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Presidential Documents

Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents

Monday, January 17, 1994 Volume 30—Number 2 Pages 11–54


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Addresses and Remarks January 11 in Brussels (No. 40)—30 Brussels, Belgium Interviews With the News Media—Continued American business community—27 January 11 with European Union leaders in American diplomatic community—18 Brussels (No. 41)—33 Future leaders of Europe—11 January 12 with Visegrad leaders in Prague Hotel De Ville—17 (No. 42)—41 —21 January 12 with President Leonid Kravchuk , , welcoming ceremony—49 of Ukraine (No. 43)—45 Appointments and Nominations Letters and Messages See also Letters and Messages Commerce Department, Assistant Secretary— Assistant Secretary of Defense nominee, letter 50 accepting withdrawal—27 Education Department, Regional and Deputy Meetings With Foreign Leaders Regional Representatives—50 International Joint Commission, Belgian Prime Minister Jean-Luc Dehaene— and Canada, members—40 11 ´ Labor Department, Office of Federal Czech Republic President Vaclav Havel—39 Contract Compliance Programs, Director— European Union leaders—33 50 North Atlantic Council—21 U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Russian President —49 Diplomacy, members—40 Slovak Republic President Michal Kovac—40 White House Office, Director of Presidential Ukraine President Leonid Kravchuk—45 Personnel—40 Visegrad leaders—41 Communications to Congress Proclamations operations in the former Martin Luther King, Jr., Federal Holiday—50 Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, letter—20 National Good Teen Day—52 Religious Freedom Day—51 Communications to Federal Agencies Statements by the President Assistance to the states of the former —19 See Appointments and Nominations Interviews With the News Media Supplementary Materials Exchanges with reporters Acts approved by the President—54 Brussels, Belgium—11 Checklist of White House press releases—54 Prague, Czech Republic—39, 40 Digest of other White House News conferences announcements—53 January 10 in Brussels (No. 39)—23 Nominations submitted to the Senate—54

Editor’s Note: The President was in Moscow, Russia, on January 14, the closing date of this issue. Releases and announcements issued by the Office of the Press Secretary but not received in time for inclusion in this issue will be printed next week.

WEEKLY COMPILATION OF regulations prescribed by the Administrative Committee of the Federal Register, approved by the President (37 FR 23607; 1 CFR Part 10). PRESIDENTIAL DOCUMENTS Distribution is made only by the Superintendent of Docu- ments, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. Published every Monday by the Office of the Federal Reg- The Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents will be ister, National Archives and Records Administration, Washing- furnished by mail to domestic subscribers for $80.00 per year ton, DC 20408, the Weekly Compilation of Presidential Docu- ($137.00 for mailing first class) and to foreign subscribers for ments contains statements, messages, and other Presidential $93.75 per year, payable to the Superintendent of Documents, materials released by the White House during the preceding Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. The week. charge for a single copy is $3.00 ($3.75 for foreign mailing). The Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents is pub- There are no restrictions on the republication of material lished pursuant to the authority contained in the Federal Reg- appearing in the Weekly Compilation of Presidential Docu- ister Act (49 Stat. 500, as amended; 44 U.S.C. Ch. 15), under ments.


