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The Legacy of Bicycles in Detroit Michigan: a Look at Greenways Through Time Todd Scott Detroit Greenways Coalition Todd@Detroit

The Legacy of Bicycles in Detroit Michigan: a Look at Greenways Through Time Todd Scott Detroit Greenways Coalition Todd@Detroit

The Legacy of Bicycles in : A look at greenways through time

Todd Scott Detroit Greenways Coalition [email protected]

Gwen Gell Taubman College of and Urban Planning [email protected]

Greenways are constantly evolving and changing infrastructure. Greenways are trails accessible to non-motorized forms of movement which provide ecological, transportation, and connective functions within an . For the purposes of this piece, the term “greenways” also includes bicycle infrastructure on roadways. As a ’s land uses change, new administrations come into power, and the economy fluctuates, greenways and bicycle routes shift. This brief report highlights the change in greenways overtime in an effort to illustrate the story of non- motorized transportation in the City of Detroit.

Detroit’s topography is favorable to bicycles. The expansive flat land makes for a pleasant experience biking thought the city. While there has been an increase in ridership and bicycle infrastructure in recent years, the known legacy of bicycles began prior to the automobile and contributed to the development of the Motor City.

Timeline Pre-1700 Established Native American networksi throughoutii the regioniii the first greenways in . Early surveyors map the trails created and used by the , Wyandot, , Fox, , and Sauk tribesiv. The present-day grid patterns of the region follow these original Native American pathways.

1701 establishes Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit - this is considered the ‘founding’ of the modern City of Detroit

1851 The first velocipede is for sale in Detroit

1868 On December 18th, on Jefferson Avenue, the Detroit Journal reports the first velocipede ride in Detroit.

1879 The first bicycle club in Detroit is formed

1880 The Good Roads Movement Begins in the , started by cyclists, to advocate for improved roads

1884 The publishes an expose on an international cycle tour, titled The Great Bicycle Tour.v Written by President Bates of the Detroit Bicycle Club, the piece highlights the journey starting in Detroit, Michigan on July 2, 1883, crossing , and ending in Buffalo, New York on July 12, 1883.

Cycling, at this time, an activity engaged primarily by upper-class men and was considered a gentleman’s sport. From the drawings in the article, we can infer these men were crossing the country on bicycles with a very large front wheel, or Penny Farthing. Cyclists, or wheelmen, were likely riding on gravel, wood, and dirt road conditions.

The article highlights not only Detroit’s bicycle legacy, but the beginnings of an international bicycle relationship.

1893 Mayor Pingree’s unrealized initiatives included developing the riverfront as a public space and expanding the inner greenspace of the city for citizens of Detroit - part of his expanding welfare platform.vi

1896 In April, the Detroit Free Press publishes an insert called Outside Runs: Guide Map of City of Detroit for Bicyclists, Showing Pavement.vii This map indicates the material of roads for cyclists including, wood, asphalt, brick, macadam, and granite. In addition to materials, the map also highlights longer day trips outside of the city.

(Charles Brady King drove the first automobile in Detroit the month prior to the bicycle map being made)

1906 Ed Hines, an avid cyclist and leader of the Detroit Wheelmen, is elected as Wayne County Road Commissioner. He is a passionate supporter of the Good Roads Movement and is influenced by creating safe roads for all users. He begins implementing the median line on roads in Southeast Michigan.viii

“I can remember in the early ‘90s when it seemed as if every man in Detroit rode a bike. Now it seems as if every other man you know owns an automobile and the ‘bikes’ have been relegated to the rear for use by messengers and errand boys,” – Wayne County Road Commissioner Ed Hines, 1914 The Detroit Newsix

1929 The Bridge opens between Detroit and Windsor, for cars, bicycles and pedestrians.

1936 Hiking Club is formedx. This club was active up until WWII.

1970 Bicycle interest and funding stagnates for nearly 80 years - between the 1890s and the 1970s. Automobiles provide personal freedom to travel but lead to auto- dominant roadways. Building a city which accommodates the automobile becomes the top priority for Detroit, the Motor City. Industrialization and , amongst many other factors, creates roadways hostile non-motorized forms of transportation.

In the 1970s, due to national oil shortages and the environmental movement, across the nation became a platform for bicycle activism and insurgence. The Bike Boomxi brought bicycles to the attention of decision makers. City leadership across the country completed feasibility studies, but little action was taken.

1972 The State of funding changes to require a minimum of 1% to be spent on non-motorized uses. The legislator who led that effort, Dick Allen, suggests Detroit use its funding to build a protected bike lane network.

1976 The publication of a report titled The Land & The River by the Interagency Task Force for Detroit/Wayne County Riverfront Development. This study inventories riverfront lands and takes stock of future possibilities beyond an industrial waterfront.

1977 City administration completes an exploratory study of linking the riverfront, Policies and Possible Futures for the Riverfront, 1977.xii This conceptual plan examines the feasibility of non-traditional uses of the riverfront, including providing accessibility to bicycles, access for pedestrians, and building dense housing along the .

1979 Linked Riverfront Park Projects is a report of recommendations for the Detroit Riverfront created for the City of Detroit Parks and Recreation Department

1980 Marina/Canal Feasibility is developed out of the Linked Riverfront Park Projectsxiii

1981 West Riverfront Bicycle/Pedestrian Routexiv is an analysis of the riverfront which identifies different possible routes, designs, and implementation. This is prepared by the City of Detroit’s Recreation Department and developed out of the larger Linked Riverfront Parks Project

Mt. Elliott Interpretive Center: an adaptive reuse planxv reports on the possibilities on how to reuse the US Coast Guard Group/Base between Heart Plaza and Belle Isle

1982 Detroit’s East Riverfront: the people and places of yesterdayxvi is a historical report identifying recreation opportunities on the east riverfront for the City of Detroit’s Recreation Department.

