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Vol. 5. No. 9 57th ISSUE MARCH, 1970 Contributions, enquiries, etc., to the Acting Editor, C/- P.O. Box 2110, Wellington. Business Communications, Subscriptions, etc., to: Secretary, New Zealand Antarctic Society, P.O. Box 2110, Wellington, N.Z. CONTENTS ■ EXPEDITIONS

New Zealand

The First Year at : S. K. Cutfield






South Africa

Japan 389, 406

United Kingdom


Sub-Antarctic Islands

Flights to the Pole

Antarctic Bookshelf

Co-operation in Antarctic Research

Antarctic Tourism 403 March, 1970 BAD WEATHER HAMPERS ACTIVITIES AT NEW ZEALAND STATIONS At . Vanda Station and in the field, a very extensive summer programme was carried through despite much stormy weather and in the face of unexpected transport and other difficulties. Leader Bruce Willis reported late in AT TERRA NOVA BAY December: Unfortunately not as much ground as "With such a splendid start to the expected was covered by the four-man month as the celebration of the tenth DS1R geological party at Terro Nova anniversary of the signing of the Ant Bay owing to a combination of deep arctic Treaty, it seemed that we were soft snow and warm weather, but never set for a period of concerted activity. theless it may be regarded as a most Instead, this has been a month of frus successful season. tration. A combination of poor weather, especially around , and They marked the site of Scott's Nor mechanical trouble with helicopters has thern Party's (1912) cave at Terra Nova upset most field programmes and de Bay by erecting a wooden signboard. layed work on Vanda resupply." While in the area they visited an Adelie penguin rookery at Gcrlache Inlet and There were several heavy snowfalls estimated a total of 11,000 chicks. during the month, more particularly to wards the end, and much inconvenience The party was picked up and returned was caused by leakage into buildings in to Scott Base on January 20. spite of repeated sweepings of the roofs. Many of the snow falls consisted of large wet flakes with little wind ac WINTER AHEAD companying. The most important event in February The thaw added to the difficulties, was the arrival of HMNZS "Endeavour" water running down the road and fill on the 4th. Unloading started scon after ing the depressions by the dog lines, lie-up with the United States Navy pro thus cutting off the route to Williams viding Fabco forklift and drivers. Un Field. NCEL drilled holes to release the loading was virtually completed by 3.00 the water and the maintenance staff a.m.. February 5, with back load stowed diverted the road around the worst area. the same afternoon. A sports programme arranged with the "Endeavour" crew During the month there were 21 days was abandoned owing to weather. of jji or complete cloud cover, three During a southerly there was an exten days of blue sky and 12 days of preci sive ice breakout in McMurdo Sound, pitating snow. and by February 8 water was visible The new year was ushered in by bad from Scotl Base. Later, both the "Elisto" weather which persisted for the first and "Burton Island" worked in front few days, but thereafter improved apart of the Base breaking an annual ice run from a few days in the middle of the way. Two helicopters from "Burton Is month. Thus most scheduled programmes land" flew building materials to Cape went off with few hitches. The warm Bird. Second leads were taken in on weather and water run-off continued to February 13. Scismo equipment was re cause trouble with the tracked-vehicle turned from Hallett and airfreighted to road, necessitating the diverting of the New Zealand. The Navy intend realign ing the McMurdo/Scott Base Road, but road around the worst areas. this should cause no interference in The highest recorded temperature of Scotl Base programmes. The lasl physi + 6.8° was recorded at Scott Base on cal contact with New Zealand was on January 8 and throughout most of the February 26 when Iwo Hercules flew month temperatures were high at Vanda. north.

V-»- March, 1970

Their duties were to maintain the Shackleton Hut (restored in 1960-61), ty of Wcl- tidy up the surroundings, act as guides a four-man to visitors, prevent any incipient "souveniring" and protect the already diminished Adelie Penguin colony from any disturbance. The two men worked versity of Waikato team. at from November 22 to Neall and P. Kyle spent a week (Nov December 9, and later spent three days ember 18-25) at Cape Barne and were at the Hut Poinl hut. then transported by U.S. Navy heli copter to Cape Bird with two Waikato men for a day before being flown via ON THE ROBERT SCOTT Scott Base to . Here an ex tensive mapping programme along the coast enabled the geologists to complete a geological map of the area before re An air-drop to the six-man DS1R geo turning to Scott Base en December 8. logical and pedological party working on the Robert Scott Glacier ran into Meanwhile, Vucetich (the r difficulties. The glacier flows in a north scientific leader) and geolo erly direction from the Polar plateau to had left Scotl Base on Novtmuu .- .^. the Ross in 152°E; some 70 the lower Wright , close lo the scene of the helicopter accident reported miles east of the (Amundsen's route to the Pole), be in our December issue. The VUWAE tween 85° 30' and 86° S. camp was used during the emergency. On the 26th Vucetich and Topping The resupply materials were at Wil walked the 15km to Vanda, a helicopter liams Field ready for the drop on Dec carrying their gear. They worked in the ember 15, but they were held for Bull Pass area until December 9 and various reasons until December 21. This were then immobilised because of heli drop was unsuccessful owing to a 'chute copter problems until December 17, malfunction. Everything was lost. The when they walked to the Labyrinth, pilot landed to ascertain the reasons for where Neall and Kyle had been await the failure and back-loaded several hund ing them since December 11. red pounds of rock samples. Kyle and Topping were at Vanda Again on December 24 an attempt from the 20th till the 27th. while Neall was made, but was thwarted by low and Vucetich worked in the lower Tay cloud and poor visibility. Finally on lor Valley till they were rejoined by December 29 the drop was successful the other two men. All four returned at 86° 00' S. 153° 04' E. The party to Scott Base by helicopter on Decem reported that all materials were recov ber 31. Vucetich now returned to New ered. The drop included ten food boxes Zealand, but the other three travelled and some pieces of field equipment, ice by sno-trac to White Island on January axes and ropes sent out to replace 4 and studied its from the north west rock outcrops to the summit of damaged gear. Mt. Heine till the 8th. After further geology on and the north ernmost outcrops of the Hut Point "COMING MEN" Peninsula, they returned to New Zea land on January 14. The representatives of youth organisa tions, Burton and Ellis, Queen's Scouts, C/o CAPE ROYDS and Oliver, Boys' Brigade, added to the In response to an invitation from the work force and proved very helpful Superintendent, Antarctic Division, the around base. Local visits were arranged N.Z. Antarctic Society selected two for them while Ellis and Oliver spent members of its Canterbury Branch, about 10 days at Cape Crozier assisting P. J. Skellerup Dr. W. Sladen. They made a good im and M. Orchard pression at Crozier and Dr. Sladen wrote to serve as caretakers at Cape Royds. commending their efforts.

■ I ANTARCTIC March, 1970

UNDERWATER SOUNDS SEMI-PRECIOUS STONES ANTARCTIC STUDY New Zealand scientists have found two deposits of the semi-precious stone The first University of Auckland team peridot at Ross Island in the Antarctic. to work in the Antarctic made an exten Samples of the stone were brought to sive series of acoustic measurements in Wellington by Professor A. T. Wilson, Antarctic waters, using hydrophones sus formerly a member of the Victoria Uni pended beneath the Ross Ice Shelf. Mr. versity chemistry department, and they P. J. Burgess in this way recorded the are thought to be the first semi-precious "sea state", that is the noises made by stones brought out of the Antarctic. wind waves, currents and animal life. Professor Wilson had just returned The sea state in proved to be from an expedition to the Antarctic and relatively very low, a hundred times his findings are being analysed by Dr. lower than in Auckland, New Zealand: A. M. Taylor, a geo-chemist at the and there was, surprisingly, a noticeable university. difference between the day and night Dr. Taylor said the two deposits were states. It is thought that this difference located at Cape Bird and Cape Crozier could be caused by factors like tempera on Ross Island in McMurdo Sound. ture and salinity. Noises made by seals 50 miles away, LARGE DEPOSITS underwater seismological activity, and Both deposits were "fairly extensive" ice-breakers opening a channel into Mc and if they had been found in a more Murdo Sound were among the sounds civilised area they would have been picked up on Mr. Burgess's hydro worth extracting. phones. Though at the moment the field did A plan to investigate the attenuation not appear to have, much commercial of sound through the Antarctic converg value it was an interesting occurrence. ence (where warm currents meet the Men had been working in this area cold currents coming from the Antarctic) for five years and this was their first had to be dropped because explosives find. to have been detonated in the sea near Some of the stones brought back were the entrance to McMurdo Sound failed worth cutting. One was 1.7 carats. to arrive on time. It is not known They were of a good quality and of whether or not the convergence acts as a a good colour (green). barrier to the passage of sounds. Dr. Taylor said peridots were valued between $1 and $40 a gram for rough Reporters were told that the attenua tion of sound through water was con stone. A small cut stone suitable for a siderably less than through air. Water ring would be valued at about $5.10. was not suitable for conversation, but it probably could be used for morse and teleprinter messages. The data could lead CRICKET to developments in radio communica Three New Zealanders and an Ameri tions. can admiral introduced cricket to the "The air channels are getting pretty this summer. cluttered now, and we'll soon have to A former New Zealand cricket cap find new ways of passing messages. The tain, John Reid (Wellington) produced sea could be one method of solving a cricket bat and ball from his Ameri this." can-supplied duffle bag when a touring party including three New Zealanders. Mr. Burgess made recordings of very arrived at the Pole station. small detonations under the Ross ice Two Members of Parliament, Mr. J. shelf, under various ice conditions, to determine attentuation in the very cold L. Hunt (New Lynn) and Mr. L. W. and highly saline waters close to the Gandar (Manawatu). enthusiastically agreed to join in the first-ever cricket Antarctic. match using the Pole as a wicket. "The reflection of sound from these During lunch inside the Amundsen- explosions reveals the shape of the Scott station, the New Zealanders ex under-surface of the ice," he said. "This plained the mysteries of cricket to the could be important for underwater navi commander of the United States naval gation. You can also determine the rudi support force in Antarctica, Rear Ad mentary structure of the sea floor." miral D. F. Welch. March, 1970 ANTARCTIC

He agreed to take part, too. and the into the snow and the ball vanished. four went out to the Pole to make sport Reid presented to Admiral Welch a ing history. cricket ball which he had hit across the Reid was given the honour of batting world. first, but he was judged out first ball His feat followed on Peter Snell's by Mr. Hunt, who also laid claim to achievement in running across the world having bowled the first leg break at the at the same spot and Brian Lochore's South Pole. feat in kicking a rugby ball around the The game ended when Reid hit a six world at the Pole. M R S P A M Y O U N G R E T U R N S Mrs. Pam Young, the first New Zealand woman to work for a long period in the Antarctic, returned to Scott Base after 10 weeks living in a tent at Cape Bird, some 60 miles from the Base, looking "fit and bronzed". With her husband. Dr. Euan C. she would not recommend that women Young, and three other men in a Can be employed as personnel in a place terbury University team, Mrs. Young as such as Scott Base for some considerable sisted in research work into the habits time. A women passing through as a of penguins and skua gulls at Cape member of a field party did not create Bird. such complications as a long-term base She told a Press Association reporter employee. at Scott Base that she found living at Mrs. Young does not expect to be Cape Bird little different from a normal returning to Antarctica next summer, her camping trip in New Zealand, and had husband having accepted a position in not thought conditions harsh or uncom Western Samoa. However, she said she fortable. knew of at least three other girls "who "I have really enjoyed it here and are just champing at the bit to get had a very interesting time, but it has here". confirmed what I thought already—I don't like penguins. I have found some of their habits a little disgusting. "I think the highlight of the trip for Euan and myself was a continuous 80- hour birdwatch of the behaviour of 12 pairs of skuas. This involved taking our tent up above the normal study area and watching the skuas, four hours on and four hours off. It was really fan tastic. "Others in the field party who had been on previous all-male expeditions in Antarctica considered that having a woman in their midst had made little difference to their lives at Cape Bird, possibly because all were well known to each other before coming to Antarctica. "I think that, particularly in this type of field work, women can fit in very well, helping in the research work as well as in the day-to-day running of the camp," she said. NOT AT SCOTT However, because of problems in pro viding full facilities for men and women. March. 1970 SUMMER WORK FROM VANDA NEW SHELTER HUT ERECTED A glaciological, hydrological and Lower Wright Glacier, and on I survey party based on Vanda station for ber 3 was reported to be flowing in the summer comprised A. J. Fleinc the vicinity of Bull Pass. With the river (Leader and Glaciologisl), A. Eskrick imminent, Heine and Eskrick returned (Surveyor), K. Gousmctt (Hydrolcgist), from Asgard Station and assisted in the G. McGillvray (Assistant Hydrologist). final construction of the weir. By the Their programme was made up of a 5th the river had reached Lake Bull. number of separate projects, mostly at The final Vee notch strips were at , the and on tached to the plywood and the weir the in the Wright-'Vallcy. completed by 6 p.m. that day. Water Planning of the various projects was reached the weir at 8.30 p.m. that even carried out by Heine in Wellington, with ing and began to flow over the notch assistance from Gcusmett on the require half an hour later. ments for a proposed weir on the Onyx Recording equipment was installed the River. The four men left New Zealand following day, and continuous recording on November l. Bad weather and radio of the flew was made until February blackouts caused considerable delay. The 12. when the river stopped. decision was made to send two men to Vanda to begin the initial excavation Water Level for the Onyx weir, while the other two Following the establishment of per awaited the arrival cf material from manent bench marks at the eastern end New Zealand. This meant a delay of of Lake Vanda last summer, the actual two weeks in the beginning of the pro Water level of the lake was rcmeasured ject. in November. Gousmett and McGillvray flew to On December 9, Heine was working Vanda Station on November 15 with at the lake edge, when he noticed a Heine and Eskrick following on Novem sudden of the water level. Further ber 23. The two latter men immediately measurements established the existence visited the Asgard Range area and of a "seiche" like movement of the lake selected the site for a small shelter hut surface. It was then decided to estab there. The airlift cf material was made lish and instal the second water flow on November 26. using two helicopter recorder at the lake edge and endeavour loads of approximately 800 lb. each. to obtain a continuous record of the Heine and Eskrick remained at the site water level changes. When this was done to erect the station. it became obvious that there was indeed During the next two months, the four considerable movement. This was men spread their time between Asgard quickly correlated with wind speed in Station and a field camp in the vicinity the valley, and it was found that under of Vanda Station. wind speeds of 30-40 knots, the lake water level would change as much as Onyx Weir 6 to 9 inches. During windless periods, A site was selected on the Onyx River the water level would usually remain most suitable for flow measurements and fairly constant, with about a quarter of the necessary excavations began. The an inch variation. boulder filled riverbed combined with In order to establish whether the ice permafrost several inches below the level rose and fell in direct relation earth's surface made the work tedious ship and to the same degree as the free and exhausting. A pneumatic drill was water, instrumentation was set up on the used to break up the larger rocks and floating ice. The instrument was eventually after two and a half weeks anchored to the lake bed, and direct of slow work had excavated a 6-inch measurements were made of the rise trench across the riverbed. The timber and fall of the ice surface. A prelimin framing was then set out across the weir ary plot of the data showed the same site. general pattern as that recorded on the About this time, the Onyx River lake edge water level recorder, but with began to flow down valley from the less extreme variations. March, 1970 ANTARCTIC

