# Standard Model & Baryogenesis at 50 Years

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• The Five Common Particles
The Five Common Particles The world around you consists of only three particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. Protons and neutrons form the nuclei of atoms, and electrons glue everything together and create chemicals and materials. Along with the photon and the neutrino, these particles are essentially the only ones that exist in our solar system, because all the other subatomic particles have half-lives of typically 10-9 second or less, and vanish almost the instant they are created by nuclear reactions in the Sun, etc. Particles interact via the four fundamental forces of nature. Some basic properties of these forces are summarized below. (Other aspects of the fundamental forces are also discussed in the Summary of Particle Physics document on this web site.) Force Range Common Particles It Affects Conserved Quantity gravity infinite neutron, proton, electron, neutrino, photon mass-energy electromagnetic infinite proton, electron, photon charge -14 strong nuclear force ≈ 10 m neutron, proton baryon number -15 weak nuclear force ≈ 10 m neutron, proton, electron, neutrino lepton number Every particle in nature has specific values of all four of the conserved quantities associated with each force. The values for the five common particles are: Particle Rest Mass1 Charge2 Baryon # Lepton # proton 938.3 MeV/c2 +1 e +1 0 neutron 939.6 MeV/c2 0 +1 0 electron 0.511 MeV/c2 -1 e 0 +1 neutrino ≈ 1 eV/c2 0 0 +1 photon 0 eV/c2 0 0 0 1) MeV = mega-electron-volt = 106 eV. It is customary in particle physics to measure the mass of a particle in terms of how much energy it would represent if it were converted via E = mc2.
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• 5.1 5. the BARYON ASYMMETRY of the UNIVERSE The
5.1 5. THE BARYON ASYMMETRYOF THE UNIVERSE The new interactions predicted by most grand unified theories are so weak that they are unobservable in the laboratory, except?possibly in proton decay. Fortunately, there was one time at which the new interac- tions would have been very important: the first instant after the big bang when the universe was incredibly hot and dense. This cosmological "laboratory" may have left relics of the grand unified interactions that are observable today. In particular, the new interactions may be responsible for the observed excess of baryons over antibaryons in the universe (the baryon asymmetry). In this chapter I will outline the status of the baryon asymmetry. For a more detailed discussion, especially of the astrophysical aspects, see the recent detailed studies [5.1-5.21 and reviews c5.3-5.61 of earlier work. Another possible relic of the big bang, superheavy magnetic monopoles, is discussed in Chapter 6. Speculations on other possible connections between grand unifica- tion and cosmology, such as galaxy formation [5.7-5.91 or the role of dissipative phencmena in smoothing the universe [5.9-5.101 are discussed in [5.4-5.5,5.71. The Baryon Excess The two facts that one would like to explain are: (a) our region of the universe contains baryons but essentially no anti- baryons. (The observations are reviewed by Steigman r5.111 and Barrow [5.333, and (b) the observed baryon number density to entropy density ratio is 15.1, 5.121 knB 2 lo-9.'8+1.6- S (5.1) 5.2 (This is " l/7 the present baryon to photon density ratio n.B /n y_[5.11.
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• Quantum Field Theory*
Quantum Field Theory y Frank Wilczek Institute for Advanced Study, School of Natural Science, Olden Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 I discuss the general principles underlying quantum eld theory, and attempt to identify its most profound consequences. The deep est of these consequences result from the in nite number of degrees of freedom invoked to implement lo cality.Imention a few of its most striking successes, b oth achieved and prosp ective. Possible limitation s of quantum eld theory are viewed in the light of its history. I. SURVEY Quantum eld theory is the framework in which the regnant theories of the electroweak and strong interactions, which together form the Standard Mo del, are formulated. Quantum electro dynamics (QED), b esides providing a com- plete foundation for atomic physics and chemistry, has supp orted calculations of physical quantities with unparalleled precision. The exp erimentally measured value of the magnetic dip ole moment of the muon, 11 (g 2) = 233 184 600 (1680) 10 ; (1) exp: for example, should b e compared with the theoretical prediction 11 (g 2) = 233 183 478 (308) 10 : (2) theor: In quantum chromo dynamics (QCD) we cannot, for the forseeable future, aspire to to comparable accuracy.Yet QCD provides di erent, and at least equally impressive, evidence for the validity of the basic principles of quantum eld theory. Indeed, b ecause in QCD the interactions are stronger, QCD manifests a wider variety of phenomena characteristic of quantum eld theory. These include esp ecially running of the e ective coupling with distance or energy scale and the phenomenon of con nement.
