes. Wednesday, 31 Brother John Sewall brought down Sister Jane to live with Mrs. Usher, but the next morn I went to her and she gave me to understand that she thought Jane would not come, and so had supplyed herself. Father Hull kindly invited her to stay here till she should change her condition if she so liked. Note. Just now wanted a Maid very much, courted Goodwife Fellows Daughter: she could not come till spring: hard to find a good one. So that Jane came in a critical time. Feb. 2. Brother journeys homeward. Had him in to Dr. Brakenburyes as he went along, who judgeth he may cure him. Feb. 8. John Holyday stands in the Pillory for Counterfieting a Lease, making false Bargains, &c. This morn. I visited Mr. Sanford, who desired me to remember his Christian (he hoped) HDT WHAT? INDEX

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Love to my Father Sewall, and mind him of Discourse had between them at Belchers, Cambridge, which he professed pleased him as much or more than any he had heard from any person before. Feb. 10. Mr. Sanford dyes about 9 in the morning. Buried Sabbath day after Sun-set. Feb. 7. Went to the 12th meeting at Mr. Morse his House, where Mr. Gershom Hobart spake well to James 1. 19. Feb. 14, 13th Meeting at Goodman Davis’s, where G. Tappin and Cousin Savage spake to 1 Peter 1. 6. By which words I seriously considered that no godly man hath any more afflictions than what he hath need of: qua meditatione mihi quidem die sequente usus fuit: nam socer (jam pene fervidus propter avenas sibi inconsulto oblatas) de stipite requo grandiore quem in ignem intempestive (ut aiebat) conjeci mihi iratus fuit, et si ita insipiens forem dixit se mihi fidem non habitutum, et ventosam mentem meam fore cattsativam. Deus del me sibi soli confidere, et creato nulli. Psal 37. 3. 4. 5, principium hujus psal. canebam. conscius, quem propter ea quae dicta sunt maestus petivi. [See translation in Hull’s Diary, p. 253.] In the thorsday even Mr. Smith of Hingham speaks to me to solicit that his Son, and my former Bedfellow, Henry Smith, might obtain Mr. Sanfords House and authority therein to teach School. Sister Jane brought, us in Beer. Friday morn Feb. 16, I go to Mrs. Sanford and (by her hint) to Mr. Frary, one of the overseers, who gave me some encouragement, and said that within a day or two, I should have an Answer. Wrote a Letter to Mr. Smith that Frary had given an encouraging answer, and that I thought no Delay was to be made least the Scholars should be lodged elsewhere. Feb. 18. The seats full of Scholars brought in by a Stranger who took Mr. Sanfords place: this I knew not of before. Friday, Feb. 16. Brewed my Wives Groaning Beer. Feb. 21. Went to the 13th Meeting at Cousin Savage’s; where my Father-in-Law and Goodman Needham spake to Psal. 6. 1. Feb. 23, 167 6/7. Mr. Torrey spake with my Father at Mrs. Norton’s, told him that he would fain have me preach, and not leave off my studies to follow Merchandize. Note. The evening before, Feb. 22, I resolved (if I could get an opportunity) to speak with Mr. Torrey, and ask his Counsel as to coming into Church, about my estate, and the temptations that made me to fear. But he went home when I was at the Warehouse about Wood that Tho. Elkins brought. Satterday, Mar. 3, 167 6/7 went to Mr. Norton to discourse with him about coming into the Church. He told me that he waited to see whether his faith were of the operation of God’s spirit, and yet often said that he had very good hope of his good Estate, and that one might be of the Church (i. e. Mystical) though not joined to a particular Congregation. I objected that of Ames, he said vere quaerentibus, the meaning was that such sought not HDT WHAT? INDEX

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God’s kingdom in every thing. I said it was meant of not at all. He said, was unsettled, had thoughts of going out of the country: that in coming into Church there was a covenanting to watch over one another which carried with it a strict obligation. And at last, that he was for that way which was purely Independent. I urged what that was. He said that all of the Church were a royal Priesthood, all of them Prophets, and taught of God’s Spirit, and that a few words from the heart were worth a great deal: intimating the Benefit of Brethrens prophesying: for this he cited Mr. Dell. I could not get any more. Dr. Mason (whom I have often seen with him) came in, after him Mr. Alden, so our Discourse was broken off. March 6. March 6, O great Menasseh, were it not for thee, In hopes of Pardon, I could hardly be.l March 7. A pretty deal of Thunder this day. Went to the 14th Meeting at B. Needham’s, where Mr. Noyes and Mr. Alden spake to 1 Sam. 15. 22. To obey better than Sacrifice, &c. March 9, 167 6/7, Cold and Clear. N. B. The corner House in the Street called Conney’s,2 next the Harbour, toward the North end of the Town, was set on fire about four in the Morn, as is rationally conjectured: for the middle of the roof onely was fired, and upon a Roof of a Leanto that came under that there were several drops of Tallow. It was discovered by an ancient Woman rising early, and so prevented, praised be God. March 11. Thanks were returned by the Selectmen in behalf of the Town, for its preservation. March 12. Went to the first Town Meeting that ever I was at in Boston. Capt. Brattle, Capt. Oliver, Mr. Joyliff, Mr. Lake, Mr. Turell, Mr. Allen, Deacon, Mr. Eliot, 1 Genesis xli. 51. An application to God of the epithet, The Great Forgetter of Sins. --EDS. 2 Coney’s street or lane seems to have been overlooked in 1708, when the Selectmen passed their order establishing the names, as printed in the “Historical Magazine” for September, 1868. From deeds on record (Suff. Reg. xxiii. 93), it seems that Cuney’s lane was known in 1704, when the heirs of John Mellows sold their father’s estate there. It seems as if this land was on the north side of Sudbury street, on the curve from Hanover street to Portland street. If so, Coney’s lane may have been the name of part of Sudbury street; or it may have been some lane, now obliterated, leading across or through that land above described. Sudbury end is on our Town Records in 1636, and Sudbury street in the Book of Possessions, dated c. 1643-1650. --EDS. Deacon: the last pleaded hard, but could not get off. Severall Constables, Fin’d, as Mr. Hez. Usher, Mr. Jonath. Corwin [for not being willing to serve]. March 13. Capt. Lake, the Remainder of his Corps, was honourably buried: Captains and Commissioners carried: no Magistrate save Major Clark there, because of the Court. I was not present because it was Tuesday.l HDT WHAT? INDEX

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March 14. Visited Mr. Willard, and so forgot to goe to the Meeting at Mr. Smith’s. March 15. Mane, oravit Bocer (indefinite) ne simus oneri tentationi crucis locis quibus posuit nos providentia. March 16. Dr. Alcock dyes about midnight. Note, Mrs. Williams told us presently after Dutyes how dangerously ill he was, and to get John to go for his Grandmother. I was glad of that Information, and resolved to goe and pray earnestly for him; but going into the Kitchin, fell into discourse with Tim about Mettals, and so took up the time. The Lord forgive me and help me not to be so slack for time to come, and so easy to disregard and let dye so good a Resolution. Dr. Alcock was 39 yeers old. March 19, 167 6/7 Dr. Alcock was buried, at whoes Funeral I was. After it, went to Mr. Thachers. He not within, so walkt with Capt. Scottow on the Change till about 5, then went again, yet he not come. At last came Elder Rainsford, after, Mr. Thacher, who took us up into his Chamber; went to prayer, then told me I had liberty to tell what God had done for my soul. After I had spoken, prayed again. Before I came away told him 1 Captain Thomas Lake was, with several others, surprised and killed by the Indians, on Aug. 14; near a fort on Arowsick Island, Maine, during the continuance of the war at the eastward. He had escaped to another island, and his fate was not known, nor his mangled body recovered, till many months afterwards. His monument may be seen on Copp’s Hill, where he was interred, though it is not decorated with the coat of arms shown in Bridgman’s Inscriptions. -- EDS. my Temptations to him alone, and bad him acquaint me if he knew any thing by me that might hinder justly my coming into Church. He said he thought I ought to be encouraged, and that my stirring up to it was of God. March 21, 167 6\7. Father and self rode to Dorchester to the Fast, which is the first time that ever I was in that Meeting- House. So was absent from the private Meetings. March 22. 23. Plenty of Rain after a great deal of dry and pleasant wether. In the afternoon of the 23d, Seth and I gather what herbs we could get, as Yarrow, Garglio, &c. March 26, 1677. Mr. Philips arrives from Scotland, brings the Newes of the Messengers Arrival about the beginning of December. They send Letters of the latter end of January. Brought likewise the lamentable newes of Mr. Samuel Danforth’s Death, of the Small Pox. March 30, 1677. I, together with Gilbert Cole, was admitted into Mr. Thacher’s Church, making a Solem covenant to take the L. Jehovah for our God, and to HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

walk in Brotherly Love and watchfulness to Edification. Goodm. Cole first spake, then I, then the Relations of the Women were read: as we spake so were we admitted; then alltogether covenanted. Prayed before, and after. Mar. 31. Old Mr. Oakes came hether, so I wrote a Letter to his Son, after this tenour : SIR, I have been, and am, under great exercise of mind with regard to my Spiritual Estate. Wherefore I do earnestly desire that you would bear me on your heal-tomorrow in Prayer, that God would give me a true Godly Sorrow for Sin, as such: Love to himself and Christ, that I may admire his goodness, grace, kindness in that way of saving man, which I greatly want. I think I shall sit down tomorrow to the Lords Table, and I fear I shall be an unworthy partaker. Those words, If your own hearts condemn you, God is greater, and knoweth all things, have often affrighted me. SAMUEL SEWALL. April 1, 1677. About Two of the Clock at night I waked and perceived my wife ill: asked her to call Mother. She said I should goe to prayer, then she would tell me. Then I rose, lighted a Candle at Father’s fire, that had been raked up from Saturday night, kindled a Fire in the chamber, and after 5 when our folks up, went and gave Mother warning. She came and bad me call the Midwife, Goodwife Weeden, which I did. But my Wives pains went away in a great measure after she was up; toward night came on again, and about a quarter of an hour after ten at night, April 2, Father and I sitting in the great Hall, heard the child cry, whereas we were afraid ‘twould have been 12 before she would have been brought to Bed. Went home with the Midwife about 2 o’clock, carrying her Stool, whoes parts were included in a Bagg. Met with the Watch at Mr. Rocks Brew house, who bad us stand, enquired what we were. I told the Woman’s occupation, so they bad God bless our labours, and let us pass. The first Woman the Child HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

sucked was Bridget Davenport. April 3. Cousin Flint came to us. She said we ought to lay scarlet on the Child’s head for that it had received some harm. Nurse Hurd watches. April 4. Clear cold weather. Goodwife Ellis watches. April 7, Saturday, first laboured to cause the child suck his mother, which he scarce did at all. In the afternoon my Wife set up, and he sucked the right Breast bravely, . . . April 8, 1677. Sabbath day, rainy and stormy in the morning, but in the afternoon fair and sunshine, though a blustering Wind. So Eliz. Weeden, the Midwife, brought the Infant to the third Church when Sermon was about half done in the afternoon, Mr. Thacher preaching. After Sermon and Prayer, Mr. Thacher prayed for Capt. Scottow’s Cousin and it. Then I named him John, and Mr. Thacher baptized hill into the name of the Father, Son, and H. Ghost. The Lord give the Father and Son may be convinced of and washed from Sin in the blood of Christ. April 9, morn. hot and gloomy with scattered Clouds: about 11 o’clk there fell a considerable Storm of Hail, after that it thundered a pretty while. The Child. . . . April 4th was at the 15th Meeting, kept at our house in the little Hall, because of my wives weakness. Mr. Scottow spoke to Is. 27. 9. prin. April 11 Stormy, blustering fore part, left raining a little before night. Went to the 16th Meeting at B. Easts, where Br. Edward Allen and John Hayward spake to John 6. 57, which was very Suitable for me, and I hope God did me some good at that meeting as to my Love to Christ. We heard after of the Slaughter of some persons at York by the Indians, among whom was Isaac Smith, who went thether about boards. This is Isaac Smith of Winnesimet. April 9, 1677. Seth Shove began to goe to School to Mr. Smith. April 18. My Father-in-Law and I went on foot to Dorchester, so were not at the Meeting. ‘Twas a HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

cold blustering day, as the last of March, and almost all this month has been very cold. Mr. Adams at Supper told of his wife being brought to bed of a Son about three weeks before, whom he named Eliphelet. April 25. even. Mr. Gershom and Nehemiah Hobart gave me a visit. April 27, Friday. Hannah Henchman and Susannah Everenden with two Eastern women taken into Church. Warm fair wether these two dayes. April 28. Considerable Claps of Thunder. April 28, 1677. Mr. Moody was here, he told me that Mr. Parker dyed last Tuesday, and was buried on Thorsday. Mr. Hubbard preached his funeral Sermon. The Lord give me grace to follow my dear Master as he followed Christ, that I may at last get to heaven whether he has already gone. April 30. Went to Mr. Oakes, carried him 50s, discoursed largely with him concerning my temptations: he exhorted me to study the Doctrine of Xt. well, to read Dr. Goodwin. Spake to him of the Doctor’s death: he told me that he died of a Cough and Cold which he caught standing in the cold after being hot in going from the Ferry. Told me ‘twas not safe to conceive a resemblance of Xt. in ones mind any more than to picture him. Read to me occasionally part of his Sermon yesterday, wherein he amply proved the confirmation and gathering together in a head the elect Angels in Xt. Heb. 12. 22, 33: cum multis aliis. Note. [May Training No date] I went out this morning without private prayer and riding on the Comon, thinking to escape the Souldiers (because of my fearfull Horse); notwithstanding there was a Company at a great distance which my Horse was so transported at that I could no way govern him, but was fain to let him go full speed, and hold my Hat under my Arm. The wind was Norwest, so that I suppose I took great cold in my ear thereby, and also HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

by wearing a great thick Coat of my Fathers part of the way, because it rained, and then leaving it off. However it was, I felt my throat ill, the danger of which I thought had been now over with the winter, and so neglected it too much, relapsed, and grew very sick of it from Friday to Monday following, which was the worst day: after that it mended. Mr. Mather visited me and prayed on that day. May 5, Saturday: Mr. Gillam arrived from the Streights. May 9, Mr. Tanner arrived from London, wherein came Mr. Thacher who brought news of the death of Mr. George Alcock, he dyed of the Pocks: also Mr. Thacher and his Sister Davenport were here. May 15. Mr. Anderson’s Vessel Arrived; as for himself, he dyed yesterday about 4 of the clock. T. pomer. [i.e., tempore post meridiano. ] May 16, went to the 17th Meeting at B. Hills, where B. Tapin and Cousin Savage spake to Heb. 10. 24. May 30, went to the 18th Meeting at Mr. Wings, where Mr. Thacher spake to the 4 last verses of 92 Psal. June 4. Went to Plimouth. June 6. Returned. June 13.1 Went to the 19th Meeting at B. Williams, where G. Needham and my Father spake to Ps. 119. 11. June 17. Sabbath day about 7 m, John Sewall had a Convulsion Fit. He was asleep in the Cradle, and suddenly started, trembled, his fingers contracted, his eyes starting and being distorted. I went to Mr. Brackenbury, and thence to Charlestown, and set him to the child. June the nineteenth he had another about noon. June 21,1677. Just at the end of the Sermon (it made Mr. Allen break off the more abruptly) one Torrey, of Roxbury, gave a suddain and amazing cry which disturbed the whole Assembly. It seems he had the falling sickness. Tis to be feared the Quaker disturbance and this are ominous. July 8, 1677. New Meeting House [the third, or South] Mane: In Sermon time there came in a female Quaker, HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

in a Canvas Frock, her hair disshevelled and loose like a Periwigg, her face as black as ink, led by two other Quakers, and two other followed. It occasioned the greatest and most amazing uproar that I ever saw. Isaiah 1.12, 14. Wednesday May 19, 1675. [so dated] that place of the 1 Sam. 15. 26. came to my mind (as I came down from my Brother,) which gave me great comfort, especially for that presently after reading Mr. Caryl on course, I found it there parenthetically paraphrased. Thursday, May 20. relieved by reading what he saith on the same verse, about limiting God in works of Spiritual Mercy, p. 257. 1 “1677. Apri1 24, 3. Dear Mr Parker dyed; 26th, buried May 5, 7. Gillam appulit. 9th, 4. Tanner appulit [arrived]. 15, 3. Robert Anderson appulit June 12, 3. Goodm. Adams. 15, 6, Gerrish. 14 to 23, Extreme hot weather, person much adoe to live.” Almanacs. --EDS. Note: Wednesday Decemb. 29. ‘75 Mr. Reyner came hether in the even. Lodged with me. Upon enquiry he told me that one might not resolve to forsake such and such sins by reason of a jealousy that one should fall into the same again. He himself had experienced this, feared that he was not willing, because not resolved, till he saw it was through a foresight of the effects of his corrupt nature and infirmity. May 23, 1676. Fast at Mr. Gibbs for Mr. Thacher. 24, he grows better, having taken reasonable [medicine for] health. N. B. Being distressed with melancholy and troubled concerning my State -- I was relieved by Mr. Willards Sermon, especially at two places quoted, Ps. 16. ULT quoted for the latter part, which I (having a Bible) turned to and saw the beginning: I will shew thee the path of life. Jude 5. 24. Comfort against falling away. Oct. 22. Musing at Noon and troubled at my untowardness in worship, God, he holp me to pray, Come, Lord Jesus, come quickly to put me into a better frame, taking HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

possession of me. Troubled that I could love Xt. no more, it came into my mind that Xt. had exhibited himself to be seen in the Sacrament, the Lords Supper, and I conceived that my want of Love was, that I could see Xt. no more clearly. Vid. Mr. Thacher Dec. 10. 2d . Answer to the objection under the 2d Reason. Vid. Mr. Shepard, Dec. 15. Use 3. Vid. Mr. Thacher, Decr. 17. Direction 9. which I am sure was spoken to me. The Lord set it home efficaciously by his Spirit, that I may have the perfect Love which casts out fear. Jan. 13, 167 6/7. Giving my chickens meat, it came to my mind that I gave them nothing save Indian corn and water, and yet they eat it and thrived very well, and that that food was necessary for them, how mean soever, which much affected me and convinced what need I stood in of spiritual food, and that I should not nauseat daily duties of Prayer, &c. Jan. 22. Went to Mr. Thachers, found him at home, mentioned my desire of communion with his Church, rehearsed to him some of my discouragements, as, continuance in Sin, wandering in prayer. He said ‘twas thought that was the Sin Paul speaks of, Rom. VII. At my coming away said he thought I ought to be encouraged. Feb. 15. Having been often in my mind discouraged from joining to the Church by reason of the weakness, or some such undesirableness in many of its members: I was much relieved by the consideration of 1 Cor. 1. 26, 27. which came to my mind as I was at prayer. What is spoken there was set home on me, to take away my pride and be content with God’s wisdom: thought it might seem to uncovenanted reason foolishness. Having often been apt to break out against God himself as if he had made me a person that might be a fit subject of calamity, and that he led me into difficulties and perplexing miseries; I had my spirit calmed by considering what an absurd thing it was to say to God -- “Why hast HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

thou made me thus?,” and startled at the daring height of such wickedness. These thoughts had reference to [Isaiah XLV. 9, 10. This was at prayer time, Feb. 19. Mane. Death never looked so pleasingly on me as Feb. 18 upon the hearing of Mr. Thachers 3 Arguments. Methought it was rather a privilege to dye, and therein be conformed to Christ, than, remaining alive at his coming, to be changed. Mar. 1. Was somewhat relieved by what John read occasionally out of Antipologia,l concerning the unwarrantable excuse that some make for not coming to the Sacrament: viz. unworthiness. Mar. 15, even. Was holp affectionately to argue in 1 In 1643, the Independents published an “Apologetical Narration.” It was answered by Mr. Edwards (author of the “Gangraena “), minister of Christ Church, London, in an “Antapologia.” Neal, Hist. Pur., Part III. Ch.4. -- EDS. prayer the promise of being heard because asking in Christ’s name. March 19, 167 6/7 Accidentally going to look about the woman of Cana, Mr. Chauncey’s Sermons on her, I at first dash turned to that Sermon of the 7th and 14 March. March 21. Mane. God holp me affectionately to pray for a communication of his Spirit in attending on him at Dorchester, and the night before I read the 9th and 10th of Nehemiah, out of which Mr. Mather happened to take his Text, which he handled to good purpose, and more taking it was with me because I had perused those chapters for my fitting to attend on that exercise. Mr. Flint prayed admirably in the morn, & pressed much our inability to keep Covenant with God, and therefore begged God’s Spirit. Mr. Thacher began the afternoon: then Mr. Flint preached and so concluded. March 167 8/9 Note. I have been of a long time loth to HDT WHAT? INDEX

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enter into strict Bonds with God, the sinfullness and hypochrisy of which God hath showed me by reading of a Sermon that Mr. Burgess preached before the House of Comons, Nov. 17, 1640, and by the forementioned Sermons and prayers. Omnia in bonum mihi vertas, O Deus. I found the Sermon accidentally in Mr. Norton’s Study. Remember, since 1 had thoughts of joining to the Church, I have been exceedingly tormented in my mind, sometimes lest the Third church [the South] should not be in God’s way in breaking off from the old. (I resolved to speak with Mr. Torrey about that, but he passed home when I was called to buisiness at the Warehouse. Another time I got Mr. Japheth Hobart to promise me a Meeting at our House after Lecture, -- but she that is now his wife, being in town, prevented him.) Sometimes with my own unfitness and want of Grace: yet through importunity of friends, and hope that God might communicate himself to me in the ordinance, and because of my child (then hoped for) its being baptised, I offered myself, and was not refused. Besides what I had written, when I was speaking [at his admission to the Church] I resolved to confess what a great Siner I had been, but going on in the method of the Paper, it came not to my mind. And now that Scruple of the Church vanished, and I began to be more afraid of myself. And on Saturday Goodman Walker1 came in, who used to be very familiar with me. But he said nothing of my coming into the Church, nor wished God to show me grace therein, at which I was almost overwhelmed, as thinking that he deemed me unfit for it. And I could hardly sit down to the Lord’s Table. But I feared that if I went away I might be less fit next time, and thought that it would be strange for me who was just then joined to the Church, to withdraw, wherefore I stayed. But I never experienced more unbelief. I feared at least that I did not believe HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

there was such an one as Jesus Xt., and yet was afraid that because I came to the ordinance without belief, that for the abuse of Xt. I should be stricken dead; yet I had some earnest desires that Xt. would, before the ordinance were done, though it were when he was just going away, give me some glimpse of himself; but I perceived none. Yet I seemed then to desire the coming of the next Sacrament day, that I might do better, and was stirred up hereby dreadfully to seek God who many times before had touched my heart by Mr. Thacher’s praying and preaching more than now. The Lord pardon my former grieving of his Spirit, and circumcise my heart to love him with all my heart and soul. [Here closes Volume 1. of the Journal.] 1 This was probably Robert Walker, of Boston, whose affidavit, taken in 1679 (printed in N. E. Hist.-Gen. Register, VII. 46), states that he knew Henry Sewall in Manchester, England, and that his only son was Henry S., of Newbury (father of Samuel). --EDS. [It will be noted that the last few pages contain items not in regular course. It has seemed best to add in this place all the entries in the interleaved Almanacs before mentioned. Sewall was in the habit of making these brief entries in his Almanacs, to be afterward expanded in his Journal.] 1677. Sept. 12, 4 [day of the week). Legg appulit [arrived). 16,1. Eliezer Danford arrives. 19,4, Hatfield. 23,1. Sam. Bridgham. 24, M. G.J. S. Oct. 20, 7. Capt. S. Mosely. 31, 4. Dorchester. Dec. 14, 6. T. Smith. 21. Shephard. HDT WHAT? INDEX

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1678

May: Samuel Sewall became a Freeman of the Massachusetts-Bay Colony. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1679

Samuel Sewall became a member of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company.

