# Physics Formulas List

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• Glossary Physics (I-Introduction)
1 Glossary Physics (I-introduction) - Efficiency: The percent of the work put into a machine that is converted into useful work output; = work done / energy used [-]. = eta In machines: The work output of any machine cannot exceed the work input (<=100%); in an ideal machine, where no energy is transformed into heat: work(input) = work(output), =100%. Energy: The property of a system that enables it to do work. Conservation o. E.: Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it may be transformed from one form into another, but the total amount of energy never changes. Equilibrium: The state of an object when not acted upon by a net force or net torque; an object in equilibrium may be at rest or moving at uniform velocity - not accelerating. Mechanical E.: The state of an object or system of objects for which any impressed forces cancels to zero and no acceleration occurs. Dynamic E.: Object is moving without experiencing acceleration. Static E.: Object is at rest.F Force: The influence that can cause an object to be accelerated or retarded; is always in the direction of the net force, hence a vector quantity; the four elementary forces are: Electromagnetic F.: Is an attraction or repulsion G, gravit. const.6.672E-11[Nm2/kg2] between electric charges: d, distance [m] 2 2 2 2 F = 1/(40) (q1q2/d ) [(CC/m )(Nm /C )] = [N] m,M, mass [kg] Gravitational F.: Is a mutual attraction between all masses: q, charge [As] [C] 2 2 2 2 F = GmM/d [Nm /kg kg 1/m ] = [N] 0, dielectric constant Strong F.: (nuclear force) Acts within the nuclei of atoms: 8.854E-12 [C2/Nm2] [F/m] 2 2 2 2 2 F = 1/(40) (e /d ) [(CC/m )(Nm /C )] = [N] , 3.14 [-] Weak F.: Manifests itself in special reactions among elementary e, 1.60210 E-19 [As] [C] particles, such as the reaction that occur in radioactive decay.
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• Equilibrium Thermodynamics
Equilibrium Thermodynamics Instructor: - Clare Yu (e-mail [email protected], phone: 824-6216) - office hours: Wed from 2:30 pm to 3:30 pm in Rowland Hall 210E Textbooks: - primary: Herbert Callen “Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatistics” - secondary: Frederick Reif “Statistical and Thermal Physics” - secondary: Kittel and Kroemer “Thermal Physics” - secondary: Enrico Fermi “Thermodynamics” Grading: - weekly homework: 25% - discussion problems: 10% - midterm exam: 30% - final exam: 35% Equilibrium Thermodynamics Material Covered: Equilibrium thermodynamics, phase transitions, critical phenomena (~ 10 first chapters of Callen’s textbook) Homework: - Homework assignments posted on course website Exams: - One midterm, 80 minutes, Tuesday, May 8 - Final, 2 hours, Tuesday, June 12, 10:30 am - 12:20 pm - All exams are in this room 210M RH Course website is at http://eiffel.ps.uci.edu/cyu/p115B/class.html The Subject of Thermodynamics Thermodynamics describes average properties of macroscopic matter in equilibrium. - Macroscopic matter: large objects that consist of many atoms and molecules. - Average properties: properties (such as volume, pressure, temperature etc) that do not depend on the detailed positions and velocities of atoms and molecules of macroscopic matter. Such quantities are called thermodynamic coordinates, variables or parameters. - Equilibrium: state of a macroscopic system in which all average properties do not change with time. (System is not driven by external driving force.) Why Study Thermodynamics ? - Thermodynamics predicts that the average macroscopic properties of a system in equilibrium are not independent from each other. Therefore, if we measure a subset of these properties, we can calculate the rest of them using thermodynamic relations. - Thermodynamics not only gives the exact description of the state of equilibrium but also provides an approximate description (to a very high degree of precision!) of relatively slow processes.
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• New Realization of the Ohm and Farad Using the NBS Calculable Capacitor
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT, VOL. 38, NO. 2, APRIL 1989 249 New Realization of the Ohm and Farad Using the NBS Calculable Capacitor JOHN Q. SHIELDS, RONALD F. DZIUBA, MEMBER, IEEE,AND HOWARD P. LAYER Abstrucl-Results of a new realization of the ohm and farad using part of the NBS effort. This paper describes our measure- the NBS calculable capacitor and associated apparatus are reported. ments and gives our latest results. The results show that both the NBS representation of the ohm and the NBS representation of the farad are changing with time, cNBSat the rate of -0.054 ppmlyear and FNssat the rate of 0.010 ppm/year. The 11. AC MEASUREMENTS realization of the ohm is of particular significance at this time because The measurement sequence used in the 1974 ohm and of its role in assigning an SI value to the quantized Hall resistance. The farad determinations [2] has been retained in the present estimated uncertainty of the ohm realization is 0.022 ppm (lo) while the estimated uncertainty of the farad realization is 0.014 ppm (la). NBS measurements. A 0.5-pF calculable cross-capacitor is used to measure a transportable 10-pF reference capac- itor which is carried to the laboratory containing the NBS I. INTRODUCTION bank of 10-pF fused silica reference capacitors. A 10: 1 HE NBS REPRESENTATION of the ohm is bridge is used in two stages to measure two 1000-pF ca- T based on the mean resistance of five Thomas-type pacitors which are in turn used as two arms of a special wire-wound resistors maintained in a 25°C oil bath at NBS frequency-dependent bridge for measuring two 100-kQ Gaithersburg, MD.