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Exchange With Reporters Prior to and with many of Europe’s future leaders in Discussions With Prime Minister this great hall of history. Jean-Luc Dehaene of Belgium in I first came to Brussels as a young man Brussels in a very different but a difficult time, when January 9, 1994 the future for us was uncertain. It is fitting that my first trip to Europe as President be Bosnia about building a better future for the young Q. Mr. President, do you think that Bosnia people of Europe and the United States should be at the top of the agenda for the today and that it begin here in Belgium. As NATO consideration? a great capital and as the headquarters of The President. Well, we’ll discuss that NATO and the European Union, Brussels and a number of other things. We have a and Belgium have long been at the center lot of issues to discuss. But the Prime Min- of Europe’s steady progress toward greater ister and I will discuss that and several other security and greater prosperity. For those of issues. As you know, he’s just ended a tour you who know anything about me personally, of 6 months in the presidency of the EU, I also have a great personal debt of nearly and in my judgment, he and Belgium did 40 years standing to this country because it a superb job. They were very instrumental was a Belgian, Adolphe Sax, who invented in the successes we had last summer in the the saxophone. [Laughter] G–7 meeting, which laid the foundation for I have come here at this time because I the adoption of the GATT round. So we’re believe that it is time for us together to revi- going to talk a little about that, too. talize our partnership and to define a new security at a time of historic change. It is President’s Mother a new day for our transatlantic partnership: Q. Mr. President, are you finding it dif- The cold war is over; Germany is united; the ficult to engage in diplomacy after your per- Soviet Union is gone; and a constitutional de- sonal loss? mocracy governs Russia. The specter that The President. No, I’m glad to be here. haunted our citizens for decades, of tanks My family and my friends and my mother’s rolling in through Fulda Gap or nuclear anni- friends, we had a wonderful day yesterday, hilation raining from the sky, that specter, and I’m doing what I should be doing. I’m thank God, has largely vanished. Your gen- glad to have the opportunity to be here and eration is the beneficiary of those miraculous go back to work. transformations. In the end, the Iron Curtain rusted from NOTE: The exchange began at 1:55 p.m. at the within and was brought crashing down by the Conrad Hotel. A tape was not available for ver- ification of the content of this exchange. determination of brave men and women to live free, by the Poles and the Czechs, by the Russians, the Ukrainians, the people of Remarks to Future Leaders of the Baltics, by all those who understood that Europe in Brussels neither economics nor consciences can be or- January 9, 1994 dered from above. Equally important, how- ever, their heroic efforts succeeded because Thank you very much, Mr. Prime Minister, our resolve never failed, because the weap- Mr. Mayor, distinguished leaders. I’m de- ons of deterrence never disappeared and the lighted to be here with the Prime Minister message of democracy never disappeared.


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As the East enjoys a new birth of freedom, triumphs. And we should speak honestly one of freedom’s great victories lives here in about what we feel about where we are and Europe’s West: the peaceful cleaving to- where we should go. gether of nations which clashed for centuries. This is the truth as I see it. We served The transformation was wrought by visionary history well during the cold war, but now his- leaders such as Monnet, Schumann, Spaak, tory calls on us again to help consolidate free- and Marshall, who understood that modern dom’s new gains into a larger and a more nations can enrich their futures more lasting peace. We must build a new security through cooperation than conquest. My ad- for Europe. The old security was based on ministration supports European union and the defense of our bloc against another bloc. Europe’s development of stronger institu- The new security must be found in Europe’s tions of common purpose and common ac- integration, an integration of security forces, tion. We recognize we will benefit more from of market economies, of national democ- a strong and equal partner than from a weak racies. The purpose of my trip to Europe is one. to help lead the movement to that integration The fall of the Soviet empire and Western and to assure you that America will be a Europe’s integration are the two greatest ad- strong partner in it. vances for peace in the last half of the 20th For the peoples who broke ’s century. All of us are reaping their blessings. chains, we now see a race between rejuvena- In particular, with the cold war over and in tion and despair. And the outcome will— spite of the present global recession which bound to shape the security of every nation clouds your future, all our nations now have in the transatlantic alliance. Today that race the opportunity to take long, deferred steps is being played out from the Balkans to cen- toward economic and social renewal. My own tral Asia. In one lane are the heirs of the Nation has made a beginning in putting our enlightenment who seek to consolidate free- economic house in order, reducing our defi- dom’s gains by building free economies, open cits, investing in our people, creating jobs, democracies, and tolerant civic cultures. Pit- and sparking an economic recovery that we ted against them are the grim pretenders to hope will help not only the United States but tyranny’s dark throne, the militant national- also will lift all nations. We’re also facing up ists and demagogues who fan suspicions that to some of the social problems in our country are ancient and parade the pain of renewal we have ignored for too long, from the chal- in order to obscure the promise of reform. lenge to provide universal health care to re- We, none of us, can afford to be bystanders ducing crime in our streets to dealing with of that race. Too much is at stake. Consider the needs of our poor children. We have a this: The coming months and years may de- truly multicultural society. In one of our cide whether the Russian people continue to counties there are people from over 150 dif- develop a peaceful market democracy or ferent national and ethnic groups. But we are whether, in frustration, they elect leaders working to build an American community for who incline back toward authoritarianism the 21st century. and empire. This period may determine And with the European Union, we have whether the nations neighboring Russia recently led the world to a new GATT agree- thrive in freedom and join the ranks of non- ment that will create millions of new jobs nuclear states or founder under the strain of in all our countries. In many ways, it would reform and cling to weapons that increase be easy to offer you only a message of simple the risk of nuclear accident or diversion. This celebration, to trumpet our common herit- period may decide whether the states of the age, to rejoice that our labors for peace have former Soviet bloc are woven into the fabric been rewarded, to cheer on the economic of transatlantic prosperity and security or are progress that is occurring. But this is not a simply left hanging in isolation as they face time for self-congratulation. And certainly we the same daunting changes gripping so many have enough challenges that we should act others in Europe. as true partners. That is, we should share one These pivotal decisions ultimately rest with another’s burdens rather than only talking of the people who threw off communism’s yoke.

