<<

Zannie Voss Director, SMU DataArts Professor of Management Meadows School of & Cox School of Business

How Are the Performing Arts Performing?

NATIONAL CENTER FOR ARTS RESEARCH Vision Statement Building a national of data-driven decision making for those who want to see the arts and culture sector thrive. Mission Statement To empower arts and cultural leaders with high-quality data and evidence-based resources and insights that help them to overcome challenges and increase impact. SCOPE

ANALYSIS INSIGHT Data aggregation and Defining implications of first-level findings. analysis and disseminating independent research Joining forces to strengthen the national arts and cultural community through data, the knowledge that can be generated DATA GATHERING from it, and the resources to ENABLEMENT Primary data learn from and use it. Provide useful collecting and tools and collating. resources that help users apply insights Our work today: What is available to you now The Data: Your Data

Welcome to the Cultural Data Profile!

Arts and Cultural Advocates Organizations Leverage data to impact Analyze Grantmakers Researchers funding and policy. and benchmark against Analyze applicant data Gain insights from a deep peers data set. The Data: Your Data + Your Community’s Data Partners and Our Model of the Arts & Culture Ecosystem

Arts & Cultural Community Organizations Socioeconomic & Public funding of Individual Artists Activities, Practices, Demographic characteristics the arts from & Arts Patrons Decisions & Outcomes Competitors, Complements & National, State, & •Cultural Data Profile Substitutes Local agencies • Communications Group •League of American Orch •IRS 990s

Knowledge Partners: Arts and Cultural Organizations and a Sense of Place Example – Ecosystem of ABC Theatre in Chicago

ABC Theatre

0-1 km radius, weight=100%

1-2 km radius, weight=27%

2-3 km radius, weight=18% What we do with the data: Research, Knowledge, and Tools Chicago and Four Major Markets

Population: 14.2 million # Organizations: 2,733 Ave. Expenses: $1.9M Population: 7.3 million # Organizations: 1,025 New York Population: 1.6 million Ave. Expenses: $1.3M # Organizations: 550 Ave. Expenses: $2.0M Chicago DC Population: 6 million # Organizations: 973 L.A. Ave. Expenses: $2.6M Population: 10 million # Organizations: 1,192 Ave. Expenses: $1.1M Chicago and Four Major Markets Median Income

$50,284 $50,359

$39,873 $36,885 $32,810 New York

NYC L.A. CHICAGO DC S.F. EDUCATION,Chicago INCOME DISTRIBUTION 48%49% DC

36% 36% 29% L.A. 21% 18% 18% 17% 14% 11% 11% 8% 9% 9%

% of Population with a % of Population with % of Population in Bachelor's Degree or Household Income Poverty Higher >$200k NYC L.A. CHICAGO DC S.F. Chicago and Four Major Markets 48%

33% 27% 26% 22% 20% 20% 20% 16% 13% 15% 11% 9% 8% 5% New York

% of Population % of Population % of Population African American Asian American Hispanic/Latino Chicago NYC L.A. CHICAGO DC S.F. DC Distribution of Arts Organizations by Size 3% 2% 2% 2% 3% 14% 10% 9% 13% 13% L.A. 19% 19% 20% 20% 25% Over $10 million $1 million - $10 million $250,000-$999,999 70% 70% 63% 64% 58% Under $250,000

NYC L.A. CHICAGO DC S.F.

Size-wise, the ecology of Chicago’s organizations are most similar to L.A’s. What is the contributed revenue story for Chicago organizations?

0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30%

NYC 4% 4% 1%3% 9%

L.A. 2% 9% 1% 6% 2%

CHICAGO 4% 11% 2% 7% 2%

S.F. 6% 11% 2% 3% 4%

D.C. 3% 7% 3% 5% 8%

Trustees Individuals Corporations Foundations Government

If Individualyou’re not and supporting foundation more support than 2% is comparativelyof expenses with high. corporate Low on funding, government you’re funding. normal. What is the contributed revenue story for organizations of different size? 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0%

Small 5% 15% 3% 11% 13% 16%

Medium 5% 11% 2% 9% 9% 23%

2% Large 4% 8% 3% 5% 25%

Trustees Individuals Corporations Foundations Government All Other Unrest. Contributed Revenue Longer-range planning may be a key to growth

0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0%

Small 5% 15% 3% 11% 13% 16%

Medium 5% 11% 2% 9% 9% 23%

Special events Parent organization 2% Large 4% 8% 3% 5% In-kind 25% NARTR United Arts funding

Trustees Individuals Corporations Foundations Government All Other Unrest. Contributed Revenue The larger the organization, the more diverse its contributed revenue sources, particularly with respect to resources for longer-term plans (high NARTR). What’s Chicago’s Return on Fundraising story?