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• Baryogenesis in a CP Invariant Theory That Utilizes the Stochastic Movement of Light ﬁelds During Inﬂation
Baryogenesis in a CP invariant theory Anson Hook School of Natural Sciences Institute for Advanced Study Princeton, NJ 08540 June 12, 2018 Abstract We consider baryogenesis in a model which has a CP invariant Lagrangian, CP invariant initial conditions and does not spontaneously break CP at any of the minima. We utilize the fact that tunneling processes between CP invariant minima can break CP to implement baryogenesis. CP invariance requires the presence of two tunneling processes with opposite CP breaking phases and equal probability of occurring. In order for the entire visible universe to see the same CP violating phase, we consider a model where the ﬁeld doing the tunneling is the inﬂaton. arXiv:1508.05094v1 [hep-ph] 20 Aug 2015 1 1 Introduction The visible universe contains more matter than anti-matter [1]. The guiding principles for gener- ating this asymmetry have been Sakharov’s three conditions [2]. These three conditions are C/CP violation • Baryon number violation • Out of thermal equilibrium • Over the years, counter examples have been found for Sakharov’s conditions. One can avoid the need for number violating interactions in theories where the negative B L number is stored − in a sector decoupled from the standard model, e.g. in right handed neutrinos as in Dirac lep- togenesis [3, 4] or in dark matter [5]. The out of equilibrium condition can be avoided if one uses spontaneous baryogenesis [6], where a chemical potential is used to create a non-zero baryon number in thermal equilibrium. However, these models still require a C/CP violating phase or coupling in the Lagrangian.
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• Estimation of Baryon Asymmetry of the Universe from Neutrino Physics
ESTIMATION OF BARYON ASYMMETRY OF THE UNIVERSE FROM NEUTRINO PHYSICS Manorama Bora Department of Physics Gauhati University This thesis is submitted to Gauhati University as requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Faculty of Science March 2018 I would like to dedicate this thesis to my parents . Abstract The discovery of neutrino masses and mixing in neutrino oscillation experiments in 1998 has greatly increased the interest in a mechanism of baryogenesis through leptogenesis, a model of baryogenesis which is a cosmological consequence. The most popular way to explain why neutrinos are massive but at the same time much lighter than all other fermions, is the see-saw mechanism. Thus, leptogenesis realises a highly non-trivial link between two completely independent experimental observations: the absence of antimatter in the observable universe and the observation of neutrino mixings and masses. Therefore, leptogenesis has a built-in double sided nature.. The discovery of Higgs boson of mass 125GeV having properties consistent with the SM, further supports the leptogenesis mechanism. In this thesis we present a brief sketch on the phenomenological status of Standard Model (SM) and its extension to GUT with or without SUSY. Then we review on neutrino oscillation and its implication with latest experiments. We discuss baryogenesis via leptogenesis through the decay of heavy Majorana neutrinos. We also discuss formulation of thermal leptogenesis. At last we try to explore the possibilities for the discrimination of the six kinds of Quasi- degenerate neutrino(QDN)mass models in the light of baryogenesis via leptogenesis. We have seen that all the six QDN mass models are relevant in the context of ﬂavoured leptogenesis.