1678. May 3, Frid. Welcome arrived from London. -- 23. Johnson and Knott arrived. June 11, 3. Sam. Sewall natus. 16, 1. Baptizatus. Aug. 23, 6. Watch begins to be warned out of my precincts. Nov. 9, 7. Mr. Jno. Noyes dies. 10. Buried. E. Thurston dies. Teste Sarah Noyes. Dec. 15, 1. Returned to my own bed after my sickness of the Small Pox. 1678-9. Jan. 18, 7. Visit Public Houses. Feb. 15, 7. Visit Public Houses. March 16, 1. Governour Leverett dieth. 25,3. Is buried. 1679. [On back of title of Almanac1] Sim Bradstreet 1216 Tho. Clark 443 Dan. Gookin 1051 Humph. Davie 577 Dan. Denison 1127 Tho. Savage 530 Tho. Danforth 1217 Jno. Hall 467 Wm. Hawthorn 796 Laurenc Hamond 405 Esqs. Jno. Pynchon 1195 Rob. Pike 281 Edw. Tyng 1146 Jno. Woodbridge 231 Wm. Stoughton 1174 1679 Jos. Dudley 1189 Apr. 8. 1118 Jno. Leverett 1203 Nath. Saltonstall 954. 1 This undoubtedly represents the vote for the government. Bradstreet was chosen governor; Danforth, deputy-governor; and ten Assistants out of the first thirteen names; i.e., through H. Davie and omitting T. Clark. Hutchinson (I. 326) mentions, that in this very year the King’s Letter required the Colony to appoint the charter number of eighteen Assistants, HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

as the practice had become fixed to choose only eight or ten. This was obeyed ill the following year. --EDS.] [1679. Mch. 18, 3. Const. Collation deferred. April 15, 3. Perambulation. 1679. April 30. Hanah Hitte. June 12, 5. Laurenc Oakes dyes at night of the Small Pocks. 24, 3. Miss Mary Adams dyed. 25, 4. Mr. Samll. Haugh dyed S. S. C. July 10, Balston ar. 1679-80. Feb. 3, 3. Hannah Sewall born. 8th, baptzd. 1680. Aug. 24, 8. His Excellency, Thomas, Lord Culpeper, Baron of Thorsway, Gov. of Virginia, came to Boston. Lord Culpeper, Dorchester. [His title was Baron Colepeper of Thoresway, co. Lincoln, and he d. s. p. m. in 1688.] Sept. 16. Sergt. Wait. 19. Marthah Clark, widow, 85 years old. 23, 5. Dorch. Elder Bowld occiditur a curru. [This means undoubtedly Elder John Bowles of Roxbury.] 1680-1. Jan. 11. D. Lawson. 10. Charles River frozen over, so to Nod[dles] Island. A list of Persons belonging to the South Company of Boston liable to Watch themselves, or by their money to procure Watchmen; as they were marshalled by the Lieutenant and myself Octr 13. 1679, in two lists, that each Clark might have half and warn no more at one turn. 1679 CLARK VERGOOSE HIS LIST. Corpll Raynsford Sergt Jno Pell Edward Ellis Tho Paddy 1 Jonathan Wales 4 Jno Balstoli John Howen Richard Keats Francis Smith Roger Burgess Jno. Brandon Wm Middleton Nic Neal Jno Baker Sergt Sergt Jno Bull James Jnoson Tho Hill Alexander Baker 5 Wm King 2 Josiah Baker Tho Gent HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

Tho. Prirehet Charles Perry Wid. Goose Danll Gent Samuel Mason James Townsend James Lindon Alexr. Bogle 3 Jno Sibly 6 Jos. Holms junr Tho. Plimly Wm Obison Digory Sargent Tho Rumly Jane Bernard Abel Porter.] Joseph Wheeler Jno Holman Peter Wyer Wm Goddard [7 Jos Warren 8 Jno Hurd Tho Thurston Jos Hurd Eben Danforth Benj Smith HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1681

Feb. 28. Coragious South wind breaks the ice between Boston and Dorch! Neck. Hath been a very severe winter for snow and a constant continuance of cold weather; such as most affirm hath not been for many yeers. 1681. July 28. Barrett arrives. Sept. 9, 6. Autor John Foster obit. [Evidently the Dorchester school-master “that made the then Seal or Arms of the Colony, namely an Indian with a Bow and Arrow, &c.” as Blake’s Annals inform us. It was in a copy of the Almanac “by John Foster, Astrophil,” that Sewall was writing, and he notes down “The Author Dyed Sept. 9. 1681.” Several of the Almanacs are marked “ex dono Authoris.”] October 12, Wednesday (Old Style): Samuel Sewall was appointed by the General Court to manage the printing press of the town of Boston.

1681-2. Feb. 14, 3. Major Savage dyes, Rox. 1682. July 12, 4. Wm. Taylour, Merc. exit. July 22, 7. Col. Robert Richbell. Aug. 17, 5. Blazing St[ar.] 23, 4. Seen in evening, plain.] [ - 21, 2. The Rev. Mr. Isaac Foster buried. [A classmate of Sewall.] Nov. 9, 5. Doma Brattle aufugit. [Mrs. Brattle dies. See p. 56.] 28, 3. Ship cast away, 7 men of 13 lost. Dec. 5, 3. Gov. Cranfield. 20,4. Fast at Mr. Mather’s. 30. Mr. Joseph Pynchon dyes. 1682-3. Jan’y 12, 6. Landlady, Jane Fissende dyes. Bur’d. 16, 3. (Tuesday.) 17, 4. Mr. T. Weld, Roxb. dyes. Buried 19th, 6. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

25. Fast, O[ld] Meet[ing] House. Flocks of Pigeons are seen this month at Newbury. 1682-3. Feb. 2, 6. Edw. Dudley F. 6. 3. Calf Braintrey. [The Almanac for 1683 is by printed by S. G. for S.S. i.e. Samuel Green for Samuel Sewall. In it is written, “the last half sheet was Printed with my Letters at Boston. S. S.” The 1ast four leaves of the A1manae are in different type, which explains this reference.] 1683. Aug. 14, 3. My father watched his last. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1683

At some point during this year, earlier rather than later, Samuel Sewall became an Ensign in the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Boston.

Mary Dolling Gookin died. From this point until his 3d marriage in 1685, Daniel Gookin’s household would consist of himself, his son the Reverend Nathaniel Gookin, pastor of 1st Church in Cambridge, and 16-year- old John Eliot (a son of his daughter Elizabeth Gookin by her marriage with the Reverend John Eliot, Jr.).

Henry Jocelyn died, leaving, as likewise in the case of his brother John Josselyn, no descendants.

October 1, Monday (Old Style): Samuel Sewall’s father-in-law, John Hull the mint-master of the Massachusetts-Bay Colony, died.

December 5, Wednesday (Old Style): Samuel Sewall became Captain of the late Captain John Hull’s Company.

John Evelyn’s diary entry for this day was in part as follows: I was this day invited to a Wedding of one Mrs. Castle, to whom I had some obligation, & it was to her fift Husband, a Lieutennant Coll[onel] of the Citty: The woman was the daughter of one Burton a Broome-man & of a Mother who sold Kitchin stuff in Kent Streete, Whom God so blessed, that the Father became a very rich & an honest man, was Sherif of Surrey, where I have sat on the bench with him: Another of his daughters was Married to one Sir Jo: Bowles; & this Daughter a jolly friendly woman: There was at the Wedding the Lord Major, the Sherif, severall Aldermen and persons of quality, & above all Sir Geo: Jeoffries newly made Lord Chiefe Justice of England, with Mr. Justice Withings, daunced with the Bride, and were exceeding Merrie: These greate men spent the rest of the afternoone til 11 at night in drinking healths, taking Tobacco, and talking much beneath the gravity of Judges, that had but a day or two before Condemn’d Mr. Algernoon Sidny, who was executed on the 7th on Tower hill upon the single Wittnesse of that monster of a man the L[ord] Howard of Eskrick, and some sheetes of paper taken in Mr. Sidnys study, pretended to be writen by him, but not fully proov’d, nor the time when, but appearing to have ben written before his Majesties restauration, & then pardon’d by the Act of Oblivion: So as though Mr. Sidny was known to be a person obstinately averse to government by a Monarch (the subject of the paper, in answer to one of Sir E[dward] Filmer) yet it was thought he had very hard measure: There is this yet observable, that he had ben an inveterate enemy to the last King, & in actual rebellion against him: a man of greate Courage, greate sense, greate parts, which he shew’d both at his trial & death; for when he came to the scaffold, in stead of a speech, he told them onely, that he had made his peace with God; that he came not hither to talk but to die, put a paper into the Sherifs hand, & another HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

into a friends, sayed one prayer as short as a grace, laied downe his neck, & bid the Executioner do his office: The Duke of Monmouth now having his pardon, refuses to accknowledge there was any Treasonable plot, for which he is banish’d to White-hall: This was a greate dissappointment to some, who had prosecuted the rest, namely Trenchard, Hampden &c: that for want of a second wittnesse were come out of the Tower upon their Habeas Corpus. The King had now augmented his guards with a new sort of dragoons, who also carried granados & were habited after the polish manner with long picked Caps very fierce & fantastical; & was very exotic:

December 20, Thursday (Old Style): I went to Deptford, return’d the 22d in very cold & severe weather: My poore Servant Humphry Prideaux being falln sick of the small-pox some days before: December 23, Sunday (Old Style): ... This night died my poore excellent servant of the small pox, that by no remedies could be brought out, to the wonder of the Physitians: It was exceedingly mortal at this time; & the season was unsufferably cold. The Thames frozen, &c: December 26, Wednesday (Old Style): I dined at my Lord Clarendons where I was to meete that most ingenious and learned Gent[leman] Sir Geo: Wheeler, who has publish’d that excellent description of Attica & Greece, and who being a knight of a very faire estate & young had now newly entred into holy Orders: I also now kissed the Princesse of Denmarks hand, who was now with Child. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

December 27, Thursday (Old Style): I went to visite Sir J. Chardin that French gent,16 who had 3 times travelled into Persia by Land, and had made many curious researches in his Travells, of which he was now setting forth a relation. It being in England this yeare one of the most severe frosts that had happn’d of many yeares, he told me, the Cold in Persia was much greater, the yce of an incredible thicknesse: That they had little use of Iron in all that Country, it being so moist (though the aire admirably cleare & healthy) that oyle would not preserve it from rusting immediately, so as they had neither clocks nor Watches, some padlocks they had for doors & boxes &c:

1684. [Items in two Almanacs.] Mch 27, 5. Jack, Negro. 22, 7. An extraordinary high tide. May 6, 3. Commissioners Court. June 10, 3. Henry Pease. June 21 7. Thos. Powes drowned. July 2, 4. Prreses obit. [Prest. of Harvard.] Sepultus est July 3d. The President dies July 2d, just as the sun gets from being eclipsed. Ju1y 8, 3. Hull Sewall natus. 22, 3. Special Court of Assistants. 30, 4. Mr. Nath. Gookin. Oct. 2, 5. Mr. Philip Jones buried. 8, 4. Clark arrives. 18, 7. Gardener arrives. 20, 2. Foy arrives. Nov. 8, 7. Dom Wade Sepult. est. 15, 7. Jolls Belcher. 18, 3. Mehetabel. 19,4. Capt. Johnson obit. Nov. 25, Tues. A very high tide, begun to run into our Cellar. Filled C. Hills. Dec. 4, 5. Capt. Berry sails. [The Almanac for 1685 begins with an entry in regard to the deputies, which is copied into the Journal and stands in the text.] [Having had an opportunity to examine certain notes upon the preceding portion of the Diary, prepared by the late Rev. Samuel Sewall of Burlington, Mass., the custodian of the MSS. for so many years, the editors have judged proper to make the following extracts therefrom.] On p. 2, line 2. “Herboord’s Physick.” Mr. Sewall notes that it was probably the book entered on the “College Catalogue,” of 1790, under Metaphysics, -- “Heerboord, (Adrian) Meletemata philosophica, 4to. Ams. 1665.” 16. Evelyn had already met him. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

P. 2, line 16. “Mr. Gookin.” A reference is made to N.E.Hist. and Gen. Reg., IV. 79, where was printed an extract from the “College Book,” No.3, to the effect that, “Novemb. 5, 1673, Sr. Sewall was chosen fellow and together with Mr. Daniel Gookin, installed before the overseers, Novemb. 26.” P. 3, line 25. In addition to our footnote, we may give Mr. Sewall’s opinion, that, at this interview with Mr. Oakes, the diarist expressed his intention of resigning his fellowship, as Joseph Brown and John Richardson had done the year before, and Dr. Oakes feared that it would be attributed to his influence. P.4, last line but one. “Sir Weld commonplaced.” Mr. Sewall writes that “commonplacing” denotes the reducing and treating of topics of theology, philosophy, &c., under certain common places or general heads, and is recognized as follows in “Laws, Liberties, and Orders of Harvard College,” 1642-46, as an exercise expected at certain times of Resident Bachelors as well as Sophisters among the undergraduates. “No. 5. And all Sophisters and Bachelors (until themselves make common place) shall publicly repeat sermons in the Hall, whenever they are called forth.” Mr. Sewall also says that the title “Sir,” until within the memory of the last generation, was given to one who had taken his degree as Bachelor until he took his degree of Master, when his style became “Mr.” The same custom prevailed in England. P. 5, line 4 from bottom. “Summoned to wait on the Court.” Reference is here made to the Col. Rec., V. 20, wherein is printed the order of the General Court in this matter. P. 6, line 19. “Goodman Cheny, Nic. Fissenden.” Here Mr. Sewall refers to “Book of the Lockes,” p. 313, and thus enables us to add to the footnote on p. 5. It seems by Locke, that Nicholas Fessenden married Margaret Cheney, and had a child born July, 1676. Hence his wife may well be Margaret, daughter of Thomas HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

Cheney, of Cambridge, born November, 1656, who had a brother Thomas. The Cheneys would thus be connected with the bride, Hannah Fessenden. Jan. 18, 1688-89, Judge Sewall notes: “Arrived at Canterbury, visited Aunt Fissenden, her son John, and, daughters Mary, Elizabeth and Jane.” This may imply a previous connection between the Sewalls and Fessendens in England. P. 13, line 20. Mr. Willard’s lecture. Mr. Sewall notes that this was not the famous Boston Thursday Lecture, but a stated monthly lecture at the Third, or South, Church, delivered on the Wednesday preceding Communion Sunday, every fourth week. P.13, line 21. “Mr. Woodrop,” &c. Mr. Sewall reads these names, “Hobart, Ger. Nehem.” meaning Rev. Gershom and Rev. Nehemiah Hobart, both sons of Rev. Peter H., of Hingham. He adds, the next three were probably Sewall’s classmates, Samuel Phips, Rev. Thomas Weld, and Rev. , -- the latter name being wrongly read by the transcriber (all this being an old copy of a lost original) as Faild. This seems the more probable, as Savage records no such surname as Faild; and the nearest approach to it, Fales, is not prominent on our records till later. P.16. Timothy Dwight and his uncle Eliot. On this point, Mr. Sewall says he has discovered nothing. We take the opportunity, however, to record the result of our later searches. It seems certain that this Timothy Dwight was that son of Captain Timothy Dwight, of Dedham, who was born Nov. 26, 1654, was a goldsmith in Boston, and d. s. p. in 1691. (Dwight Genealogy, I. 105.) From the reference here, on p. 31, line 16, and p. 38, line 18, we conclude that Timothy was an apprentice of Hull’s, and lived in the house, as did John Alcock. Captain Timothy Dwight, of Dedham, married, for his second wife (he had six), Sarah Powell, who was the mother of our Timothy. It has been already shown (N. E. Hist. and Gen. Register, XXIX. 25), HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

that Deacon Jacob Eliot married Mary Powell, widow of William Wilcox. Mrs. Eliot was, therefore, aunt of Timothy Dwight, being his mother’s sister. Both were undoubtedly the children of Michael Powell, of Boston, as the following will of Michael’s widow shows: Suff. Wills, VI. 190; will of Abigail Powell, widow, dated March 4, 1677, gives to her four daughters, Abigail Howlett, Elizabeth Hollingsworth, Dorothy Perry and Margaret Howard, each £50. To Joseph Elliot, eldest son of Dea. Jacob E., £20. To Timothy Dwite, eldest son of Timothy D., of Dedham, £20. To Michael Perry, £5, to Samuel Howlett, £5. Son-in-law Anthony Howard and Seth Perry, execors.; four daughters residuary legatees. As Mrs. Eliot was alive, we may fairly conclude that she and Mrs. Dwight were Powell’s daughters by a previous wife. But our Timothy undoubtedly came into the Hull connection in another way. His father was then living with his third wife, Anna Flynt, who was niece of Edmund Quincy, Hull’s brother-in- law and step-brother. The evidently close connection between Hull and Qumcy would account for Dwight’s employment. P. 34, line 25. “Mr. Josson.” This name should be Jesson. P. 46, line 5 from bottom. “Japheth Hobart.” Mr. Sewall notes that Savage says that Hobart went to England before 1670, intending to go to the East Indies, and was never heard of; and that this statement does not agree well with the text. [The following notes in regard to setting the watch are found at the end of the first volume of Sewall’s Diary, and are printed as giving valuable information not to be found on the town records. This South Company was that of Captain John Hull. In the First Report of the Record Commissioners of Boston, published by the City Government in 1877, there are tax lists of 1676 and 1681. This list of 1679 covers a different year, and may be compared with that printed on p. 75 of the Report. --EDs.] HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

Eliza Till Prudence Morse Daniel Qlunsey Samuel Clark Jno Newman 9 Matthias Smith Joseph Brisco Elenour Evans For the better Inspection of the several Watches, and the four several Guards in this Town of Boston. It is Ordered, Agreed and Concluded by the Committee of Militia for the said Town, that the eight Foot Companyes by their Commission Officers and Serjants (being seven in each Company) or for want thereof, or by reason of any other hindrance, a Sufficient Supply be made at the discretion of the rest of the Officers of said Company: Also the Officers of the Troop that live in the Town (eight) or for want thereof to be supplyed of their Troopers, as abovesaid: Which said Sixty four Men shall each in their respective turn as hereafter mentioned take unto them one or two more that live in the Precincts of their own Company who shall walk every Night (in their several Turn) throwout the Town in every Quarter, and shall take Inspection of the several Guards and Watches, how they are managed, and give such Directions as to them shall seem meet for the better discharge of their Duty according to Law, Taking the care and charge of all the Watches in the Town in their respective nights; Who shall march with an Half Pike with a fair head, by which he may be known to be the Commander of the Watch, and in the morning leave the same with him whoes Turn is next, which shall be accounted a sufficient Warning or notice to the next Commander to take his Turn. Have entered the Order of the South Company onely. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