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They must make their own decisions about ‘‘Why do you maintain a presence in Europe? their own future. But we in the West can How can you justify the expense when we clearly help to shape their choices, and we have so many problems here at home?’’ We must summon the political will to do so. tried that, right after . The The task requires a steady and patient ef- American people this year proved their re- fort, guided by a strategic star that points us sistance to the siren song of global with- toward the integration of a broader Europe. drawal. We did so when the Congress voted It also requires a fair amount of humility, for the North American Free Trade Agree- understanding that we cannot control every ment, voted for America to compete in a event in every country on every day. But if global economy, not to retreat. And we did we are willing to assume the central chal- so when we reached out to Europe and to lenge, we can revitalize not only the nations others, and in working with the European of the East but also our own transatlantic re- Union, led the world to accept a new GATT lationship. agreement on world trade. I have come here Over the past half-century, the trans- today to declare and to demonstrate that Eu- atlantic community only realized half the rope remains central to the interests of the promise of World War II’s triumph over fas- United States and that we will help to work cism. The other half lay captive behind Eu- with our partners in seizing the opportunities rope’s walls of division. Now we have the before us all. chance to realize the full promise of Europe’s Without question, Europe is not the only victories without its great disappointment: focus of our engagement, we must reach out Normandy without Yalta, the liberation of to Latin America and to Asia, areas that are the low countries without the Berlin block- increasingly important both to the United ade. States and to Europe. And our bonds with During this past half-century, transatlantic Europe will be different than they were in security depended primarily on the deter- the past, but make no mistake about it, the rents provided by our military forces. Now bonds that tie the United States and Europe the immediate threat to our East is not of are unique. We share a passionate faith that advancing armies but of creeping instability. God has endowed us as individuals with in- Countering that threat requires not only mili- alienable rights and a belief that the state tary security but also the promotion of demo- exists by our consent solely to advance free- cratic and economic renewal. Combined, dom and security and prosperity for all of these forces are the strongest bulwark against us as individuals. That is still a radical idea Europe’s current dangers, against ethnic con- in the world in which we live. Developed by flict, the abuse of human rights, the desta- Locke and Montesquieu, put into practice in bilizing refugee flows, the rise of aggressive my country by Jefferson and Madison, it has regimes, and the spread of weapons of mass toppled tyrants, it has drawn millions to our destruction. country’s shores. Over three centuries, the The integration of the former Communist ties of kinship between the United States and bloc with the rest of Europe will be gradual Europe have fostered bonds of commerce, and often difficult, as Germany’s bold efforts and you remain our most valued partner, not demonstrate. And like all great opportunities, just in the cause of democracy and freedom we must remember that this one could be but also in the economics of trade and invest- fleeting. We must not now let the Iron Cur- ment. tain be replaced with a veil of indifference. But above all, the core of our security re- For history will judge us as it judged with mains with Europe. That is why America’s scorn those who preached isolationism be- commitment to Europe’s safety and stability tween the World Wars and as it has judged remains as strong as ever. That is why I urged with praise the bold architects of the trans- NATO to convene this week’s summit. It is atlantic community after World War II. why I am committed to keeping roughly With the cold war over, some in America 100,000 American troops stationed in Eu- with short memories have called for us to rope, consistent with the expressed desires pack up and go home. I am asked often: of our allies here. It is not habit but security