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• Lecture 17 : the Cosmic Microwave Background
Let’s think about the early Universe… Lecture 17 : The Cosmic ! From Hubble’s observations, we know the Universe is Microwave Background expanding ! This can be understood theoretically in terms of solutions of GR equations !Discovery of the Cosmic Microwave ! Earlier in time, all the matter must have been Background (ch 14) squeezed more tightly together ! If crushed together at high enough density, the galaxies, stars, etc could not exist as we see them now -- everything must have been different! !The Hot Big Bang This week: read Chapter 12/14 in textbook 4/15/14 1 4/15/14 3 Let’s think about the early Universe… Let’s think about the early Universe… ! From Hubble’s observations, we know the Universe is ! From Hubble’s observations, we know the Universe is expanding expanding ! This can be understood theoretically in terms of solutions of ! This can be understood theoretically in terms of solutions of GR equations GR equations ! Earlier in time, all the matter must have been squeezed more tightly together ! If crushed together at high enough density, the galaxies, stars, etc could not exist as we see them now -- everything must have been different! ! What was the Universe like long, long ago? ! What were the original contents? ! What were the early conditions like? ! What physical processes occurred under those conditions? ! How did changes over time result in the contents and structure we see today? 4/15/14 2 4/15/14 4 The Poetic Version ! In a brilliant flash about fourteen billion years ago, time and matter were born in a single instant of creation.
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• Beyond the Standard Model Physics at CLIC
RM3-TH/19-2 Beyond the Standard Model physics at CLIC Roberto Franceschini Università degli Studi Roma Tre and INFN Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma, ITALY Abstract A summary of the recent results from CERN Yellow Report on the CLIC potential for new physics is presented, with emphasis on the di- rect search for new physics scenarios motivated by the open issues of the Standard Model. arXiv:1902.10125v1 [hep-ph] 25 Feb 2019 Talk presented at the International Workshop on Future Linear Colliders (LCWS2018), Arlington, Texas, 22-26 October 2018. C18-10-22. 1 Introduction The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) [1,2,3,4] is a proposed future linear e+e− collider based on a novel two-beam accelerator scheme [5], which in recent years has reached several milestones and established the feasibility of accelerating structures necessary for a new large scale accelerator facility (see e.g. [6]). The project is foreseen to be carried out in stages which aim at precision studies of Standard Model particles such as the Higgs boson and the top quark and allow the exploration of new physics at the high energy frontier. The detailed staging of the project is presented in Ref. [7,8], where plans for the target luminosities at each energy are outlined. These targets can be adjusted easily in case of discoveries at the Large Hadron Collider or at earlier CLIC stages. In fact the collision energy, up to 3 TeV, can be set by a suitable choice of the length of the accelerator and the duration of the data taking can also be adjusted to follow hints that the LHC may provide in the years to come.
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• Baryogenesis and Dark Matter from B Mesons: B-Mesogenesis
Baryogenesis and Dark Matter from B Mesons: B-Mesogenesis Miguel Escudero Abenza [email protected] arXiv:1810.00880, PRD 99, 035031 (2019) with: Gilly Elor & Ann Nelson Based on: arXiv:2101.XXXXX with: Gonzalo Alonso-Álvarez & Gilly Elor New Trends in Dark Matter 09-12-2020 The Universe Baryonic Matter 5% 26% Dark Matter 69% Dark Energy Planck 2018 1807.06209 Miguel Escudero (TUM) B-Mesogenesis New Trends in DM 09-12-20 !2 Theoretical Understanding? Motivating Question: What fraction of the Energy Density of the Universe comes from Physics Beyond the Standard Model? 