Measurements made this summer tend copter crash at the eastern end of the to confirm Heine's earlier conclusion Asgard Range this summer. that the water level measurements are not indicative of total river inflow. Following a general reconnaissance of There are a number of additional factors, the area around Asgard Station, syste such as evaporation of water from the matic placing of bamboo markers was icefree moat and river delta and eva carried out on all the . Re- poration of moisture from the shore line measured during the 1970-71 summer, sand. they will give information on snow ac cumulation and . Asgard Station To enable a preliminary survey to be made cf the Asgard Station area, When Heine and Eskrick were trans- geological samples were collected from orted by helicopter to the site on most of the mountain peaks, valleys and November 26 they immediately began the construction of the hut. A layer of foil ridges. coaled tar paper was then laid down, together with a layer of wire netting. The floor of |" plywood was then nailed At Lake Vanda direct to the timber grid. The walls and In order to extend the mapping work ends of the hut were then bolted to done last summer, Eskrick established a gether as well as to the floor, to form complete survey network around Lake the complete A-frame structure. Vanda. Survey beacons were set up and can be used by future parties working The hut proved satisfactory for the on the lake. Certain points on the aerial location, that is at about 4500 feet photos of the lake were also identi a.s.l. (Vanda Station 512 feet a.s.l.) with fied on the ground and surveyed into December and January temperatures the network. This field work will enable ranging from —15 to —5°C. Eskrick to produce an accurate map of Lake Vanda, essential if the water bud Although the floor temperature inside the hut did not rise to 0°C, at bunk get is to be calculated. level (16 inches above the floor) the temperature was high enough for com fortable living. Under windy conditions Hydrological Survey (30-40 knots) the heat loss through the In order to provide background I" plywood was sufficient to cause con knowledge to the source of the water siderable condensation inside the hut. flowing into Lake Vanda. Heine and on the windward wall. Gousmctt travelled east from Vanda Station to the Lower Wright Glacier. A standard met. screen was set up Each side stream was inspected and the nearby. A thermograph and standard water flow estimated. At the same time, thermometer were installed in the careful note was taken of the land screen and observations begun on Dec route down the valley. Details of mile ember 1. Daily observations included age, surface topography and ease of the measurement of wind speed (with tractor travel were noted. This survey a hand held anemometer) and direction, would be useful in planning emergency cloud cover and height, temperature and travel to and from Vanda Station. air pressure. A plane table survey was made by Eskrick of the areas surrounding the Ice Shelf Study Station site. This was later supple McGillvray and Eskrick returned to mented by theodolite observations be Scott Base on January 20. Two days tween the major survey points set up. later, with C. Knoll they moved out on An offer by the U.S.G.S. to provide to the McMurdo Ice Shelf. The surface photo coverage of this area was ac elevation measurements were made in cepted, and the photo run made late good time, and by February 1 the re in January. The major glacier in the maining links in the survey network area has been tentatively named the were complete. The McMurdo Ice Shelf Jeremy Sykes Glacier, after the New maps can now be completed, and the Zealander who lost his life in a heli- remaining papers written. w ANTARCTIC March, 1970

ing strips placed between the roof panels CHANGES AT VANDA and between the roof and wall panels. A Coleman heater was also installed. Following the departure from Vanda Lusby and Garrick returned to Scott of Leader D. Lowe on January 13, A. J. on January 29 while on January 30 H. Heine assumed temporary control of the Lowe and McKerrow went into take station until a replacement could be their places on the Vanda staff. found. On January 10 the Superinten Much credit must go to Arnold Heine, dent of the Antarctic Division visited who directed work at Vanda between the station and on January 11 H. Lowe D. Lowe's return to Scott Base and H. of the summer support staff was ap Lowe's taking over the station. pointed Leader. Arrangements were By the end of January all supplies made for him to receive medical train stockpiled at the Bay of Sails had been ing at McMurdo Dispensary and this he transported to Vanda. Harold Lowe offi commenced on January 13. cially took over the station on February There were further resupply flights on I. On February 7, 8 and 9 two flights January 14 and 15. each day were made with Lusby going On January 20. Tomlinson. Garrick in on the 7th to work on a tractor. and Lusby flew in, and during their Another two flights went in on the 15th stay machinery was checked and over and mail on the 17th. hauled, the wind generator returned to The wintering team at Vanda station Scott Base for servicing, the magnetic comprises McKerrow. Bromley. G. hut built and secured, and rubber seal Lewis and H. Lowe.

ANTARCTIC DIVISION NOW IN CHRISTCHURCH The Antarctic Division of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research which was set up in Wellington in 1959, has moved to Christ- church. The decision to move was made in June last year, and the final transfer was made during the first week of February. In 1959 the division had eight full- U.S. pool, and a great amount of our time staff and supported 35 people equipment for Antarctica goes on U.S. working in Antarctica. Since then the planes." staff had steadily increased, and now Mr. Thomson said that the division, there are 25 permanent staff and more because it was situated in Wellington, than 100 people working on the ice. had missed seeing many scientists before The superintendent of the division or after their visits to the ice. (Mr. R. B. Thomson) said that the "The recent two -day visit of the reason for the move was primarily con NASA group to Christchurch was a case venience and economics. Another contri in point. These are the type of people buting faclor was the closing down last year of the DSIR district office in Christ- we would like to visit our organisation, church. but because we have been in Welling Mr. Thomson said that in 1959 all ton, they have not been able to find the Antarctic activities—research, stores and time." logistics—were centred in Wellington. He said the decision late last year But since then there had been steady to close the DSIR's district office in changes until Christchurch had become Christchurch reinforced the need to have the key centre. the Antarctic division in that city. All organisations, including the US The division would now take over the Deep Freeze base, were stationed in responsibilities of the district office and Christchurch. Aircraft to and from the administer other units of the DSIR. ice landed at Christchurch, and the The scientific side of Antarctic acti supply ship Endeavour now operated out vity, which involved the division, all of Lyttelton. the universities and other organisations, "Our co-operation with the U.S. has was now mainly centred on Christ increased tremendously over the last few church. The move would mean better years. RNZAF flights now go into the liaison. March, 1970 ANTARCTIC THE FIRST YEAR AT VANDA STATION S. K. Cutfield For the first year 1968/9 at Vanda Valley; "large patches of gravel mixed Station, members of the wintering party with erratic boulders of every descrip experienced extremes in temperature, tion and size . . . segmented by water wind and comfort. The station is situ courses which are bordered by flats of ated on the shores of Lake Vanda, in gravel and spread out before reaching the Dry Valleys of , 80 the sea over large alluvial fan-shaped miles north west from Scott Base. mud-flats." Apart from the occasional scavenging skua during the summer and The party of five, W. R. Lucy (leader), mummified seals in the valley, no animal S. K. Cutfield (scientific officer), R. M. life is present in the valley or lake. Craig (meteorologist), W. L. Johns (technician) and A. J. Riordan (U.S. exchange scientist) spent three summer VANDA STATION months and eight isolated winter Vanda Station (77° 32'S, 161° 42'E) months in this unusual and scientifi is situated about 70 yards from the lake cally interesting area. Being situated in edge, at the eastern end of the lake and a region of the Antarctic Continent comprises four buildings. The main devoid of ice and snow, together with living hut (33 feet by 11 feet) contained the presence of Lake Vanda, great inter five bunks, cooking facilities, ice melter. est centred upon the scientific and recreational facilities (library, tape meteorological data collected and the recorder), photographic darkroom and physiological changes encountered by a small supply of foodstuffs. The labora this small wintering party. tory housed the majority of the scientific THE ENVIRONMENT instruments, others of which were in stalled at specific locations in the valley. Dry Valleys were originally dis- The other buildings are the foot* in 1905 by Scott, Evans and refuge hut, which contained i .ashly and since the recent rediscovery food stores and field radio eologists Peter Webb and Barrie power supply was 12 VDC provided McKelvey in 1957, the work of summer through a battery bank, which was to field parties, including geologists, be kept charged by means of a wind chemists and physicists, led to the de generator. Small petrol charging sets cision to winter at Vanda Station. Lake were provided as a backup in the event Vanda, which is covered by ice 11-12 of calm conditions. feet thick, is approximately four miles long and one mile wide, and contains With summer temperatures reaching a water to a depth of 215 feet. It is fed maximum of 49.1 °F in January, summer by water from the 18 mile long River field parties only donned anoraks and Onyx, for 51 days during the summer. gloves with the advent of a biting east erly or westerly. The high summer tem Due to a bottom temperature of the peratures necessitated the stove being lake water of 77°F, a controversy exists left off and the windows, escape hatch as to the origin of the stored heat—geo- and door left open for inside comfort. thermal or stored solar radiation. Sir However, by official sundown (April Arthur Porritt. Governor General of 25), temperatures had dropped consid New Zealand, in officially opening the erably, and reached a minimum of station on January 9, mentioned our —70°F in July. party's endeavours "to determine the lake's heat as originating from cither heaven or hell". SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME The scientific programme at Vanda The surrounding valley was aptly Station encompassed Meteorology, Seis described by Sir Raymond Priestley in mology, Physical, Chemical and Hydro- his description of the Lower Taylor logical aspects of Lake Vanda, Earth ANTARCTIC March, 1970

Wright Valley, with Vanda Station in foreground.

Currents, Magnetic studies and water Temperatures and salinity of the lake sampling of Lake Vanda. water were recorded fortnightly, so as The most important programme. to determine the source of stored heat in Meteorology, included a 24 hour cover the bottom waters of the lake. The age of wind direction and speed, cloud majority of scientists explain the tem cover, radiation balance, and air and soil perature of 77°F of the bottom waters temperatures. Allen Riordan's meteoro as being due to stored solar radiation. A logical programme included establishing small hut was frozen into the ice surface wind stations towards Bull Pass, the base for recording in relative comfort during of Mt. Odin, the western end of Lake the winter. Vanda and on the lower slopes of Ml. Unusual meteorological phenomena Jason, to determine localised wind pat which occurred included whirling dust terns within the Wright Valley. eddies which spiralled a zigzag path Snow recorded from across the valley, whisking away cartons February to November totalled 3.37 and tins: and the observation of illu inches, and this small amount is indica minated nacreous cloud. tive of the ice and snow free nature of Aurora observed consisted mainly of the Dry Valleys. pale green arcs and "hanging curtains" Small earthquakes recorded in Janu which were oriented towards the south ary in conjunction with the Scott Base east over the Lower Wright Glacier. seismograph records indicated seismic For a year of maximum sunspol acti activity in the and Dry- vity, little disruption was caused lo com galski region 150 miles munications. north of Vanda. Great interest centres Late supplies of meteorological equip on this activity, but Antarctica remains ment were left by a helicopter from the leas seismic than any other continent. U.S.S. "Burton Island" alongside a wan- March, 1970 ANTARCTIC nigan in the Bay of Sails in March. A While Warren Johns remained fully oc Vanda party of Bill Lucy and myself cupied with the station's power supply spent five arduous days attempting to problems, Ron Craig, Allen Riordan and negotiate the Gnat over the Lower I revelled in the pleasant but chilly out Wright Glacier and Wilson Piedmont to door conditions for our weekly trips to collect the supplies. Due to the sofl snow the western end of Lake Vanda and base conditions in which the Gnat became of Mt. Odin to record ice surface abla continually bogged down, we returned tion and to attend to the changing of to Vanda and planned a further attempt. temperature and wind charts. All trips Ten days later, after fitting tracks to our round the valley and lake during the Ferguson, Bill Lucy with Warren Johns winter were generally 10 miles or greater and Allen Riordan managed to winch the in distance and made on foot, in prefer tractoi up the icy wall of the terminal ence to the use of vehicles, principally face of the Lower Wright Glacier and to maintain body warmth and conserve reach the supplies at the Bay of Sails. fuel supplies. They returned to Vanda much relieved after an arduous three-day journey in Warren Johns and 1 made fortnightly temperatures of —26° F. trips down the lake to the temperature hut (commonly called "Lake Chalet") for a day's recording of the lake water's temperature and salinity. Although GENERAL ACTIVITIES sceptical at first as to the comfort of working in a non-insulated hut for 10 The year could be conveniently hours at —40°F, our fears partly re divided into two, summer and winter, the ceded, when, with a double primus contrast being quite marked. Firstly the operating, we were able to work the summer, bustling with helicopter supply instruments without gloves. flights, field parties—Italian, Japanese, New Zealand and American, base con struction, installation of equipment and tramping. Then the winter stillness, WATER SUPPLY established routines in work and re creation, with hobbies becoming more Ice parties were called every 4-6 weeks, whereon all station hands armed prominent. with ice axes descended upon the lake. The sustained up and down valley Heavy down jackets, balaclavas and winds of up to 25 knots maintained the gloves were donned, and the ice was station power supply during the summer readily chipped from the ledge at the period to March, but with the disappear boundary of the frozen moat and per ance of the sun. long calm spells were manent ice. Water during the summer experienced of up to 25 days in length. was pumped directly from the moat to Blowing snow on the plateau was gener the station. ally indicative of approaching westerlies, which reached a maximum gust of 78 Use of the station vehicles (two Fer knots in August. Periods of wind lasted guson tractors and Gnat) was limited to for 2-3 days up to a week, and were ice parties only during the winter. The accompanied by a rise in temperature of sleeping off-duty meteorological observer up to 52°F in half an hour. This wea spent a disturbed 2-5 hours, while the ther pattern proved very acceptable for booming "Herman Nelson" funnelled hot working, especially during the winter, air around the tractor sump, a prerequi when we did not have to battle with a site for cold starting. During the summer chilly westerly. However, the winter the Gnat proved popular transport, nego calm presented a major power prob tiating the valley terrain with comfort lem, and the critical power supply was and ease. maintained with petrol motor generators running in temperatures down to —70" F. With the threat of switching off the THE LIGHTER SIDE scientific instruments, due to problems with the motor generators and too low Recreational activities revolved mainly petrol supplies the power demand was around the transistor radio, tape- reduced by substituting Rockgas lamps recorder, library, individual hobbies, an and battery torches for electric light. occasional slide show and various ANTARCTIC March, 1970 forms of impromptu entertainment. The adventurous. A light installed on the B.B.C. and Voice of America provided foodstore was visible round the valley excellent live reception of the Apollo for a circle of radius of two miles. With Moon Landing together with general the temperature at —40°F on Septem news services. The Dry Valleys were ber 4, Allen Riordan and 1 ventured into described by Dr. Werner von Braun, Bull Pass, six miles eastward down the Director of the American Space Pro Wright Valley, and became the first of gramme, as the most likely location on the Vandals to observe the sun for the Earth to resemble the Moon's surface. 1969/70 summer. Weird lighting effects A replica lunar module (Rockgas cy of the sunlight on the weathered rocks linder) flying the New Zealand flag, ap in Bull Pass gave the appearance of a peared outside the main hut on July 21, lunar graveyard. but departed the following day leaving two skeletons imprinted on the ground, the flag and various pieces of rubbish. Ron Craig resumed his weekly trips up to the Dais, at the western end of the lake, and at our elevation of 1.900 Traditional festivities celebrated were feet, changing the temperature chart and sundown (April 25), mid-winter (June returning after an eight-hour journey 21), two birthdays, and the end of iso left him fatigued and with his face en lation with the arrival of the first heli crusted in ice. copter on October 18. Mid-winter dinner comprised an official menu containing many delicacies and a novel mid-winter Trips in early September to the Lower cake. Messages of goodwill were passed Wright Glacier were made to collect and received across the radio, via Scott urgently required fuel and scientific re Base, to other Antarctic bases—Japanese, placement parts, ferried across from Scott Belgian, French, American and British. Base by Snocat and sledge. From the first trip on September 10, Bill Lucy and Ron Cooking duties were rostered and Craig returned to Vanda, bitterly cold, menus ranged from Chinese delicacies but laden with mail, a new Pelter diesel and casseroles to steak, and the lack of generator, oysters, whitebait, eggs and a recipe book led to much experiment. fresh vegetables. Many chuckles and comments interspersed the night from A common sight during evenings was each bunk over news accummulated that of Allen Riordan outfitted in down from eight months' isolation. Bill Lucy clothing, standing in the lee of the food- in a message to Scott Base expressed store at —54°F, beating ice cream. thanks for the machinery, mail and "goodies" received saying, "It was all Communications were maintained much appreciated, more so than you every six hours with Scott Base for pass probably imagine." ing the Vanda Weather Observation, which was then relayed to McMurdo Station. The establishment of a radio/ Morale and group spirit remained ex telephone link with New Zealand in tremely high all year, with cooperation April enabled official calls to be made forming a harmonious working party. and calls to relatives 2,500 miles away, With the arrival of the first helicopter while for Allen Riordan calls to the after the winter on October 18, thoughts States proved a great morale booster. turned to homecoming. The changeover Radio blackout conditions disrupted period with David Lowe's 1969/70 communications only three or four times party in November, introduced some for periods of two to three days. lively discussions and the prospects for 1970 are for another interesting year, both personally and scientifically.