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and partnership that justifies this continuing Atlantic Cooperation Council. It includes all commitment by the United States. Just as we the states of the former Soviet bloc as well have worked in partnership with Europe on as the 16 of NATO. Now it is time to move every major security challenge in this cen- beyond that dialog and create an operating tury, it is now time for us to join in building partnership. That is why I have proposed that the new security for the 21st century, the we create the Partnership For Peace. century in which most of you in this room This partnership will advance a process of will live most of your lives. The new security evolution for NATO’s formal enlargement. It must seek to bind a broader Europe together looks to the day when NATO will take on with a strong fabric woven of military co- new members who assume the alliance’s full operation, prosperous market economies, responsibilities. It will create a framework in and vital democracies. which former Communist states and others Let me speak briefly about each of these. not now members of NATO can participate The first and most important element of the with NATO members in joint military plan- security must be military strength and co- ning, training, exercises, and other efforts. operation. The cold war is over, but war itself This partnership will build new bonds of co- is not over. As we know, it rages today not operation among the militaries of the East only in distant lands but right here in Europe and the West. It will reinforce the develop- and the former Yugoslavia. That murderous ment of democracies and democratic prac- conflict reminds us that even after the cold tices, such as respect for human rights and war, military forces remain relevant. It also civilian control over military forces. It can reveals the difficulties of applying military give NATO new tools for responding to eth- force to conflicts within as well as among nic instability and other dangers of our era. states. And it teaches us that it is best to act The use of NATO forces in such missions early to prevent conflicts that we may later will always be considered and must be on not be able to control. a case-by-case basis. But tomorrow’s summit As we work to resolve that tragedy and will put us in a stronger position to make ease the suffering of its victims, we also need to change our security institutions so they can those decisions and to make them early and better address such conflicts and advance wisely. Europe’s integration. Many institutions will The Partnership For Peace will not alter play a role, including the European Union, NATO’s fundamental mission of defending the Western European Union, the Council NATO territory from attack. We cannot af- of Europe, the Conference for Security and ford to abandon that mission while the dream Cooperation in Europe, and the United Na- of empire still burns in the minds of some tions. But NATO, history’s greatest military who look longingly toward a brutal past. But alliance, must be central to that process. neither can we afford to draw a new line be- Only NATO has the military forces, the tween East and West that could create a self- integrated command, the broad legitimacy, fulfilling prophecy of future confrontation. and the habits of cooperation that are essen- This partnership opens the door to co- tial to draw in new participants and respond operation with all of NATO’s former adver- to new challenges. One of the deepest trans- saries, including Russia, Ukraine, and the formations within the transatlantic commu- other newly independent states, based on a nity over the past half-century occurred be- belief that freedom’s boundaries must now cause the armed forces of our respected na- be defined by new behavior, not old history. tions trained, studied, and marched through I say to all those in Europe and the United their careers together. It is not only the com- States who would simply have us draw a new patibility of our weapons but the camaraderie line in Europe further east that we should of our warriors that provide the sinews be- not foreclose the possibility of the best pos- hind our mutual security guarantees and our sible future for Europe, which is a democracy best hope for peace. everywhere, a market economy everywhere, Two years ago our nations began to adapt people cooperating everywhere for mutual NATO to this new era by creating the North security. We can guard against a lesser fu-