Detroit East Riverfront Bikeway Construction Projectxvii is a report containing details about implementing a bicycle path along the riverfront. This was prepared for the City of Detroit’s Recreation Department

1985 Know Your Riverfront: a historical information brochurexviii is published by the Detroit Recreation Department

1986 In 1986, the Rails to Trails Conservancy is established. This organization spurs development and efforts across the country.

1989 The Michigan Rails-to-Trails Conservancy is founded. It coordinates the construction and transition of old rail lines to greenways across the state.

1990 Throughout the 1990s, Southeast Michigan and Detroit sees an increase in organizing and planning for greenway and bicycle infrastructure.

Southeast Michigan Greenways Initiative is established to champion greenways

1994 City of Detroit Land Use plan includes greenways as one of their 5 keys to city redevelopment

Southeast Michigan Greenways: Wayne County Report

1997 Rail to Trails publishes Southeast Michigan Greenways: A regional overview – Vision, Tools, Processxix

1998 Rails to Trails Conservancy and National Park Service releases: A Vision for Southeast Michigan Greenways

Detroit River selected as 1 of 14 American Heritage Rivers, established under the Metropolitan Affairs Coalition. Creating linked greenways is identified as 1 of 5 top priorities.

1999 Southwest Detroit Riverfront Greenway Project Publishes: Detroit’s New Front Porchxx

Downriver Linked Greenways Initiative establishes linked greenways between 21 Communities

2000 As the City’s agency and momentum for greenway projects begins to wane, smaller neighborhood level community development organizations begin to plan their own communities. Planning and implementation are made possible through matching grants from the Southeast Michigan Greenways Initiative, spearheaded by the Community Foundation of Southeast Michigan.

2001 Community Foundation of Southeast Michigan launches its Greenway’s Initiative to build a regional network of greenway trails. Over $33million is awarded and $125 million is leveraged to build over 100 miles of greenways in Southeast Michigan, including Detroit.

The closes bicycle and pedestrian access in 2001.

2002 City of Detroit creates a riverfront vision

Abandoned Rail Corridor and Inventory Assessment is published by Rails-to-Trails for the Greenways Initiative. This proves to be the future foundation for successful greenway projects throughout the city.xxi The development of the Inner Circle Greenway, known as the Greenway, is a result of this report.

2003 The Detroit Riverfront Conservancy is established.

2006 Detroit hosts XL, significant efforts towards beautification are implemented throughout the city, including investment in the Conner Creek Greenway near Detroit City Airport.

Detroit develops a non-motorized planxxii. The plan is adopted by City Council in 2008.

2007 Ribbon Cutting ceremony for the first two completed miles of the Detroit RiverWalk.

The Detroit Greenways Coalition is formed.

2009 Community Foundation funds several construction grants throughout the city including, SW Detroit Greenlink.

Ribbon Cut on the

A concept is developed for the Greenway

Detroit Greenways Coalition develops Detroit Greenway Network Plan

2010 In the 2010s, community organization plans are realized. Construction is funded and underway. The City of Detroit goes into austerity measures during the bankruptcy. Post-bankruptcy the city begins to comprehensively plan greenways on a city-wide scale.

2013 City of Detroit files for Bankruptcy

2014 City of Detroit emerges from Bankruptcy

SEMCOG publishes: Nonmotorized Plan for Southeast Michiganxxiii

2015 Iron Belle Trail is announced linking the Upper Peninsula to Detroit on a 2,200 mile greenway

2016 Dequindre Cut Extension Opens

Envisioning Detroit as the World’s Greenway Capital: A 50 year vision of the Detroit Greenways Coalition is published.

US-Canada Greenways Vision was created in 2014 calling for a bicycle/pedestrian lane on the Bridge, improvements to the tunnel bus system, and re- establishment of a cross border ferryxxiv

2017 Joe Louis Greenway named as a 26-mile greenway that will eventually encircle the city and connect neighborhoods

2018 Detroit sees an expansion of bicycle infrastructure along Jefferson Ave and the Lower-Eastside Neighborhoods, intend to create a comprehensive greenway network.xxv

2019 Construction of the Corridorxxvi

Detroit Greenways Coalition publishes Bike & Walk Detroit City: 2019 Route Map and Safety Guide

2022 Expected date of completion for the first phase of the Joe Louis Greenway

Expected date of completion of the Ralph C. Wilson, Jr. Centennial Park on the Detroit RiverWalk

2024 Expected completion of the Gordie Howe Bridge, uniting Canada and the United States through a multi-modal byway

Management and Next Steps: The new international Gordie Howe bridge, expected completion in 2024, has incorporated plans for a non-motorized lane creating a formal bicycle/pedestrian connection between the United States and Canada. The bridge will result in international connections to greenways in both countries, ranging from a small local loop to larger cross-country paths.

The City of Detroit is in the midst of implementing new greenways, specifically, the Joe Louis Greenway, extending into the neighborhoods on the Westside of the city. The first phase is expected to be completed in 2022. The City also intends to extend the Dequindre Cut to the north. The Conner Creek Greenway is under negotiation to be rerouted in order to accommodate an expected increase in truck traffic due to the new Fiat plant.

Greenways are constantly evolving to rise to the spatial opportunities and meet the needs of users. Detroit’s legacy of bicycle usage within the city began prior to the automobile and continues today. The rise of bicycle related infrastructure – including greenways – is evidence of the City’s bicycle tradition. The future holds many opportunities to expand and connect Detroiter’s to their neighborhood, city, and nearby towns and countries.

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