FURTHER AFIELD In conclusion, mention must be made of the tremendous support given by the Outdoor field trips during the winter American VX6 Helicopter unit. Ground were restricted to an approximately five supply having proved to be impracti mile radius from Vanda Station, but with cable, we could not have wintered with the return of twilight, trips became more out their assistance. March, 1970 ANTARCTIC HEAVY SNOW FALLS AT McMURDO BUT WORK CARRIES ON

The last three months have seen the period of maximum activity in and around the U.S. bases in Antarctica, despite the heaviest snow falls known in McMurdo since the year Scott and Amundsen struggled to reach the South Pole, some 58 years ago. Even these circumstances have not pre vented another successful season, both scientifically and logistically. To the non-scientific mind, at least, the most noteworthy event of this season has been the permission granted, and accepted, for the first-ever tifically perhaps the outstanding i\mmmmmmmmmm remains cf a 200 million year old hippopotamus—a reptilian counterpart of the African hippopotamus. This find, considered one of the truly great fossil finds of all time, establishes proof for the previously only hypotheti- cised super-continent of Gondwanaland. Air operations were off to a bad McMurdo is now on the air, with its start this season, with excessive snow at own live radio station, WASA, which McMurdo and a series of unusual main has been supplying station personnel tenance problems among the helicopters, with music, live news and weather fore but active support of the scientific pro casts since early January. Its staff are gramme was under way by the end of all volunteers who announce, tape, December. change records and conduct electronic work, following the example set last Hercules aircraft defied snow and year by Journalist First Class Merv Coy- storm conditions lo continue the resup- ner, an experienced professional and plying of inland stations and scientific military radioman, who thought its own groups in the field. radio station was McMurdo's answer to its own isolation. AT THE U.S. STATIONS On February 16 Radio WASA was ap proved as an official Armed Forces Radio McMURDO outlet, and is now entitled to official programming materials. The long Ant A major storm hit McMurdo in late arctic night should be the brighter for October, with winds reaching 68 m.p.h., Radio WASA. a temperature of —30° F and a chill factor of —76°, confining the 950 navy- men and scientists to the huts and ob literating runways and SOUTH POLE roads around McMurdo. The storm lasted for six days. With the present Pole buildings being TU" '—est storage tank built in Ant- crushed by the weight of accumulated uated at McMurdo, took two snow and ice, a new station will have of USNS "Maumec's" seven million tons to be built, the erection being expected of fuel. for next Deep Freeze. This year a one- tenth scale model of the proposed new Another large building now standing station was put up half a mile from the at McMurdo is a two-storey, corrugated- existing one, to see how it stands up to steel personnel building, containing office the effects of drifting snow. The new space, McMurdo's dining hall and structure will be new in Antarctic archi laundry, and living quarters for the 200 tecture, comprising three main buildings men wintering over at the station. within a 52-ft. high geodesic dome. ANTARCTIC March, 1970

Support buildings will be in long tun unload the cargo for the station. On nels, while two tall vertical structures January 23, "Wyandof'left Anvers Is will serve as a skylab and inflation build land for McMurdo Station, which she ing for a weather balloon; several re mote sensor nodules for scientific data expected to reach early in February. collection are included in the model. The next day, "Glacier" sustained serious hull damage, when she struck the underwater tongue of an . While the ship could continue to operate in the area, it was doubt To be named after the late Dr. Paul A. ful that she could risk the heavy ice Siple, internationally known U.S. scien usually encountered in the . tist and Antarctic researcher, Siple Thus, it appeared that it would be im Station is a proposed camp in Ells possible to recover the deep current worth Land where magnelospheric re buoys laid down two seasons ago or search will be effected. to carry out this year's portion of the International Weddell Sea Oceano- graphic Expedition. At the end of Janu PALMER ary, plans for "Glacier's" employment Relief and resupply of during February and March were still on Anvers Island is carried out entirely under discussion. by ship. As a result, contact with the outside world is delayed until Janu ary. This season the icebreaker, "Glacier", which was assigned to sup port operations in the Antarctic Penin sula area, arrived at Palmer Station with SCIENCE summer scientific and support personnel Following the discovery in 1967 in the on January 8. On the way from Punla New Zealand , I Arenas, it had called at three islands the heads of the Beardmore ai in the South Shetland Archipelago. An leton Glaciers, of a land v abortive attempt, which resulted in the bone, that of a labyrinthcuoni. Dy rsew loss of a landing craft, was made to Zealander Peter Barrett, leader of an put a small scientific party ashore on Gibbs Island. The same day, January 6, Ohio State University team, further im portant fossil finds have been made in three scientists were installed on Ele the Antarctic, strongly implementing the phant Island by a helicopter, and, on theory of continental drift or of God- January 7, a similar sized party was taken to the Argentine base on Decep wanaland, the great southern continent. tion Island. A sandstone bed in the Central Trans- antarctic Mountains released to another When "Glacier" arrived off Palmer Ohio State University team a variety of Station, she found fossil bones, bones of several types of choked with ice. Because small boat vertebrates including amphibians and operations were impossible. 50 scientific and support personnel were ferried rcpliles dating back some 200 million ashore by helicopter. On January 10. the years, and strongly supporting the con National Science Foundation's research tinental drift theory. One bone in par ticular, that of the lystrosaurus, bears trawler, "Hero", served as a lighter to out the theory. The lystrosaurus, a land- carry "Glacier's" cargo to the station. dwelling reptile allied to the hippopo The following day, "Glacier" departed tamus, was unable to swim and has left Arthur Harbour to carry a group of relics also in Africa. scientists to the and, herself, to investigate the ice of the nor Four hundred and fifty fossil amphi thern Weddell Sea. She was back at bian and reptile bones were collected by Palmer Station in time to greet the cargo the team during six weeks of field work vessel, USNS "Wyandot", which arrived in the Queen Alexandra Range, includ on January 20. Before "Wyandot" could ing remains of fishes and animals found enter Arthur Harbour, "Glacier" had to in other parts of the world, and present clear it of ice, a task that required what, to Dr. Edwin PL Colbert, a ver 35 hours of solid work. Once this had tebrate paleontologist from the Ameri been accomplished, landing craft could can Museum of Natural History. New Olficial U.S. Navy photo.

The onc-lenfh scale model of the new South Pole station.

York, and the Museum of Northern Ari sheet of had attained a zona, Flagstaff, Arizona, is conclusive full-bodied stage more than four million evidence that Australia, South America. years ago. Whether large glaciers existed Africa, the Indian Peninsula and Ant in Antarctica before the Miocene era arctica were once part of a single land is questionable; the to the mass. west of the Taylor and Wright Valleys Another sort of history was made in in East Antarctica has undergone several the Antarctic during Deep Freeze 70, changes in surface level during the last when six women collectively became the four million years; all four recognized first women to set foot at the South Glaciations were confined to Pole and in the Taylor Valley. Dr. Lois the last 1.2 million years; extensive ice- Jones led this all-women team in geo- free areas have existed in the McMurdo chcmical studies. Sound region throughout the last four At Cape Crozier, loo, a woman was in million years, perhaps even longer, and the field, where Mrs. Muller-Schwarze may have served as biologic rcfugia. accompanied her husband, also a biolo gist from the Utah State University, to study anti-predator behaviour in the SUPPLY Adelie penguin. Supply operations to the Ross Sea Glaciological history of the Antarctic, this season took a different form. The an immensely long and largely hitherto existence of fuel storage capacity at Mc unanswerable topic, has started to re Murdo Sound, enough to sustain opera veal itself in the ice-free areas of the tions until about February 1, made the McMurdo Sound area, which areas pro bringing in of a tanker in late Decem vide a unique and datable record of the ber unnecessary, and allowed a single three major glacier systems of the tanker. USNS "Maumee". capable of region. carrying 7,000,000 gallons of fuel on one Conclusions reached by studying this voyage, to replace the previous two available data show that the huge ice vessels making six round trips. March, /970

Ship operations were not, therefore, SFASflN CNins necessary until later than ever before in w+wn anus Deep Freeze history by which time the Operation Deep Freez 70 will end offi- f-st ice in McMurdo was expected to cially M ave deteriorated to such an extent that DaviJ n fewer and smaller icebreakers would be S>"->« sufficient. The larger and more powerful a

A total of 250 U.S. scientists and USCGC "Burton Island" and USCGC military support personnel will remain "Edisto" sailed from New Zealand on in Antarctica to maintain equipment and December 18 and had reached Hut facilities at four stations during the Point, via Campbell Island, by January austral winter. 4, "Edisto" suffering a sheared rudder Pole, Byrd, and McMurdo Stations stock which forced her return to Wel were closed for the winter on February lington. The first cargo ship of the 15, 18, and 26, respectively. Palmer season, USNS "Pvt. John R. Towlc", Station, located on the Antarctic Penin reached McMurdo on January 9. sula, is expected to be closed for the winter on March 30 when the U.S. MAUMEE AT McMURDO Coast Guard icebreaker "Glacier" de The 35,000 ton tanker pumped its vital parts the station for Punta Arenas, , on its return to the United load ashore in just under 59 hours. States. After being escorted through the Mc The men at the stations will be com Murdo shipping channel by the U.S. pletely isolated except for radio com Coast Guard icebreaker, "Burton Is munication until late October, when the land", the "Maumee" tied up on ice op posite the tip of Hut Point at the mouth Navy will begin to fly in personnel for of Winter Quarters' Bay. Deep Freeze 71. The 620ft. long "Maumee" sat too deep in the water to moor against the shoreline so the "Burton Island" was used as a fender for the tanker. The commanding officer of the "Bur THE PERSONAL NOTE ton Island", Captain F. E. McLean, backed the icebreaker into position Max Conrad, self-styled "Flying Grand against the shore and tied up. father", finally reached the South Pole The "Burton Island's" executive in his twin-engined Piper Aztec, having officer, Commander R. P. Harmon, acted s pilot of the "Maumee". Commander left Invercargill, New Zealand, on Janu Harmon edged the tanker slowly up ary 12 and arriving at South Pole six wind of the "Burton Island" until she days later. He was unable to continue was parallel to the icebreaker and about his round-the-world-via-both-Poles flight 60ft. off her port side. however, when his 'plane crashed when taking off from the South Pole for Chile. The "Maumee" then dropped anchor, Mr. Conrad was uninjured but his air as a small boat brought her forward craft could not be salvaged before the and aft mooring lines ashore. end of the summer season and must Lines were then placed between the remain at the Pole this winter. Mr. Con "Maumee" and the "Burton Island", rad is the first man lo make a solo connecting them amidships. As the lines were slowly tightened, the "Maumee" flight to the South Pole. eased towards "Burton Island'" until she Two Scandinavians, Messrs. Thor made contact. Tjoinveit and Ennan Pedersen, also flew A similarly difficult operation was car privately, to the South Pole, from In vercargill, arriving the same day as did ried out after the "Maumee" had finished Mr. Conrad, in a twin engincd Cessna. pumping her fuel load ashore. They stayed at the Pole for about five The "Maumee" then headed for Wel hours before returning to McMurdo. lington, New Zealand, leaving the "Bur (Sec more details on page 394). ton Island" behind to finish the Opera From one extreme to the other was tion Deep Freeze 70 season. The ice the experience of Chief Photographer's breaker was due to leave McMurdo Sound on March 1. Mate, B. M. Anderson, head of the still photography division of the Atlantic March, 1970 ANTARCTIC

Fleet's Combat Camera Group. Last WINTER SETS IN AT SOUTH March he left Charleston by submarine to photograph the vessel's under-ice POLE capability test, and surfaced at the North Pole on April 6. Six months A report on March 24 said that dark later Chief Anderson was at McMurdo, ness had descended on the South Pole and in November photographed the first station as the sunset and the continual women to set foot on the South Pole. blackness closed in on the area for the His expectations of travelling to the ends next six months. of the earth with the Combat Camera To mark the sunset the flags of the group have been literally fulfilled. New officer-in-charge of Operation 16 nations who are members of the Deep Freeze wintering-over party at Mc Antarctic Treaty were lowered as the Murdo is, believe it or not, Jack Frost sun vanished. —Commander W. L. ("Jack") Frost, A total of 21 scientists and members who will relieve Commander W. G. of the United Stales Navy will winter Hunter after a year in the Antarctic. over at the Pole, and not until late October or early November will they sec new faces. The sunsetting ceremony was watched by the small party which already that BIG MONEY week had experienced temperatures as low as —73°. In the Budget of the United States for the Fiscal Year 1971, an amount of $7,000,000 is included for Antarctic re search. Almost all of the research car ried out in the Antarctic is related to problems of the environment, such as global atmospheric circulation patterns, THE SOUTH POLE RE-MARKED ice movement on the continent and in the Southern Oceans, ocean currents and their inter-tie with other major ocean The location of the South Pole has

South Pole markers, because they are placed in ice about 4000ft. thick, cannot The National Science Foundation is be permanent. There is no way to anchor the principal Federal agency for the de them to bed rock. velopment, coordination, and manage ment of all U.S. scientific activities in Tlie markers must be changed from Antarctica. time to time because the ice in which they are planted is steadily drifting to ward the sea. But they provide gauges of the Ant arctic ice flow, which amounts to about NUMBERS 65ft. a year. The previous marker had shifted about 800ft. from the pole's true The number of persons at the four position since it was placed in 1957. permanent and two summer stations fluctuated little during the months of The new marker was needed for the December and January. On December 3, new South Pole scientific base which 1 *~ird count amounted to 1,046. must be built to replace the one now point was reached at the end being crushed under many feet of ac >ecember where there were 980. cumulated ice and snow. During January, the figure gradually The new marker, a 6ft. wooden post, rose. Part of this increase resulted from was planted at the request of the the return of field parlies to McMurdo National Science Foundation. The pole's Station and part from the arrival of exact position was calculated by sight ships with summer parties at Palmer ing instruments on 18 bright stars that Station. On January 28, there were 1,134 appear fixed in the sky in relation to persons at the various stations. the earth's axis. ANTARCTIC March, 1970 PICK HOLDS UP FRENCH RELIEF SUMMER PROGRAMME DISRUPTED