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• Electromagnetism What Is the Effect of the Number of Windings of Wire on the Strength of an Electromagnet?
TEACHER’S GUIDE Electromagnetism What is the effect of the number of windings of wire on the strength of an electromagnet? GRADES 6–8 Physical Science INQUIRY-BASED Science Electromagnetism Physical Grade Level/ 6–8/Physical Science Content Lesson Summary In this lesson students learn how to make an electromagnet out of a battery, nail, and wire. The students explore and then explain how the number of turns of wire affects the strength of an electromagnet. Estimated Time 2, 45-minute class periods Materials D cell batteries, common nails (20D), speaker wire (18 gauge), compass, package of wire brad nails (1.0 mm x 12.7 mm or similar size), Investigation Plan, journal Secondary How Stuff Works: How Electromagnets Work Resources Jefferson Lab: What is an electromagnet? YouTube: Electromagnet - Explained YouTube: Electromagnets - How can electricity create a magnet? NGSS Connection MS-PS2-3 Ask questions about data to determine the factors that affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces. Learning Objectives • Students will frame a hypothesis to predict the strength of an electromagnet due to changes in the number of windings. • Students will collect and analyze data to determine how the number of windings affects the strength of an electromagnet. What is the effect of the number of windings of wire on the strength of an electromagnet? Electromagnetism is one of the four fundamental forces of the universe that we rely on in many ways throughout our day. Most home appliances contain electromagnets that power motors. Particle accelerators, like CERN’s Large Hadron Collider, use electromagnets to control the speed and direction of these speedy particles.
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• Influence of Angular Velocity of Pedaling on the Accuracy of The
Research article 2018-04-10 - Rev08 Inﬂuence of Angular Velocity of Pedaling on the Accuracy of the Measurement of Cyclist Power Abstract Almost all cycling power meters currently available on the The miscalculation may be—even signiﬁcantly—greater than we market are positioned on rotating parts of the bicycle (pedals, found in our study, for the following reasons: crank arms, spider, bottom bracket/hub) and, regardless of • the test was limited to only 5 cyclists: there is no technical and construction differences, all calculate power on doubt other cyclists may have styles of pedaling with the basis of two physical quantities: torque and angular velocity greater variations of angular velocity; (or rotational speed – cadence). Both these measures vary only 2 indoor trainer models were considered: other during the 360 degrees of each revolution. • models may produce greater errors; The torque / force value is usually measured many times during slopes greater than 5% (the only value tested) may each rotation, while the angular velocity variation is commonly • lead to less uniform rotations and consequently neglected, considering only its average value for each greater errors. revolution (cadence). It should be noted that the error observed in this analysis This, however, introduces an unpredictable error into the power occurs because to measure power the power meter considers calculation. To use the average value of angular velocity means the average angular velocity of each rotation. In power meters to consider each pedal revolution as perfectly smooth and that use this type of calculation, this error must therefore be uniform: but this type of pedal revolution does not exist in added to the accuracy stated by the manufacturer.
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• Basement Flood Mitigation
1 Mitigation refers to measures taken now to reduce losses in the future. How can homeowners and renters protect themselves and their property from a devastating loss? 2 There are a range of possible causes for basement flooding and some potential remedies. Many of these low-cost options can be factored into a family’s budget and accomplished over the several months that precede storm season. 3 There are four ways water gets into your basement: Through the drainage system, known as the sump. Backing up through the sewer lines under the house. Seeping through cracks in the walls and floor. Through windows and doors, called overland flooding. 4 Gutters can play a huge role in keeping basements dry and foundations stable. Water damage caused by clogged gutters can be severe. Install gutters and downspouts. Repair them as the need arises. Keep them free of debris. 5 Channel and disperse water away from the home by lengthening the run of downspouts with rigid or flexible extensions. Prevent interior intrusion through windows and replace weather stripping as needed. 6 Many varieties of sturdy window well covers are available, simple to install and hinged for easy access. Wells should be constructed with gravel bottoms to promote drainage. Remove organic growth to permit sunlight and ventilation. 7 Berms and barriers can help water slope away from the home. The berm’s slope should be about 1 inch per foot and extend for at least 10 feet. It is important to note permits are required any time a homeowner alters the elevation of the property.