This is conceived to O D M M J S Trooper preceding Mr. be the best Method c e a a u e Saffin for regulating of the t c y r l p Commanders Watch that hat been 24 27 1 4 7 9 Capt John Hull hetherto agreed on 25 28 2 5 8 10 Lieutenant 1 Sergt. 26 29 3 6 9 11 Ensigne 2 4 Sergants 3 Trooper Arthur Mason] 4 [The order of the several Persons watching in the several Nights is to be as above expressed, and the time to begin is this night following Monday Sept 6. 1680, which is Agreed by the Committee of Militia, as doth Attest Thomas Savage, Clark of the said Committee. An extract of the Major’s warrant, dated Aug. 19, 1680:- Impress twenty able Souldiers two of them Carpenters, all well Armed with fixed fire-lock Arms -- one pound of Powder, 3 pounds of Shot. for Service of the Country at Casco Bay; to appear at the Town House at 12 of the Clock the 24th Instant, Proportioned the Men at the Town House, Captains meeting, or some of them 1 Major Clark 3 6 Lieut Pen Townsend 2 2 Major Savage 3 7 Capt Hull 2 3 Capt. Hudson 3 8 Capt Hutchinson 2 4 Capt Henchman 2 ___ 5 Capt Richards 3 20 Had one from Muddy River; and Joshua Atwater offered himself to us as Volunteer; so furnished him with Arms; but his carriage den was such formerly and now, that he was dismissed. Monday, April 18,1681, Capt John Hull gave Andrew Gardener of Muddy River, his Halbert in Token of his having constituted him a Serjant; and declared him (as to his Place) to be the Second; viz 1 Jno Bull 2. Andrew Gardener; 3 John Pell; 4 Solomon Rainsford, This was done in the Evening, after Training, in the little Hall, present Lieutenant, Ensigne, Serjents, Corporal Odlin, Clarks, Drummers. The Ceremony of delivering a Halbert having been a good while since been performed to the three Serjants, and not to Serjant Gardener, some began to mutter that Serjant Gardener was none, and some, that ‘twas not intended he should be any: and none knew what his place was. Now said Gardener was made a Corporal of the South Company when Wm Hudson Captain, on the same day with our Lieut. Frary and Ensigne Thurston; and he hath proved HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

constant and diligent; wherefore ‘twas agreed on as mentioned p. ( ); though Serjt Gardener disabled himself, modestly and earnestly desireing to have the 4th place, according to the date of the Ceremony. Since there is a gap in this Diary, from July, 1677, to March, 1684-85, caused by the loss or disappearance of one or more volumes, it may be well to remind the reader that John Hull, Sewall’s fatherin-law, kept a similar record, which ends Sept. 20, 1682. This record, which embraced a private and a general diary, was published in Vol. III. of the “Transactions of the American Antiquarian Society,” in 1857. We copy from the private or personal record a few items relating to Sewall: -- 1673-6, “Feb. 28, being Monday, Mr. Broadstreet married my daughter Hannah to Samuel Sewall, in the evening.” 1677 “2d, 2d, being Monday, at ten o’clock at night, my grandchild, John Sewall, was safely born into the world.” 1678. “June 4, on the third day of the week, in the morning, half an hour before six o’clock, Samuel Sewall was safely born.” 1678. “Sept. 10, John Sewall had a vomiting, continuing that day and the night following, and then taken with convulsion fits, -- about seventeen sore fits. He died about twelve o’clock, before the 12th of September.” 1679-80. “Hannah Sewall was safely born into the world, being the third day of the week, about midnight.” “Elizabeth Sewall was safely born into the world, Dec. 29, 1681, a little after four o’clock in the afternoon.” John Hull died Oct. 1, 1683, leaving a widow, Judith, who lived till 1695. The following items respecting Sewall’s life during this period having been gathered from various sources: -- March 30, 1677, he joined the (Old) South Church in Boston. May, 1678, he was made a freeman. March 10, 1678-79, he was appointed by the town of Boston one of perambulators of bounds for Muddy River, now Brookline. In December, 1680, Hull writes to a correspondent, “I have received your glasses and hats, and have obtained my son-in-law, Samuel Sewall to take your consignment of them. He hath sold” a part, &c. Although Sewall’s Diary is lacking for the period 1677-85, it HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

would seem as if some part of it had been known quite recently. In the notes to Hull’s Diary, as printed, p. 278, is the following, given as au extract from the Diary of Samuel Sewall: -- “Thursday, Nov. 9, 1682. Daniel Quincey married Mrs. Anna Shepard, before John Hull, Esq. Samuel Nowell, Esq, and many persons present, -- almost Capt Brattle’s great hall full. Mr. Willard began with prayer; Mr. T. Shepard concluded. As he was praying, Cousin Savage, my mother Hull, Colony Rec., V. 323, Oct.. 12,1681: “Mr. Samuel Seawall, at the instance of some friends, with respect to the accommodation of the publicke, being prevailed with to undertake the management of the printing press in Boston, late under the improvement of Mr. John Foster, deceased, liberty is accordingly granted to him for the same by this Court, and none may presume to sett up any other presse without the like liberty first granted.” Dec. 26, 1681. Samuel Sewall was surety on the town’s book for Samuel Green, printer, and his family, that they should not be chargeable to the town. (Boston Records.) March 13, 1682-83, he was appointed by the town, with , Anthony Checkley, and the seven Selectmen, a committee to draw up instructions for its deputies to the General Court. This was, of course, an important trust. Aug. 31, 1683, he was chosen one of the seven Commissioners of the town to assess rates. Oct. 10, 1683 (Rec., V. 418), “It is ordered, that the Tresurer of the county, as soon as can, satisfy and pay in mony to Mr. Samuel Seawall tenn pounds seventeen shillings, for printing Mr. Samuel Torreys sermon at the last election.” The new edition of Thomas’s “History of Printing” contains the titles of some ten pamphlets printed for Sewall. Nov. 7, 1683, his name appears on the roll of the General Court, as a deputy from Westfield, a town in Hampshire County, which John Hull represented in 1674. my wife and myself, came in. A good space after, when we had eaten cake and drunk wine and beer plentifully, we are called into the hall again to sing. In singing-time, Mrs. Brattle goes out, being ill. Most of the company go away, thinking it a fit. But she grows worse, speaks not a word, and so dies away in her chair. And the strangeness and horror of the thing fills the (just now) joyous house with sorrow and ejulation.” This account is repeated in Harris’s Genealogy of the Brattles, with a few additions; but we have been unable to trace either version to the original. -- EDS. Dec. 5, 1683 (Col. Rec.,V. 426): “Upon complaint of Leiftenant Frary, that their company is under much discouragement, by reason of the removing of Mr. Sewall from them to command another company, and other inconveniences arising thereby, this Court judgeth it meete to recall that former order, and doe appoint HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

Mr. Samuel Seawall captaine of that company belonging to Capt. John Hull, and Mr. Frary to remain leiftenant of that company as formerly.” HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1684

May 7, Sunday: Samuel Sewall was elected to the Court of Assistants. This made him a Magistrate. He also was made a member of the Board of Overseers of Harvard College.

September 10: Magistrate Samuel Sewall resigned as manager of the printing press of the town of Boston.

Sept. 12, 1684, the following order was passed (Col. Rec., V. 452): “Whereas, at a session of the Generall Court in October, 1681, this Court was pleased to intrust Mr. Samuel Sewall with the management of the printing press in Boston, lately under the improvement of Mr. John Foster, deceased, and whereas, by the providence of God, Mr. Seawall is rendered unable to attend the same, he judging it reasonable to acquaint this honnoured Court therewith, desiring that he may be freed from any obligation unto duty respecting that affaire, with thankfull acknowledgments of the liberty then granted. The Court grants the request above mentioned.” The two following letters, written by Sewall in the years during which his Journal fails us, are here reprinted from the Mass. Hist. Society’s Collections, 4th Series, Vol. viii. p. 516-7: -- For the Reverend Mr. Increase Mather, in Boston. BOSTON, March 23, 1682-3. HONOURED SIR, -- If you think it not inconvenient, I have some thoughts what if I should print the Colledge-Laws? that so every student admitted may have a fair Admittatur to keep pr him, in memory of his Admission. I know that to avoid writing out a copy,1 many borrow Laws to present at their Admission, which they are fain to return agen awhile after, which is very mischievous, for by that means, they are without both Laws and Admittatur. I supose the Colledge-Orders are not very bulkey, so I could have some stitch’t up in Marble-Paper, and (considering the fewness of what shall part with) afford them at a very easy rate. Sir, Your friend and Servt. SAMUEL SEWALL. For his much esteemed Friend, Mr. Cotton Mather, pro Eliakim .M: BOSTON, Xr. 25, 84. SIR, -- Would intreat you to send me the little book you spake of to me, which Dr. Owen writt of the Glory of Christ. Please also, in stead of some Recreation, when you can spare the time, to give me your Reasons-why the Heart of America may not be the seat of the New-Jerusalem. The worthy Pastor of Newbury, in his fourth letter to Mr. Meade, (which I thank you for directing me to,) warrants me in such an Inquiry. Your Arguments, briefly HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

laid down under several heads, will be refreshing to me to have them to consider of. Desiring your Prayers, that I may be found in Christ, not having my own Righteousness, I take leave, who am, Sir, Yours, SAM. SEWALL. My son Sam: is still sick. 1 A specimen of a. written copy is in Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc., for March, 102 1876. --EDS.] [Oct. 15, 1684 (Col. Rec., V. 456).: “In answer of the petition of Samuel Seawall, Esq. humbly shewing that his house of wood in Boston, at the hill where the Reverend Mr. John Cotton formerly dwelt, which house is considerably distant from other building and standeth very bleake, he humbly desiring the favour of this Court to grant him liberty to build a smale porch of wood, about seven Foote square, to breake of the winde from the fore doore of said house, the Court grants his request.” The house thus mentioned by Sewall was undoubtedly that which had belonged to his father-in-law, John Hull.1 It had belonged to Rev. John Cotton, as the following statements of title will show. We give, in the first place, an extract from the will of Rev. John Cotton. Suff. Wills, I. 52: “And because that south part of my house which Sir Henry Vane built, whilst he sojourned with me, he by a deed gave it (at his departure) to my son Seaborn, I do therefore leave it unto him as his by right, and together therewith liberty of commonage with his mother, in that south garden, which lyeth under it.” To his wife, for life, “the dwelling house wherein I now live.” After her death, all houses and lands were to be divided among his children, Seaborn having a double share. Evidently, therefore, this Cotton mansion was a double house, and John Hull bought the southerly or Vane portion first. The record is as follows: -- Sufi: Deeds, VI. 227. Sept. 24. 1664. Seaborn Cotton of Hampton and Dorothy his wife, sell to John Hull for £200 -- all that parcel of land given S. C. by the will of his father John Cotton -- and confirmed to him by deeds of Mrs. Sarah Mather of Dorchester, and Increase and Mariah Mather of Boston, and John Cotton and Johannah, his wife, of Gilford, --”and likewise the House that was sometimes Sr Henry Vanes.” -- which said house and land is situate in Boston and bounded as follows -- “Bounded with the Towne street on the East; Mr. Howard and Mr. Bellingham on the south; Mr. Bellingham and some land belonging to the said Seaborn, Sarah, Increase and John on the west; and by east and west line from the street to the Hill even with the north side of the said House.” May 28, 1677 (Deeds, Lib. 10, f. 108), Seaborn Cotton sold his 1 Hull writes., in 1674, “ My habitation is greatly disadvantageous for trade; yet because I always desired a quiet HDT WHAT? INDEX

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life, and not too much business it was always best for me.” -- EDS.] [half of the northerly part of the house and land, “ which was the mansion house of the late John Cotton,” to Nicholas Paige; and, Aug. 17, 1677 (Deeds, Lib. 10,.f. 170), Increase Mather and John Cotton sold to Paige their part of this same northerly half. The boundaries in both deeds are: north by land of Simon Lynde and house and land in which Governor Endicott last dwelt; south by land of John Hull, Bellingham heirs, and heirs of James Davis; east by the highway: west by the foot of Beacon Hill. April 30, 1678 (Deeds, Lib. 10, f. 338) Paige mortgages to Thomas Deane, by the same boundaries, except that on the south John Wing is instead of heirs of James Davis. May 1, 1681 (Deeds, XII..f. 49), Paige again mortgages to Deane, bounded north by Simon Lynde and Edward Shippen; south by John Hull and Bellingham heirs; east and west as before. This mortgage was discharged May 29, 1682; and on the same day (Deeds, XII..f. 216) Paige sells the lot to John Hull, bounded north by Simon Lynde and land of Edward Shippen, formerly the dwelling- place of Governor Endicott.1 Following these early records with the light thrown upon them by the late N. I. Bowditch, in his “Gleaner” articles in the “Boston Transcript “ for 1855-6, we arrive at the following results: -- Where is now Pemberton Square, formerly rose Centry or Sentry Hill. At a very early date evidently, the town had laid out Tremont Row from School Street to Court Street, and Sudbury Street, as it was termed, to Court Street corner. Probably the hill was not so near the line of the street as to preclude the placing of houses there. We will begin at the south end of Tremont Row, with John Coggan’s lot, which occupied the land covered by the Pavilion and Court, being 76 feet on Tremont Street. It bounded north on Bellingham, running west 322 feet, and nearly reaching Somerset Street. Then came Bellingham’s lot, bounded east on the street (Tremont Row), John Cotton and Daniel Maud, north. According to Mr. Bowditch, this lot was sold in two parts. In 1663, B. sold to Humphrey Davy the south part, and Davy’s heirs sold it (being 140 feet 1 This corrects another error of Shaw (copied by S. A. Drake, p. 47), who says (p. 291) that Governor Endicott’s house stood on the lot owned by Gardiner Greene. Bendall sold to David Yale (Deeds, II. f. 48), whose attorneys sold to Captain John Wall. Wall’s widow and son (Deeds, Lib. XI. f. 195) sold, in 1678, to Edward Shippen, a house and two acres of land, bounded on a messuage now or heretofore of Mr. Cotton, south, and Sudbury Street east. Mr. Bowditch says that this lot was, in 1768, sold to Dr. James Lloyd. (Deeds, Lib. 315, f. 273.) --EDs.] on the street, as Bowditch says), with a stone house thereon, to Andrew Faneuil. Here Peter Faneuil lived and died and after him John Vassall owned it. The north half was sold by HDT WHAT? INDEX

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Bellingham’s heirs, in 1693, to the deacons of the First Church, and it measured 62 feet on the street. William Phillips bought both lots, 1791 and 1805. A rear lot remained, and was bought by Sewall. This would seem to make Bellingham’s front 202 feet on the street. Next came Daniel Maud’s lot, “137 feet on the street, with an average depth of 80 feet,” says Bowditch, bounded north and west by Cotton. We have thus arrived at Cotton’s lot, afterwards Hull’s and Sewall’s. Bowditch says: “The west line of Cotton’s estate coincides with the east line of Bulfinch’s pasture, i.e. of the Church estate in Ashburton Place. Its north line ran 630 feet in a straight course to Tremont Row, including the house lots on the north side of Ashburton Place, and the whole central portion of Pemberton Square, embracing the fronts of all the houses on its west side south of Mr. Francis’s lands, and corresponding portions of the houses on its east side, both north and south of the entrance from Tremont Row. “Cotton’s estate (with Bellingham’s united in the Sewall family1) measured east on Tremont Row 163 feet or nearly to the south line of the present entrance to the square. It had various jogs outwards on its southerly line, greatly enlarging its contents, adding perhaps 90 feet more to its average width for a depth of over 300 feet.” Cotton’s north line was on Edward Bendall, whose lot passed to Edward Shippen, and then in part to Cyplian Southack. This lot measured 103 feet on Court Street.2 Then came Robert Meeres’s lot 1 We must confess our inability to understand this remark. Bowditch seems to trace both parts of Bellingham’s front lot into the hands of William Phillips, and thence to Patrick T. Jackson, without touching Hull or Sewall. Probably Mr. Bowditch alluded to the fact that Sewall did buy a back lot of Bellingham’s land, Oct. 11, 1697 (Lib. 14, f. 439- 442), from Elizabeth (Savage) Bellingham, wife of Samuel, son of Richard B. The sale was confirmed (Lib. 21, f. 110) by her trustees, Edward Hull and John Shelton, both of London. This land was “adjoining to the hill formerly belonging to John Cotton,” and bounded north by land of S. Sewall; east by land of Samuel Sewall, and in part by lands belonging to the First Church, now occupied by Mr. John Bayley, south by land lately of Humphrey Davie, and west by land late of Captain John Wing, -- being about half an acre. -EDS. 2 This remark of “Gleaner’s” requires some explanation. The Bendall-Shippen lot seems to have been of an irregular shape. Three lots were sold,] [of 85 feet on the street, and the corner lot on Howard Street was that of Robert Howen. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

Cotton Hill, therefore, seems to have touched Tremont Street at its south corner, very nearly at the present outlet of Pemberton Square, and to have continued northerly round the curve for 163 feet, the greater part facing Scollay Square. Before citing the deeds which explain the descent of the 1and, it may be well to say a word about the Cotton house, once occupied by Sir Henry Vane, in correction of errors already in print elsewhere. Mr. S. A. Drake, in his “Landmarks of Boston,” p. 51, makes this house to be one which was standing in 1817, when Shaw wrote and so described it, a little south of the entrance to Pemberton Square; and this was evidently the tradition. (See Recollections of S. Breck, p. 41.) Although Shaw says, in 1817, that Governor Bellingham’s house stood on the spot where Faneuil built, this seems to be an error. When Bellingham sold that south lot, he sold land only; but, in selling the north lot, a house and land passed. Hence, it is probable that the venerable mansion referred to was that of Governor Bellingham. The First Church sold, the house and lot in 1787 to Sampson Reed. (Deeds, Lib. 160, f. 166.) William Phillips bought it in 1805, having bought the other Bellingham lot in 1797. Certainly Bowditch held that this old house was not Cotton’s, for he writes as follows about this north lot: “Upon this lot stood a most ancient-looking building, with windows of very small panes of glass. I have heard it stated, and have reason to believe it true, that when it was pulled down, a chair was made from some of its timbers for the late Hon. Judge Davis, as possessing great antiquarian interest, under the idea that it was in this house that Sir Henry Vane sojourned. It was within one of being the right house, but a miss is as good (or as bad) as a mile, in such a matter.” The deeds of Sewall’s grandchildren seem to show that their homestead, the Cotton-Hull-Sewall-Cooper house, was on the northerly side of the lot, and near the street. It was occupied in 1758 by William Vassall, and probably afterwards by Patrick Jeffrey. We are assured by the family that Gardiner Greene did not alter the Vassall house, which he bought and lived in; and, as it was a large measuring 170 feet on Court Street, north of Howard Street, or Southack Court, which Southack laid out; and the other part was of an L-shape, bounded 141 feet on Howard Street north, 440 feet west on Bulfinch, 614 feet south on Cotton, and then coming out to Tremont Row, where it measured 103 feet. -- EDS.] [square house of the usual pattern, we may conclude that it was essentially in the form that Cooper, and probably Sewall, gave it. Possibly it was the Hull and Cotton house intact; at all events, as we have shown, if the Cotton-Vane house was not destroyed at an earlier date, this must represent it. The title of the land seems to have passed as follows: Sewall seems to have left no will, and his property was divided among HDT WHAT? INDEX

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his heirs by an elaborate scheme of lot. His daughter Judith, who married the Rev. William Cooper, inherited the house and land at Cotton Hill. Dec. 30, 1753, the Cooper heirs, William, Samuel, and Thomas and Judith Cooper agreed to a division of the estate. As they soon united in a sale of all their shares (Thomas Cooper’s being sold Feb. 2, 1758, to Jacob Wendell, Deeds, Lib. 91, f. 76), it is unnecessary to give the details. It may be noted that the arbitrators set off “a passage way 20 feet wide from Treamount street to the back part of the dwelling house first mentioned, and from thence turning southerly, keeping the same width, and running westerly thirty feet into Valley acre aforesaid, to lye open,” &c. Valley Acre is represented on Lieut. Page’s map of Boston in 1777, as a high hill east of Beacon Hill. Mr. Bowditch says that it “embraced the lands on both sides of Somerset street to Bulfinch st. &c., and extended down the hill to the low ground on Court street. The actual transfer was as follows: -- Lib. 92, f. 52. Sept. 1758. Jacob Wendell, William Cooper and Samuel Cooper of Boston, John Sever and wife Judith of Kingston Bold to Wm. Vassall as follows: -- Jacob Wendell sells for £250 house and land a house formerly in the occupation of Samuel Kneeland and now of Mrs. Thorn and Mrs. Montgomery -- bound west on house and land formerly occupied by Daniel Bell and now by Peter Mollrfield and Mrs Sarah Kenedy, 46 feet; north on land of John Jekyll decd 158 feet; east on Treamont street 70 feet; south on a passage way 166 feet. Also land adjoining to Valley Achor, bounded east on land of Judith, Cooper now Judith Sever, 174 feet; south on garden of Peter Faneuil 120 feet; west on Thompson’s pasture and Valley Achor 174 feet; north on a passage way 180 feet. William Cooper sold for £500 the southerly half of a house and land occupied by sd W m. Vassall, bounded south on land of John Erving and garden of said Cooper, 1771eet from Treamount street up towards Valley Achor; east on Treamount street 33 feet to land of John Erving; west on land of Judith Sever 20 feet; north on the other half of said house belonging to Rev. Samuel Cooper, 177 feet from Tremont st. up towards Valley Achor. Also a garden adjoining the house, bounded north on the house & yard behind it, 101 feet; east on land of John Erving 120 feet; south on land occupied by Rev. Thomas Foxcroft 97 feet; west on land of Judith Sever 122 feet. Also one half,of land commonly called Valley Achor east on land formerly of Tho’ Cooper but now of Jacob Wendell, 40 feet; south on Thompson’s Pasture 280 feet; west on Joseph Sherburn 17 feet; south on Sherburn 35 feet; west on land formerly of Sam. Lynde now of heirs of Thomas Bulfinch 80 feet; north on a passage way HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