The "Thala Dan", en route to effect the annual change-over of personnel and re-supply at the French base Dumont d'Urville, was on schedule until December 14, when the vessel encountered pack-ice which became thicker and thicker until it finally brought the ship to a complete halt. The captain decided to turn east and to make for , but the ice again held the vessel up in the vicinity of Port Martin from December 15 to 25. Further efforts were now made to reach Dumont d'Urville, but "Thala Dan" was once again blocked in the latitude of Cap Jules from December 27 to January 2, and did not succeed in reaching the French base until January 9, 24 days late. As in preceding years, "Thala Dan" "Thala Dan" was due to leave the Aus was under sub-contract to the Australian tralian Casey Base on February 16 and Antarctic Expedition during a portion of to arrive at Dumont d'Urville on the the summer. She left Le Havre, France, 20th, "weather and ice permitting". on October 14 and reached Hobart, Tas "Thala Dan" had carried south a mania, on December 4, to take on fresh cargo of 551 tons (1,032 cubic metres). fruit, meat, wine, kerosene, etc. Disembarkation was carried out with the The first six members of the new win help of two motor-boats of the "Thala tering party left Le Bourget airport on Dan" and two others lent by the Laurit- November 26 and arrived at Hobart on zen Company, one of them equipped the 28th. The main party of 40 left with an ultra-sonic sounder, a ten-ton France by air on December 4, reached pontoon and the two-ton one already at Hobart on December 5 and boarded the Dumont d'Urville. Weasels and sledges. ship next day. An Alouette II helicopter was placed at On January 7 an advance party was the disposal of the expedition by the flown to Dumont d'Urville by heli French Air Force. copter, but the ship was not moored till SCIENTIFIC PLANS the 9th, between Rostand Island and File des Petrels. Discharging of cargo Throughout the whole voyage of was not completed until January 15, "Thala Dan" aerosol measurements were only the most urgent other work being carried out for the Atomic Energy C attempted. Fifty tons of cargo was then mission. Measurements of the vertical loaded for return to France. T.A.20 now gradient of the concentration of radon took over from T.A.I9 and "Thala Dan" were made from the helicopter above the sailed on the 16th. Carrying 19 men of Archipelago of Pointc Geologie in the 19th wintering party and two men Adelie Land. On "Thala Dan" bewcen of the summer party, she reached Mel Australia and Terre Adelie and b bourne on January 24. In March she studies of the sea-water were made ior was due to make her second voyage to French scientific bodies with reference '« Terre Adelie, return to Hobart with 23 certain elements—iron, cobalt, man_ Australians from , the 18 esc and copper, and salinity studies. summer-party men who had remained at Visits are to be made to the bird Dumont d'Urville and the other 8 men colonics on various islands of the Pointc of the 19th expedition, and three Aus Geologie Archipelago for observation and tralians from Macquarie Island, a total ringing, using two motor-boats. cf 52 passengers. Examination and renovation of the Ordinary work was resumed at Du Geomagnetic Station at Dumont mont d'Urville on January 16 by the d'Urville will be made in order (1) to new winter personnel, assisted by the 8 effect some modifications in ihe numeri T.A.19 men who were still at the base. cal registration of the slow variations in March, 1970 ANTARCTIC the earth's magnetic field, and (2) to AND NOW THE WINTER complete the latter by the recording of a third magnetic element F., also to Of the men to winter at Dumont establish systematic control of the stan d'Urville 15 are scientists and 12 main dards cf measurement at present in use. tenance personnel. The scientific | gramme comprises animal , ni. sky and aurora, geomagnetism, iono sphere, environmental medicine, meteo BUILDING PROGRAMME rology and actinomctry, radio-activity, cosmic rays and seismology. The planned summer construction work had to be considerably reduced The leader of the wintering-over party because of the immobilisation of the which numbers 27 is Claude Volck (35). ship by the pack-ice between December 15 and January 9. Worst affected was The 1969 winter brought snow and the proposed installation of a new 6 blizzards in July, August and up till kw radio transmission station, now put mid-September. Everyone was kept busy back till next year, unless it proves on the maintenance of buildings, equip possible to carry out the work during ment and vehicles. "There was no short the winter. age of work," says a Dumont d'Urville radio report. Also planned was the erection of There was a radio blackoul on Nov Building 42, a two-storey winter quarters ember 3 and 4, and a partial blackout building with a floor space of 600 from the 5th to the 9th. square metres. Water installation planned involves the stoppage of the evaporator in order to facilitate the setting up of new ARCAP condensation groups and the in stallation of a new SI HI pump. While "Thala Dan" was available, a reconnaissance in collaboration with the BELGIANS AGAIN LINK ship's captain was made to select a new mooring site for the eventual construc tion of a new unloading quay. Decisions WITH SOUTH AFRICANS had to be made regarding mooring sites on lies Petrels and Lion, and the align ment of landmarks to assure safe access A Belgian team comprising Van Auten- for the ship. boer (geologist and leader), Decleir (geophysicist), Bcrkmans and Corbisier Other works in contemplation are: (electricians), Arnhem and Schollaerl the setting up of the TBF antennae group (pilots), Nicolas and Dubrey (mech for the Ionospheric Research Group, the anics), left Belgium on January 5. In installation of the new gamma spectro company with the members of the South metry apparatus in Building 41, the erec African Antarctic Expeditions they em tion of the photometric telecommunica- barked on the vessel "RSA" on Janu cations cable, and the checking of the ary 10. clocks indicating the time in the differ ent laboratories. The ship reached the Antarctic on January 24 after a very calm voyage, The helicopter was to be used to make and disembarkation was carried out in flights for the measurement of radio very good conditions. activity, the photographic coverage of the , aerial photography of the lies des Petrels at the beginning and end of the season, and the making of a On January 29, however, following a cinematograph film showing the new in landing, the Belgian Otter plane caught stallations and the commencement of fire and the instruments required for the work on the islands of the archipelago, planned glaciological programme were especially the Cuvier and Lion Islands destroyed. Fortunately crew and pas and Rostand Island. sengers are safe and sound. ANTARCTIC March, 1970 AUSTRALIAN SUPPLY VESSEL BATTERED BY HEAVY SEAS The Danish vessel "Nella Dan", on charter to the Australian Antarctic Expedition, had to fight extensive pack ice and high seas en route from Melbourne to . When the "Nella Dan" sailed for to Davis, enabling the ship to make up Mawson with 47 men on December 19 two days. Ration packs and drums of she looked more like an aircraft carrier motor spirit were placed on the plateau than a small Antarctic supply ship. near Davis for use by the 1970 field Tied down on deck were three Hughes parties. helicopters, and a ski-fitted Pilatus Next the "Nella Dan" sailed about Porter aeroplane. And they all had some 120 miles to the Amery Ice Shelf, hard work ahead. where helicopters landed a four-man One group is setting up camp at Australian party with 44 tons of supplies Moore Pyramid, 250 miles south of and vehicles. Mawson to carry out a geophysic and Informal radio communications be geological survey of the 12,000 ft. high tween men of the Antarctic Treaty —twice as nations often provide an indication of long and twice as high as the Austra lian Alps. the wide range of conditions being ex perienced in the Antarctic. Thus, an un Another group will Ily over Prince official bulletin mentioned that two Charles' crags to establish a forward American ice-breakers, "Edisto" and base at Mount Cresswcll, on the south "Burton Island", had to penetrate 10 feet ern tip of the range. of solid ice at the rate of five miles a day to lead a fuel tanker to McMurdo. And a third party will camp out on The "Thala Dan" took more than two the Amery ice shelf near Davis for weeks over the last 20 miles before glaciological research. reaching the French station of Dumont d'Urville. The helicopters will transport men, food and equipment to the outposts. After relieving the French base, The Porter aircraft, fitted with special "Thala Dan" left for Melbourne to take radar equipment, will be used largely the Australian 1970 wintering party to to measure the thickness of the the Australian station at Casey and —in some places more than a mile deep. bring back the 1969 party. She left Mel bourne again on January 27. Only after recovering from a batter- in? by high seas could "Nella Dan" start unloading men and stores at Mawson on January 10. The ship made its way through most of the ice in Mawson harbour, after which a large party of men, working with picks and crowbars, cleared a channel through the ice so SANTA FLEW TO CASEY that the DUKWs (amphibious vehicles) BUT . . . could reach the shore. The Pilatus Porter aircraft for Mawson was also The first flight of an RAAF aircraft off-loaded and assembled. from Australia to the Antarctic was in tended to provide an unexpected Christ The "Nella Dan" was 31 days late mas present for 30 Australians stationed reaching a point five miles off the Aus at Casey, in the frozen wastes of Wilkes tralian base at Davis, following a cir cuitous route through 112 miles of pack Land, on December 3. ice. After snow showers cleared, men The Orion anti-submarine aircraft and stores were airlifted by helicopter from 11 Squadron at Edinburgh Air- March, 1970 ANTARCTIC

field, Salisbury, was to drop a "storc- N.Z. ANTARCTIC MEN pedo" containing Christmas cakes, beer HONOURED and magazines to members of the De partment of Supply Antarctic division Among the 29 members of New Zealand st<-;';ioned at Casey, 450 miles from the Antarctic teams to whom, as announced south magnetic pole. in our last issue, the Polar Medal has been awarded, are three men who are The CO. of II Squadron (Wg-Cdr. now living in Great Britain. Their R. N. Law) said that the 2,400-mile medals were to be presented to flight to Casey was being made as a Malcolm Ford high latitude navigation exercise. Wally Herbert and The Orion would not land at Casey and was expected to take 13 hours to George Lewis make the round trip. by the Queen Mother at Buckingham Palace on March 10. However, the Casey men missed out on the expected supply drop of beer and Christmas cake. The plane from South Australia had to turn back 100 miles short of Casey because of dwindling fuel. Headwinds up to 80 knots meant that the four- ANTARCTIC CLUB DINNER engined turbo-prop plane used more fuel than planned and it turned back This year's dinner, which was held after I960 miles. at the beginning of February, cele brated the 60th anniversary of the The captain, Wing-Cdr. R. N. Law, return of Shackleton's "Nimrod" expedi said he regretted not being able to drop tion and the departure of Scott's the Christmas presents into Casey. But, "Terra Nova" party. The club paid he said, the primary object cf the exer special tribute to Sir Raymond Priestley, cise had been achieved. Navigators had who was a member of both expeditions, gained valuable training in unfamiliar and the occasion was honoured by the techniques of South Polar region navi presence of the senior honorary mem gation. ber, H.R.H. Prince Philip. Guests in cluded Harry Francis of U.S.A.R.P. and The crew sighted the Antarctic coast. Victor Jabbs of A.N.A.R.E.

■■€^ TIDE STUDY CAPE ROYDS NOVEL South Australian and American scien FILMED AT tists who will make man's first attempt to measure tides in the deep oceans sur The Associated British Film Corpora rounding Antarctica left Port Adelaide the U.S. ship "Eltanin" on December tion, with the assistance of the Argen i tines, has been taking location shots at Hope Bay on the east of the Antarctic The main objective of the 60-day trip Peninsula for a film entitled "Forbush was the launching of three free-fall and the Penguins". They spent several ing, deep-sea tide gauges, or capsules, months living at the old British base, along a 2,000 mile north-south track be which was evacuated in 1964, and seem tween Adelaide and Antarctica. very pleased with the results. Although the story might not appeal to most Ant Tides are unusually high around Ant arctic men the scenery should be good. arctica. They play a major role in excit The film is based on the novel published ing tides in other oceans. For example. in 1965, by New Zealander Grahan Pacific waters flow into the Atlantic at Billing, and reviewed in "Antarctic", the rate of 270 million tons a second. March, 1965. ANTARCTIC March, 1970 NEW RUSSIAN STATION SET UP NEAR HALLET

The Russians have announced that they have established a new station in Antarctica, on the Oates coast in the region of the joint New Zealand- United Stales Hallett Station.

The new station is the sixth Russian On December 30 it was reported that base now activated on the continent, a meeting had just taken place be and is approximately 200 miles from tween the officers and crews of the Hallett. "Ob" and the motor-vessel "Professor Vizet" in Davis Sea. They had trans The Soviet Antarctic expedition head ported the new team to Mirny. quarters at Mirny advised the American McMurdo station of the new base. The voyage to Pravda Coast from Mo Called Lcningradskaya, the station is lodezhnaya Station was carried out located at 60° 30' S, 159° 23' E. under difficult conditions: in Davis and Cosmonauts Seas there were accumula The Russian message referred to the tions of large pieces of broken ice and a new station as a "temporary operating lot of . coastal Antarctic station", but said that work necessary for maintaining a per Having received information from an manent station, including building a aerial ice reconnaissance by an IL-14 house and storing aviation fuel, had aircraft, "Ob" and "Professor Vizet" been carried out. reached the Pravda Coast, where freight brought for the 15th Soviet Antarctic The scientific programme for the expedition was unloaded. station was listed as research into geo logy, geomorphology, gravity, geomag netism and astrogeology. "Pravda" announced on December 4 that the diesel-electric ship "Ob", which had left Leningrad five weeks earlier, had VOSTOK RELIEF reached the region of Molodezhnaya Station. On December 10 a report was pub lished concerning the start of one of the The leader of the 15th Soviet Ant winterers' most difficult operations. This arctic expedition, P. K. Sen'ko, radioed is the journey of a special sledge-tractor to Leningrad with the news that "Ob" train from Mirny to Vostok. having conquered the heavy belt of pack, was drawing near to thr ' ' shore ice, where unloadi1 was due to begin. An a sance flight had been carried out in order to ascertain their si and help decide on the "Ou s >,. ^ ment to the station. On the way it was quent route to Molodezhnaya Station. planned to carry out a series of scienti fic investigations. The entire operation Two expedition helicopters, let down was expected to take approximately a on to the ice from the edge of the month. ship, carried out several flights to Molo dezhnaya. Twenty-four members of the Meanwhile the voyage of the scienti expedition forming the new team were fic-research ship "Professor Vizet" from transported there. Leningrad to the Antarctic had been in ANTARCTIC progress for about a month. The motor- vessel had reached Waterloo Island in the South Shctlands archipelago. The A set of stamps with the Bgnr issued in January, commemorate ship had anchored in the roads of the covery. 150 years apr< hv I Soviet scientific station. Bellingshausen. and Lazarev (quesl The new shift of research workers, Antarctica is a continent. headed by the young research glaciolo- The 4 kopeck, violet, blue and claret, gist I. Simonov. had been transported to shows their sailing ships, the "Vostok" Bellingshausen. The freight operations (Orient) and "Mirny" (Pacific) and the had been completed and the new settlers route of their voyage. had taken over the watch from their The 16k., sepia, green and claret, predecessors. The "Professor Vizet" had shows a modern Polar research station left under Cap with a weather rocket, snow-cat and tain E. Troitsky for Mirny. Mirny. other items of equipment. Vostok, Molodezhnaya. Novolazarcvs- They were designed by Yury Levinov- kaya and Bellingshausen Stations were sky, and are printed by photogravure. left to the new shift of researchers. A third stamp, 6k., multicolour, marks More than 200 scientists and specialists the 125th anniversary of the founding of will remain on the sixth continent. the Soviet (formerly Russian) Geogra phical Society. "Ob" Reports The Russian ice-breaker "Ob" reported in January that she was preparing to return to Fremantle for re-provisioning, and would then return to Mirny to re CONTINENT OF PEACE AND join the second Russian ship, "Professor SCIENCE Vizet". (From an article by B. Silkin in "Water Transport", December 2, 1969). Upper Atmosphere "Ten years ago yesterday the repre This year Soviet scientists operating in sentatives of 12 countries taking an the Antarctic have set up, and started active part in the study of the Antarctic to operate, rocket launch sites, which fire region signed the Antarctic Treaty. on Wednesdays—whatever the weather Later, three more governments joined conditions. them. The sixth continent shall be used solely for peaceful purposes. Within the Why Wednesdays? Because that is the principles of the study of the Antarctic day chosen by world geophysicists for are placed the international cooperation synchronising rocket investigation of the of scientists and the freedom of scienti upper atmosphere. The first Soviet firing fic research directed to the development in the Antarctic was on May 25. Since and progress of all mankind." then there have been regular launches. Mr. Silkin describes Antarctica as "a The Soviet effort is not only co continent without state borders, where ordinated with the work of the inter national scheme. The longitude of the Antarctic station is the same as that of weather stations at Hayes Island in the Franz Josef archipelago, another in the each other uncover the riddles of the harsh land." European area of the Soviet Union, and Mr. Silkin makes this reference to yet another in the Indian Ocean. Rockets fired simultaneously from these sites will New Zealand's new station: cut a section, so to speak, through the "The so-called Antarctic 'oases', Earth's atmosphere along the chosen regions among the white desert free meridian. from perpetual ice and snow, continu ally attract the attention of the re A regular flow of inter-related infor searchers. The nature of such pieces of mation of this kind will help scientists land, the reasons for which they have to arrive at the laws governing processes arisen, are still to a great extent little in the upper atmosphere. studied and at times a riddle. One of March, 1970 these 'oases', Wright, is in South Ant "About a month has gone by since arctica, 125km from the New Zealand the sledge-caterpillar-tractor train left the Scott Station. Mirny observatory. The 14 members of "The New Zealand scientists have or the polar expedition completing their ganised their scientific station in this shift on the sixth continent have before 'oasis'. It has taken its name from the them the task of transporting hundreds unusual Lake Vanda situated here—its of tons of fuel, food supplies and equip bottom waters reach a temperature of ment for the new party at Vostok + 25 degrees." Station. On the return journey to Mirny they will carry out scientific observa We remember also the large part tions. played by New Zealand-born and edu cated "Tony" Gow in the ice-drilling "At a New Year's holiday party in operations Mr. Silkin summarises as the mess-room the members of the two follows: polar expeditions gathered together. By "At the American intra-continental established tradition this is simultan a deep boring-hole has been eously a party send-off for those who drilled. The thickness of the glacial cover have spent the winter and a welcome for here has been more than two kilometres. those who have arrived. We passed on From the bore-hole several five-metre ice to the new team a symbolic key to columns have been lifted. Their lowest Mirny observatory. layers were formed from snow which fell "Our expedition has fulfilled in their more than 20,000 years ago. In some entirety the programmes of scientific re layers, lying at depths of 1,320 and 1,390 search. For the first time meteorological metres, ashes were revealed. These ashes rockets have flown up into the Antarctic were thrown out by volcanoes, active in sky from Molodezhnaya Station. The the Antarctic between approximately Mirny aerologists have reached a record 10,000 and 14,000 years ago." height of radiosonde lift, improving on "Ten heavy machines with sledges the results of their predecessors." attached are cutting through the desert of ice. The tractor-caterpillars leave a design on its white surface. We are making our way over ice-covered sas- trugi, large expanses of loose and crumbly snow. Blizzards and bad visibi lity make moving more difficult. The A VOICE FROM MIRNY frosts are severe. A newsman on a routine call at the "A curious meeting took place on the Arctic and Antarctic Institute in Mos journey. 283km from Mirny at a height cow was greeted by the head of the of 2,500 metres above sea-level we radio communication centre who said, caught sight of three storm-petrels. A "You're in luck. Right at this moment few days before an aircraft flew over the train; an IL-14 heading for Vostok. we are linked with Mirny." "In the Antarctic New Year is cele "I put on earphones," writes the re brated twice—according to local time porter, "and hear a voice from the other and according to Moscow time. The dif end of the world, and almost the same ference is four hours. We will be cele words. 'You're in luck", says the Mirny brating at a height of 3,000 metres radio operator, Pyotr Mosolov. 'Today is above sea-level. Half of the journey from a tremendous day for us—three hours the edge of the ocean to the South ago we saw the ships on our approach Geomagnetic Pole, which has now be march. An unusual spectacle. From be come the Pole of the earth's cold, has hind a glittering iceberg appeared the been covered." delicate masts of the scientific-research ship 'Professor Vizet' and the vast body of the diesel-electric ship 'Ob'. Aircraft NEW YEAR ON ICE have already flown out on an ice re connaissance. They will choose the best D. Maksutov, Leader of the 14th Ant place for berthing. And our entire arctic expedition, radioed on New Year's group rushed forward to the shore to Day: meet the ships'." March, 1970 ANTARCTIC NEW SOUTH AFRICAN BASE PROVES ITS VALUE

