TERRITORIAL DISPUTES Aleutian 1 Delimitation of the boundary between and in the Barents PACIFIC 5 2 The of Hans , claimed by () and 3 Management and control of the - Passage ºbetween the EXXON VALDEZ and Canada) Delimitation of the boundary between TRANS- Anchorage BERING 4 PIPELINE SYSTEM (TAPS) STRAIT Alaska (United States) and Canada North-East in the Alaska Passage (United States) Chukotka 5 Delimitation of the boundary between Alaska (United States) and Russia Fairbanks in the

BEAUFORT SEA New 4 Siberian Islands 3 Banks LAPTEV Island SEA Island Queen North-West Elizabeth OCEAN Canada Islands Passage Russia Alpha Ridge North Resolute NORTH Norilsk POLE HUDSON Ellesmere Nansen BAY Nanisivik Island Gakkel KARA Ridge SEA Franz Novy Urengoï Thulé 2 Hans Josef Land Island (Russia) BAFFIN Baffin Novaya Island BAY Salekhard Zemlya Vorkuta

Svalbard 1 Shtokman Canada Greenland (Norway) gas field (Denmark) USINSK DAVIS BARENTS Peshora STRAIT SEA (Norway) Jan Monchegorsk Mayen Island (Norway) Tromsø Archangelsk NORWEGIAN SEA Bodø Severodvinsk Towards the Major urban populations American 400,000 Towards 200,000 Reykjavik 100,000 50,000 Sea routes which will come into St Petersburg permanent use within 10 or 15 Norway Maritime claimed by years, if global warming persists OCEAN and the cap continues to Russia recede Members of the Denmark EKOFISK Denmark Canada, Denmark, United States, Finland, Russia and Denmark Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden Towards the major ports of Europe United States Permanent participants in the Arctic Council Canada Circumpolar Conference Norway and Russia Energy and resources under Maritime boundaries ('Grey Zone') Arctic Athabaskan Council exploitation or Maritime boundaries: base or presence Gwich'in Council International Gas and oil extraction bilateral agreements, lines of Mining equidistance, or 200-nautical Former Northern Warning Line Aleut International Association miles offshore limits (ZEE) (Strategic Air Defence Radar gas and oil pipelines, Russian Association of Indigenous existing, planned or under Boundary lines claimed System) Peoples of the North Main oil or pipeline spills by Russia 0 400 800 km (over 50,000 tonne) by Norway

Sources: Arctic Council; Norwegian Polar Institute; Permanent Participants of the Arctic Council, map by Winfried Dallmann; Canadian Ministry for Foreign Affairs and ; International Boundaries Research Unit Database; of Durham IBRU; national statistics departments; United States Energy Information Administration (EIA); National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); Impacts of a Warming Arctic, Arctic Impact Assessment (ACIA) Overview Report, Cambridge University Press, 2004; Vital Arctic Graphics, People and Global Heritage on our Last Wild Shores, Norway, UNEP/GRID-, 2005; Division for Ocean Affairs and the of the Sea, Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS), United ; Norwegian ministries of energy and fisheries (, Norway); Alaska Science , Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks. PHILIPPE REKACEWICZ