TOTAL CONTRIBUTED REVENUE/FUNDRAISING EXPENSES $- $2.00 $4.00 $6.00 $8.00 $10.00 Chicago organizations tend NYC $8.73 to raise more money than those in LA or DC but they spend $581,902 LA $7.61 proportionally more $76,464 in doing so.

CHICAGO $866,612 $7.27 $119,283

SF $7.92

$766,308 DC $81,560 $9.40

Raising $1 is slightly harder in Chicago than in other markets... Trends in Return on Fundraising, by Market

More Contributed Revenue

D.C. San Francisco Los Angeles

Lower Higher Fundraising Fundraising Spend New York Spend Chicago

Less Contributed Revenue … and less money was spent to bring in even less money over . What’s the Return on Fundraising story, by Sector? TOTAL CONTRIBUTED REVENUE/FUNDRAISING EXPENSES (INCL. PERSONNEL)

PERFORMING ARTS CENTERS $9.90

OPERA $9.53

DANCE $8.81

SYMPHONY ORCHESTRAS $8.42

MUSIC $7.75

THEATER $7.28

$- $2 $4 $6 $8 $10 $12 There appears to be a natural ceiling on the return each dollar of fundraising yields

TOTAL CONTRIBUTED REVENUE/FUNDRAISING EXPENSES (INCL. PERSONNEL)

PERFORMING ARTS CENTERS $9.90

OPERA $9.53 The average theatre allocates 63% of fundraising $8.81 expenses to fundraising staff $ 1,597,164 compensation, very SYMPHONY ORCHESTRAS $ 189,738 $8.42 similar to dance and opera. $ 247,889 $7.75 $ 32,003

$ 853,467 THEATER $ 117,179 $7.28

$- $2 $4 $6 $8 $10 $12

If you want to raise more, spend more (wisely). In the PAC, Dance, and Theatre Sectors, It Is Getting Harder to Raise $1 for Every $1 Spent, not Easier

RETURN ON FUNDRAISING: TOTAL CONTRIBUTED REVENUE/FUNDRAISING EXPENSES

Performing Arts Centers, $9.91

$9.23 Dance, $8.82 $8.69 Symphony Orchestras, $8.44 $8.48

Theater, $7.61 $7.35

2014 2015 2016 2017

And for Orchestras, growth was insignificant. The reverse was true for Music and Opera

RETURN ON FUNDRAISING: TOTAL CONTRIBUTED REVENUE/FUNDRAISING EXPENSES

Performing Arts Centers, $9.91 $9.49 $9.23 Dance, $8.82 $8.69 Symphony Orchestras, $8.44 $8.48 Opera, $8.42

Theater, $7.61 $7.49 $7.35

Music, $6.29

2014 2015 2016 2017 In Dance and Theatre, it is Getting Harder to Earn $1 for Every $1 Spent, not Easier

RETURN ON MARKETING (PROGRAM REVENUE/TOTAL MARKETING EXPENSES)

$8.12

Dance, $6.87 $7.17 Symph Orch, $6.45 $6.48 Music, $6.19 $6.34 PACs, $5.96

Theatre, $4.88 $4.76

$3.56 Opera, $3.32

2016 2017 2018

Theatres cut marketing expenses annually. Program revenue decreased at greater rate. What’s the Marketing Expenses per Attendee story?

Program Rev/Attendee Marketing Exp/Attendee

DANCE $8.21

MUSIC $1.64

OPERA $15.95

PACS $4.59

SYMPHONY ORCHESTRAS $7.48

THEATER $5.63 Different sectors have different levels of demand and different economic models Program Rev/Attendee Marketing Exp/Attendee

DANCE $50.46 $8.21 $8.36 MUSIC $45.89 $1.64

OPERA $61.84 $15.95

PACS $36.03 $4.59

SYMPHONY ORCHESTRAS $43.68 $7.48

THEATER $32.42 $5.63

Music had lowest net program revenue at $6.72 and Opera the highest at $45.89. Theatre’s was $26.79. Trends in Program Revenue per Attendee

More Program Revenue Fewer people paying Dance higher PAC’s prices Music Orchestras Fewer Opera More Attendees Theatre Attendees

Less Program Revenue What’s Chicago’s Program Revenue per Attendee and Marketing Expense per Attendee

$- $5.00 $10.00 $15.00 $20.00 $25.00 $30.00 $35.00 $40.00 $45.00

$29.04 NY $2.74

$33.18 LA $4.26

$26.45 CHICAGO $4.52

$27.86 SF $4.00

$39.58 DC $4.73

Program rev/In-person Attendance Marketing exp (incl. staff)/In-person Attendance Subscription Revenue covered less expenses over time for all but PACs

EARNED RELATIONAL REVENUE INDEX (SUBSCRIPTION AND MEMBERSHIP REVENUE/TOTAL EXPENSES)

Theatre, 14.9% Opera, 14.2% 13.7% 13.6%

Symph Orch, 10.4%

9.2%

Dance, 8.0% 7.6%

PACs, 4.9% 5.2% Music, 4.7% 4.0%

2016 2017 2018 While subscriptions are still critically important to in particular, there has been steady downward march of subscription tickets sold … since 2007. What we do with the data: Research, Knowledge, and Tools

How Can You Use This in Your Own Organization? Customized Knowledge Analytic Reports • Compare to peer groups • Highlight long term trends at your organization • Assess key areas of operations with fundraising, marketing, and balance sheet metrics • Download reports for easy sharing with stakeholders.