Good use was made of South Africa's new Borga Base, erected last year with the aid of Belgian aircraft during the joint summer expedition. The new base enables geologists to explore new areas and makes it possible to undertake research over a far greater area.

Borga Base, a 4-man wintering-over the King Haakon VII Sea. Significant station, was established during May 1969 changes in the configuration of the ice near Huldreslottet Nunatak (72° 50'S. front have been recorded during the in 3° 48'W), some 350 km. due south of tervening five years. The most important SANAE. The detailed geological investi change is the calving of nearly two-thirds gation of the Kirwan Escarpment, par (ca 1800km2) of Trolltunga, the more ticularly the Tunga region, was than 120 km. long ice tongue along the completed during the post-winter field- Greenwich Meridian. This event is un season and Antarctic history was made doubtedly of major glaciological and when the hitherto virgin region of the cartographic significance. Off-shore echo Escarpment between 5° and 7°W, was soundings have also indicated that the mapped during mid-summer 1969/70. break-away point of the continental The field parties progressed up to the shelf lies at approximately 700 fathoms south-easternmost continuation of the and that the continental slope is a very Escarpment and could clearly see in the steep (1:4), linear feature. It was plan distance Heimefrontfjella where British ned to extend the coastal survey during geologists mapped in previous years. The the present relief but close pack-ice inland base has proved to be a great has thus far prevented any further pene success and Anton Aucamp and Leon tration to the east. Wolmarans (geologists), Chris Muir (radio operator) and Wilfred Hodsdon (leader and veteran of three expedi S.A.N.A.E. MAPS tions) survived the wintering over ex tremely well. Maps (.1:1.000.000 and 1:500.000) showing the region of Queen Maud 11th Expedition geologists and support Land traversed by South African geo personnel have already taken over the logical and geophysical parties including Base for the 1970-season, during which ice thickness and subglacial topography it is hoped to complete the detailed and bathymetry and configuration of the mapping of the Basement rocks exposed ice front, have been compiled and pub along the Escarpment and in the Jule- lished. toppane (72° 30'S, 06°W). The 11th Ex pedition will also establish a safe route across the Pencksokka from Borga Base TRAGEDY on to the Polar Plateau. This will be used as the first stage of a 600-km over- 1969 ended tragically with the unex snow traverse from SANAE via Borga pected death of Gordon Mackie, Mech up to the northernmost turning point of anic of SANAE 10. Three expedition the U.S. South Pole- members, including the late Mr. Mackie, Traverse. It is anticipated that this left SANAE for Borga Base to collect a geophysical-glaciological traverse will broken down tractor and make mag take place after the winter of 1971. netic observations. On December 3, 1969, having completed the observa COASTAL SURVEY tions for the day, Mr. Mackie went to look at a windscoop, fell into it and Captain K. T. McNish, master m.v. was killed instantly. He is the first mem R.S.A., repeated his 1964-radar survey ber of a South African team to be of more than 350 km. of ice front in killed in the Antarctic. The burial will ANTARCTIC March, 1970 take place al East London, Cape Pro off-loading of the ship was speeded up vince after the RSA has returned from considerably and presented no problems. the Antarctic. A further advance has been the use of heavier sledges and, with the more powerful tractor. 20 tons could be trans NEW TEAM ported on each trip from the ship to the base. An experiment was also car SANAE ll, comprising 18 members, ried out with a 1200 cc. Volkswagen left Cape Town on January 10, 1970. for sedan car to modify and convert this the Antarctic. The journey was unevent vehicle for use at the base. The experi ful and the transfer of the four expedi ment proved to be successful although tion members to Borga Base, as well as further modifications will be required the offloading of the m.v. RSA, went before the vehicle is used for inland according to plan. journeys, where one encounters various types of snow. One problem is the very The main task of the team of the soft powdered snow and this will neces Department of Public Works was to sitate further adjustments. However, erect an emergency base for 16 mem confidence reigns that the vehicle will bers, approximately 2 km. southeast of SANAii. The existing base at SANAE be a great success for Antarctic use. was erected at the beginning of 1962 and Other forms of transport still in use will be replaced by a new base at the are the Bombardier Muskeg and Ski-doo beginning of 1971. A new power shack toboggans, which have proved quite suc was also erected by the PWD team. cessful for expedition use.

PASSING THROUGH BUILDINGS Three expeditions will again be in Cape Town during March. The "Fuji" Planning the new main base is pro is scheduled to reach Cape Town on gressing well, and it is hoped to have the 9th of March with the members of it erected during January-February, JARE 10 on board (See page 389.) The 1971. The old buildings, erected in 1962, other expeditions arc the returning South are now 35 feet under snow and ice, African Expedition, Sanae 10, together and are still withstanding all stresses and with the Belgian Summer Expedition strains. under the leadership of Mr. Tony van Autenboer. The Belgians conducted their own programmes and this was no joint expedition as in previous years. NEW JOURNAL The French vessel, "Gallieni", also called at Cape Town for a very brief It has been decided to initiate a new period during December 1969. They journal for the publication of original were kind enough to convey some equip scientific papers and other material re ment and mail to our meteorological lated to South African research activities team at Marion Island. Once again we in Antarctica. The journal will be spon wish to thank them for this fine gesture. sored by the Department of Transport and published by the C.S.I.R. Authors in the past have used the TRANSPORT journal "Antarkticse Bulletin" for the purpose of publishing scientific material With regard to transport problems it which may not have had much appeal was decided to purchase a D4 crawler to the majority of its readers. It is there tractor with 36 inch tracks and a ground fore recommended that in future all con pressure of approximately 3 £ lbs per tributions of a more technical nature be square inch. The vehicle was also fitted submitted to the South African Antarctic with a power take-off and Hoptoe- Journal. However, articles of popular crane which could lift a weight of l£ scientific interest pertaining to polar acti tons. This vehicle, according to reports vities will still be most acceptable for received, has been a great success. The publication in the "Bulletin". March, 1970 ANTARCTIC

The United States Coast Guard ice JAPANESE SHIP HELD breaker "Glacier" was attempting to ren dezvous with and assist the Argentinian FAST BY ICE ship, which was surrounded by an ice field. A Tokyo report of February 26 said The trapped ship was about 15 miles that the Japanese icebreaker "Fuji", from the "Glacier". carrying 225 persons, including an Aus "Edisto", which was at Wellington, tralian scientist, had been trapped in hurriedly prepared for a 17-day dash the ice in Lutzow Holm Bay on the to free the "Fuji", and sailed on March Prince Harald Coast off Queen Maud 13. The commander of the "Edisto". Land, 70 miles from the open sea. Captain H. E. Steel, said his crew would The 7760-ton ship, which lost all four try to free the "Fuji". If that were not blades of its right screw on the 25th, possible 102 crewmen would be taken was about 70 miles from the open sea off and 91 left on board for the winter. and was waiting for the ice conditions He expected that the "Fuji" would to improve before making an attempt to have sufficient supplies to provide for escape. these men during the winter. "I don't know, though, what we will do with the The Australian on board is Dr. Garth men we take on board," Captain Steel Morgan, a research scientist in the pro pulsion and marine physics division of said. "We haven't got room for any the Government Weapons Research thing as it is. We're working on a plan Establishment. to rendezvous with another ship which would take the Japanese to their destina- The ship is carrying a crew of 182 and 39 Japanese expedition members. The Japanese Government advised all treaty ICEBREAKER FREE nations using ice-breakers in the Ant arctic of the "Fuji's" plight. Satellite in Japanese officials said in Tokyo on formation of ice conditions in the area March 19 the icebreaker "Fuji", trap where the "Fuji" was held was sent from ped in thick ice for 28 days in Ant McMurdo Station, and also the position arctic waters, had escaped into open of the two United States Coast Guard water under its own power. The 7760- icebreakers in the Antarctic. ton ship radioed that it was able to reach open waters on the 18th by using The "Glacier" was about 2000 miles from the "Fuji". The "Edisto" was in its left propeller. the Ross Sea, somewhere between Hal The "Fuji" was stranded in Antarcti lett Station and McMurdo Stalion. ca since February 25 while on its way "Glacier" and "Edisto" were both home from the lapanese base of Showa alerted to stand by in readiness to go on Ongul Island. The ship lost power to the aid of the "Fuji" if required. when its right propeller broke down. The officials said it will stop either at Capetown or Fremantle before return "OB" TO THE RESCUE ing to Japan. A later message received at the Ameri can Navy base at Christchurch said that "EDISTO" BACK the Russian cargo ship "Ob", which has The U.S. Coastguard icebreaker limited icc-brcaking capabilities, was "Edisto" left New Zealand on March heading towards the "Fuji". 14 to free "Fuji" from the Antarctic ice Japanese authorities in Washington pack. Five days and a thousand miles informed the United States navy that later it was notified the Japanese vessel the "Fuji'" was not in any danger, only had freed itself from ice in Lutzow- in difficulties. The United States navy Holm Bay. informed the Japanese Government thai "Edisto" arrived back at Wellington. the icebreaker "Edisto" would sail to New Zealand, on March 24. A disap Lutzow Flolm Bay if the "Ob" was un pointed crew reported that round-the- able to free the "Fuji". world certificates which had been ordered for the crew had to be can By March 6 there were two ships celled. (rapped, the Argentine "General San Mad the ship gone a little: further, to Martin" also being held up, in the Wed dell Sea. (See foot next column) March, 1970 FIELD WORK AMD AIR SUPPORT BY

Aircraft and Ships —on February 2. Unloading was com The twin-Otter and turbo-Beaver, which pleted in four days and the return pas were flown south from Toronto at the sage was uneventful. end of November, arrived at Adelaide "Endurance" has had to make a mid- Island on December 7, and relief flights season visit to Punta Arenas to collect a to and new helicopter, and will be taking the were carried out almost immediately. Survey's director. Sir Vivian Fuchs, and The Beaver then provided support for Rear-Admiral Sir Edmund Irving. field parties working in several localities K.B.E., C.B., south for a brief tour of on both sides of George VI Sound, the bases. while the Otter was used for glaciologi- cal echo-sounding flights. Admiral Irving has been a good friend Meanwhile, R.R.S. "John Biscoe" re of the Survey for a number of years. lieved South Georgia and Signy Island, He is chairman of the Natural Environ but was held up by fast ice off the ment Research Council Antarctic Com west coast of the peninsula. She reached mittee and was formerly Hydrographer the Argentine Islands on December 1, to the Navy. Two B.A.S. stores officers but was unable to get into Marguerite are also visiting the bases. Bay until the beginning of February, and once in had difficulty in getting Joint British-American Projects out again. Consequently, the planned rendezvous with m.v. "Perla Dan" had In the Shackleton Range, the six-man to be cancelled, and transfers of person sledging party completed the topographi nel will now be carried out with the cal survey and continued geological help of H.M.S. "Endurance". The work, and were flown back to Halley "Biscoe" eventually arrived at the Ade Bay on January 25 by a U.S. Navy Her laide Island base on February 5 and at cules aircraft from McMurdo Sound. A Stonington Island on February 11. second Hercules arrived at Halley Bay "Perla Dan" was delayed by heavy pack on the same day, carrying a glaciologi- ice in the Weddell Sea and arrived at cal party from the Scott Polar Research Institute in Cambridge. This party, Halley Bay a few days later than usual which is led by Dr. Gordon Robin, the Institute's director, and includes Dr. the point of no return, it would have Stanley Evans and David Petrie, are continued on to complete a round-the- carrying out ice depth sounding by world circuit, rather than returning to radar in flights across the continent. New Zealand. Tractor parties from Halley Bay had laid The "Edisto" had been proceeding at ground markers and depots in Decem best possible speed on four engines, ber in preparation for these flights and saving the vessel's two other engines for field trips. penetration of the ice pack. Though the ship struck no ice at its Other Field Work farthest point south, the journey there In addition to general survey and geo and back was marred occasionally by logical work carried out at a number of bad weather. On the journey outward localities by parties from Stonington and the ship struck fog around Auckland Is Fossil Bluff, a magnetic and gravity sur lands and was unable to get a naviga vey was carried south to the Eklund Is tional fix for four days. lands at the south-western end of the Sound. This is the first time that the area has been visited since Sir Vivian For earlier news of the Japanese ex Fuchs and Dr. Raymond Adie, the pedition, see p. 406. Survey's chief geologist, sledged there March, 1970 ANTARCTIC