99.85%! Miguel Escudero (TUM) B-Mesogenesis New Trends in DM 09-12-20 !3 SM Prediction: Neutrinos 40% 60% Photons Miguel Escudero (TUM) B-Mesogenesis New Trends in DM 09-12-20 !4 The Universe Baryonic Matter 5% 26% Dark Matter 69% Dark Energy Planck 2018 1807.06209 Miguel Escudero (TUM) B-Mesogenesis New Trends in DM 09-12-20 !5 Baryogenesis and Dark Matter from B Mesons: B-Mesogenesis arXiv:1810.00880 Elor, Escudero & Nelson 1) Baryogenesis and Dark Matter are linked 2) Baryon asymmetry directly related to B-Meson observables 3) Leads to unique collider signatures 4) Fully testable at current collider experiments Miguel Escudero (TUM) B-Mesogenesis New Trends in DM 09-12-20 !6 Outline 1) B-Mesogenesis 1) C/CP violation 2) Out of equilibrium 3) Baryon number violation? 2) A Minimal Model & Cosmology 3) Implications for Collider Experiments 4) Dark Matter Phenomenology 5) Summary and Outlook Miguel Escudero (TUM) B-Mesogenesis New Trends in DM 09-12-20 !7 Baryogenesis
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• Baryon and Lepton Number Anomalies in the Standard Model
Appendix A Baryon and Lepton Number Anomalies in the Standard Model A.1 Baryon Number Anomalies The introduction of a gauged baryon number leads to the inclusion of quantum anomalies in the theory, refer to Fig. 1.2. The anomalies, for the baryonic current, are given by the following, 2 For SU(3) U(1)B , ⎛ ⎞ 3 A (SU(3)2U(1) ) = Tr[λaλb B]=3 × ⎝ B − B ⎠ = 0. (A.1) 1 B 2 i i lef t right 2 For SU(2) U(1)B , 3 × 3 3 A (SU(2)2U(1) ) = Tr[τ aτ b B]= B = . (A.2) 2 B 2 Q 2 ( )2 ( ) For U 1 Y U 1 B , 3 A (U(1)2 U(1) ) = Tr[YYB]=3 × 3(2Y 2 B − Y 2 B − Y 2 B ) =− . (A.3) 3 Y B Q Q u u d d 2 ( )2 ( ) For U 1 BU 1 Y , A ( ( )2 ( ) ) = [ ]= × ( 2 − 2 − 2 ) = . 4 U 1 BU 1 Y Tr BBY 3 3 2BQYQ Bu Yu Bd Yd 0 (A.4) ( )3 For U 1 B , A ( ( )3 ) = [ ]= × ( 3 − 3 − 3) = . 5 U 1 B Tr BBB 3 3 2BQ Bu Bd 0 (A.5) © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018 133 N. D. Barrie, Cosmological Implications of Quantum Anomalies, Springer Theses, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-94715-0 134 Appendix A: Baryon and Lepton Number Anomalies in the Standard Model 2 Fig. A.1 1-Loop corrections to a SU(2) U(1)B , where the loop contains only left-handed quarks, ( )2 ( ) and b U 1 Y U 1 B where the loop contains only quarks For U(1)B , A6(U(1)B ) = Tr[B]=3 × 3(2BQ − Bu − Bd ) = 0, (A.6) where the factor of 3 × 3 is a result of there being three generations of quarks and three colours for each quark.
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• The Matter – Antimatter Asymmetry of the Universe and Baryogenesis
The matter – antimatter asymmetry of the universe and baryogenesis Andrew Long Lecture for KICP Cosmology Class Feb 16, 2017 Baryogenesis Reviews in General • Kolb & Wolfram’s Baryon Number Genera.on in the Early Universe (1979) • Rio5o's Theories of Baryogenesis [hep-ph/9807454]} (emphasis on GUT-BG and EW-BG) • Rio5o & Trodden's Recent Progress in Baryogenesis [hep-ph/9901362] (touches on EWBG, GUTBG, and ADBG) • Dine & Kusenko The Origin of the Ma?er-An.ma?er Asymmetry [hep-ph/ 0303065] (emphasis on Aﬄeck-Dine BG) • Cline's Baryogenesis [hep-ph/0609145] (emphasis on EW-BG; cartoons!) Leptogenesis Reviews • Buchmuller, Di Bari, & Plumacher’s Leptogenesis for PeDestrians, [hep-ph/ 0401240] • Buchmulcer, Peccei, & Yanagida's Leptogenesis as the Origin of Ma?er, [hep-ph/ 0502169] Electroweak Baryogenesis Reviews • Cohen, Kaplan, & Nelson's Progress in Electroweak Baryogenesis, [hep-ph/ 9302210] • Trodden's Electroweak Baryogenesis, [hep-ph/9803479] • Petropoulos's Baryogenesis at the Electroweak Phase Transi.on, [hep-ph/ 0304275] • Morrissey & Ramsey-Musolf Electroweak Baryogenesis, [hep-ph/1206.2942] • Konstandin's Quantum Transport anD Electroweak Baryogenesis, [hep-ph/ 1302.6713] Constituents of the Universe formaon of large scale structure (galaxy clusters) stars, planets, dust, people late ame accelerated expansion Image stolen from the Planck website What does “ordinary matter” refer to? Let’s break it down to elementary particles & compare number densities … electron equal, universe is neutral proton x10 billion 3⇣(3) 3 3 n =3 T 168 cm− neutron x7 ⌫ ⇥ 4⇡2 ⌫ ' matter neutrinos photon positron =0 2⇣(3) 3 3 n = T 413 cm− γ ⇡2 CMB ' anti-proton =0 3⇣(3) 3 3 anti-neutron =0 n =3 T 168 cm− ⌫¯ ⇥ 4⇡2 ⌫ ' anti-neutrinos antimatter What is antimatter? First predicted by Dirac (1928).