320 feet. [This was a passage, 20 feet wide, lying in common, set off at the division.] Samuel Cooper sold for £250 the north half of the house occupied by Vassall & Iand bounded east on Tremont street 40 feet; south by the other half of the house 177 feet; west on Judith Sever 16 feet north on a passage way 177 feet from sd street up towards Valley Achor. John Sever and wife Judith for £250 sold the house now occupied by Mr Mourfield & Mrs Kennedy -- bounded east on the house occupied by Mrs Thorn and Mrs. Montgomery 46 feet; south on a passage leading up to Valley Achor 170 feet west on Valley Achor 63 feet, north on heirs of John Jekyll 150 feet. Also one half of Valley Achor adjoining said house, bounded east on said land 63 feet; south on land of William Cooper 320 feet; west on land of Lynde now of Bulfinch heirs 36 feet; north on land formerly of Capt Cyplian Southac now of John Tyng, 320 feet. Also a lot near the house occupied, by Vassall bounded north on a passage way up to Valley Achor 70 feet; east on land of W m & Samuel Cooper, and of Rev Thos. Foxcroft 220 feet; south on garden of Peter Faneuil 70 feet; west on land of Jacob Wendell 174 feet. All the aforementioned houses and lands being the estate of the late Judith Cooper, mother of the grantors, which was bounded as follows: -- East on Tremont street 163 feet. North on heirs of John Jekyll 311 feet, and of Capt Cyprian Southac (now John Tyng) on Valley Achor 295 feet, and heirs of Bulfinch 20 feet -- the whole line from Treamount street up to and cross Valley Achor being 626 ft. West on heirs of Thos Bulfinch 116 ft. South on Joseph Sherburn 36 feet; west on Sherburn 17 feet. South on Thompson’s Pasture 271 feet, east on a bend of 11 feet, then west on Thompson’s Pasture 114 feet; then south on garden of Peter Faneuil190 feet; then east on land occupied by Rev Thos Foxcroft 63 feet; then south on said Foxcroft 98 feet; then east on John Erving 112 feet; then south on said Erving 96 feet. William Vassall was born in the West Indies in 1715, and came with his father Leonard Vassall to Boston. He was of H. C. 1733 ; sheriff of Middlesex, a mandamus counsellor, and a refugee. He sold the Cooper estate to his nephew Leonard Vassall Borland, as appears by the following deed: -- L.179, f. 2.;10. 23 March, 1787. Wm. Vassall formerly of Boston, now of Battersea co. Surrey, Eng. sold for £4000 to Leonard Vassall Borland of Boston -- house and land bounded north on Dr. James Lloyd, 211 ft., John Tyng on Valley Acre 295 ft. and Thomas Bulfinch 20 feet; west on Bulfinch 116 feet; southwest on heirs of Thomas Sherburne; south on said heirs, on Isaiah Doane, on HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

land belonging to the parish of the Old Brick Meeting house, and on heirs of John Ervine; (distance not given); southeast on said land (of Ervine) and east on Tremont st. 133 feet -- including land bought of Joseph Sherburne and recorded Lib. 118 f. 170. Also sundry small houses bounded south on the Writing School &c. There was probably some informality about this, but April 19, 1790, John Lowell as attorney for William Vassall sold (Deeds, 179, f. 241, 242, 6, 7, 8) to Patrick Jeffrey, uncle of the famous Francis, Lord Jeffrey. This Patrick came to Boston and married a widow, Madam Haley, sister of notorious John Wilkes. Jeffrey, in 1801, conveyed to the town a strip of his land taken for Somerset Street, which was extended to Beacon Street. (Deeds, Lib. 277, f. 297.) He then sold east of the street, in 1802, to Jonathan Mason for $36,000 (Deeds, Lib. 203, f. 32); and, in 1804 (Deeds, Lib. 210, f.138), he sold the part west of Somerset Street to Asa Hammond. Jonathan Mason, in 1803, sold the eastern lot for $41,000 to Gardiner Greene. (Lib. 205, f. 252.) This estate in Mr. Greene’s possession became one of the most noted sites in Boston. Mr. Greene acquired in 1824 the Maud estate, already noticed as lying next south of Cotton’s lot, and thus obtained about 300 feet front on Tremont Street. (Deeds, 293, f. 196.) Finally, in 1835, the Phillips and Greene estates with others were sold to Patrick T. Jackson, and Pemberton Square was laid out.] [It may be well to say a word about Sewall’s political position, as he is found acting as a magistrate or deputy when his Diary recommences. He was chosen a deputy in 1684, probably out of respect to the long services of his father-in-law, then recently deceased. Hutchinson writes (Hist. I. 341) : “There were all the symptoms, notwithstanding, of an expiring constitution. Several of the towns neglected to send their deputies in the year 1684. Little business was done at the court. The people, indeed, showed some resentment against the magistrates, who had been forward for surrendering. Mr. Dudley, Richards and Brown were dropped, Cooke Johnson and Hutchinson chose in their stead. Mr. Bradstreet, the governor, Mr. Stoughton, Bulkley, Saltonstall and Gidney had fewer votes than usual. (The Governor had 690 votes. Danforth had 631 for Governor.) “There seems to have been as much indifference in the legislature about public affairs in 1685, expecting every day to be superseded.” The great political issue during these years was, of course, that of the surrender of the charter of the Colony. It is impossible to read Sewall’s own account of the progress of affairs in 1685 and 1686, without concluding that, though his sympathies were with the supporters of the charter, he remained from taking any prominent part, and that he was personally on friendly terms with Dudley and Stoughton. -- EDS.] [The Journal is now continued from the autograph manuscript of HDT WHAT? INDEX

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the Second Volume, in the Cabinet of the Society. -- EDS.] Wednesday Febr. 11, 1684-5.-Joshua Moodey and self set out for Ipswich. I lodge at Sparkes’s. Next day, Feb. 12, goe to lecture which Mr. Moodey preaches, then I dine with Mr. Gobbet, and so ride to Newbury; visit Mr. Richardson sick of the dry Belly ake. Monday, Febr.16, Get Mr. Phillips and Payson to Town and so keep a Fastday, Mr. Moodey Preaching Forenoon, Mr. Phillips Afternoon, Mr. Woodbridge and Payson assisting in Prayer; was a pretty full Assembly, Mr. Moodey having given notice the Sabbath-day, on which he preached all day. At Wenham and Ipswich, as we went, we were told of the Earthquake in those parts and at Salem (Feb. 8). the Sabbath before about the time of ending Afternoon Exercise; That which most was sensible of was a startling doleflul Sound; but many felt the Shaking, also, Peter and Jane Toppan. Mr. Phillips had not finished his Sermon, and was much surprised at the Sound, expecting when the House would have Crackt. In several places Exercise was over. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1685

Magistrate Samuel Sewall became Captain of the South Company of Militia in Boston.

February 18, Wednesday (1684, Old Style): An earthquake table lists the quake on this day as “1685FEB18 2100 42.8 70.8 3.5 MA CAPE ANN.” Cape Ann is in fact hit more often than any other area in New England.

Magistrate Samuel Sewall’s diary for this period reads: “Wednesday Febr. 11, 1684-5.-Joshua Moodey and self set out for Ipswich. I lodge at Sparkes's. Next day, Feb. 12, goe to lecture which Mr. Moodey preaches, then I dine with Mr. Gobbet, and so ride to Newbury; visit Mr. Richardson sick of the dry Belly ake. Monday, Febr.16, Get Mr. Phillips and Payson to Town and so keep a Fastday, Mr. Moodey Preaching Forenoon, Mr. Phillips Afternoon, Mr. Woodbridge and Payson assisting in Prayer; was a pretty full Assembly, Mr. Moodey having given notice the Sabbath-day, on which he preached all day. At Wenham and Ipswich, as we went, we were told of the Earthquake in those parts and at Salem (Feb. 8). the Sabbath before about the time of ending Afternoon Exercise; That which most was sensible of was a startling doleflul Sound; but many felt the Shaking, also, Peter and Jane Toppan. Mr. Phillips had not finished his Sermon, and was much surprised at the Sound, expecting when the House would have Crackt. In several places Exercise was over.”

John Evelyn’s diary entry for this day was in part as follows: HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

I was carried by my Lord Privy-Seale to congratulate my Lord Tressurer who [19] the next day, together with the other new Officers, were all sworne at the Chancery barr, & at the Chequer: I return’d home in the Evening. The late King having the revenue of Excise, Costomes, & other late duties granted for his life onely; were now farmed & let to severall persons upon an opinion that the late K[ing] might let them for 3 yeares after his decease (some of the old Commissioners refusing to act) The major part of Judges, (but as think, not the best lawyers) pronounced it legal; but 4 dissenting: The lease was made but the day before his Majesties death; which seemes by the words of the statute to be invalid: Note that the Clearke of the Closset, had shut-up the late Kings private Oratory next the Privy- Chamb[er] above; but the King caus’d it to be open’d againe, & the Prayers should be said as formerly: The Papists now swarmed at Court. &c:

May , Wednesday (Old Style): Magistrate Samuel Sewall was re-elected to the Board of Overseers of Harvard College.

Reverend William Adams

August 5, Wednesday (Old Style): As Magistrate Samuel Sewall was riding from Boston to Dorchester Lecture, he noticed that a few feet of ground had been enclosed with boards,

which is done by the Quakers out of respect to some one or more hung and buried near the gallows though the governor forbade them when they asked leave.

This would have been the location of the hollow into which the bodies of Marmaduke Stevenson and William Robinson had been dumped on Boston Common, where in 1675 at night three Friends (one of them probably Friend Edward Wharton of Salem) had put up an illegal memorial. The marker that they had also put up had been immediately effaced by the citizenry, leaving only their little fence of boards:

Although our Bodyes here in silent Earth do lie, Yet are our Righteous Souls at Rest. Our Blood for Vengance cry.

December 25, : Magistrate Samuel Sewall noted that “some somehow observe the day; but are vexed ... that the body of the people profane it, and blessed be God no authority yet compel them to keep it.”

In this season, in London, there was in circulation a pamphlet entitled “The Examination and Tryal of old Father Christmas” that mocked (it was preaching to the choir, you see) the Puritan attempts to interfere with celebration of the Christmas season. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1686

May 12, Wednesday (Old Style): Magistrate Samuel Sewall was re-elected to the Board of Overseers of Harvard College.

John Evelyn’s diary entry for this day was in part as follows: To Lond[on] Memorand, I refus’d to put the P[rivy] Seale to Dr. Walker[s] licence for the printing & publishing divers Popish Books &c: of which I complain’d both to my L[ord] of Canterbury (whom I went to advise with, which was in the Council-chamber) and to my Lord Treasurer that evening at his lodging: My Lord of Cantorburies advise was that I should follow my owne Conscience therein; my Tressurer, that if in Conscience I could dispence with it; for any hazard, he believed there was none: Notwithstanding which I persisted not to do it:

May 16, Sunday (Old Style): A stranger on: 2: Zeph: 1.2.3. Afternoone, on: 2.Tit:11.12 &c: both practical sermons exhorting to Repentance upon prospect of the ruines threatning the Church, & drawing on for our prodigious Ingratitude, & doubtlesse Never was England so perverted, through an almost universal face of prophanesse, perjury, luxurie, unjustice, violence, hypocrisie, Atheisme, & dissolution: A kingdome & a people so obliged to God, for its long prosperity, both in Church & state: so signaly delivered, and preserved: & now threatn’d to be destroyed, by our owne folly & wickednesse: How strangely is this nation fallen from its antient zeale & Integritie! -- unhappy, unthankfull people! June 2, Wednesday (Old Style): To Lond[on] passing divers Pardons & other doquetts: Such stormes, [raine] & foule weather hardly ever know[n] at this season: The Camp now on Hounslo-Heath forc’d for sicknesse and other Inconveniences of Weather to retire to quarters: HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

June 9, Wednesday (Old Style): To Lond[on] a Seale, most pardons, & discharges, of Knight Baronets fees; which having ben pass’d over for so many yeares, did greately dissoblige several families who had serv’d his Majestie. - The Camp now at Brainford [Hounslow] after exceeding [wet] & stormy weather, now as excessively hott; many grew sick: greate feasting there, especialy in my L[ord]Dunbarton[s] quarters: many jealosies & discourse what the meaning of this incampment of an army should be: - L[ord]Terconell gon to Ireland with greate powers & commissions - giving as much cause of talke as the other: especialy 19 new Pr[ince]Councelors being now made & Judges, among which but three protestants: & Terconell made [Lord] Generall: New-Judges also here, among which Milton a papist, & bro[ther] to the Milton who wrot for the Regicides, who presum’d to take his place, without passing the Test: - Scotland, refuse to grant Liberty of Masse to the Papists in Scotland: - The French persecution more inhumane than ever &c: The Protestants in Savoy, successfully resist the French Dragoons, perfidiously murdering them. - The booke written by Monsieur Claude to informe the world of the cruel persecution by France: Translated here burnt by the hangman, so greate was the Interest of the Fr: Ambassador, as was said: It seem’d to relate onely matter of fact, very modestly: & was thought a severe treatement; his Majestie having both given protection, & reliefe to the Refugies: It was thought hard, that the people should not know for what & to whom they gave so bountifully. - The Kings chiefe physitian in Scotland, Apostasizing from the protestant Religion, dos of his owne accord publique Recantation at Edenbrugh. - June 11, Friday (Old Style): I went to see Midletons - receptacle of Waters at the New River:17 & the new Spa wells neere it. June 27, Sunday (Old Style): ... I had this day ben married 39 yeares: Blessed be God for all his mercys. July 12, Monday (Old Style): I went to visite Dr. Godolphin vice-Provost of Eton, & dined with him in the Colledge: among the Fellows: It is an admirable foundation: July 13, Tuesday (Old Style): I return’d to Lond[on] Note, that standing by the Queene at Basset (Cards) I observ’d that she was exceedingly concern’d for the losse of 80 pounds: her outward affability much changed to statelinesse & since she has ben exalted: The season was very rainy, & inconvenient for the Camps: his Majestie cherefull: July 14, Wednesday (Old Style): Was sealed at our Office the Constitution of certaine Commissioners to take upon them the full power of all Ecclesiastical Affaires, in as unlimited a manner, or rather greater, than the late High-Commission Court, abbrogated by Parliament: for it had not onely faculty to Inspect & Visite all Bishops diocesses, but to change what lawes & statutes they shold think fit to alter, among the Colledges, though founded by private men; to punish [suspend] fine &c give Oathes, call witnesses, but the maine drift was to [suppresse] zealous Preachers &c - In summ, it was the whole power of Viccar General, note the Consequence - The Commissioners were of the Cleargy, the A Bish of Cant[erbury] Bishops of Duresme, Rochester:- of the Temporal: L[ord]Tressurer, Chancellor (who alone was ever to be of the quorum) Chiefe Justice, L[ord]President: July 19, Monday (Old Style): To Lond[on] to a Seale. Came this morning to visi[t]e me Sir W: Godolphin, L[ord] Sylvius: Mrs. Boscawen; Dr. Tenison, with divers Ladys & Gent[lemen] After dinner, I went to Lond, to a Seale. &c.

17.A 38 mile long channel begun in 1609 and completed in 1613 by Sir Hugh Myddleton (c.1560-1631) to bring Hertfordshire water to London with a reservoir (“receptacle”) at New River Head, Clerkenwell. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

July 21, Wednesday (Old Style): Return’d 21: Evening, having ben at the R:Society, where was a Wind Gun brought & tried, which first shot a bullet with a powder Charge, & then discharged 4 severall times with bullets, by the wind onely, every shoote at competent distance piercing a thick board: The Wind-Chamber was fastned to the barrill through the stock, with Valves to every [charge] so as they went off 4 successive times: I[t] was a very curious piece, made at Amsterdam, not bigger than a pretty Birding piece: Note, that the drawing up of the Cock alone [admitted] so much aire into a small receptacle at the britch of the piece out of the Chamber or magazine of aire underneath as suffic’d for a charge, which was exploded by pulling downe the Cock by the Triccker: (a) the wind Chamber [of brasse], to scrue into the barrell thro the stock, at (b): note, that it was fill’d with an [aire] pumpe: July ?: This day was bound Apprentice to me, & serve as a Gardner, Jonathan Mosse, to serve from 24 June 1686: to 24 June -92, being six yeares: August 8, Sunday (Old Style): ... I went to visite the Marquis de Ruvignie now my Neighbour at Greenewich, he had [been] ’til this cruel persecution in France (whence he was now retir’d) the Deputy of all the Protestants of that Kingdome in the Parliament of Paris, & severall times Ambassador in this & other Courts; a Person of greate Learning & experience: September 8, Wednesday (Old Style): I went to Lond[on] to a Seale: The Bish[op] of Lond was on Monday suspended on pretence of not silencing Dr. Sharp of St. Giles’s, for something of a sermon, in which he zealously reproov’d the Doctrine of the R[oman] C[hurch] The Bish[op] having consulted the Civilians, who told him, he could not by any Law proceede against Dr. Sharp, without producing wittnesses, & impleading according to forme &c: But it was over- ruled by my L[ord]Chancelor & the Bishop sentenc’d, without so much as being heard to any purpose: which was thought a very extraordinary way of proceeding, & universaly resented; & so much the rather, for that 2 Bish[op] Durham, & Rochester, sitting in the Commission, & giving their suffrages: The AB[ishop] of Cant[erbury] refusing to sit amongst them: What the issue of this will be, Time will shew: October 14, Thursday (Old Style): His Majesties Birth day, I was at his Majesties rising in his Bed-Chamber: Afterwards in the [Hide] Parke where his Majesties 4: Comp: of Guards were drawn up: Such horse & men as could not be braver: The Officers &c: wonderfully rich & gallant: They did not head their troops, but their next officers; the Colonels &c: being on Horse [back] by the King, whilst they marched: The Ladys not lesse splendid at Court, where was a Ball that night; but small appearance of qualitie: This day all the shops both in Citty & suburbs shut up, and kept as solemnly as any holy-day: Bone-fires at night in Westminster &c: but forbidden in the Citty: October 22, Friday (Old Style): To Lond[on] the next day with my Lady the Countesse of Sunderland, I went [23] to Cranburne, a Lodge & walke of my Lord Godolphins, in Windsor parke: there was one roome in the house, spared in the pulling-downe the old one, because the late Dutchesse of Yorke, was borne in it, the rest was build & added to it by Sir Geo: Carteret, Tressurer of the Navy: & since the whole purchased by my Lord Godolphin, who spake to me to go see it, and advise what trees were fit to be cut downe, to improve the dwelling, it being invironed with old rotten pollards, which corrupt the aire: It stands on a knowle, which though insensibly rising, gives it a prospect over the keepe of Windsore, which is about three miles north-east of it: The ground is clayy & moist, the water stark nought: The Park is pretty; The house tollerable & gardens convenient: after dinner we came back to Lond, having 2 Coaches both going and coming, of 6 horses a-piece, which we changed at Hounslow: HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

November 16, Tuesday (Old Style): I went with part of my family to passe the melancholy winter in Lond[on] at my sonns house in Arundel Buildings: November 26, Friday (Old Style): I din’ed at my L[ord] Chancelors, where being 3 other Serjants at Law, after dinner being cherefull & free, they told their severall stories, how long they had detained their clients in tedious processes, by their tricks, as [if] so many highway thieves should have met & discovered the severall purses they had taken: This they made but a jeast of: but God is not mocked: December 16, Thursday (Old Style): I carried the Countesse of Sunderland to see the rarities of one Mr. Charleton at the Middle Temple, who shewed us such a Collection of Miniatures, Drawings, Shells, Insects, Medailes, & natural things, Animals whereoff divers were kept in glasses of Sp: of wine, I think an hundred, besids, Minerals, precious stones, vessels & curiosities in Amber, Achat, chrystal &c: as I had never in all my Travells abroad seene any either of private Gent[lemen] or Princes exceede it; all being very perfect & rare in their kind, espec[i]aly his booke of Birds, Fish: flowers, shells &c drawn & miniatured to the life, he told us that one book stood him in 300 pounds: it was painted by that excellent workeman whom the late Gastion duke of Orleans emploied: This Gent[leman]’s whole Collection (gathered by himselfe travelling most parte of Europe) is estimated at 8000 pounds: He seem’d a Modest and obliging person: This Evening I made a step to my house in the Country, where I stayed some dayes:

November 11: Ordered to put the cross in the colors of the South Company of Militia in Boston, Captain Samuel Sewall resigned his commission. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1688

November 22, Thursday (November 12, Old Style): The first men of quality began to repair to William, Prince of Orange. A LIST OF THE DEFECTIONS

Magistrate Samuel Sewall sailed for England on the America. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1689

October 10 (September 30, Old Style): Magistrate Samuel Sewall sailed on the America from Plymouth in Devon, bound for home.