from Stonington in 1949. Field work in this area was held up in November by extensive melting but surfaces improved TODAY again in December. (See "Antarctic", March 1968) The first reports of an investigation in to eruptions at Deception Island, just off the Atlantic peninsula, in 196 southern end of the Eternity Range, at 1969 suggest that the instability ot the about 71 °S., 64°W. Four field parties met at this depot in mid-January and area is likely to lead to more volc~": activity in the future. travelled back to Stonington together via In a recent issue of "Nature", scien the plateau. The route lay along the tists who explored the after-effects windswept west face of the Range, then cuss the disturbances that created a com across 40 miles of undulating plateau at about 6,000 ft., to the glaciers be pletely new island and set off large- tween Marguerite Bay and the Weddell scale flooding by melting the permanent Sea. They then travelled across the ice cover. Mercator Ice Piedmont and back up to Deception Island has a long history 5,000 ft., where they had superb views of the coast and the mountains of Alex ander Island, then down the to Stonington Island. It was a great finish to a successful 5-month summer season. which sinking occurred is dotted with a number of cones which have erupted since then. From Halley Bay, short journeys were The new island, which is in the cent also undertaken to continue the local ral bay of Deception Island, is just magnetic survey, glaciological levelling over half a mile long. It was built up and physiological research. A party from ash and boulders thrown out by visited the original Halley Bay hut, half a dozen craters during four days which was built in 1956 for the I.G.Y.. in December, 1967, and reaches a maxi and found that it is now more than 60 mum height of about 225 feet above the ft. below the surface. sea. In the course of these eruptions, most of Deception Island was showered with the ejected material, forcing the temporary evacuation of 42 Chilean and British scientists. Fourteen months later, after several weeks of earth tremors, another series New Ship of eruptions began. This time a three- mile fissure opened up beneath the ice The building of the new ship pro and melted it. The result was a flood ceeds, but both the name and the deliv which carried large blocks of ice down ery date are still uncertain, and alterna from the higher ground of Deception tive plans for shipping men and supplies Island and partially destroyed the evacu next season arc being worked out in case ated scientific stations. In some places, further delays occur. R.R.S. "Shackle- the configuration of the coastline was ton", which is at present carrying out altered—new mudflats formed as an ex oceanographic work for the Natural En tension of the main island. vironment Research Council, may be able There is little wild life on Deception to help. Island, apart from penguins. The inves tigators found that some of the pen guins were suffering from blistered feet, A small twin-diescl vessel, which is having presumably been caught un also being built, should be ready in awares on hot rock when the eruptions about June. It has a length of 52 ft., a began. Others had escaped injury, no draught of 5 ft. 9 in., twin 100-h.p. doubt simply by standing in the sea: the diesels and twin screws, and will be temperature at the bottom of the shal used for carrying parties around South lower pools was probably no more than Georgia. 60°C. ANTARCTIC March, 1970 BUSY SUMMER MONTHS AT ARGENTINE BASES

The following report from the Argentine Antarctic Institute Publications Section covers the Antarctic activities of the Army, Navy and Air Force as well as the usual scientific activities of the Institute itself, during the 1969-70 season.

ACTIVITIES OF THE ARGENTINE "General San Martin" Icebreaker ANTARCTIC INSTITUTE Cosmic radiation observations were carried out with the nt icing carried out on a isis in the specific discip- installed in the vessel '~~>,y of vertebrates and voyage, to complete infori an and animal bio- recording of horizontal anc bolism of carbohy Iconic component. drates, lipidos, calcium, proteins, etc. Complementary observations: climato- ACTIVITIES OF THE NAVY logical, radiation and upper atmosphere. Collection of specimens to complete COMMAND scientific collections of birds, mammals and fish; also of lichens, mosses and Naval Hydrography Department grasses, and of coastal and deep marine Tasks were carried out covering specimens. , buoying and relieving, in Observations covering geology, paleo- cluding photogrammetry of Elephant Is magnetism, oceanography and meteoro land by means of the aircraft from the logy. Petrel Fleet Air Arm station. Measurements at occanographic General Belgrano Army Base stations in the Weddell Sea were con tinued in association with the icebreaker A scientific laboratory was installed "Glacier" from the U.S.A. and put into operation in the vicinity All the Argentine bases, detachments iclgrano army base, to and stations in the Argentine Antarctic study the physics of the upper atmo sector were relieved and reprovisioned. sphere. It comprised: a cosmic radiation unit (neutron supermonitor); ionosphere Antarctic Naval Force (release of sounding balloons, riometers and spectrograph); and austral aurora Together with the icebreaker "General unit (photographic towers and labora San Martin", the transport "Bahia tory) and a power unit (electric genera Aguirre" operated, also the station tion units for the supply of electric vessel of the Maritime Province of power and heating for the units instal Tierra del Fucgo based at Ushuaia. led). "Zapiola". The Canadian polar vessel "Thcron" was leased by the Argentine Government for the present programme. Deception Island The Fleet Air Arm, carried on board, Observations, studies and the collec was equipped with Alouette helicopters tion of samples were carried out from of French origin, which were recently the areas affected by the recent seismic incorporated. movements to complete studies from the The Command of the force had infor previous year in the disciplines of geo mation on the state of the ice through logy and vulcanology. the Nimbus III artificial satellite, which Studies covering the salinity and efflu facilitated aerial photography of the area. vium of waters from the rivers and active This was processed and analysed at the fumaroles. Ushuaia naval base. March. 1970

The Orkneys meteorological station Company. Tourists had the opportunity acted as the centre for meteorological of visiting the main bases, stations and information and as a communications geographical features in the Northern point for all the forces and units de and Western part of the Antarctic Penin ployed in the area. sula.

ACTIVITIES OF THE ARMY COMMAND "Alferez de Navio Sobral" advanced scientific base was de-activated for the year 1970. DIAMONDS ? PLATINUM ? By means of the polar vessel "Theron". the General Belgrano base was partially Delegates at a conference of Ameri relieved. Sludies and investigations are can scientists involved in Antarctic re continuing on the variations in the great fissure in the Filchner ice barrier (Wcd- search in Washington late last year "ea) to determine the extent of its were given to understand lhat it was and the danger that the float- likely that valuable minerals such as _ ._ mass on which the base is in diamonds or platinum would be dis covered in the Antarctic, and that the stalled may become detached. scientists might not have to go very far below the rock surface to find these minerals. The normal programme of observa The Sentinel Range of the Ellsworth tions and studies in the disciplines as Mountains of (78° signed to this base were carried out, ID'S.. 85° 30'W.) was the stated location and new explorations by means of of the likely discovery in an area known patrols to bases and installations in the as the Dufek intrusive — a geological area arc anticipated. structure similar to the Rand in South Africa. The big Dufek intrusive was caused over millions of years by a ACTIVITIES OF THE AIR FORCE spillage of materials precipitated by COMMAND volcanic action. The Tcnicntc Matienzo air base was Though serious mineralogieal explora temporarily deactivated and activities tion had not been carried out in the were intensified on Vicecomodoro Mar- Antarctic as yet, direct evidence of ore ., where a new base was in- had been contained in numerous rocks auguimvu i.o handle large wheeled aircraft of the C-130 type or similar, discovered by geologists during general for which two runways 50 metres wide reconnaissance activities. and 1700 and 1900 metres long were The particular area where the dis prepared. covery might be made was in the sector of the Antarctic to which no nation had laid territorial claims. GENERAL TASKS Commenting in Christchurch recently. An Argentine film company shot Mr. R. B. Thomson. Su] scenes for short films at the Almirante the Antarctic Division. ^.^,. Brown scientific station and in areas of that the whole subject of ex,..^.,.. the and Deception about which the Antarctica Treaty was Island. curiously silent, would be raised in An Angle-American film unit made a formally by New Zealand at the next documentary film on the life of pen consultative meeting of the treaty guins at the Esperanza army base. powers in Japan this year. The possi bility of such a discovery again raised The National Directorate of Tourism the question of providing some legis organised by means of private contract lative machinery to guard against the tourist trips to Antarctica on the vessel economic exploitation of Antarctica's "Yapeyu" of the Shipping March, 1970 FLIGHTS TO THE POLE

The last issue of "Antarctic" recorded, in a stop-press item, that 67-year- old American Max Conrad had so far succeeded in his daring attempt to fly his twin-engined Piper Aztec, "White Penguin", single-handed over both Poles as to touch down at the South Pole on January 19. This initial triumph was followed by disaster when "later" his plane crashed. The .sequence of events can now be told in more detail. Conrad celebrated his 67th birthday get navigational bearings at times," he at the Pole Station. He took off at 7.28 said, "because cloud covered all features p.m. on January 23 en route for Chile— except the mountain peaks." He did not but crashed five minutes later. He had, know for two hours that he was on he said, been concentrating too much on the right course. the horizon, and in doing so his port Salvage of "White Penguin", which propeller struck soft snow soon after cost $65,000 new three years ago, is con take-off. He decided to turn round to sidered "uneconomical" by its owner. A land but belly-landed with the wheels new wing, two new engines and new up about two miles from the Pole. Mr. propellers would be required, and it Conrad was uninjured except for a would be impossible to work on the bruised rib, but both propellers were plane in the extreme sub-zero tempera bent and the port wing was damaged. tures at the Pole. (The first flight over the South Pole The 840-mile flight from McMurdo to was made by Admiral Byrd in his tri- the Pole had taken 5i hours. Conrad, motor Ford in November, 1925. The first who has flown more than 8,000,000 landing at the Pole from an aircraft was miles, had trouble with his navigation by Admiral Dufek from an LC-47 on gear because of the cold. "I could not October 31, 1956.)


Two "Flying Vikings" arrived in Christchurch on January 12 on their way home to across the two poles—they hoped—after finishing second in the London-Sydney air race. Captain Thor Tjontveit, Norwegian- They received word from Washington born but now an American citizen, who on January 15 that they could land and is a pilot with Wien Consolidated Air refuel at Williams Field, near McMurdo lines in Alaska, and Mr. Einar Pedersen, Station, before flying to Punta Arenas. a navigator with the Scandinavian air Chile, up the American continent, and line system on leave to make the global across the North Pole home. trip, met Rear-Admiral D. F. Welch as soon as they arrived in Christchurch. South from New Zealand Their Cessna 421, a twin-engined, turbo-prop plane, has a range of 4000 The two men took off from Invercar- miles. Punta Arenas is slightly more than gill airport at 10.45 a.m. on January 19 lain their range the flyers left in their twin-engined turhn-nrnn Aircraft ,,..,v ,.^c for themselves. Extra fuel "", an< tanks took precedence. at McMurdo at 6.50 a.m. next earlier announced intention had been to The polc-by-pole world trip had been fly about 50 feet over the Pole, dropping their aim for several years, and the Lon the flags of the United States and Nor don-Sydney air race gave them the way, but not landing. In fact, they chance of winning some money towards touched down at the Pole less than 12 the venture. hours after Max Conrad. March, 1970

Back at McMurdo, the Norwegians least thirty years. And so it has worked left Williams Field, near McMurdo out—thus far. Even at the times of Station, at 4.30 p.m. on the 23rd for the greatest tension in the terror-filled 3050-mile flight. sixties—the Cuban missile crisis and the They passed out of United States invasion of Czechoslovakia, for example Navy control at 7.50 a.m. next day. al —Russians, Americans, Britons and though they were still in touch through others have continued their work in the Byrd Station. Antarctic undisturbed. They have helped each other as necessary, shared their They landed safely at Punta Arenas, Chile, at noon on Saturday, January 24. knowledge and resources, accepted inter after a three-hour delay caused by head national inspection of their activities and winds. generally behaved as friends and col leagues. In this coldest of the continents and the iciest of landscapes, the Cold War was abolished. There can be little doubt that this pre TEN YEARS AGO cedent helped to create the foundations of mutual confidence on which the great At the ceremony at Scott Base on diplomatic landmarks of the past decade December I marking the tenth anniver have been based, notably the test ban sary of ihe signing of the Antarctic treaty of 1963. the space compact of Treaty (see December issue) a message 1967 and the nuclear nonprolifcration from the New Zealand Prime Minister, pact of 1968. In effect, the Antarctic Mr. Keith Holyoake, which was also has become a political science labora transmitted to the principal bases of all tory, and the Antarctic Treaty a historic, the nations actively engaged in Ant successful experiment pointing the way arctic research, was read out by a re for future progress toward international presentative of the Ross Dependency cooperation. Research Committee. Now the task is to apply the lessons The text is as follows: learned from that experiment to all of "The Government and people of New the great contemporary problems where Zealand, on the occasion of the tenth needless suspicion and rivalry waste anniversary of the signing of the Ant huge resources and endanger earth it arctic Treaty, send greetings to all men self. and women participating in the quest for knowledge in Antarctica. May the spirit of harmony and co-operation amongst nations which is the very foun ROLL ON, ROLL OFF dation of the Treaty be further strength The New Zealand Vanda summer ened by your good work and the work party built a ferry by lashing oil drums of those who follow you in the years to together and placing planks over them, come." using the craft to cross the moat The significance of the Antarctic around the edge of the lake between Treaty is admirably expressed in the land and floating ice. following article published in "The New The expedition leader. A. J. Heine, York Times", on December 9: said of the raft: "It was really a roll- THE EXAMPLE OF ANTARCTICA on roll-off ferry. The only way to get aboard was to roll on. and you had to A decade ago the Antarctic Treaty be careful you did not roll off." was signed by the United States, the Soviet Union and ten other countries. With the passage of time, the example set by this treaty has grown enormously REALISE THIS? in significance. Along with the Gobi and the Sahara. In effect, this pioneering compact de Antarctica ranks as one of the world's clared the Antarctic to be a continent of great deserts. The air above the ice- peace, where men would cooperate for sheet is extremely dry and precipitation mutual advantage and for the advance consists entirely of fine granular snow ment of science, where military activities whose annual average water equivalent would be prohibited and where terri has been estimated at only 2 ins. torial claims would be outlawed for at H. G. R. King: 'The Antarctic'. I' h" ANTARCTIC March, 1970 On the Sub-Antarctic Islands

CROZET ception, is excellent, but only "passable" (France) with Crozet and Adelie Land. The large nest of aerials for communication with During the 1969 winter and early Paris collapsed following a strong wind spring, a new automatic weather station gust in August, but transmission was was installed, and a new radio recep kept up using a smaller nest until the tion complex came into operation during main one was restored at the end of the August and September. An observation month. shelter for the ornithologist was set up 1 '' kaach. The ornithologist also Lieutenant Dubosq and his team ral observation journeys (1) deserve credit for completing their to American Bay, de la Hebe Bay and heavy planned programme by the time Pointc Basse from July 1 to 12; and (2) "Gallieni" arrived on the 29th October. to American Bay on September 11. Much wind in October and Novem ber, snow in October and rain in Decem ber made conditions very unpleasant at CAMPBELL ISLAND the Crozet station, but work carried on. The No. 1 store was fitted out, the foun (New Zealand) dations of the new sick bay were laid in Peter J ulius reports: November. Essential maintenance work "The tumult and the shouting dies, on the buildings, cable, railway and the Captains and the Kings depart". This wharf was completed before the arrival well known line is purely indicative of of "Gallieni" on December 22. Disem the last two months on Campbell Is barkation of personnel and unloading of land, when the Wellington Railway cargo were carried cut on the 22nd and Station at 5.00 p.m.. would be quiet 24th though bad weather prevented work on the 23rd. The "Gallieni" left by comparison. for Kerguelen on December 26. The party settled in well and major projects were soon under way, namely, the erection of the new Campbell Hilton Flotel for fowls. Weather up until Dec ember was wonderfully consistent, rain KERGUELEN all the time, which made the outside (France) work wet and dirty to say the least. The French team on Kerguelen suf Our first ship, the U.S. CGC "Bur fered a heavy blow on June 7 in the ton Island", arrived on December 20 death of radio-technician Remond. who bringing welcome mail and supplies had been admitted to hospital on May along with a six-man U.S. A.R.P. party 28. He had been "an excellent comrade of botanists under the direction cf Pro and a very hard worker". fessor Henry lmshaug of the Univer Work on the interior of the marine sity of Michigan. biological laboratory was completed by Having sighted the terrain and ex September and the lab. was handed over perienced a decent Campbell Island to the scientists on the 20th. Further shower of rain, sleet and snow within structural alterations completed included minutes of arriving, they carefully ac the mess room, building B4. In addition, cepted our offer to rough it with us numerous painting and repair jobs were in Beeman Hostel in preference to camp carried out. ing out and living close to nature. And The 35KW transmitter broke down so came the prelude of a warm and on July 1 and was not serviceable enjoyable month in which we succeeded again till September. in teaching the Americans the fundamen Teleprinter communication with the tals of the English language and in three other French stations has been return, they tried in vain to indoctrinate assured, Crozet being received on RTTY us in the intricacies of mosses and any from January 1. Communication with hepatic result on either side was purely Amsterdam, both transmission and re co-incidental.