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ture, but we should strive for the best future new global economy, against the competition for you and your generation. that comes from countries with lower wages NATO can also help to meet Europe’s new or that is generated when technology enables security challenges by doing more to counter us to do more with fewer workers. But there the proliferation of weapons of mass destruc- is not new technology to provide new jobs tion. I tell you, frankly, it is one of our most for those who are displaced. This is a prob- difficult and challenging tasks. Countering lem not just for Europe but also for the those weapons and the missiles that deliver United States and now for Japan as well. them will require close cooperation, honesty Among the Atlantic nations, economic and discipline, and a willingness of some not stagnation has clearly eroded public support now willing to do it to forgo immediate finan- in finances for outward-looking foreign poli- cial gain. cies and for greater integration. Our respec- The danger is clear and present. Growing tive efforts to revive our own economies are, missile capabilities are bringing more of Eu- therefore, important not only for our own liv- rope into the range of rogue states such as ing standards but also for our collective Iran and Libya. There are disturbing reports strength. And both of them will shape the of efforts to smuggle nuclear materials into future you and your children will have. and out of Eastern Europe. And this east- We must proceed quickly to implement ward-looking summit will give us the chance the GATT agreement. But we also must learn to begin to address the threat on our own together and from each other on making a territory. broader and bolder series of adjustments to The second element of the new security this new global economy. we are building must be greater economic We Americans have a lot to learn from Eu- vitality, the issue which I would imagine is rope in matters of job training and appren- of most immediate concern to most of you. ticeship, of moving our people from school We must build it on vibrant and open market to work, into good paying jobs with the ca- economies, the engines that have given us pacity to continue to learn new skills as the the greatest prosperity in human history over economy forces them to do so. But we also the last several decades in Europe and in the may have something to teach in the area of United States. the flexibility of our job structure and our Our combined success in leading the world capacity to generate work and new employ- to a new GATT agreement capped 7 years ment opportunities. This is an area in which of effort to expand prosperity to all trading we can usefully draw lessons from each nations. Now we must define a successor other. And that is why I am pleased that in agenda to GATT that focuses on the renewal March our leading ministers will hold a jobs of advanced economies and the enlargement conference that I proposed last July. We sim- of prosperities to the nations of our East that ply must figure out how to create more jobs are making the difficult transitions to market and how to reward people who work both economics. harder and smarter in the workplace. It is First, the renewal of our own economies the basis of all the other attitudes that we is critical. Unless we are creating jobs and want to foster to remain engaged with one unless we are raising incomes in Europe and another and with the rest of the world. in the United States and Japan, in the ad- But as we work to strengthen our own vanced countries of the world, it will be dif- economies, we must know that we serve our ficult for the people of those nations, all our own prosperity and our security by helping nations, to continue to support of policy of the new market economies of Europe’s east- involvement with the rest of the world. ern half to thrive. Successful market reforms The nations of the European Union face in those states will help to deflate the region’s particular severe economic challenges with demagogues. It will help to ease ethnic ten- nearly 20 million people unemployed and, in sions. It will help new democracies to take Germany’s case, the extraordinarily high root. It is also in your long-term interest be- costs of unification. All our nations have had cause one of the things that we have learned to struggle against the restless forces of this is that wealthy nations cannot grow richer