Jeffreys promoted by James from Chief Justice of Court of King’s Bench to Lord High Chancellor.

November 29 (November 19, Old Style): Magistrate Samuel Sewall disembarked from the America at Great Island, Piscataqua.

December 2: Magistrate Samuel Sewall returned to Boston to resume his post as Captain of Boston’s South Company of Militia. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1690

April-May: Magistrate Samuel Sewall was Commissioner from Massachusetts at the intercolonial conference in New- York which had been called by Governor Leisler. This purpose of this conference was the coordination of the activities of the English colonies against the French, and against those Native American tribes which had allied with them. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1691

October 7, Wednesday (Old Style): The Charter of Massachusetts Bay. Magistrate Samuel Sewall, under the new charter, was designated a member of the Council. He would be a member of the Council until his resignation in June 1725. READ THE FULL TEXT HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1692

April 11, Monday (Old Style): and Sarah Towne Cloyce were examined before , , Deputy Governor Thomas Danforth, and Magistrate Samuel Sewall. During this examination, John Proctor was also accused and imprisoned. WITCHES

May 9, Friday (Old Style): of Maine was examined by John Hathorne, Jonathan Corwin, Magistrate Samuel Sewall, and William Stoughton. One of the afflicted girls, Sarah Churchill, was also examined. WITCHES SALEM HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

May 25, Sunday (Old Style) : Because of the furor, Jonathan Corwin, , John Hathorne, John Richards, , Peter Sergeant, Magistrate Samuel Sewall, William Stoughton, and were appointed by the Governor and Council Commissioner of Oyer and Terminer to “enquire of, hear and determine all manner of crimes and offenses perpetrated within the counties of Suffolk, Essex, and Middlesex, or of either of them.” SALEM

May 27, Tuesday (Old Style): Governor Phips set up a special Court of Oyer and Terminer comprised of seven judges to try the witchcraft cases. Appointed were Lieutenant Governor William Stoughton, Nathaniel Saltonstall, Bartholomew Gedney, Peter Sergeant, Magistrate Samuel Sewall, Wait Still Winthrop, John Richards, John Hathorne, and Jonathan Corwin. These magistrates based their judgments and evaluations on various kinds of intangible evidence, including direct confessions, supernatural attributes (such as “witchmarks”), and reactions of the afflicted girls. , based on the assumption that the Devil could assume the “specter” of an innocent person, was relied upon despite its controversial nature. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

August 16, Saturday: Magistrate Samuel Sewall helped condemn and hang one of his Harvard College peers, the Reverend George Burrough, a man whom he had once heard preach on the Sermon on the Mount, for being in league with Satan. An arresting officer for the court, one , was “cried out upon” for doubting the guilt of the accused, and would be hanged beside the Reverend Burrough. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

We find this in Sewall’s diary:

Mr. Burrough by his Speech, Prayer, protestation of his Innocence, did much move unthinking persons, which occasions their speaking hardly concerning his being executed.

Major American Witchcraft Cases

1647 Elizabeth Kendall, Alse Young 1663 Mary Barnes

1648 Margaret Jones, Mary Johnson 1666 Elizabeth Seager

1651 Alice Lake, Mrs. (Lizzy) Kendal, Goody 1669 Katherine (Kateran) Harrison Bassett, Mary Parsons

1652 John Carrington, Joan Carrington 1683 Nicholas Disborough, Margaret Mattson

1653 Elizabeth “Goody” Knapp, Elizabeth 1688 Annie “Goody” Glover Godman

1654 Lydia Gilbert, Kath Grady, Mary Lee 1692 , Rebecca Towne Nurse, , , , , Mary Staplies, Mercy Disborough, Elizabeth Clawson, Mary Harvey, Hannah Harvey, Goody Miller, Giles Cory, Mary Towne Estey, Reverend George Burrough, George Jacobs, Sr., John Proctor, John Willard, Martha Carrier, Sarah Good, , Margaret Scott, Alice Parker, , Wilmott Redd, , Mary Parker,

1655 Elizabeth Godman, Nicholas Bayley, 1693 Hugh Crotia, Mercy Disborough Goodwife Bayley, Ann Hibbins

1657 William Meaker 1697 Winifred Benham, Senr., Winifred Ben- ham, Junr.

1658 Elizabeth Garlick, Elizabeth Richardson, 1724 Sarah Spencer Katherine Grade

1661 Nicholas Jennings, Margaret Jennings 1768 —— Norton

1662 Nathaniel Greensmith, Rebecca Green- 1801 Sagoyewatha “Red Jacket” smith, Mary Sanford, Andrew Sanford, Goody Ayres, Katherine Palmer, Judith Varlett, James Walkley HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

September 22, Thursday (Old Style): Magistrate Samuel Sewall –the progenitor of the Edmund Quincy Sewall, Jr. of Scituate in the Bay Colony who would begin to attend the Concord Academy in Concord in June 1839 and of the Ellen Devereux Sewall to whom Henry Thoreau would propose– was involved in the offing of nineteen women of Salem for being in league with Satan. On this one day Martha Corey, Margaret Scott, Mary Towne Estey or Easty (whose sister, Goodwife Rebecca Towne Nurse, had already been taken to the gallows), Alice Parker, Ann Pudeator, Wilmott Redd, Samuel Wardwell, and Mary Parker were hanged. Mary Towne Easty: “...if it be possible no more innocent blood be shed...... I am clear of this sin.”

The Reverend : “What a sad thing to see eight firebrands of hell hanging there.” HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

William Hathorne’s son John Hathorne (1641-1717), a chip off the old block, a Colonel in the Massachusetts Militia and a deputy to the General Court in Boston, was a Magistrate during this episode in which in addition to the hangings of this day one woman had a short time before been tortured to death.18 WITCH

18. , a descendant, would be much troubled by a curse Sarah Good had placed on her executioners, “God will give you Blood to drink.”

His tale “The Gentle Boy” of 1831 would make reference to this history.

Let us thank God for having given us such ancestors; and let each successive generation thank him, not less fervently, for being one step further from them in the march of the ages. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

Major American Witchcraft Cases

1647 Elizabeth Kendall, Alse Young 1663 Mary Barnes

1648 Margaret Jones, Mary Johnson 1666 Elizabeth Seager

1651 Alice Lake, Mrs. (Lizzy) Kendal, Goody 1669 Katherine (Kateran) Harrison Bassett, Mary Parsons

1652 John Carrington, Joan Carrington 1683 Nicholas Disborough, Margaret Mattson

1653 Elizabeth “Goody” Knapp, Elizabeth 1688 Annie “Goody” Glover Godman

1654 Lydia Gilbert, Kath Grady, Mary Lee 1692 Bridget Bishop, Rebecca Towne Nurse, Sarah Good, Susannah Martin, Elizabeth Howe, Sarah Wildes, Mary Staplies, Mercy Disborough, Elizabeth Clawson, Mary Harvey, Hannah Harvey, Goody Miller, Giles Cory, Mary Towne Estey, Reverend George Burrough, George Jacobs, Sr., John Proctor, John Willard, Martha Carrier, Sarah Good, Martha Corey, Margaret Scott, Alice Parker, Ann Pudeator, Wilmott Redd, Samuel Wardwell, Mary Parker, Tituba

1655 Elizabeth Godman, Nicholas Bayley, 1693 Hugh Crotia, Mercy Disborough Goodwife Bayley, Ann Hibbins

1657 William Meaker 1697 Winifred Benham, Senr., Winifred Ben- ham, Junr.

1658 Elizabeth Garlick, Elizabeth Richardson, 1724 Sarah Spencer Katherine Grade

1661 Nicholas Jennings, Margaret Jennings 1768 —— Norton

1662 Nathaniel Greensmith, Rebecca Green- 1801 Sagoyewatha “Red Jacket” smith, Mary Sanford, Andrew Sanford, Goody Ayres, Katherine Palmer, Judith Varlett, James Walkley

December 6, Saturday: At the first appointment under the Province Charter, Magistrate Samuel Sewall became a Justice of the Superior Court of Judicature. He would become Chief Justice, and serve until his retirement in 1728.

This was an exceedingly poor harvest year in Europe. There was considerable starvation. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1694

From 1694 to 1717/1718, Judge Samuel Sewall was Præceptor of the South Church of Boston. In 1694 he rode out from Boston in a coach, to participate in the ordination of the Reverend Joseph Estabrook at Concord. He started at 5AM and the trip took 5 hours. The Reverend Estabrook would anticipate another citizen of Concord by a century and a half by counseling his congregation that

the shortest way to be rich is not by enlarging our estates, but by contracting our desires.

August 6, Monday-31, Friday (Old Style): Judge Samuel Sewall journeyed overland to Albany NY as commissioner from the Massachusetts-Bay Colony, and entered into a treaty with the Iroquois Five Nations Confederation. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1695

Judge Samuel Sewall donated 500 acres of land from the Pettaquamscutt Purchase in Narragansett Country, for the support of a schoolmaster at Kingston, Rhode Island.

April 29, Monday (Old Style): According to page 161 of David E. Stannard’s THE PURITAN WAY OF DEATH: A STUDY IN RELIGION, CULTURE, AND SOCIAL CHANGE (NY: Oxford UP, 1977): April 29, 1695 dawned “warm and sunshiny” in Boston, but by midafternoon the town was assaulted by a sudden, unexpected hailstorm. The hailstones were “as bigg as pistoll and Musquet Balls,” and they wreaked havoc on many of Boston's homes and public buildings. That evening Cotton Mather and Samuel Sewall dined together. As they stood in Sewall’s kitchen discussing the day’s storm Mather happened to mention that “more Ministers Houses than others proportionally had been smitten with Light- [CONTINUE WITH PAGE 162]

June 21: With the death of Judith Quincy Hull, Judge Samuel Sewall’s mother-in-law, the Hull estate devolved upon him and Hannah Hull Sewall, and their children. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1696

July 6: Judge Samuel Sewall donated 500 acres from the Pettaquamscutt Purchase in Narragansett Country to Harvard College. Just in the nick of time, too, for the old building of the college had so decayed as hardly to be usable. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1697

January 14th (the Fast Day set by the General Court to expiate the Salem witchcraft episode): Judge Samuel Sewall had had some bad events occur in his family that had caused him to suspect that he and his were being punished of God. So this progenitor of the Ellen Devereux Sewall and Edmund Quincy Sewall, Jr. of Thoreau’s love stood in his pew in the South Church of Boston while the Reverend read out his statement, that the Sewall family had been cursed of God because of the trials, and that he Samuel did take “the Blame and shame” upon himself, and read out his petition for the pardon of God and men. The twelve jurors of the Salem witchcraft trial of September 22, 1692 were in attendance to acknowledge that they had “unwittingly and unwillingly” brought

upon ourselves and this people of the Lord the guilt of innocent blood.

The judge did then and there publicly admit the injustice of the witch hangings he had ordered on Gallows Hill in Salem.

[The Score So Far: Seven judges, one repentant.] HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

April 21, Wednesday (Old Style): Husband Thomas Duston escorted Hannah Emerson Duston, Mary Corliss Neff, and Samuel Lenorson or Lennardson to Boston, where they had an opportunity to tell their story and display their bloody sack of trophies to the Reverend Cotton Mather and to Judge Samuel Sewall.19 A special bounty of £50 would be authorized, an ungenerous £5 per scalp whereas a few years before such scalps would have fetched £50 each out of the Commonwealth coffers, and of this Hannah would receive £25,20 Mrs. Neff and young Samuel, as players of secondary standing, needing to split the remaining £25 between themselves. The situation being as dicey as it was, nobody would be inclined to ask this teenager any pointed questions about what role he had played during the raid on Haverhill. A nifty personalized silver tankard would be presented by the Great and General Court of Massachusetts.21 Governor Sir of Maryland would have a set of pewter plates made in London, and later would present them to Hannah. A monument to Hannah and her deed would be erected in 1879 in the G.A.R. Park at the center of Haverhill, Massachusetts.

If for some ungodly reason you should desire to view such a memorial, take I-495 to exit 50, turn east on Route 97 (which is Broadway Street) past the rotary that has a statue of Lafayette until you come to the Haverhill

19. One can only speculate as to the caution with which Hannah told her tale to this Reverend Mather — the righteous Boston being who a few years earlier had participated in the righteous hanging on Boston Common of her sister Elizabeth. 20. That’s the simplified story we tell, but it ignores the obvious fact that it was quite impossible in that era for a Mrs. to be the recipient of such a payment. A wife in those days had no such economic independence. She was a married woman, everything pertaining to her was handled by her husbandman the head of the household. What actually happened therefore –of course– was that the Commonwealth paid out this prize money into the hand of the Mr. in recognition of the Mrs., for him to do with as he saw fit. 21. Nota Bene: The custodians have a practice of loaning the tankard for the weddings of brides who can trace their ancestry to the Emerson family. Since another source alleges that it was the Governor of Maryland who sent the inscribed silver tankard, we really should ask such a bride to take a close look at that inscription, and report to us what it says. These collectibles are at the “Buttonswoods” home of the Haverhill Historical Society, which long since has been forced to throw out Hannah’s collection of moldering human body parts, retaining only the rag in which they had been wrapped. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

Public Library and the town’s Common facing it:

Below are the plaques on the four faces of the Haverhill statue, depicting comic-book style the taking of the prisoners followed by the retaliation of Hannah’s husband (which nobody talks much about nowadays), Hannah’s killing and scalping of the band, and their night escape with their bounty scalps down the dark HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

and silent Merrimack River:

Today, by car, it is 66 miles from Haverhill to the island near Lancaster, situated at the entry of the Contoocook River into the Merrimack River, on which Hannah took her scalps. Leave Haverhill on I-495 southbound from exit 50, travel to exit 40, turn north on I-93 and travel to Exit 17. There is no sign announcing the Duston monument there. You must pay a 75-cent toll between exits 16 and 17. You will be six miles north of Concord NH. Go west on US-4 for about half a mile to a Park-’n-Ride beside the river. There is a cast-iron historical marker at the entrance to the lot. At the west end of the lot a paved path leading down to the river and over an unused railroad bridge onto the island. The island boasts a monument erected in 1874 with Hannah at the top.22

22. You are aware, of course, that Hard-Hearted Hannah has the distinction of being the 1st woman in honor of whom USers had ever erected a monument! HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

May 12, Wednesday (Old Style): Judge Samuel Sewall made an entry in his diary, noting the singular detail that the captivities of Mistress Mary Rowlandson during “King Phillip’s War” and subsequently of Mrs. Hannah Emerson Duston during the French and Indian Wars, seemingly captivities entirely unrelated to one another, were instead in fact, behind the scenes, links in a common chain. Why had not living in connexion with a minister of the gospel, why had not the previous instance of captivity and restauration, had the effect of preventing this man from engaging in a fresh incident of interracial abuse? Is it that the savagery of this savage was too primitive, too dark, for the religious example which that reverend had offered to be able to overcome — or might it perhaps be that the sum of all the religiosity which that reverend had had to offer actually amounted more to a mockery of God than to real religion, and thus was incapable of motivating those who came in contact with him, and with it, to begin to live lives of personal decency?

Fourth-day, May 12 ... Hannah Dustan came to see us; ... She said her master, whom she kill’d did formerly live with Mr. Roulandson at Lancaster: He told her, that when he pray’d the English way, he thought that was good: but now he found the French way was better. The single man shewed the night before, to Saml Lenarson, how he used to knock Englishmen on the head and take off their Scalps; little thinking that the Captives would make some of their first experiment upon himself. Sam. Lenarson kill’d him.

(I’m not joking here. It really does seem to me to be an open question, whether the religiosity and the religious example offered by a person such as the Reverend Rowlandson amounted to nothing more than self- privileging, and thus was unavailable as a source of moral guidance for others. Just because a person is a reverend of the gospel, we need not infer that that person is a decent or whole or insightful human being.)

NOTE: There is some material about Mary Rowlandson that I need to insert somewhere, and since there is no good place to put this, arbitrarily, I am going to insert it here. There has been a story floating around, that Mary Rowlandson wrote about an incident during her captivity by the Wampanoag that does not now appear in her narrative as printed: “He gave me a bisquit, which I put in my pocket, and not daring to eat it, buried it under a log, fearing he had put something in it to make me love him.” This has surfaced in Louise Erdrich’s story titled CAPTIVITY and in Sherman Alexie’s poem titled “Captivity” (in FIRST INDIAN ON THE MOON). In fact, however, this is something that happened not to Mary Rowlandson but to John Gyles (page 99 in the Vaughan and Clark collection PURITANS A MONG THE I NDIANS) and represented Gyles’s fear not of the native Americans, but of the Jesuit who was offering to redeem him from the Indians: “The Jesuit gave me a biscuit which I put into my pocket and dare not eat but buried it under a log, fearing that he had put something in it to make me love him, for I was very young and had heard much of the Papists torturing the Protestants, etc., so that I hated the sight of a Jesuit.” HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

November 9: Judge Samuel Sewall’s PHÆNOMENA QUÆDAM APOCALYPTICA AD ASPECTUM NOVI ORBIS CONFIGURATA; OR, SOME FEW LINES TOWARDS A DESCRIPTION OF THE NEW HEAVEN AS IT MAKES TO THOSE WHO STAND UPON THE NEW EARTH. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1698

December 22, Thursday (Old Style): In Boston, Judges Elisha Cooke, Thomas Danforth, Samuel Sewall, and Wait Winthrop were appointed by the Governor and Council Commissioner of Oyer and Terminer for the trial of Jacob Smith. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1699

October 14: Judge Samuel Sewall became Commissioner of the Company for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England and Parts Adjacent. He would serve until his death. He would also serve as secretary and treasurer, until his resignation in April 1724. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1700

May 3, Friday (Old Style): Judge Samuel Sewall proposed the establishment of Indian reservations, and a settled system of racial apartheid:

I should think it requisite that convenient tracts of land should be set out to them; and that by plain and natural boundaries, as much as may be —as lakes, rivers, mountains, rocks— upon which for any Englishman to encroach should be accounted a crime. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

June 24, Monday (Old Style): Judge Samuel Sewall’s THE SELLING OF JOSEPH, A MEMORIAL:

These Ethiopians, as black as they are; seeing they are the Sons and Daughters of the First Adam, the Brethren and Sisters of the Last Adam, and the Offspring of GOD; They ought to be treated with a Respect agreeable.

Methinks, when we are bemoaning the barbarous Usage of our Friends and Kinfolk in Africa; it might not be unseasonable to inquire whether we are not culpable in forcing the Africans to become Slaves among our selves.