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• Surface Regularized Geometry Estimation from a Single Image
SURGE: Surface Regularized Geometry Estimation from a Single Image Peng Wang1 Xiaohui Shen2 Bryan Russell2 Scott Cohen2 Brian Price2 Alan Yuille3 1University of California, Los Angeles 2Adobe Research 3Johns Hopkins University Abstract This paper introduces an approach to regularize 2.5D surface normal and depth predictions at each pixel given a single input image. The approach infers and reasons about the underlying 3D planar surfaces depicted in the image to snap predicted normals and depths to inferred planar surfaces, all while maintaining ﬁne detail within objects. Our approach comprises two components: (i) a four- stream convolutional neural network (CNN) where depths, surface normals, and likelihoods of planar region and planar boundary are predicted at each pixel, followed by (ii) a dense conditional random ﬁeld (DCRF) that integrates the four predictions such that the normals and depths are compatible with each other and regularized by the planar region and planar boundary information. The DCRF is formulated such that gradients can be passed to the surface normal and depth CNNs via backpropagation. In addition, we propose new planar-wise metrics to evaluate geometry consistency within planar surfaces, which are more tightly related to dependent 3D editing applications. We show that our regularization yields a 30% relative improvement in planar consistency on the NYU v2 dataset [24]. 1 Introduction Recent efforts to estimate the 2.5D layout of a depicted scene from a single image, such as per-pixel depths and surface normals, have yielded high-quality outputs respecting both the global scene layout and ﬁne object detail [2, 6, 7, 29]. Upon closer inspection, however, the predicted depths and normals may fail to be consistent with the underlying surface geometry.
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• Particle Nature of Matter
Solved Problems on the Particle Nature of Matter Charles Asman, Adam Monahan and Malcolm McMillan Department of Physics and Astronomy University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Fall 1999; revised 2011 by Malcolm McMillan Given here are solutions to 5 problems on the particle nature of matter. The solutions were used as a learning-tool for students in the introductory undergraduate course Physics 200 Relativity and Quanta given by Malcolm McMillan at UBC during the 1998 and 1999 Winter Sessions. The solutions were prepared in collaboration with Charles Asman and Adam Monaham who were graduate students in the Department of Physics at the time. The problems are from Chapter 3 The Particle Nature of Matter of the course text Modern Physics by Raymond A. Serway, Clement J. Moses and Curt A. Moyer, Saunders College Publishing, 2nd ed., (1997). Coulomb's Constant and the Elementary Charge When solving numerical problems on the particle nature of matter it is useful to note that the product of Coulomb's constant k = 8:9876 × 109 m2= C2 (1) and the square of the elementary charge e = 1:6022 × 10−19 C (2) is ke2 = 1:4400 eV nm = 1:4400 keV pm = 1:4400 MeV fm (3) where eV = 1:6022 × 10−19 J (4) Breakdown of the Rutherford Scattering Formula: Radius of a Nucleus Problem 3.9, page 39 It is observed that α particles with kinetic energies of 13.9 MeV or higher, incident on copper foils, do not obey Rutherford's (sin φ/2)−4 scattering formula. • Use this observation to estimate the radius of the nucleus of a copper atom.
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• Electric Units and Standards
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OF THE Bureau of Standards S. W. STRATTON, Director No. 60 ELECTRIC UNITS AND STANDARDS list Edition 1 Issued September 25. 1916 WASHINGTON GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Circular OF THE Bureau of Standards S. W. STRATTON, Director No. 60 ELECTRIC UNITS AND STANDARDS [1st Edition] Issued September 25, 1916 WASHINGTON GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1916 ADDITIONAL COPIES OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON, D. C. AT 15 CENTS PER COPY A complete list of the Bureau’s publications may be obtained free of charge on application to the Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C. ELECTRIC UNITS AND STANDARDS CONTENTS Page I. The systems of units 4 1. Units and standards in general 4 2. The electrostatic and electromagnetic systems 8 () The numerically different systems of units 12 () Gaussian systems, and ratios of the units 13 “ ’ (c) Practical ’ electromagnetic units 15 3. The international electric units 16 II. Evolution of present system of concrete standards 18 1. Early electric standards 18 2. Basis of present laws 22 3. Progress since 1893 24 III. Units and standards of the principal electric quantities 29 1. Resistance 29 () International ohm 29 Definition 29 Mercury standards 30 Secondary standards 31 () Resistance standards in practice 31 (c) Absolute ohm 32 2. Current 33 (a) International ampere 33 Definition 34 The silver voltameter 35 ( b ) Resistance standards used in current measurement 36 (c) Absolute ampere 37 3. Electromotive force 38 (a) International volt 38 Definition 39 Weston normal cell 39 (b) Portable Weston cells 41 (c) Absolute and semiabsolute volt 42 4.