:V_ IjJJJJJJJJJJJJj] March, 1970

The magnificent dinner on Christmas HMNZS "Endeavour" was welcomed Day by Bryan George, our chef, marked back from the ice on February 18, but the passing of our first milestone and owing to a damaged windlass cable prepared us for the return to harness could not anchor, and it was fortunate after the New Year, when we com that the conditions were calm to enable pleted 250 feet of new walkways to the her to effect the transfer of mail and Met. enclosure and new fowl-house. supplies and leave again after only 2\ New concrete culverts were laid, de hours in the harbour. feating many of the problems of the On March 1, we regretfully farewelled run-off areas, and proving a boon. Jim Carr and Tiny Taylor, two very January 20th saw a sudden and violent popular Met. boys who have finished easterly storm which caused major their terms of duty, along with the damage to the wharf, and but for the wild life boys, who steamed for home prompt efforts of all hands at 1.30 a.m. on the last ship of the season, U.S. would have cost us the station launch CGC "Edisto". as well. Three days after this saw a Hercules For the next two or three days, it of the RNZAF overhead carrying out was definitely a case of empty saddles a parachute drop of fence posts and in the old corral, but since then, all the wintering over, men have re-adjusted wire, under very gusty conditions, which themselves, re-organised their hobbies, considering the circumstances, was very accurate. counted their remaining beer stocks and The twelve-man wild-life party ar are well prepared for the winter hiber rived on HMNZS "Endeavour" on Janu nation. ary 25 and replaced the U.S. A.R.P. So until the next bulletin, we will party, who are returning to New Zea just open our hobbies, re-adjust our land via McMurdo Sound. Although steins, re-organise the rum issue, and camped at the old Tucker Cove Hostel, count our blessings. we saw a great deal of them and com petition on the billiard table, and for the hot showers, was always keen. They MACQUARIE succeeded in stripping our Island (with a fence) and then shot out approxi (Australia) mately 1100 wild sheep on the north The Antarctic relief expedition that ern half of the fence in a controlled sailed from Melbourne for Macquarie Is long term experiment to compare the land on November 29 took with it three effects of actual re-growth and the Island pack horses named Brandy, Lime and wild life. Soda. For that month of the year, the Horses were used by sealers on Mac scene was reminiscent of the bombard quarie Island about 1900. This is the ment of Monte Cassino in 1944. The first time they will be used there by an local ammunition companies are rub Australian expedition. bing their hands at an unexpected divi dend. "We have been using machines in the February 14 saw the arrival of the past, but with only mixed si ' motor fishing vessel "Tua Tea" under relief party liwler Mr dme the command of Captain Rob Rae, on non said. " charier to the Marine Department's vances we arc back to horses again." Fisheries Board, investigating the possi bilities of commercial crab fishing in the area. An eventful week followed with all members of the party taking the 50 YEARS AGO opportunity to go fishing and to see In 1920 T. W. Bagshawe and M. C. the Island and photograph it from off Lester, forming with Hubert Wilkins shore. Many warm friendships resulted and J. L. Cope the British Imperial with the crew who spent all their free Expedition, arrived at Deception Is time ashore with us, and the winter land, hoping to investigate the eastern menu for the Station benefited by the coast of , now the Ant large amount of succulent crab which arctic Peninsula. These two men were was only limited by the amount of to form the smallest party ever to freezer space available. winter over in the Antarctic. ■ rJC*St-'. March, 1970


ACROSS THE TOP OF THE WORLD. hauled the sledges out of Barrow. Wally Herbert. Longmans: 209pp. ill. Strangely perhaps, the role of the huskies is not over emphasised and this 36/- stg.. N.Z. price S4.30. may stem from their acceptance as beasts of burden divorced from the The first surface crossing of the colourful and companionable pictures Arctic Ocean by the British Trans- usually drawn. Possibly Wally Herbert Arctic Expedition has been more than inherited something of the Amunsden a d e q u a t e l y d o c u m e n t e d b y Wa l l y attitudes after following the latter's Herbert's absorbing account of this footsteps down the Axel Heiberg pioneering journey. Readers of the Glacier. Some of the animal interest author's earlier book on exploration in goes to the Polar bears that provided Antarctica will slip easily into his both excitement and food for men and latest narrative as the initial chapters repeat some of his Southern experiences. Possibly full justice has not been done Readers who like high adventure to the actual journey itself, commencing against a backdrop of the harsh climatic with the start from Barrow to landfall conditions of the Arctic Ocean will at Little Blackboard Island. However, thoroughly appreciate this successful most readers will appreciate the details British assault on the North Pole in of the planning and organisation that the course of a remarkable journey made this journey possible. across the top of the world.

Not unexpectedly, Wally Herbert's own personality and temperament come through strongly in this book and it is surprising perhaps that only one obvious T H E A B O M I N A B L E S N O W - clash occurred between the Leader and WOMEN. Dorothy Braxton. 201 pp, the Organising Committee for the Ex pedition. To a degree history was re ill, maps. A. H. and A. W. Reed, peating itself, but the Press did not have 1969. N.Z. price $3.50. quite the same opportunities for specu lation as in the days of the Trans- As secretary of the Canterbury Antarctic Expedition. However, they did Branch of the New Zealand Antarc feast for a short while on the dispute tic Society the author was well pre over the evacuation of the injured party pared for her entry on the Antarctic member Allan Gill. Herbert tactfully Continent, and her account albeit covers this crisis in the journey and old through a woman's eyes, is hard to wounds should not be re-opened. The fault. Old Antarctic explorers need book is the better for highlighting the not turn uneasily in bed or grave, human elcmcnls of this episode. as the author has not set out to de b u n k t h e m y t h s a n d f a b l e s t h a t have often been nurtured by the The author is able to call on a wide background of experience to record the privileged male. part played by his fellow expedition- Dorothy Braxton went south the members and the support provided by hard way on board Magga Dan, and the Royal Canadian Air Force, the U.S. only those who have struck the tur Arctic Research Laboratory and the bulent Antarctic seas at their worst Royal Navy. Tribute is paid to his three will appreciate the lack of tourist loyal companions and the many sterling cemfort in such conditions. As a supporters in the field by a careful very experienced journalist the blending of the story concerning each. author has been able to put polish The success of the expedition has to on a lively and informative narra be shared with the forty huskies that tion. The book holds additional March, 1970 ANTARCTIC interest because the route enabled was broadcast whenever someone found calls to be made at various sub- time to put a tape on the machine. Antarctic islands such as Campbell Reception was poor, and many Mc and Macquarie. These are aptly de Murdo residents did not even know scribed and as a bonus there is a WASA existed. fairly full description of the Auck land Islands. The first stage of WASA's renovation was moving the transmitter to the Recre The near hostility towards the ation Hall in the centre of "town". The tourist party did not prevent the staff of volunteers hooked up the trans author getting full value from her mitter with a Special Services turntable visits to McMurdo Station and Scott and tape recorder and borrowed as Base. Without obvious effort she let many records as they could. Special the normal feminine inquisitiveness Services then bought some spare tubes run its course and her book is the and a number of records. Some mem better for it. Useful facts of current bers of the staff who had contacts with activities are blended with excerpts commercial radio stations in the States from the heroic age of exploration. wrote to ask for taped programs for It is certain that neither Scott nor WASA broadcast. Several stations Shackleton would resent her in contributed. trusion into their domain. This book should spur other women to see By early January WASA was ready Antarctica for themselves. to sign on. Coyner handled all disc jockey duties in the early days of WASA. working as much as 40 hours a week in his spare time. Before long he was joined by others with profes sional radio experience and Radio WASA went on the air full time. WASA now broadcasts 16 hours a McMURDO HAS ITS OWN day. seven days a week. Programming varies from classical music to show RADIO STATION tunes to rock and roll. From 8 a.m. until 7 p.m. the station's format is en tirely pre-recorded uninterrupted music. For the first time since the U.S. The station goes "live" from 7 p.m. to Navy established McMurdo Station in midnight each evening, featuring news, 1956. residents can listen to live, local weather and notes of interest. radio on a regular basis. Through the combined efforts of Like other radio stations. WASA de several volunteers and the McMurdo votes some of its energy toward com Special Services Division. Radio WASA munity projects. In January a "radio- (for Antarctic Support Activities) has thon" was held by the WASA staff to been serving McMurdo residents with raise funds for Navy Relief. Listeners music, and live news and weather since were called on to phone in pledges and. early January. as a result, the program raised SI 16. Radio WASA is a 50-watt station On February 16 the radio station was completely staffed by volunteers who do approved as an official Armed Forces all announcing, taping, record changing Radio outlet. Programming materials— and electronics work. It was conceived including much-needed recordings—are last year by Journalist First Class Merv being sent to McMurdo in time for Coyner who. with eight years of pro broadcast during the seven-month winter. fessional and military radio experience, felt that a local radio station would do Radio WASA will now continue its much to alleviate the feeling of isolation work providing entertainment and in that accompanies McMurdo duty. formation for the men who will spend the long, dark winter at isolated Mc In past years. WASA's radio transmit Murdo Station. ter was located atop one of the hills overlooking McMurdo. Taped music (U.S. Press Release, Feb. 25) ANTARCTIC March, 1970 CO-OPERATION IN ANTARCTIC RESEARCH

Several notable projects involving international cooperation in the Antarctic were planned for the 1969-70 summer. As outlined late last year, here are four examples.

Using equipment developed by the Dr. LeRoy Scharon, a Washington Scott Polar Research Institute (SPRI). University (St. Louis, Mo.) gcophysicist. Cambridge, England, Britons and Ameri will accompany the British Antarctic cans will work together on an airborne survey ships from December to April radio ice-thickness survey of Antarctica. as they rcsupply stations on the Ant The research team plans a multi-year arctic Peninsula, South Georgia, and project designed to obtain a detailed the . Dr. Scharon will understanding of the total ice volume continue his study of changes in polarity and sub-ice topography throughout the of the earth's magnetic field and will continent. U.S. Navy personnel will fly collect rock cores for laboratory analy- the aircraft and the flights will origi nate from Williams Field, McMurdo Station. DEEP FREEZE AIRLIFT Some 15 scientists from Argentina. In "phase one" of one of many ex Noi way, and the United States will par amples of international cooperation in ticipate in the third year of the Inter Antarctic research, t national Weddell Sea ( Expedition during February 1970. The primary objective of this ye."-' ! tion is to retrieve Norwegiai . signed to measure and record automati November 19 last year. cally the currents and temperatures at The Navy was scheduled to conclude the ocean bottom. The buoys were placed the second half of this support mission during the first year of the expedition for the British Antarctic Survey on Janu and their recovery last year was not pos ary 24 when an LC-130 Hercules crew sible owing to ice cover. The Argentine was expected to pick up the scientists, icebreaker "General San Martin" is their dogs, and equipment in the same again expected to participate in the ex remote area of Antarctica. pedition along with the U.S. Coast Guard The trans-Antarctic support mission icebreaker "Glacier". Norwegian oceano- began when a ski-equipped Hercules graphcrs from the University of Bergen flew from McMurdo Station, centre of and the Michclsen Institute are studying U.S. Antarctic operations on the Ross the formation, magnitude, and extent of Antarctic bottom water in the Weddell Sea, to the British installation at Halley Sea. Bay on the coast of the Weddell Sea. At Halley Bay the crew picked up the The long standing exchange between men, dogs, and supplies and refuelled the the U.S. and Soviet Union of scientists aircraft from 62 fifty-five gallon fuel working in the Antarctic will be con drums. After four hours, they flew to tinued. U.S. exchange scientist John an area 340 miles south in the Shackle- doom will spend a year at Bellingshau ton Mountains, where the British field sen, the Soviet scientific station on King parly set up a camp for topographic, George Island near the Antarctic Penin geological and glaciological studies. sula. Working under a grant to Roanoke The cargo was off-loaded in one hour College, Mr. Croom will study the oc and the Hercules returned to McMurdo currence, distribution and ecology of via South Pole station where the crew ciliated protozoa. stopped to refuel the aircraft. March, 1970

Official U.S. Navy photo. VOSTOK VISIT Cargo lor Vostolc unloaded from tail of a United States Hercules.

station to record data in the upper atmo JUST DROP IN sphere. "The heavy plane slowed to a stop, the powerful engines died. The Americans Michael Maish, a member of the U.S. stepped from the aircraft into one of the Antarctic Research Programme, who has most hostile and isolated places in the just spent the winter at Vostok, will in world. They were greeted by 18 Rus stall the new equipment and instruct the sians." Russians on how to run and repair it. Maish will then take a Soviet aircraft A paragraph from a novel? No. But to another Russian Antarctic station, an interesting story nevertheless. The Mirnyy, on the coast of the continent. place: Russia's in Ant From there he will go to the Soviet arctica. The occasion: the annual flight Union by ship for a brief visit and even made there by members of the U.S. tually return to the United States. Alex Navy's . The sig Vasilev, the Soviet Exchange Scientist nificance: peaceful international coopcra- who had just wintered the previous season at McMurdo Station, also made the flight. Alex Vasilev has been invited In a world where this one continent to visit the United States after he leaves alone has been successfully dedicated to Antarctica. peace, this yearly flight is a prime ex ample cf two nations working together in the cause of scientific research for During the austral winter, the Soviet the benefit of mankind. scientists will run the American equip ment and maintain the data. When next The flight has several purposes. One year the U.S. visitors again arrive at is social. Also, fresh produce is delivered Vostok, the data will be given to U.S. to the Russians as well as American scientists so that both countries can in equipment which will be installed at the vestigate it. ANTARCTIC March, 1970

The flight, a distance of more than Mrs. Molly Porter, a 31-year-old Scots 850 miles, was made in a Navy ski- mountaineering guide, heads the expedi equipped Hercules (LC-130) flown by tion, which includes four university lec Antarctic Development Squadron Six. turers, two university graduates, and a The inside of the plane was warm and doctor, all aged between 25 and 35. comfortable but the outside temperature on the ground was minus 26 degrees Fahrenheit. Vostok holds the world record for low temperatures . . . 126.9 FRENCHWOMAN, TOO degrees below zero Fahrenheit in I960. And this is no mere hope. Mile. Chris- Altogether, there were 22 persons (in tiane Gillet was in Hobart on Decem cluding the flight crew) and 11,485 ber 5 on her way to Adelie Land, and pounds of cargo aboard the "Here". it was her fifth visit to the Antarctic. After landing, all the U.S. personnel A Tasmanian reporter describes Chris were invited into the station, some 12,500 tiane as "a red-haired 35-year-old en feet above sea level and resting on ice gineer". that is as many feet thick as the station is high. The Americans were welcomed Apologising, unnecessarily, for her warmly and the Soviets proved excellent pleasantly stumbling English, Christiane hosts. Prior to departure there was much found time to talk about her unusual hand shaking and back slapping among occupation while last preparations were the Russians and Americans who had being made in Hobart for the French this day become friends. party's summer expedition. Christiane, with the 47 men of the After a three hour visit, the plane once expedition, had been flown from France again soared into the thin air, passed to join the "Thala Dan". over the station in a wing-rocking fare well, and began the journey back to She spoke of her experiences: McMurdo carrying 22 people who had "It's beautiful there during the sum seen international cooperation at its mer, although the wind sometimes blows best. very hard. "There is not much snow and the rocks are bare in the summer and it's not too cold. It's usually as 'warm' as MORE WOMEN ? between 0°C. and —10°," she said. A London report dated January 21 The biggest danger is the wind, which poses another threat to the once all-male can reach 150 m.p.h. in summer. Antarctica. Nine women explorers are Christiane said that her stays there searching for sponsors to enable them were never long enough for her to grow to make a 10-week expedition to one bored. of Britain's remote uninhabited Antarctic "I have a lot of work to do and the outposts. time passes quickly," she said. Although they think they can raise Her job—that began 12 years ago with almost $6500 among themselves, they her joining the bureau controlling the need thousands more to pay for a ship scientific expeditions—entails overall to take them to South Georgia Island, supervision of supplies, technical equip 7000 miles from London. ment and machinery. The expedition, which has taken four How did the men treat her? years to organise, hopes to study the "Mostly as an equal—although they island's various occupants—such as the do spoil me a bit," she confessed. giant albatross and the fur and elephant When Christmas Day comes in Adelie seals. land there will be a traditional party Several members of the party are also and dinner — "but no dancing." Chris experienced mountaineers. They hope to tiane said. explore the island's peaks in addition to "You can't have that very success their glaciological research and flora and fully when there's only one woman and fauna studies. more than 40 men." March, 1970 ANTARCTIC ANTARCTIC TOURISM? BRISTLING WITH DIFFICULTIES

"I am sure that tourism is going to come," said Admiral Welch recently. "But I don't think the United States Defence Department is going into the tourist business." "If the Antarctic is opened up for tourists it will become one of the major attractions of the world," the New Zealand Minister of Tourism (Mr. Walker) said in Christchurch on February 8. However, he had two reservations. From his experience during a recent visit to Antarctica, he appre ciated "the enormous difficulties" which would be encountered, and he appreciated why it would not be reasonable to expect scientific parties to act as hosts. Tourist projects would have to be fully self-sufficient and able to cope with all emergencies. Furthermore, he did not think tourism should be permitted at this stage if it would interfere with important scientific work—"and we would have to be guided by the scientists themselves".