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• Baryogenesis and Dark Matter from B Mesons
Baryogenesis and Dark Matter from B mesons Abstract: In [1] a new mechanism to simultaneously generate the baryon asymmetry of the Universe and the Dark Matter abundance has been proposed. The Standard Model of particle physics succeeds to describe many physical processes and it has been tested to a great accuracy. However, it fails to provide a Dark Matter candidate, a so far undetected component of matter which makes up roughly 25% of the energy budget of the Universe. Furthermore, the question arises why there is a more matter (or baryons) than antimatter in the Universe taking into account that cosmology predicts a Universe with equal parts matter and anti-matter. The mechanism to generate a primordial matter-antimatter asymmetry is called baryogenesis. Any successful mechanism for baryogenesis needs to satisfy the three Sakharov conditions [2]: • violation of charge symmetry and of the combination of charge and parity symmetry • violation of baryon number • departure from thermal equilibrium In this paper [1] a new mechanism for the generation of a baryon asymmetry together with Dark Matter production has been proposed. The mechanism proposed to explain the observed baryon asymetry as well as the pro- duction of dark matter is developed around a fundamental ingredient: a new scalar particle Φ. The Φ particle is massive and would dominate the energy density of the Universe after inﬂation but prior to the Bing Bang nucleosynthesis. The same particle will directly decay, out of thermal equilibrium, to b=¯b quarks and if the Universe is cool enough ∼ O(10 MeV), the produced b quarks can hadronize and form B-mesons.
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• Origin and Evolution of the Universe Baryogenesis
Physics 224 Spring 2008 Origin and Evolution of the Universe Baryogenesis Lecture 18 - Monday Mar 17 Joel Primack University of California, Santa Cruz Post-Inflation Baryogenesis: generation of excess of baryon (and lepton) number compared to anti-baryon (and anti-lepton) number. in order to create the observed baryon number today it is only necessary to create an excess of about 1 quark and lepton for every ~109 quarks+antiquarks and leptons +antileptons. Other things that might happen Post-Inflation: Breaking of Pecci-Quinn symmetry so that the observable universe is composed of many PQ domains. Formation of cosmic topological defects if their amplitude is small enough not to violate cosmological bounds. There is good evidence that there are no large regions of antimatter (Cohen, De Rujula, and Glashow, 1998). It was Andrei Sakharov (1967) who first suggested that the baryon density might not represent some sort of initial condition, but might be understandable in terms of microphysical laws. He listed three ingredients to such an understanding: 1. Baryon number violation must occur in the fundamental laws. At very early times, if baryon number violating interactions were in equilibrium, then the universe can be said to have “started” with zero baryon number. Starting with zero baryon number, baryon number violating interactions are obviously necessary if the universe is to end up with a non-zero asymmetry. As we will see, apart from the philosophical appeal of these ideas, the success of inflationary theory suggests that, shortly after the big bang, the baryon number was essentially zero. 2. CP-violation: If CP (the product of charge conjugation and parity) is conserved, every reaction which produces a particle will be accompanied by a reaction which produces its antiparticle at precisely the same rate, so no baryon number can be generated.
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