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• Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI)
Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI) m kg s cd SI mol K A NIST Special Publication 811 2008 Edition Ambler Thompson and Barry N. Taylor NIST Special Publication 811 2008 Edition Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI) Ambler Thompson Technology Services and Barry N. Taylor Physics Laboratory National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (Supersedes NIST Special Publication 811, 1995 Edition, April 1995) March 2008 U.S. Department of Commerce Carlos M. Gutierrez, Secretary National Institute of Standards and Technology James M. Turner, Acting Director National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publication 811, 2008 Edition (Supersedes NIST Special Publication 811, April 1995 Edition) Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Spec. Publ. 811, 2008 Ed., 85 pages (March 2008; 2nd printing November 2008) CODEN: NSPUE3 Note on 2nd printing: This 2nd printing dated November 2008 of NIST SP811 corrects a number of minor typographical errors present in the 1st printing dated March 2008. Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI) Preface The International System of Units, universally abbreviated SI (from the French Le Système International d’Unités), is the modern metric system of measurement. Long the dominant measurement system used in science, the SI is becoming the dominant measurement system used in international commerce. The Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of August 1988 [Public Law (PL) 100-418] changed the name of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and gave to NIST the added task of helping U.S.
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• Useful Constants
Appendix A Useful Constants A.1 Physical Constants Table A.1 Physical constants in SI units Symbol Constant Value c Speed of light 2.997925 × 108 m/s −19 e Elementary charge 1.602191 × 10 C −12 2 2 3 ε0 Permittivity 8.854 × 10 C s / kgm −7 2 μ0 Permeability 4π × 10 kgm/C −27 mH Atomic mass unit 1.660531 × 10 kg −31 me Electron mass 9.109558 × 10 kg −27 mp Proton mass 1.672614 × 10 kg −27 mn Neutron mass 1.674920 × 10 kg h Planck constant 6.626196 × 10−34 Js h¯ Planck constant 1.054591 × 10−34 Js R Gas constant 8.314510 × 103 J/(kgK) −23 k Boltzmann constant 1.380622 × 10 J/K −8 2 4 σ Stefan–Boltzmann constant 5.66961 × 10 W/ m K G Gravitational constant 6.6732 × 10−11 m3/ kgs2 M. Benacquista, An Introduction to the Evolution of Single and Binary Stars, 223 Undergraduate Lecture Notes in Physics, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-9991-7, © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013 224 A Useful Constants Table A.2 Useful combinations and alternate units Symbol Constant Value 2 mHc Atomic mass unit 931.50MeV 2 mec Electron rest mass energy 511.00keV 2 mpc Proton rest mass energy 938.28MeV 2 mnc Neutron rest mass energy 939.57MeV h Planck constant 4.136 × 10−15 eVs h¯ Planck constant 6.582 × 10−16 eVs k Boltzmann constant 8.617 × 10−5 eV/K hc 1,240eVnm hc¯ 197.3eVnm 2 e /(4πε0) 1.440eVnm A.2 Astronomical Constants Table A.3 Astronomical units Symbol Constant Value AU Astronomical unit 1.4959787066 × 1011 m ly Light year 9.460730472 × 1015 m pc Parsec 2.0624806 × 105 AU 3.2615638ly 3.0856776 × 1016 m d Sidereal day 23h 56m 04.0905309s 8.61640905309
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• Applied Physics
Physics 1. What is Physics 2. Nature Science 3. Science 4. Scientific Method 5. Branches of Science 6. Branches of Physics Einstein Newton 7. Branches of Applied Physics Bardeen Feynmann 2016-03-05 What is Physics • Meaning of Physics (from Ancient Greek: φυσική (phusikḗ )) is knowledge of nature (from φύσις phúsis "nature"). • Physics is the natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves. • Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy. Over the last two millennia, physics was a part of natural philosophy along with chemistry, certain branches of mathematics, and biology, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, the natural sciences emerged as unique research programs in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. • New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms of other sciences, while opening new avenues of research in areas such as mathematics and philosophy. 2016-03-05 What is Physics • Physics also makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs. • For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism or nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization, and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
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