THE SELLING OF JOSEPH, A MEMORIAL

Forasmuch as Liberty is in real value next unto Life: None ought to part with it themselves, or deprive others of it, but upon most mature Consideration. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

The Numerousness of Slaves at this day in the Province, and the Uneasiness of them under their Slavery, hath put many upon thinking whether the Foundation of it be firmly and well laid; so as to sustain the Vast Weight that is built upon it. It is most certain that all Men, as they are the Sons of Adam, are; and have equal Right unto Liberty, and all other outward Comforts of Life. God hat the Earth [with all its Commodities] unto the Sons of Adam, PAL 115.16. And hat made of One Blood, all Nations of Men, for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and hat determined the Times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation: That they should seek the Lord. Forasmuch then as we are the Offspring of GOD &c. ACT 17.26, 27, 29. Now although the Title given by the last ADAM, doth infinitely better Mens Estates, respecting GOD and themselves; and grants them a most beneficial and inviolable Lease under the Broad Seal of Heaven, who were before only Tenants at Will: Yet through the Indulgence of GOD to our First Parents after the Fall, the outward Estate of all and every of the children, remains the same, as to one another. So that Originally, and Naturally, there is no iuch thing as Slavery. Joseph was rightfully no more a Slave to his Brethren, then they were to him: and they had no more Authority to Sell him, than they had to Slay him. And if they had nothing to do to Sell him; the Ishmaelites bargaining with them, and paying down Twenty pieces of Silver, could not make a Title. Neither could Potiphar have any better Interest in him than the Ishmaelites had, GEN. 37, 20, 27, 28. For he that shall in this case plead Alteration of Property, seems to have forfeited a great part of his own claim to Humanity. There is no proportion between Twenty Pieces of Silver, and LIBERTY. The Commodity it self is the Claimer. If Arabian Gold be imported in any quantities, most are afraid to meddle with it, though they might have it a easy rates; lest if it should have been wrongfully taken from the Owners, it should kindle a fire to the Consumption of their whole estate. ’Tis pity there should be more Caution used in buying a Horse, or a little lifeless dust; than there is in purchasing Men and Women: Whenas they are the Offspring of GOD, and their Liberty is,.... Auro pretiosior Omni. And seeing GOD hath said, He that stealeth a Man and Selleth him, or if he be found in his hand, he shall surely be put to Death. EXOD. 12.16. This Law being of Everlasting Equity, wherein Man Stealing is ranked amongst the most atrocious of Capital Crimes: What louder Cry can there be made of the Celebrated Warning, Caveat Emptor! And all thing considered, it would conduce more to the Welfare of the Province, to have White Servants for a Term of Years, than to have Slaves for Life. Few can endure to hear of a Negro’s being made free; and indeed they can seldom use their freedom well; yet their continual aspiring after their forbidden, renders them Unwilling Servants. And there is such a disparity in their Conditions, Color & Hair, that they can never embody with us, and grow up into orderly Families, to the Peopling of the Land: but still remain in our Body Politic as a kind of extravasat Blood. As many Negro men as there are among us, so many empty places there are in our Train Bands, and the places taken up of Men that might make Husbands for our Daughters. And the Sons and Daughters of New England would become more like Jacob, and Rachel, if this Slavery were thrust quite out of doors. Moreover it is too well known what Temptations Masters are under, to connive at the Fornication of their Slaves; lest they should be obliged to find them Wives, or pay their Fines. It seems to be practically pleaded that they might be Lawless; ’tis thought much of, that the Law should have Satisfaction for their Thefts, and other Immoralities; by which means, Holiness to the Lord, is more rarely engraven upon this sort of Servitude. It is likewise most lamentable to thin, how in taking Negros out of Africa, and selling of them here, That which GOD has joined together men to boldly rend asunder; Men from their Country, Husbands from their Wives, Parents from their Children. How horrible is the Uncleanness, Mortality, if not Murder, that the Ships are guilty of that bring great Crouds of these miserable Men, and Women. Methinks, when we are bemoaning the barbarous Usage of our Friends and Kinsfolk in Africa: it might not be unseasonable to enquire whether we are not culpable in forcing the Africans to become Slaves amongst our selves. And it may be a questions whether all the Benefit received by Negro Slaves, will balance the Accompt of Cash laid out upon them; and for the Redemption of our own enslaved Friends out of Africa. Besides all the Persons and Estates that have perished there. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

Obj. 1 These Blackamores are of the Posterity of Cham, and therefore are under the Curse of Slavery. GEN. 9.25, 26, 27. Answ. Of all Offices, one would not begg this; viz. Uncall’d for, to be an Executioner of the Vindictive Wrath of God; the extent and duration of which is to us uncertain. If this ever was a Commission; How do we know but that it is long since out of date? Many have found it to their Cost, that a Prophetical Denunciation of Judgement against a Person or People, would not warrant them to inflict that evil. If it would, Hazael might justify himself in all he did against his Master, and the Israelites, from 2 Kings 8.10, 12. But it is possible that by cursory reading, this Text may have been mistaken. For Canaan is the Person Cursed three times over, without the mentioning of Cham. Good Expositors suppose the Curse entailed on him, and that this Prophesie was accomplished in the Extirpation of the Canaanites, and in the Servitude of the Gibeonites. Vide Pareum. Whereas the Blackmores are not descended of Canaan, but of Cush. PSAL. 68.31. Princes shall come our to Egypt [Mizraim] Ethiopia [Cush] shall soon stretch out her hands unto God. Under which Names, all Africa may be comprehended; and the Promised Conversion ought to be prayed for. JER. 13.23. Can the Ethiopian change his skin? This shows that Black Men are the Posterity of Cush: who time out of mind have been distinguished by their Colour. And for want of the true, Ovid assigns a fabulous cause of it.

Sanguine tum credunt in corpora cumma vacato Aethiopum populous nigrum traxisse coleorm. METOMORPH. lib. 2. Obj. 2 The Nigers are brought out of a pagan country, into places where the Gospel is Preached. Answ. Evil must not be done, that good may come of it. The extraordinary and comprehensive Benefit accruing to the Church of God, and to Joseph personally, did not rectify his brethrens Sale of him. Obj. 3 The Africans have Wars with one another: our Ships bring lawful Captives taken in those Wars. Answ. For ought is known, their Wars are much such as were between Jacob’s Sons and their brother Joseph. If they be between Town and Town; Provincial, or National: Every War is upon one side Unjust. As Unlawful War can’t make lawful Captives. And by Receiving, we are in danger to promote, and partake in their Barbarous Cruelties. I am sure, if some Gentlemen should go down to the Brewsters to take the Air and Fish: And a stronger party from Hull should Surprise them, and Sell them for Slaves to a Ship outward bound: they would think themselves unjustly dealt with; both by Sellers and Buyers. And yet ’tis to be feared, we have no other kind of Title to our Nigers. Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them: for this is the Law and the Prophets. MATT. 7.12. Obj. 4 Abraham had servants bought with his Money, and born in his House. Answ. Until the Circumstances of Abraham’s purchase be recorded, no Argument can be drawn from it. In the mean time, Charity obliges us to conclude, that He knew it was lawful and good.

It is Observable that the Israelites were strictly forbidden the buying, or selling of one another for Slaves. LIVIT. 25.39, 46. JER. 34.8-22. And GOD gaged His Blessing in lieu of any loss they might conceipt they suffered thereby. DEUT. 15.18. And since the partition Wall is broken down, inordinate Self love should likewise be demolished. GOD expects that Christians should be of a more Ingenuous and benign frame of spirit. Christians should carry it to all the World, as the Israelites were to carry it one towards another. And for men obstinately to persist in holding their Neighbours and Brethren under the Rigor of perpetual Bondage, seems to be no proper way of gaining Assurance that God ha‘s [sic] given them Spiritual Freedom. Our Blessed Saviour ha‘s [sic] altered the Measures of the Ancient Love-Song, and set it to a most Excellent New Tune, which all ought to be ambitious of Learning. Matt. 5.43, 44. John 13.34. These Ethiopians, as black as they are; seeing they are the Sons and Daughters of the First Adam, the Brethren and Sister of the Last ADAM, and the Offspring of GOD; They ought to be treated with Respect agreeable. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

Servitus perfect voluntaria, inter Christianum & Christiainum, ex parte servi patientis saepe est licita quia est necessaria; sed ex parte domini agentis, & prcodurando & exercendo, vis potestesse licita; quia non convenit regulae illi generali: Quecunque volueritis ut faciant vobis homines, ita & vos facite eis. MATT. 7.12. Perfecta servitus poenae, non potest jure locim havere, nisi ex delicto gravi quod ultimum supplicum aliquo modo meretur; quia Libertas ex naturali aestimatione proxime accedit ad vitam ipsam, & eidem a multis praeferri solet. AMES. CAS. CONSC. LIB. 5 CAP. 23 THES. 2, 3

BOSTON of the Massachusets Printed by Bartholomew Green, and John Allen, June 24th, 1700. The End [It is to be noted that on page 135 of Charles Rappleye’s recent SONS OF PROVIDENCE: THE BROWN BROTHERS, THE SLAVE TRADE, AND THE (NY: Simon & Schuster, 2006), the passage “Few can endure to hear of a Negro’s being made free; and indeed they can seldom use their freedom well; yet their continual aspiring after their forbidden, renders them Unwilling Servants. And there is such a disparity in their Conditions, Color & Hair, that they can never embody with us, and grow up into orderly Families, to the Peopling of the Land: but still remain in our Body Politic as a kind of extravasat Blood” is scanned uncarefully as “Despite his umbrage, Sewall was not ready to acknowledge blacks as equal to whites. ‘They can never use their freedom well,’ he offered; ‘they can never embody with us, and grow up into orderly families.’” –The carelessness of such an analysis goes beyond the commentator’s replacement of Sewall’s comparative term “seldom” with a categorical “never.”] HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1701

Judge Samuel Sewall rowed out to observe the new construction at Fort William on Castle Island.

John Saffin (1632-1710), another member of the judicial court on which Sewall sat, a merchant, slave dealer, and slave trader, published a response to Sewall’s pamphlet THE SELLING OF JOSEPH, A MEMORIAL of the previous year, A BRIEF CANDID ANSWER TO A LATE PRINTED SHEET ENTITLED, THE SELLING OF JOSEPH. God requires that his white children despise his black children: he had ordained “different degrees and orders of men, some to be high and honorable, others to be low and despicable.”

The Negroes Character. Cowardly and cruel are those Blacks Innate, Prone to Revenge, Imp of inveterate hate. He that exasperates them, soon espies Mischief and murder in their very eyes. Libidinous, Deceitful, False and Rude, HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

The Spume Issue of the Ingratitude. . . .

June 2, Monday (Old Style): Judge Samuel Sewall became Captain of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Boston. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1703

In Boston, Magistrate Samuel Sewall, who had played a part in the witch trials, stood before the congregation of the church of which he was a member and confessed errors. He was ashamed, but not sufficiently ashamed to commit suicide (in Japan in this year, by way of cultural contrast, in shame for offenses of lesser moral turpitude 47 ronin were committing group suicide.) HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1705

Over the strenuous objections of Magistrate Samuel Sewall, the Massachusetts Bay colony created an “Act for the Better Preventing of a Spurious and Mixt Issue” which proscribed not only interracial fornication but also interracial marriage. Section 1 prohibited fornication of “any negro or molatto man” “with an English woman,

or a woman of any other Christian nation within this province,” punishable by whipping of both partners, the selling of the man out of the province within six months (after continuous imprisonment), and pressing the woman into servitude if she is unable to maintain a child. Section 2 banned fornication of “any Englishman, or man of another Christian nation within this province” “with a negro, or molatto woman,” punishable by whipping of only the man, who also shall pay a fine of five pounds and, if applicable, child support, and by the selling of the woman out of the province. Section 4 prohibited the contracting of matrimony between one of “her majesty’s English or Scottish subjects, [or] of any other Christian nation within this province” and “any negro or molatto,” threatening persons authorized who solemnize such a marriage with a fine of 50 pounds.

This act also provided that “if any Negro or mulatto shall presume to smite or strike any person of the English or other Christian nation, such Negro or mulatto shall be severely whipped, at the discretion of the justices before whom the offender shall be convicted.”

In Virginia, meanwhile, in a continuous series of enactments designed to split the laboring class by fostering the contempt of poor whites toward both blacks and reds as their inherent inferiors, and also because the discriminatory miscegenation law of 1691 was wasting precious labor resources by banishing offenders from the colony, the assembly determined it would punish intermarriage only with 6 months imprisonment and a fine of 10 pounds sterling. A white woman bearing the illegitimate child of a black or mulatto was to be fined 15 pounds sterling or do 5 years of servitude. The child, though free, would be a servant until age 30 for the benefit of the parish, the profit to go to needy white families. The punishment for a black or red slave being found unruly was to be dismemberment and although masters could not whip a “Christian white servant” without an order from a justice of the peace, they might freely chastise their blacks in accordance with their own judgment. The legislature also ordered that the possessions of black and red slaves were to be confiscated by the church warden and the proceeds of sale were to be expended upon needy whites. Henceforward such persons would be considered to be able to claim ownership over nothing at all. This Virginia assembly passed a law legalizing permanent enslavement: “All servants imported and brought into this country, by sea or land, who were not Christians in their native country ... shall be ... slaves, and as HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

such be here bought and sold notwithstanding a conversion to Christianity afterwards.” SLAVERY

The Virginia Assembly reaffirmed its decision of 1691 that it was permissible for planters to purchase captives from the native American tribes in a “free and open trade for all persons at all times and at all places with all Indians whatsoever.” It would not be noted either during this era or when this law would again be reaffirmed, in 1733, that such purchasing of enslaved persons from native Americans necessarily involved a presumption that a native American seller was a free man, entitled as such to enter into contracts at law — and that therefore it was actually quite impermissible under the existing understanding of the nature of the law for any native American ever to be thus reduced to a condition of enslavement!

During this year Virginia assessed a penalty for ministers who officiated at an interracial intermarriage: 10,000 pounds of tobacco. Their Assembly passed a law legalizing lifelong slavery: “all servants imported and brought into this country, by sea or land, who were not christians in their native country... shall be... slaves, and as such be here bought and sold notwithstanding a conversion to christianity afterwards.” HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1707

A whitewasher hanged himself in Boston. Judge Samuel Sewall denied Christian burial to the body of this suicide and had a cartload of stones dumped on top of it near the gallows on Boston Neck (the stones cost the town 13 shillings).

December 6: Under a Resolve of the Governor and Council, the Harvard College charter of 1650 was restored. As provincial magistrate, Judge Samuel Sewall became Overseer of Harvard College. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1710

August 11: Judge Samuel Sewall made an entry in his diary in regard to Gabriel Bernon. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1713

August: Judge Samuel Sewall’s PROPOSALS TOUCHING THE ACCOMPLISHMENT OF PROPHECIES.

April 29, Wednesday (Old Style): In the diary of Judge Samuel Sewall: “I go to the Meeting at Mr. Franklin’s. Pray, read Mr. Doolittle’s Morning Lecture about Leading of the Spirit.”

September 16, Wednesday (Old Style): Judge Samuel Sewall’s son Joseph Sewall was ordained as colleague-pastor of the Old South Church of Boston, with the Reverend Ebenezer Pemberton (this ordination ceremony was doubtless attended by the family of Josiah Franklin, including of course 7-year-old Benjamin). We find in the Judge’s diary: Began a little after Ten. Dr. Cotton Mather begun with Prayer, Excellently, concluded about the Bell ringing for Eleven. My son preached from 1 Cor. 3.7. So then neither is he that planteth any thing, nor he that Watereth; but God that gives the Increase. Was a very great Assembly; were Elders and Messengers from 9 Churches ... Mr. Pemberton made an August Speech, Shewing the Validity and Antiquity of New English Ordinations. Then having made his way, went on, ask’d as Customary, if any had to say against the ordaining the person. ... Dr. Increase Mather, Dr. Cotton Mather, Mr. , Mr. Ebenezer Pemberton and Mr. Benjamin Colman laid on Hands. Then Mr. Pemberton Pray’d, Ordain’d, and gave the Charge Excellently. Then Dr. Increase Mather made a notable Speech, gave the Right Hand of Fellowship, and pray’d. Mr. Pemberton directed the three and Twentieth Psalm to be sung. The chief Entertainment was at Mr. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

Pemberton’s; but was considerable elsewhere. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1714

September (to May 1715): At the age of 8, entered the South Grammar School in Boston:23 “My elder Brothers were all put Apprentices to different Trades. I was put to the Grammar School at Eight Years of Age, my Father intending to devote me as the Tithe of his Sons to the Service of the Church.” The master there was Nathaniel Williams (1675-1738) and the usher Edward Wigglesworth (circa 1693-1765). Mr. Williams, who had become a full member of the Old South Church in the same year as had Josiah Franklin and Franklin, was well-known to the Franklin family. Mr. Wigglesworth was at this time also an attender at the Old South Church and would be made a member on September 14, 1718. Franklin would later explain his father’s decision: “My early Readiness in learning to read (which must have been very early, as I do not remember when I could not read) and the Opinion of all his Friends that I should certainly make a good Scholar, encourag’d him in this Purpose of his.” He would add that “My Uncle Benjamin too approv’d of it, and propos’d to give me all his Shorthand Volumes of Sermons, I supposed as a Stock to set up with, if I would learn his Character” (shorthands were common in that period). Numerous devout parishioners like Uncle Benjamin were recording the gist and many details of their ministers’ sermons in such shorthand volumes. However, if Uncle Benjamin Franklin did indeed advise in said manner, this could only have been via the post, for Uncle Benjamin would not arrive in Boston until Fall 1715. Franklin reports to us that he did quite well at this elite school: “I continu’d however at the Grammar School not quite one Year, tho’ in that time I had risen gradually from the Middle of the Class of that Year to be the Head of it, and farther was remov’d into the next Class above it, in order to go with that into the third at the End of the Year.” Two other young scholars who presumably would have been with him at the South Grammar School were Edmund Quincy (1703-1788) and Ebenezer Pemberton (1705-1777), for Quincy would graduate from Harvard in 1722 and, in correspondence with Franklin, we find him referring to himself as his old schoolmate. Ebenezer Pemberton, since he was the son of the Franklin family’s minister of the same name, no doubt also was in attendance at this South Grammar School. Pemberton would graduate from Harvard in 1721, becoming the minister of the Presbyterian Church in New York and serving as a member of the Presbyterian Synod of Philadelphia, and in 1735 Franklin would defend the Reverend Samuel Hemphill against the Reverend Pemberton and the Presbyterian Synod. It is likely also, because their parents attended the Old South Church and hence probably lived near the South Grammar School, that Daniel Oliver (1704-1727) and John Smith (1704-1768), who both graduated from Harvard along with Quincy, knew Franklin and may have been in classrooms with him. Two Harvard graduates of 1723 were also associated with the Old South Church: Samuel Hirst (1705-1727), grandson of Samuel Sewall, and Habijah Savage (1704-1743), and may have been fellow young scholars with Franklin at the South Grammar School. When in 1753 Franklin was awarded an honorary MA from Harvard College, his name would be inserted in the catalogue with the Class of 1724, thus indicating that it was being presumed that had he gone on to college, he would have been a member of that Class; however, no member of the Harvard Class of 1724 appears to have been attending at the Old South Church. Franklin surely knew Nicholas Bowes (1706- 1755) because, like Franklin, he was baptized by Samuel Willard plus his family resided on Union Street. Bowes would graduate from Harvard College with the Class of 1725, along with Jeremiah Gridley (1702-67), another member of the Old South Church. Franklin probably knew Dr. William Clark (1709-1760), who, like Quincy, would later be one of his correspondents — Clark was a member of the Old South Church member and would graduate from Harvard College with the Class of 1726. It is very likely that Franklin was acquainted with Simeon Stoddard (1707-1776), who was baptized at the Old South on November 23, 1707 and who in

23. Later this school would come to be known as the Boston Latin School. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1751 would be declared non compos, because his father Anthony Stoddard belonged to the same prayer group as Josiah Franklin. According to a CATALOGUE OF THE MASTERS AND SCHOLARS WHO HAVE BELONGED TO THE BOSTON LATIN SCHOOL issued in 1878 that supplements the available records by acceptance of family traditions, Benjamin Gibson, Mather Byles, Samuel Freeman, and Jeremiah Gridley were in attendance at the school with Franklin. Gibson (1700-1723), who would graduate from Harvard College with the Class of 1719, would presumably have been classes ahead of young Franklin. Byles (1707-1788) and Freeman (1707-1728) both graduated from Harvard College with the Class of 1725, along with Bowes and Gridley. Presumably Joseph Green (who had been born in the same month as Benjamin), was also a member of his grammar school class (Samuel Mather and John Martyn, however, presumably were scholars instead at the North Grammar School).

August 1, Wednesday: Queen Anne died and the reign of George I as king of England was proclaimed (In Boston, Judge Samuel Sewall would learn of this development on September 17th and on September 22d George I would be acclaimed there as the new monarch). DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

December 20, Monday (Old Style): Last issue of The Spectator. THE SPECTATOR

December 23, Thursday (Old Style): According to the diary of Judge Samuel Sewall, “Dr. C. Mather preaches excellently from Ps. 37. Trust in the Lord &c. only spake of the Sun being in the centre of our System. I think it inconvenient to assert such Problems.” Since the Copernican system had been offered to him at Harvard College as undisputed fact, Judge Sewall should not here be construed to have been contesting astronomy, but presumably was merely expressing an attitude as to appropriateness of discourse. DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1715

September 11, Sunday: The Reverend Increase Mather preached a sermon “Jesus Christ is a Mighty Saviour” in which he referred to King Louis XIV of France: “How many have of late Years, & at this day, been cast into loathsome Dungions, & cruel Gallies, for their Religion? Has not the Dragon of France boasted, that he caused Twenty hundred thousand Persons to renounce their Religion.”

September 29, Thursday: According to the diary of Judge Samuel Sewall, “Mr. Pemberton was very sick of the Piles.” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

October 4, Tuesday: According to the diary of Judge Samuel Sewall: “Chadder arrives [at Boston] ... brings Certain News of the French King’s Death, and that the Duke of Orleans is Regent.” On the 21st of October the Judge would annotate his diary of October 15, 1705 with a Latin clause meaning “On occasion of the French King’s death on the Lord’s Day Augt. 21. 1715.” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

December 9, 1715: Samuel Sewall became Judge of Probate for Suffolk County, until his retirement in 1728. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1716

February 29, Wednesday (1715, Old Style): Per the diary of Judge Samuel Sewall: “Got home so as to go seasonably to our Meeting at Mr. Franklin’s; though the way was very bad.” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

June 5, Tuesday (Old Style): Judge Samuel Sewall recorded that “I went to our privat Meeting ... Mr. Franklin was not present, nor Cole” (this is the sole occasion on which Judge Sewall noted Josiah Franklin as absent). DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

October 4, Thursday: Governor arrived in Boston. Per the diary of Judge Samuel Sewall: “just about Sunset, we hear a Gun which proves a Signal of the Governour’s being come.” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1717

January 6, Sunday (1716, Old Style): Benjamin Franklin turned 11.

January 8, Tuesday (1716, Old Style): The New South Church had been doing business since July 14, 1716 (Benjamin Franklin would reminisce about the New North and New South churches of Boston in a letter on August 23, 1750), but on this day its congregation and minister staged an “Inauguration” ceremony fit to attract a “Great Assembly.” Judge Samuel Sewall recorded in his diary the “pasquinade” on the doors of this new meetinghouse (read it and weep!): To all True-Hearted Christians.