Air New Zealand has been for some is admitted that commercial jet flights time investigating the practicability of to McMurdo Sound arc feasible. inaugurating a summer service to the Antarctic area south of New Zealand. A spokesman described it as a kind DISASTER: WHAT THEN? of new frontier. He said high costs would be involved if a plane was taken The problem is what happens to tour ular service. And if there were ists, after they arrive in a place where ■■■' '■"■"! likely in Antarctica, virtually all significant facilities are op- crated by the United States Navy. While „reatly to the company bill. under the Antarctic Treaty no nation has any legal right to bar anyone access Southbound DC8s will take between to the continent, the refusal by Ameri 50 and 90 passengers to McMurdo can authorities to place their facilities Sound, where they will be accommodated at the disposal of tourists would amount in an American-built floating hotel. to an effective veto on tourism. On the termination of their holiday, But it is when accidents happen— the tourists would be flown back to and happen they certainly will in this New Zealand. The season would last only place of lurking dangers—that the six weeks because of the short Antarctic Americans find themselves in a difficult predicament. The floating hotel will be American- They could not refuse to go to the owned but New Zealand would derive aid of tourists in distress, yet to do so income from the sale of air tickets and might well mean the suspending of nor hotel bookings from passengers in mal operations and perhaps large expen transit. diture of money and effort. To fly Max Conrad's aeroplane back to Christchurch New Zealand does not have a ship would cost $7000, Admiral Welch strong enough to negotiate the ice packs. pointed out, not taking into account any But at the same time, it is generally ac disruption caused by the unavailability cepted that commercial tourism in Ant of a Hercules aircraft for other pur arctica is an inevitable development. It poses. ANTARCTIC March, 1970

ACCOMMODATION "Air New Zealand, or whoever or ganises the flights, must have the neces The provision cf a terminal building sary equipment to be able to get is one of the conditions which must be themselves out of any difficulty that can met before the civil aviation division of arise," Mr. Walker said. the Ministry of Transport will authorise any limited commercial flights taking "It is not a fair proposition if in any tourists to the Antarctic. way they are hoping to depend on scien tific project staff working in the areas." Another of the conditions, set out in Special requirements are also made a report by three of the division's about the use of navigational and radio officers who visited Antarctica in Novem aids at McMurdo station. ber, is that the runway to be used will be Outer Williams Field, as Williams SCIENTISTS DUBIOUS Field, five miles from McMurdo Station and built on annual ice, is unsuitable The scientists have two major reasons because of inadequate bearing strength for taking an unsympathetic attitude to for the four or five flights planned for wards tourists. January and February each year. The first is simply that in large num Because white-outs occur with very bers tourists would be a nuisance. There little warning and close the runway for would be considerable pressure from from 30 minutes to three days, the divis tourists, for instance, to visit the South ion stipulates that any commercial air Pole, yet at the pole there is nothing to craft must carry sufficient fuel to enable se2 but a pole stuck in the snow—and it to fly from New Zealand to Outer the scientific facilities of the base under Williams field and return to an alter the snow. nate New Zealand airfield without land The second is fear of the consequences ing in Antarctica. of large-scale human invasion of the hitherto uninhabited continent. The division also says that a special scale of protective clothing must be sup Much of Antarctica's value to science plied to passengers and crew, and that derives from its isolation as a vast emergency food packs must be carried. frozen laboratory, free until recently of the effects of human activity. Another condition is 'that " n minimumthe fuelling, rc- So far an estimated 25,000 people have visited the continent, and relatively this isport facilities small number has worried the scientists States Navy at McMurdo because of pollution and the effects on Station. the environment. The director of operations with the Civil Aviation Division in Wellington REQUIREMENTS said that when Air New Zealand could The setting down by the Civil Avia comply with the requirements, the Gov tion Division of requirements which ernment would place the airline's pro must be met before tourist flights can posal before the United States Govern be made from New Zealand to Ant ment's Antarctic policy group, which arctica was described as "absolutely es directs the activities of the United States sential" by the Minister of Tourism, Mr. Navy in Antarctica. Walker, on February 13. Mr. Walters said that the Navy could "The Antarctic is such a hazardous not provide the weather forecasting, place that specific plans and arrange communications, and flight-following ser ments must be made—it is too risky to vices necessary for a commercial opera take chances," Mr. Walker said. tion without receiving a direction from the policy group. The division's conditions announced in a report by three of its officers who PROOF visited Antarctica in November cover accommodation, aircraft landing refuel The importance of a terminal building ling arrangements, the wearing of special at Outer Williams Field was made ap clothing by passengers and crew and parent to the five-man investigation team other factors. from the division and Air New Zealand March, 1970 which visited Antarctica in November. location, seismological equipment will be After their plane landed they had to installed by Mr. R. D. Maunder, of the Seismological Observatory, at the station stay in the aircraft at the end of the at . runway for seven hours because of a sudden whitc-out. Mr. R. B. Thomson, superintendent of the Antarctic Division of the DSIR, says that before the Government would give pci mission for a New Zealand-based commercial enterprise to construct a ter AS OF OLD minal building at Outer Williams Field, the proposal would have to be discussed Two Scott Base men recently dis by the McMurdo Sound land manage covered that the tales told of the hard ment and co-ordination group. This con ships endured by the sledgers of the sisted of himself, representing New Zea " H e r o i c A g e " w e r e b y n o m e a n s land, Admiral Welch for the United exaggerated. States Navy, and Mr. P. M. Smith for the American scientific community. Though dog-sledging has been vir tually superseded by motor transport. Mr. Thomson said he was sure a Greenland huskies are still kept at Scott suitable locality for such a building Base, where the numbers are maintained could be found, although it might not at about 24, sufficient for two full be the first that the tour promoters sug teams. gested. There was no great operational problem to Antarctic tourism, but a To keep adult dogs fit and to train potential operator would have to spend younger dogs, the base dog handler considerable sums cf money to provide takes teams on frequent training runs the necessary facilities at Outer Wil in the vicinity of Scott Base. Recently liams Field. he has been making longer triDS of up "It is no good having a half-baked to three days, accompanied by one of effort. If it is done, then it must be the other 10 men who are spending the done in a big way." said Mr. Thomson. winter at Scott Base. On one journey the two men travelled a total of almost 30 miles in two days in temperatures as low as minus 27 degrees centigrade. EARTHQUAKES RECORDED The wind was particularly chilly, and in spite of mukluks—heavy insulated polar boots—their feet were numbed by the cold. All feeling was lost from reat interest in their hands, and their breath froze in . uunt ax. vanda Station, said icicles to their beards. D. R. C. Lowe, leader for the 1969-70 programme. "I ran beside the sledge some of the It was earlier thought that earthquakes way. just to forget how cold I was." did not occur in Antarctica, and none said one of them on his return. have been diagnosed there previously. "I didn't light my pipe once on the However, small earthquakes believed way back. That shows how cold it to have originated in the Terra Nova was." said the other, who is seldom Bay region, were recorded on seismo- seen without his smoking briar between logical equipment at Vanda Station his teeth. recently. Although Antarctic earthquakes had For all but one of the men at Scott not been reported previously, it was pos Base, this will be their first winter in sible that some had been recorded at Antarctica. However, until the last few days, conditions have not been nearly other stations, but the data had been as harsh as they expected. misinterpreted. To confirm the incidence of earth Now. at least two of them realise quakes, and assist in defining their what a hostile place Antarctica can be. ANTARCTIC March, 1970

JARE 10 53 YEARS LATER The research programme of the The Australian Government has de Japanese 10th Antarctic Research Ex cided to give Australian holders of that pedition was carried through as planned. rare award for gallantry, the Albert A traverse party led by Hisao Ando. Medal, a gratuity of S250 per year. ten in all, including a press reporter One of the six recipients is R. W. from Radio Japan (NHK), made the RICHARDS (76). of Point Lonsdale. over-snow traverse from Syowa Base Victoria. In 1917 'Dick' Richards was to the Yamato Mountains and returned awarded the Albert Medal for his hero safely. The trek began on November I. ism during the perilous sledge journey 1969, and returned to Syowa on Janu to lay depots for Shackleton's projected ary 29, 1970. after covering about 2.000 crossing of the Antarctic Continent. kilometres with two large KD-60 ve Joyce. Richards and Wild, although hicles (the same model as that used by themselves scurvy-stricken, dragged their the JARE-9 traverse to the South Pole helpless comrades, one, Spencer-Smith, the previous year), and two small KC- for 300 miles before he died, and saved 20's. The main task was to establish the lives of the two others. Mackintosh a strain grid band along 72°S. lat., and Hayward. from 43°E. to 36°E.. where the south ernmost part of the Yamato Mountains is located. The trek took about 40 days, struggling against constantly blow ing, drifting snow. SURVIVAL SCHOOL The "Fuji" was expected to arrive at Cape Town on March 9. The expedi (An Operation Deep Freeze news tion members were scheduled to leave release) Cape Town on the llth and to arrive Antarctica — with today's dependable at Tokyo via Europe and the North transportation and large stations for Polar route on March 24. The Leader shelter — has become relatively com of JARE-9. Dr. Kou Kusunoki. ex fortable. But for those doing scientific pected to visit polar organisations in and support work in remote areas the Paris and London en route. hostility of this icy continent is more The plan to launch two sounding evident. In order to be fully prepared rockets during the summer was delayed for an emergency or survival situation, cause of bad weather and instrumen formal schooling is the order of the tation troubles. The last report to day. reach us said that it was hoped to Each year, volunteers from the New launch the rockets on February 9. wea Zealand Mountain Rescue Service are ther permitting. flown to McMurdo Station to conduct training for scientists of the United States Antarctic Research Program and the Operation DEEP FREEZE Para- rescue Team, a unit which can be flown SEQUEL TO TRAGEDY to an emergency area and parachuted in to provide aid. The Antarctic film scheduled to be produced by the New Zealand National In the two-day course, the five in Film Unit as a successor to the highly structors cover the special problems successful 1964 film "140 DAYS UN posed by Antarctica — freezing tempera DER THE WORLD" was not com tures, treacherous and miles pleted, owing to the death of the Direc of lifeless terrain. Included in the in charge of the production in a training are lectures and practice sess helicopter crash in the Taylor Valley ions outside under actual conditions. on November 19. The sequences which There they learn to use ropes, ice axes were shot have now been examined in and shoe spikes for negotiating icy Wellington, and it is proposed to issue slopes. They also become amateur a short edited version, in colour, under mountain climbers in one of the more the title "ONE LONG SUMMER'S difficult exercises, getting out of a DAY". . "ANTARCTIC" is published quarterly in March, June, September, and December. Subscription for non-members of the Antarctic Societ}', $2.50. Apply to the Secretary, New Zealand Antarctic Society, P.O. Box 2110, Wellington, New Zealand. Out of Print: Very few left: Volume 1 numbers number 8 1, 2, 9 Volume 2, numbers number 8 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 9 Volume 3, number 7 number 5 Some other issues are in very short supply. Copies of avail able issues may be obtained from the Secretary of the Society, P.O. Box 2110, Wellington, at a cost of 50c per copy meanwhile. Indexes for volumes 1, 2 and 3 are also available, 30c each. Copies of our predecessor, the Antarctic News Bulletin, are available at 50c per copy, except for numbers 9 and 10. The copies of numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 17 and 18 are authorised reprints.

The New Zealand Antarctic Society comprises New Zealanders and overseas friends, many of whom have seen Antarctica for themselves, and all of whom are vitally interested in some phase of Antarctic exploration, development, or research. The Society has taken an active part in restoring and main taining the historic huts in the Ross Dependency, and plans to co-operate in securing suitable locations as repositories of Polar material of unique interest. There are currently two branches of the Society and functions are arranged throughout the year. You are invited to become a member. South Island residents should contact the Canterbury secretary, North Islanders should contact the Wellington secretary, and overseas residents the secretary of the New Zealand Society. For addresses see below. The membership fee includes subscription to "Antarctic".

New Zealand Secretary Mr. V. E. Donnelly, P.O. Box 2110, Wellington. Branch Secretaries Canterbury: Mrs. B. Burley, P.O. Box 404, Christchurch. Wellington: Mr. V. E. Donnelly, P.O. Box 2110, Wellington.

"ANTARCTIC" is published quarterly in March, June, September, and December. It is the only periodical in the world which gives regular up-to-date news of the Antarctic activities of all the nations at work in the far South. It has a world-wide circulation. Subscription for non-members of the Antarctic Society, NZ$2.50, Over seas NZ$3.00. includes postage. Details of back issues available may be obtained from the Secretary, New Zealand Antarctic Society, P.O. Box 404, Christchurch, New Zealand.

The New Zealand Antarctic Society The New Zealand Antarctic Society was formed in 1933. It comprises New Zealanders and overseas friends, many of whom have seen Antarctica for themselves, and all of whom are vitally interested in some phase of Antarctic exploration, development, or research. The society has taken an active part in restoring and maintaining the historic huts in the Ross Dependency, and plans to co-operate in securing suitable locations as repositories of Polar material of unique interest. There are two branches of the society and functions are arranged throughout the year. You are invited to become a member, South Island residents should write to the Canterbury secretary, North Islanders should write to the Wellington secretary, and overseas residents to the secretary of the New Zealand Society. For addresses see below. The membership fee is NZ$2.00 (or equivalent local currency). Subscription to "Antarctic" is a further $2.00.

New Zealand Secretary Miss J. Garraway, P.O. Box 404, Christchurch.

Branch Secretaries Canterbury: Miss J. Garraway, P.O. Box 404, Christchurch. Wellington: Mr P. Wilson, P.O. Box 2110, Wellington.