• Use the “Annual Report” Projections to create a basic annual • Use historical contribution and expense data as a report for your basis for projections organization. • Visualize up to 10 years of data What we do with the data: Research, Knowledge, and Tools How Can You Use This in Your Own Organization? Customized Knowledge

“I use my organization’s KIPI Dashboard scores to identify 3 things: Where is there encouraging news? What can we do better? What www.smu.edu/artsresearchinformation keeps me up at night?”

– Steve Martin, Managing Director, Childplay Theatre Company http://mcs.smu.edu/dashboard/ What we do with the data: Research, Knowledge, and Tools What we do with the data: Research, Knowledge, and Tools

http://courses.culturaldata.org New initiatives We now live in an age with multiple“ truths, but only one truth matters—their truth. In order to break through and connect with your target, you must communicate to their truth, not your truth…” their truth

For me, the arts are radically local.

If it’s not in my neighborhood, I am much less likely to go. We expected a somewhat steep demand curve based on distance from the organization…

100% Our naïve estimate was that a person living 12 80% km (7.5 miles) away is 80% less likely to 60% purchase than a person living in the immediate neighborhood. 40% Relative Purchase Purchase Relative Propensity 20%

0% 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 Distance from Firm in KMs Naïve Estimate …but we were wrong. It is much steeper in the average community. The data revealed 100% that around 2 kms (just over 1 mile), 80% people are 80%

60% less likely to purchase than a 40% person living in

Relative Purchase Purchase Relative Propensity the immediate 20% neighborhood.

0% 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 Distance from Firm in KMs Naïve Estimate Empirically Estimated Baseline

But factors other than* %s based distance on the transactions/population influence the occurring decision within 50kms of whether to purchase or not… Socio-Economic Level Influences the Consumer’s Cost/Benefit Calculus… 100% Higher HH’s income and 80% education = more likely to 60% attend, will travel further to attend. 40% Lower HH Relative Purchase Purchase Relative Propensity 20% income and education = even 0% 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 more radically Distance from Firm in KMs local. Baseline Hi Socioecon Low Socioecon …and More Nearby Complements (e.g., restaurants, bars) = More Likely People Will Come to Your Arts Organization

100% “What I really

80% want is a destination for 60% an entire day or night out, even if 40% it means a longer drive.”

Relative Purchase Purchase Relative Propensity 20%

0% 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 Distance from Firm in KMs Baseline High Complements Low Complements Research and Knowledge: Customized Insights Location of Arts Organizations Relative to Communities Served and Underserved What we do with the data: Research, Knowledge, and Tools How can you use this in your own organization?

Audience Opportunity Tool

• Tell us who and where you are • See propensity to purchase by census tract or zip code • See population characteristics • Identify areas of opportunity SMU DataArts Audience Opportunity Tool Pilot Test

Where do we focus our efforts to do a better job of serving African American members of the community? SMU DataArts Audience Opportunity Tool Pilot Test

What would a change in pricing strategy do to increase reach in 77054? SMU DataArts Audience Opportunity Tool Pilot Test

What if we went to them instead? What we do with the data: Research, Knowledge, and Tools Audience Opportunity Tool

“Use of this tool helped to increase our season subscriptions by 20% … through a laser focus on target areas that were projected by the tool to produce the highest results.”

-- Zenetta Drew, Executive Director, Dallas Black Dance Theatre What we do with the data: Research, Knowledge, and Tools

Workforce Demographics Survey

GENDER IDENTITY

Workplace Perceptions DISABILITY STATUS 4

3 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.3 2.9 3.0 2.8 2.7 2

ETHNICITY 1 4, with 4 being most positive most being 4 with 4, -

0 Workplace Support for Psychological Happy Scores 0 well-being risk-taking safety employees

Org A Average for All Organizations Orvieto Duomo, the Last Judgement, Lorenzo Maitini All is is All Not Lost! www.culturaldata.org [email protected] @SMUDataArts

Thank you!

WHITE WAVE RISING Young Soon Kim Dance Company, Brooklyn, NY. Image credit: Paula Lubo