Good people, within this House, this very day, A Canting Crew will meet to fast, and pray. Just as the miser fasts with greedy mind, to spare; So the glutton fasts, to eat a greater share. But the sower-headed Presbyterians fast to seem more holy, And their Canting Ministers to punish sinfull foley. DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

February 13, Wednesday (1716, Old Style): In Boston, according to the diary of Judge Samuel Sewall, the Reverend Ebenezer Pemberton died “about 3/4 past 3 after noon.” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

February 18, Monday (1716, Old Style): In Boston, according to the diary of Judge Samuel Sewall, the Reverend Ebenezer Pemberton was buried between 4 and 5 in the afternoon. The judge recorded a “Great Storm of Snow; yet good going under foot,” because “a broad path” had been prepared for the funeral procession. There is no question but that the family of Josiah Franklin, including son Benjamin, were present for their minister’s funeral. DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

February 23, Sunday (1717, Old Style): Judge Samuel Sewall suggested that either John White or Josiah Franklin should take his place as praecentor for the congregation (leading the congregation in its singing of hymns), his voice having become enfeebled. “The Return of the Gallery where Mr. Franklin sat was a place very Convenient for it” (John White, Harvard Class of 1685, would on Sunday, the 2d of March succeed Sewall as praecentor, and do this “very sweetly.”) DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

August 28, Wednesday (Old Style): The diary of Judge Samuel Sewall indicates that he “Read an Excellent Sermon at Mr. Franklin’s about Communion with God; Sung the 4th part of the 73rd Psal. Pray’d.” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

October 19, Tuesday: Death of Hannah Hull Sewall, Judge Samuel Sewall’s wife.

Soon after, the bereaved widower would begin “Wandering in my mind whether to live a Single or a Married Life.” Soon he would be remarking to his dear diary, upon the occasion of the funeral of a Mrs. Denison’s husband, that he hoped to “keep house” with the widow. He broke off negotiations with another widow, a Widow Winthrop, and began them with the Widow Denison — but this negotiation would founder upon the rocky fact that, were she to have remarried with him, he would have come into immediate possession of a portion of the late Mr. Denison’s considerable estate, yet all he was able to offer her was a pension of £250 per year should he also demise. DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

October 20, Wednesday: Samuel Sewall: “My Son has much adoe to read the Note I put up, being overwhelm’d with tears.” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

October 27, Wednesday: The Reverend Cotton Mather preached the funeral sermon for Hannah (Hull) Sewall, wife of the diarist, at the Old South Church. This would be printed as The Valley of Baca (Boston: B. Green, 1717). DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

November 7, Thursday: Samuel Sewall: “Last night died the Excellent Waitstill Winthrop esqr., for Parentage, Piety, Prudence, Philosophy, Love to New England Ways and people very Eminent.” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

November 14, Thursday: Samuel Sewall: “Attend the Funeral of Majr. General Winthrop. ... The Regiment attended in Arms. ... The Streets were crowded with people.” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

December 17, Tuesday (Old Style): According to the diary of Judge Samuel Sewall, “At the privat Meeting at Brother Manly’s I was so hoarse with my Cold, that I got Brother Franklin to set the Tune, which he did very well.” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1718

January 1, Wednesday (1717, Old Style): Josiah Franklin probably attended the private prayer meeting at Judge Samuel Sewall’s. DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

January 22, Wednesday (1717, Old Style): Josiah Franklin attended a “Family Sacrifice” at Judge Samuel Sewall’s. DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

Though he invited a number of ministers and distinguished guests, the judge also invited the regular members of his private prayer meetings: “Our Fast was held though a cold day. Mr. Prince began with Prayer, Mr. Sewall, Blessed are they that Mourn. Mr. Colman pray’d. Dr. Cotton Mather preach’d, Psal. 79.8. Let thy tender Mercyes speedily prevent us. Mr. Wadsworth Concluded.” The judge recorded that the printer Bartholomew Green invited the guests (we may presume that Green printed invitations, that were delivered by messenger): “Bro Manly and wife, Mr. , Widow Tully, Capt. Hill, Mr. John Walley, Madam Pemberton, Lt. Governor, Edward Bromfield esqr., Mr. Willoughby, Master Williams, Mr. Samuel Phillips, Mr. , wifes Mother. Col. Fitch, Capt. Ephraim Savage, Madam Winthrop, Jeffries, Mr. Secretary Willard, Widow Belknap, Mr. Samuel Gerrish, Widow Hubbart, Simeon Stoddard esqr., Cousin Samuel Sewall, &c. Madam Eunice Willard, widow of Capt. Nathaniel Williams, Brother Cole, Franklin, Col. Checkley, Mr. John Coney, Major Hab. Savage, wido Thornton, Dr. John Clark, Thomas Hutchinson esqr., Edward Hutchinson esqr, Madam Usher.” Of these guests, the following were regular members of Sewall’s private prayer group: The “Widow” Belknap (who was probably Mary, the widow of Joseph Belknap). Mary (Gedney) and Joseph Belknap made the baptismal covenant at the Old South Church on 30 April 1680. Evidently it was a different Mary and Joseph Belknap who became full members on 16 Nov 1735. Brother and Mrs. Cole were John and Mary Cole who joined the Old South Church as full members on 24 June 1694. According to Hill, they “Joined by letter of dismission from the church in Stonington, Conn. John Cole married Mary, “daughter of the brave John Gallop, killed in the decisive battle of Philip’s War.” A mainstay of the judge’s private prayer group was Captain James Hill. He became a full member of the Old South Church on 12 June 1670 and a deacon on 24 Nov 1693. He had been recruited into the Boston military company in 1677, became 4th Sergeant of the company in 1678, and a lieutenant in 1685. Roberts’ History 248 guessed that he was probably, “a cooper by trade, as the selectmen appointed him a culler of staves in 1669, 1670, and 1671.” A highway surveyor in 1680-81, he was captain of the military company in Boston from 1684 to 1692 inclusive, and a selectman of Boston 1688-1690 and 1693. He died 26 Feb 1720/1721. Another regular attendee was William Manly. He had become a full member of the Old South Church on 9 March 1689. Regular members of the private prayer meeting who did not attend this ceremony included Henry Bridgham, who joined the Old South Church as a full member on 3 Oct 1703. A member of Boston’s militia, he was recruited in 1699. A Boston tanner, he was a tithing-man in 1703; clerk of the market in 1704; and constable in 1706. He became third sergeant of the Artillery Company in 1704; first sergeant in 1709; and clerk of the Company from 1707-1709. He died 10 April 1720. Also not in attendence was Grace Tilley Clark, the wife of Jonas Clark, brazier, and daughter of William Tilly and his first wife. She joined the Old South Church as a full member on 3 June 1711. She had been baptized on 6 Nov 1692, but apparently not at the Old South Church. Her stepmother was Abigail Tilly (1704), Samuel Sewall’s second wife. Also absent was Mary HDT WHAT? INDEX

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Dafforne, wife of John Dafforne. She made her Baptismal Covenant at the Old South Church in 1677 (no specific dates are given for that year) and became a full member 15 Feb 1684. Sewall, on 20 June 1716, mentioned inviting the meeting to her house. Nor was Dorothy Weld Denison (24 Oct 1718) (wife of William Denison, H.C. 1681) present, though she outlived William Denison and married Samuel Williams in 1720. Of course, by 1718 a few former faithful members of the group had died. They included Mary Emmons, the wife of Benjamin Emmons. On 20 Jan 1713/14, Sewall mentioned that because of her illness the meeting had been postponed. Mary Frost (3 Feb 1720), the wife of John Frost, was absent. She had become a full Old South Church member on 19 Dec 1708. Samuel Phillips, a Boston bookseller, was also absent. He became a member of the Old South on 26 Oct 1707 and a deacon in 1714. He was recruited for the Artillery company in 1693 and made first sergeant in 1699. He kept his shop “At the Brick-shop at the West end of the Town House.” He was baptized 2 Nov 1662 and died Oct 1720, age 58. Not in attendance was Martha Ruggles, widow of Captain Samuel Ruggles, who made her baptismal covenant at the Old South 7 Feb 1696 and became a full member 15 June 1701. Peter Sergeant (Sewall 11 April 1712), “a prominent merchant and citizen,” became a full member of the Old South on 28 July 1689. He was a freeman in 1690 and an overseer of seats in 1699. Also missing was Captain Ephraim Savage, born 20 July 1645, who graduated Harvard College in 1662 and became a full member of the Old South Church on 3 May 1672. In 1674, he was recruited to the Artillery Company and in 1677 was made an ensign of his father’s company, succeeding his father (Thomas) as captain of that company 17 March 1681. Meanwhile, he had made fourth sergeant of the Artillery Company in 1677, ensign in 1678, and Lieutenant in 1680. He was a selectman of Boston 1693-96 inclusive, 1709 and 1710, and a representative 1703-08 inclusive and 1710. The great fire of 1711 started in one of his outhouses. Ephraim’s third wife, Elizabeth Norton Symmes, had apparently attended meetings with her husband until her death 13 April 1710, for Sewall mentioned on the day of her death that she had come to a meeting at Captain Hill’s. Elizabeth Brown Butler Savage, Ephraim’s fourth wife, attended meetings with her husband. He died Feb 1730/1. Habijah Savage, “prominent in both civil and military affairs,” was also a member of Sewall’s private meeting group. He joined as a full member of the Old South on 16 Jan 1708. Recruited for the Artillery Company in 1699, he was third sergeant in 1701, Lieutenant in 1709, and Captain in 1711, 1721, and 1727. He was major of a Boston regiment in 1717 and Lieutenant-Colonel in 1727. A Boston selectman 1715-18, he was a representative to the General Court in 1717, 1718, and 1732; a special justice to the Court of Common pleas 15 Dec 1732; and a Justice of the Peace on 19 Dec 1728, reappointed 6 July 1732. He died 16 Sept 1746. Stephens (or Stevens) was possibly Thomas, who made his Baptismal Covenant on 5 June 1698. Another regular not at the ceremony was Simeon Stoddard, who joined the Old South Church as a full member on 25 Jan 1701/2. He was recruited to the Artillery Company in 1675, made ensign of Captain Penn Townsend’s foot company on 11 May 1681, became ensign of the Artillery Company in 1702, and died 15 Oct 1730. Brother Thornton and Sister Thornton may have been Thomas (joined the Old South on 31 Oct 1725) and Mary Greenwood Thornton, (joined on 16 Dec, 1670). There is also a Sarah Thornton who made the Baptismal Covenant on 1 March 1702, so perhaps the correct combination is Thomas and Sarah. Abigail Melyen Woodmansee Tilley, wife of William Tilley, was Sewall’s second wife. She joined the Old South Church on 3 Sept 1704. She married Sewall on 29 Oct 1719, but died only seven months later on 26 May 1720. William Tilley, Abigail’s second husband, joined the Old South Church in 1674. Colonel Jonathan Tyng occasionally attended Sewall’s meetings. A member of the Royal Council in 1686 and 1687, he opposed Governor Andros. HDT WHAT? INDEX

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He was magistrate and representative in 1692. Recruited to the Boston Militia in 1670, he became a major in 1697, a Lieutenant Colonel in 1702, and a Colonel of the Upper Middlesex regiment in 1703. Tyng was born 15 Dec 1642 and died 19 Jan 1724. Madam Bridget Lisle Hoar Usher was another Sewall regular. Wife of Hezekiah Usher, she was the daughter of Lady Alice Lisle, “one of the victims of the infamous Judge Jeffreys, after the battle of Sedgmoor.” Eunice Tyng Willard, second wife of Samuel Willard, also attended Sewall’s group. Katherine Brattle Eyre Winthrop, second wife of Wait Still Winthrop, was a regular attendee. She joined the Old South Church as a full member on 23 March 1683. Sewall wooed her unsuccessfully. She died 2 August 1725. Since the group met at different members’ houses, these members of Sewall’s private prayer group must occasionally have met for their services at Josiah Franklin’s home. Benjamin Franklin, like the other Franklin children, must have known them.

February 5, Wednesday: According to the diary of Judge Samuel Sewall, when Governor Shute of Massachusetts informed the Council of the words spoken by Elisha Cook to him on January 29th, “They voted, that Mr. Cook’s words were rude, injurious, and Reflecting on the Govr.” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

February 6, Thursday: Governor Shute in an address to the Massachusetts assembly said: “I am glad to find the Trading part as well as the Gentlemen of the Country begin generally to be convinced, that as it was only the Necessity, and great Emergency of our Affairs, that brought us into a Paper Credit; so we shall never be upon a firm and lasting Foundation, till we Recover and Return to Silver and Gold, the only true Species of Money.” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

April 16: Judge Samuel Sewall was appointed Chief Justice of the Superior Court of Judicature.

April 17, Easter Sunday

April 25: Judge Samuel Sewall was sworn as Chief Justice of the Superior Court of Judicature.

June 14, Saturday: Judge Samuel Sewall recorded in his diary that “Mr. [Elisha] Cooke is sent for into Council to explain his Memorial, and he asserts his Meaning to be, that the Province of Main[e] being Granted by the King to Sir , and the Title and Right of the said Gorges being derived to the Massachusetts Colony, the Timber therein belongs to them; and King George may not take it away.” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

October 1, Wednesday (Old Style): Thomas Prince was ordained as an assistant minister at the Old South Church in Boston. Samuel Sewall made an ample record of these proceedings in his diary: HDT WHAT? INDEX

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Mr. Wadsworth began with Prayer, very well, about 1/2 past Ten. Mr. Prince preached from Hebr 13-17. Mr. Sewall pray’d. Dr. Incr. Mather ask’d if any had to object: ask’d the Church Vote who were in the Gallery fronting the Pulpit. Ask’d Mr. Prince’s Acceptance of the Call. Dr. Increase Mather, Dr. Cotton Mather, Mr. Wadsworth, Colman, Sewall lay their Hands on his head. Dr. Increase Mather Prays; Gives the Charge, Prays agen. Dr. Cotton Mather Gives the Right Hand of Fellowship. Dr. Incr. Mather, when he declared whom the elders and Messengers had appointed to do it, [said] that it was a good Practice. Sung Psal. 68. 17- 20. Mr. Prince gave the Blessing. Govr. Dudley and his Lady came in about the beginning of Sermon. Entertainment was at Mr. Sewall’s, which was very plentifull and splendid. DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

The sermon on this day would be printed by James Franklin as THOMAS PRINCE, SERMON DELIVERED ON WEDNESDAY, OCT 1, 1718 ... [WITH] EBENEZER PEMBERTON, A DISCOURSE OF THE VALIDITY OF ORDINATION BY THE HANDS OF PRESBYTERS.

Winter: The Widow Denison finally reluctantly terminated negotiations to become the spouse of the Widowed Judge Samuel Sewall, it having become too clear that she would be bringing him far more money than he her. DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1719

October 29, Thursday, or maybe November 24, Tuesday (Old Style): Chief Justice Samuel Sewall and the widow Mrs. Abigail Melyen Woodmansey Tilley were married by Chief Justice Sewall’s son, the Reverend Joseph Sewall. DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1720

May 26: The new Mrs. Abigail Sewall died suddenly, and the again Widowed Chief Justice Samuel Sewall returned to his negotiations with the Widow Winthrop, whom he had abandoned in 1717 in order first to pursue the Widow Denison and then to marry the Widow Tilley. After several months, however, he would abandon this quarry, as she wouldn’t give him the time of day. DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1721

June 26, Monday (Old Style): Inoculation was being introduced to Boston by Dr. Zabdiel Boylston.

His home besieged by a Boston mob, he would spend the following two weeks hiding in a secret compartment HDT WHAT? INDEX

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in the structure.24

The Reverend Cotton Mather had heard of inoculation from his slave Onesimus or Onesimes, who had been procured for his use by parishioners. Onesimus or Onesimes had been inoculated while still in Africa. The Reverend Mather inoculated two of his other black slaves, as well as his young son Thomas. Although the Reverend Mather had written to Dr. William Douglass, a Scottish physician practicing in Boston who had studied in Edinburgh, Leyden, and Paris, in advance, Dr. Douglass protested in the Franklin paper, the New England Courant, that Dr. Boylston had no physician’s license but was merely “a certain cutter for the stone,” and that in order to prevent qualified physicians from being able effectively to register their objections, this procedure had been undertaken in haste without allowing them an opportunity to consult.25 The Reverend Mather spoke out from the pulpit in favor of such experimentation, referring to this inoculation procedure as “transplantation.” A “grenado” was then pitched into the Reverend Mather’s parsonage with a note tied to it which read: COTTON MATHER, YOU DOG. DAM YOU! I’LL INOCULATE YOU WITH THIS, WITH A POX TO YOU. The bomb was a dud and the General Court would offer a reward of £50 for information leading to the conviction of the person who had heaved it.

24. We may note that his home was firebombed by white people not because he was advocating that native Americans be inoculated against the small pox, but because he was advocating that white people be inoculated. (Refer to letter by Jeffrey Amherst in 1732, recommending that native Americans be deliberately inoculated with the small pox. Dr. Douglass also suggested this.) Also, I don’t know whether either the Reverend’s firebombed home, or the home of Dr. Boylston, was on the street that would eventually be named in the doctor’s honor, Boylston Street. 25. Inoculation was being determinedly opposed by Benjamin Franklin and his elder half-brother James Franklin. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

Judge Samuel Sewall would be inoculated, and with him his family, whereupon the selectmen, fearing

infection, would require them to relocate to Spectacle Island in Boston Harbor, where there was being maintained in those times a quarantine station referred to as “Province Hospital.” VARIOLA DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL HDT WHAT? INDEX

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1722

March 29, Thursday (Old Style): The widower Chief Justice Chief Justice Samuel Sewall and the widow Mrs. Mary Shrimpton Gibbs were married by Chief Justice Sewall’s son-in-law, the Reverend William Cooper. DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL

April 1, Easter Sunday (Old Style): Although he professed himself “Aged, feeble, and exhausted,” the Widower Chief Justice Samuel Sewall, recently united in holy matrimony with the widow Mrs. Mary Shrimpton Gibbs, noted in his diary: “sat with my wife in her pew.” DIARY OF SAMUEL SEWALL HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1723

April 13: In the Massachusetts Bay Colony, Governor Dummer broadcast a general warning against villainous and desperate Negroes or other dissolute people: Whereas within some short time past, many fires have broke out within the town of Boston, and divers buildings have thereby been consumed: which fires have been designedly and industriously kindled by some villainous and desperate Negroes, or other dissolute people, as appears by the confession of some of them (who have been examined by authority) and many concurring circumstances; and it being vehemently suspected that they have entered into a combination to burn and destroy the town, I have therefore thought fit, with the advice of his Majesty’s Council, to issue forth this Proclamation.... SERVILE INSURRECTION

April 18: According to the diary of the Reverend Samuel Dexter, the Reverend Joseph Sewall preached about “the late fires yt have broke out in Boston, supposed to be purposely set by ye Negroes.” SERVILE INSURRECTION

April 19: The selectmen of Boston reported to the town on the subject of the recent spate of structure fires, purportedly set by blacks, making recommendations such as the following: That if more than Two Indians, Negro or Molatto Servants or Slaves be found in the Streets or Highways in or about the Town, idling or lurking together unless in the service of their Master or Employer, every one so found shall be punished at the House of Correction.

A military force would be detailed back up the local night watchmen. At the breaking out of a fire, a squad of this militia would go under arms to the scene along with the firemen, in order to ensure that there were no race complications. SERVILE INSURRECTION

Eventually the recommendations made by the Boston selectmen would result in a Negro Act, in which would appear the following: That no Indian, negro or mullatto, upon the breaking out of fire and the continuance thereof during the night season, shall depart from his or her master’s house, nor be found in the streets at or near the place where the fire is, upon pain of being forthwith seized and sent to the common gaol, and afterwards whipt, three days following before dismist.... HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1724

April: Chief Justice Samuel Sewall gave up being Secretary and Treasurer of the Company for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England and Parts Adjacent. He retained only the title of Commissioner of the Company, in which capacity would serve until his death. HDT WHAT? INDEX

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1725

June 4: Chief Justice Samuel Sewall declined re-election to the Council, after 33 elections under the Province Charter. HDT WHAT? INDEX

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1727

November: Second edition of Chief Justice Samuel Sewall’s PHÆNOMENA QUÆDAM APOCALYPTICA AD ASPECTUM NOVI ORBIS CONFIGURATA; OR, SOME FEW LINES TOWARDS A DESCRIPTION OF THE NEW HEAVEN AS IT MAKES TO THOSE WHO STAND UPON THE NEW EARTH. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1728

July 29: Chief Justice Samuel Sewall announced his retirement as Chief Justice of the Superior Court of Judicature and as Judge of Probate for Suffolk County. He would continue to serve into December.

December 12: Chief Justice Samuel Sewall was succeeded as Chief Justice by Benjamin Lynde.

December 19: Samuel Sewall was succeeded as Judge of Probate by Josiah Willard. HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1729

January 1, Wednesday (1728, Old Style): Samuel Sewall died at the age of 78 at his home in Boston.

Edmund Burke was born in Dublin, the son of a Protestant father (Richard Burke), an attorney of the Court of Exchequer and a Roman Catholic mother (Mary Nagle Burke). Only 3 of this family’s 14 children would survive infancy. Edmund would be tutored by Friend Abraham Shakleton, a Quaker friend of the family, at Ballitore in County Kildare. After spending five years, from 1744 to 1749, at Trinity College in Dublin, he would move in 1750 to London to study for a legal career but during the initial ten years would live high, which would cause him to fail the bar, forfeiting his allowance. To support himself, he would take up writing.

January 7, Tuesday (1728, Old Style): Burial of Samuel Sewall in the Hull/Sewall family tomb in Granary Burying- Ground, Boston.

Some Rehoboth residents were jailed at Bristol, Rhode Island on account of their refusal to pay “ye Ministers Rate....” HDT WHAT? INDEX

SAMUEL SEWALL SAMUEL SEWALL

1839

June 17, Monday: The widow of Revolutionary War officer Joseph Ward and her daughter Prudence, having been long-term boarders in the Thoreau boardinghouse, their nephew Edmund Quincy Sewall, Jr., age 11, came to stay there with Prudence and was enrolled among the 25 or so boys who were in the school kept by the Thoreau SAMUEL SEWALL brothers. Henry Thoreau dedicated his poem on sympathy “To a Gentle Boy” to suggest a similarity of temperament between Edmund and the title character in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s tale THE GENTLE BOY, which had appeared in a magazine called Token in 1832 and had then been included in the volume TWICE-TOLD TALES in 1837, and this highly regarded poem was widely circulated in the Thoreau and Sewall extended families — although Edmund was to comment later that he had been somewhat embarrassed at all this attention. This has been taken as an instance of Thoreau’s latent sexual attraction to males rather than females, but it was not so taken at that time: the Sewall family’s response was to ask Henry, in fairness, if he couldn’t write one also for Edmund’s little brother.

August 1, Monday: Waldo Emerson reported that “Last night came to me a beautiful poem from Henry Thoreau, ‘Sympathy.’ The purest strain & the loftiest, I think, that has yet pealed from this unpoetic American forest.”

COMMENTARY: [I am going to include several pages of commentary here, because the above was the poem that would become the controversial “To a Gentle Boy.”]

There’ve been Gay Pride parades in which posters of Henry Thoreau have been proudly carried. The evidence that he was gay was that he wrote a poem to one of his students, the little brother of the girl to whom he proposed marriage, and from the circumstance that after she turned him down he never did marry. Let us go into this in order to see that it is a simpleminded and as wrong as the idea of long standing, that Thoreau had no sense of humor. This is going to be a bit complicated, so pay attention. William Sewell [Willem Séwel Amsterdammer] published THE HISTORY OF THE RISE, INCREASE AND PROGRESS OF THE CHRISTIAN PEOPLE CALLED QUAKERS in English as a corrective to Gerard Croese’s HISTORY OF QUAKERISM. The records of the Salem library show that Nathaniel Hawthorne used their edition of this book for a week in 1828 and a month in 1829. The book recounted the activities of some of his ancestors, such as his great-great-great-grandfather (1607-1681) who sailed on the Arbella in 1630, settling in Dorchester in New England and then moving to Salem, who served at the rank of major in wars against the Americans, who became a magistrate and judge of the Puritans, and who had one Anne Coleman whipped out of the town of Salem for HDT WHAT? INDEX

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being a Quaker:

...naked from the waist upward, and bound to the tail of a cart, is dragged through the Main-street at the pace of a brisk walk, while the constable follows with a whip of knotted cords. A strong-armed fellow is that constable; and each time that he flourishes his lash in the air, you see a frown wrinkling and twisting his brow, and, at the same instant, a smile upon his lips. He loves his business, faithful officer that he is, and puts his soul into every stroke, zealous to fulfill the injunction of Major Hawthorne’s warrant, in the spirit and to the letter. There came down a stroke that has drawn blood! Ten such stripes are to be given in Salem, ten in Boston, and ten in Dedham; and, with those thirty stripes of blood upon her, she is to be driven into the forest.... Heaven grant that, as the rain of so many years has wept upon it, time after time, and washed it all away, so there may have been a dew of mercy, to cleanse this cruel blood-stain out of the record of the persecutor’s life!

And such as William’s son John Hathorne (1641-1717), a chip off the old block, a colonel in the Massachusetts militia and a deputy to the General Court in Boston who was a magistrate during the Salem witch episode which featured one person being tortured to death and nineteen hanged. Hawthorne was much stimulated by the blood curse that Sarah Good had placed on her executioners, “God will give you Blood to drink.” His tale “The Gentle Boy” of 1831 made reference to this history.

Let us thank God for having given us such ancestors; and let each successive generation thank him, not less fervently, for being one step further from them in the march of the ages.

This was Hawthorne in 1840, according to a portrait painter, Samuel Stillman Osgood:

“The Gentle Boy” was published anonymously in a gift annual of The Token magazine in 1831, and then republished under Hawthorne’s name as a part of TWICE-TOLD TALES in 1832 and 1837 after deletion of the HDT WHAT? INDEX

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detail that, in being attacked by a gang of vicious Puritan children, the gentle Quaker boy had been struck in “a tender part.” The book THE GENTLE BOY: A TWICE-TOLD TALE, when published in 1839, was dedicated to Sophia Amelia Peabody (to become Sophia Peabody Hawthorne), some of whose ancestors are also in Sewel’s history, and included a drawing by her. Printing was interrupted briefly to make the boy’s countenance more gentle in the engraved version of the drawing.

In 1842 Nathaniel and Sophia Peabody got married and moved to Concord, where Thoreau had just prepared for them a large garden. Although Hawthorne was vague on the spelling of Thoreau’s name, and his bride thought Thoreau repulsively ugly, Thoreau visited them several times in where Waldo Emerson had penned “Nature,” and for $7.00 sold them the boat he and his brother had used on their famous trip – so that they could row out and pluck pond lilies. Although Thoreau read little fiction, he could not have been unaware of their newly republished “Gentle Boy” story, at least by its title.

With this background, we can now consider the gay speculation about the poem Thoreau wrote to his pupil Edmund Quincy Sewall, Jr., “Once there was a gentle boy.” Is this poem’s emphasis on the nonmasculine characteristics of a young boy to be interpreted as evidence of a homoerotic longing on Thoreau’s part, or, since the age of eleven is not the age of sexual maturity, interpreted as evidence of an incipient pederasty? No, because the poem’s use of “gentle boy” might well have been a deliberate tie-in to the Hawthorne story. We must ask, what might have been the motivation for calling this particular story to Edmund’s attention? There are several reasons having nothing to do with sexuality or with Thoreau’s personal needs. The nonviolent Quaker boy in the story is treated with utter viciousness by a gang of local Puritan children, and in particular by one boy whom he had nursed with kindness and attention during an illness. Was Edmund, a visitor in Concord, having trouble being accepted by some of the local children in Thoreau’s school? This 26 historian William Sewell referred to by Hawthorne, was he one of Edmund’s ancestors? Were some of the people described in that history Sewall ancestors, as some were Ha(w)thorne ancestors and some Peabody ancestors? If so, the Thoreau family would surely have been aware of it, since they had known intimately at least three generations of the Sewall family starting with Mrs. Joseph Ward, Cynthia Thoreau’s star boarder, the widow of a colonel in the American revolutionary army, the mother of Caroline Ward who in turn was the mother of Ellen Devereux Sewall and Edmund Quincy Sewall, Jr.

Hawthorne’s story is of a boy in an adoptive family, a “little quiet, lovely boy” who is heartsick for his parents. In the tale, in the face of the most extreme religious persecution of Friends by Puritans, the boy’s birth mother had violated her “duties of the present life” by “fixing her attention wholly on” her future life: she left her child with this Puritan family to venture on a “mistaken errand” of “unbridled fanaticism.” That is, after being whipped out of town by the Puritans, she followed a spirit leading to become a traveling Friend. At the end, the boy’s mother returns to him.

Hawthorne’s tale involves the hanging of an innocent person. Would this have been of interest to Edmund Quincy Sewall, Jr.? Yes, for a Sewall was involved in the hanging of the nineteen witches in Salem on

26. According to Patrick Hanks and Flavia Hodges’s 1988 A DICTIONARY OF SURNAMES (Oxford UP), “Sewall” is a variant of “Sewell,” which can be from the Old English “Sigeweald,” meaning government by right of conquest, or “Sœ¯weald” [œ with ¯ over it], meaning rule over the sea – an appropriate name for a family that included some wealthy shipbuilders in Maine! The same dictionary of surnames denies Thoreau’s derivation of his name from Thor, the god of lightning, giving “Thoreau,” “Thoret,” “Thoré,” and “Thorez” as variants of “Thorel,” a nickname for a strong or violent individual (like Uncle “J.C.” Charles Jones Dunbar!), from the Old French “t(h)or(el)” meaning bull. However, this dictionary allows that the name may also have originated in a diminutive of an aphetic short form of the given name “Maturin,” or that it may be from a medieval given name which was an aphetic short form of various names such as “Victor” and “Salvador” (“Salvador” is equivalent to the Hebrew “Yehoshua”), or that it may be related to an Italian/Spanish nickname for a lusty person, or metonymic occupational name for a tender of bulls: “Toro!” (Now going to a bullfight in Spain and rooting for the bull, something I had the opportunity to do when I was a teenager, couldn’t be the same for me.) HDT WHAT? INDEX

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September 22, 1692. This Samuel Sewall was a lifelong bigot (he once refused to sell a plot of land because the bidders wanted to build a church, and they were Protestants but not of his own denomination) but he was worse than a bigot: not only did he hang women for being in league with the devil, he helped condemn and hang one of his Harvard peers, the Reverend George Burrough –whom he had once heard preach on the Sermon on the Mount– for being in league with the devil. It was an interesting period, a period in which one could lose control of oneself and cry out during the Puritan service, and be suspected of having acquired a taint of Quakerism, and be placed in great personal danger. And that was an interesting day, August 16, 1692: an arresting officer for the court, one John Willard, was “cried out upon” for doubting the guilt of the accused, and was hanged beside the Reverend Burrough. We find this in Sewall’s diary:

Mr. Burrough by his Speech, Prayer, protestation of his Innocence, did much move unthinking persons, which occasions their speaking hardly concerning his being executed.

A few years later, after some bad events in his family, Samuel suffered pangs of conscience: a public fast was declared for January 14, 1697 and he stood in Old South Church in Boston while the minister read a statement that the Sewall family had been cursed of God because of the trials, and that he took “the Blame and shame” upon himself. The twelve jurors were in attendance to acknowledge that they had “unwittingly and unwillingly” brought “upon ourselves and this people of the Lord the guilt of innocent blood.”

This Puritan’s son, the Reverend Joseph Sewall, was the father of Samuel Sewall, who was the father of Samuel Sewall, Jr., who was the father of the Reverend Edmund Quincy Sewall, Sr., who was of course Master Edmund Quincy Sewall, Jr.’s father. It is an interesting question, how a teacher can help a young man like this venture into his manhood, after the decency of manliness has been utterly destroyed as an option for him in such a manner, by the indecency of a male ancestor. I would suggest that teacher Thoreau’s tactic – to emphasize to this lad Edmund the nominally feminine virtue of gentleness by providing him with a poem into which to grow – constitutes a legitimate and even profound maneuver on extremely difficult terrain. I would suggest, in addition, that those who seek to appropriate Thoreau by interpreting this “Once there was a gentle boy” poem as evidence of an unconscious erotic impulse are, in effect, debasing him. Debasing him not by accusing him of homosexuality – for it is not base to be gay – but by interpreting a complex and difficult situation in a manner that is merely simpleminded and doctrinaire. I want to emphasize the open-endedness of the questions involved: was Edmund, the new boy in town, having the sort of trouble with his peers that would have caused him to be in the situation of the gentle boy in the Hawthorne tale – ganged up against, beaten as a sissy? The American Antiquarian Society in Worcester has preserved pages of Edmund’s Concord journal that may contain an answer. And what exactly was the perception of a blood guilt and an inherited shame among the Sewels and Sewells and Seawells and Sewalls? We should be led by this story, not into considerations of eroticism among 19th-Century virgins (which would be a mere shallow –not demeaning, surely, but surely both appropriative and dismissive– sidetrack) but into a full consideration of how a compassionate and concerned teacher like Henry Thoreau can help a young male pupil grow to maturity even in a situation in which the option “manhood” has for this pupil been virtually eliminated – by the foul deed HDT WHAT? INDEX

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and foul mind of a Samuel Sewall, his blood ancestor.

We need to begin to take into account various of the cultural influences upon Thoreau which we have not previously been considering due to the fact that few people read the dead languages anymore. There’s quite a body of ancient evidence to indicate that the poet Virgil may well have been by inclination a pederast, and the scholar S. Lilja confirms that Virgil’s apparent sexual persona does inform a great deal of his poetry, including of course his AENEID. If one refers to John F. Makowski’s “Nisus and Euryalus: a Platonic Relationship,” in HDT WHAT? INDEX

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Classical Journal (1985) 1-15, and also to J. Griffin’s LATIN POETS AND ROMAN LIFE, one finds that: • In Virgil’s autobiographical poetry of the Catalepton, poems 5 and 7, in which he sings of Sextus his cura curarum and of the boy aptly named Pothos, poems for the authenticity of which Buechler and Richmond indicate that there is now strong consensus, Thoreau could have read of a sexuality seems to have been grounded in life experience rather than merely to have been following in the literary convention we now term “posing as sodomites.” • In Donatus’s life of Virgil, Thoreau could have read: “(sc. Vergilius) libidinis in pueros pronioris, quorum maxime dilexit Cebetem et Alexandrum, quem secunda bucolicorum ecloga Alexim appellat, donatum sibi ab Asinio Pollione, utrumque non ineruditum, Cebetem vero et poetam.” Donatus goes on to say that Virgil, invited by a friend to partake of a heterosexual liaison, “verum pertinacissime recusasse.” • Apuleius Apologia 10 pretty much agrees with the picture presented to Thoreau by Donatus. • By the time of Martial a joking tradition was in place that the Muse behind Virgil’s prodigious poetic output was his Alexis, his love slave, given to him (note the divergence from Servius) by Maecenas rather than by Pollio. See epigrams 5.6, 6.68, 7.29, 8.56, 8.73 in which he attributes the sad state of contemporary poetry to the failure of patrons to provide poets with beautiful boys a la Maecenas and Virgil. This material was available to Thoreau. • Juvenal echoes this tradition in Satire 7.69. • In Philargyrius, Thoreau could have read: “Alexim dicunt Alexandrum, qui fuit servus Asinii Pollionis, quem Vergilius, rogatus ad prandium cum vidisset in ministerio omnium pulcherrimum, dilexit eumque dono accepit. Caesarem quidam acceperunt, formosum in operibus et gloria. alii puerum Caesaris, quem si laudasset, gratem rem Caesari fecisset. nam Vergilius dicitur in pueros habuisse amorem: nec enim turpiter eum diligebat. alii Corydona, Asinii Pollionis puerum adamatum a Vergilio ferunt, eumque a domino datum. . .” • What did Servius mean to say to Thoreau, and to us, when he offered that Virgil had not loved boys turpiter (disgracefully)? Possibly Servius meant that Virgil had been able to do so without loss of personal dignity (the courting of the beloved, whether woman or boy, could involve erotic service that was seen as beneath the dignity of a free man), the other that he did so without ever achieving, or perhaps even pursuing, physical consummation (which would have taken the form of sodomizing the lad if he was willing to submit, but Dover’s GREEK HOMOSEXUALITY --which seems to be in large part valid for Roman society as well-- shows that nice boys were supposed to say no in thunder and that men who insisted upon using their penises might have to settle for intercrural satisfaction). We should probably take into account as well the poetry of a man who died in the same year as Virgil, Albius Tibullus, from whom Thoreau would quote (or would suppose he was quoting) in WALDEN. What is conventionally known as “Book 1” of Tibullus contains poems on his beloved Delia but also several on a beloved boy named Marathus (4, 8, 9); these can offer some insight into the process of courting a boy. Another possibility, of course, is simply that Virgil’s love had nothing cruel or abusive about it, but perhaps the most plausible explanation for judging a liaison as turpis is the man’s loss of dignity in becoming enslaved to the object of his desire, his loss of face. Two examples that come to mind from Virgil’s own time are Anthony’s passion for Cleopatra and Maecenas’s scandalous affair with the ballet-dancer Bathyllus. HDT WHAT? INDEX

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Horsfall’s COMPANION TO THE STUDY OF VIRGIL summarizes the “evidence” such as it is. Although he demonstrates that there is not one detail in the ancient LIVES OF VIRGIL that can be taken at face value, the persistent availability of such materials about the life of Virgil has been such as to make this a moot point. Whether true or false it has obviously had an influence, and may well have had an influence of some sort on Thoreau. Those scholars could all be found to have been mistaken, and yet we will still need to deal with the manner in which Virgil was being received during the first half of the 19th Century, and I am not certain that we have done that, and of course it is important, in dealing with a situation such as Thoreau’s temporary involvement with the gentle young Sewall boy, that we most carefully do that. In none of these texts, nor in Servius, would Thoreau have been able to find any suggestion of a condemnation of what Virgil was projecting as being his proclivities. DUNBAR FAMILY HDT WHAT? INDEX

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William Sewell. THE HISTORY OF THE RISE, INCREASE AND PROGRESS, OF THE CHRISTIAN PEOPLE CALLED QUAKERS; WITH SEVERAL REMARKABLE OCCURRENCES INTERMIXED, WRITTEN ORIGINALLY IN LOW-DUTCH, AND ALFO TRANFLATED INTO ENGLISH, BY WILLIAM SEWEL. THE THIRD EDITION, CORRECTED. The title varies slightly from edition to edition (1722, 1725, 1728, 1774, 1776, 1811, 1844), for instance ...WITH SEVERAL REMARKABLE OCCURRENCES INTERMIXED, TO WHICH IS PREFIXED A BRIEF MEMOIR OF THE AUTHOR, COMPILED FROM VARIOUS SOURCES, and WRITTEN ORIGINALLY IN LOW DUTCH, AND TRANSLATED BY HIMSELF INTO ENGLISH, Baker & Crane, No. 158 Pearl-Street, New-York. The author’s name was, according to Alexander Chalmers’s GENERAL BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY of 1812-1817, Volume 27, page 361, a recognized variant of “Sewell”: there was a Henry Sewall who spelled his name also as Sewell and Seawell, and there was a loyalist “Sewall” who changed the family name to “Sewell” in London in order to confuse the American authorities and better protect his children in America –and his American properties– after being proscribed. Among recorded immigrants, the “United States Index to Records of Aliens’ Declarations” show a proportion of 1 Sewel, 11 Sewalls, and 30 Sewells. Henry Thoreau first encountered this book in this 1774 3d edition prepared and sold by HDT WHAT? INDEX

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Isaac Collins of Burlington, New-Jersey:

WM. SEWEL’S 3D ED., VOL. I WM. SEWEL’S 3D ED., VOL. II

“MAGISTERIAL HISTORY” IS FANTASIZING: HISTORY IS CHRONOLOGY

“Stack of the Artist of Kouroo” Project Samuel Sewall HDT WHAT? INDEX

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COPYRIGHT NOTICE: In addition to the property of others, such as extensive quotations and reproductions of images, this “read-only” computer file contains a great deal of special work product of Austin Meredith, copyright 2014. Access to these interim materials will eventually be offered for a fee in order to recoup some of the costs of preparation. My hypercontext button invention which, instead of creating a hypertext leap through hyperspace —resulting in navigation problems— allows for an utter alteration of the context within which one is experiencing a specific content already being viewed, is claimed as proprietary to Austin Meredith — and therefore freely available for use by all. Limited permission to copy such files, or any material from such files, must be obtained in advance in writing from the “Stack of the Artist of Kouroo” Project, 833 Berkeley St., Durham NC 27705. Please contact the project at .

“It’s all now you see. Yesterday won’t be over until tomorrow and tomorrow began ten thousand years ago.” – Remark by character “Garin Stevens” in William Faulkner’s INTRUDER IN THE DUST

Prepared: October 19, 2014 HDT WHAT? INDEX

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ARRGH AUTOMATED RESEARCH REPORT

GENERATION HOTLINE

This stuff presumably looks to you as if it were generated by a human. Such is not the case. Instead, someone has requested that we pull it out of the hat of a pirate who has grown out of the shoulder of our pet parrot “Laura” (as above). What these chronological lists are: they are research reports compiled by ARRGH algorithms out of a database of modules which we term the Kouroo Contexture (this is data mining). To respond to such a request for information we merely push a button. HDT WHAT? INDEX

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Commonly, the first output of the algorithm has obvious deficiencies and we need to go back into the modules stored in the contexture and do a minor amount of tweaking, and then we need to punch that button again and recompile the chronology — but there is nothing here that remotely resembles the ordinary “writerly” process you know and love. As the contents of this originating contexture improve, and as the programming improves, and as funding becomes available (to date no funding whatever has been needed in the creation of this facility, the entire operation being run out of pocket change) we expect a diminished need to do such tweaking and recompiling, and we fully expect to achieve a simulation of a generous and untiring robotic research librarian. Onward and upward in this brave new world.

First come first serve. There is no charge. Place requests with . Arrgh.