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unless they have customers beyond their bor- racy and individual freedoms that has begun ders for their goods and their services. throughout Europe’s former Communist So the short-term difficulties of taking states. The success of these democratic re- Eastern Europe into our economic alliance forms make us all more secure because de- will be more than rewarded if they succeed mocracies tend not to wage war on one an- and if they are customers for Western Eu- other, and they tend not to break their word rope’s goods and services tomorrow. That is to one another. Democratic governments why early on in our administration we com- nurture civil society, respect for human rights mitted to increase support substantially for and habits of simple tolerance. The demo- market reforms in the new states of the cratic values at the heart of the Western com- former Soviet Union and why we have con- munity are also our best answer to the ag- tinued our support for economic transition gressive and ethnic hatreds un- in Central and Eastern Europe. leashed by the end of the cold war. Ultimately, the success of market reforms We in the transatlantic community must to the East will depend more on trade than commit ourselves to helping democracy suc- aid. None of us have enough money to mark- ceed in all the former Communist states that edly change the future of those countries as are Western Europe’s immediate neighbors, they move to free market systems in the gov- because their security matters to our security. ernment coffers. We cannot give them Nowhere is democracy’s success more im- enough aid to make them full partners. They portant to us all than there and then in Rus- must grow and trade their way into full part- sia. I will say again: In Russia, if the nation nership with us. continues to evolve as a market democracy, One of our priorities, therefore, should be satisfied within her borders and at peace with to reduce trade barriers to the former Com- her neighbors, defining her greatness in munist states. It will make little sense for us terms of the ability to enable all of the chil- to applaud their market reforms on the one dren of Russia to live to the fullest of their hand while offering only selective access to potential, then our road toward Europe’s full our markets on the other. That’s like inviting integration will be wider and smoother and someone to a castle and refusing to let down safer. As one Ukrainian legislator recently the drawbridge. The United States has al- stated, ‘‘If Russia is democratic, Europe will ready eliminated many of our cold war bar- be calm.’’ riers to products from these countries. And The results of the recent elections in Rus- all our nations must find more ways to do sia and the statements of some Russian politi- the same thing. The economic success of cal figures have given us all genuine cause these states simply cannot be separated from for concern. We must consistently condemn our own renewal and security. expression of intolerance and threats of ag- In 1931, a remarkable British political car- gression. But we should also keep those con- toon portrayed the United States and Europe cerns in some historical perspective. It was in a rowboat. At the back end of the boat, only 2 years ago, after all, that the Soviet where Europe’s more Eastern powers sat, Union dissolved. Just 2 months ago, Russia there was a terrible leak, and it was sinking appeared to be on the brink of a civil war. fast. The front end, where the United States But since then Russia has held a free and and Western Europe were, was still afloat. fair national election, its people have ratified The boat was sinking from the back end. And a genuinely democratic constitution, and they one of the figures in our end of the boat have elected their first-ever post-Soviet legis- was saying, ‘‘Thank goodness, the leak’s not lature. And the Government continues to at our end of the boat.’’ In the end, the whole pursue democratic and economic reform. boat sank. That will happen again unless we The transformation Russia is undertaking work together. Europe’s Western half clearly, is absolutely staggering. If you just think as history shows, cannot long be secure if about what the country has been like since the Eastern half remains in turmoil. 1917, if you go back to the 18th century and The third and final imperative of this new imagine the history of the nation from that security is to support the growth of democ- point to this, the idea that the nation could

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seriously be involved by democratic vote in Today we can honor the sacrifice of those undertaking these transformations is abso- Americans buried here on your soil by ex- lutely staggering. We cannot expect them to panding the reach of the freedoms they correct overnight three-quarters of a century fought and gave their lives to preserve. The of repressive leadership, three-quarters of a fight for your generation across a broader century of totalitarian policy, or a whole na- Europe will be joined and won not on this tional history in which there was no democ- continent’s beaches or across its plains but racy. rather in its new parliaments and city coun- As in the other Communist nations, this cils, in the offices and factories of its new will be the work of generations. We in the market economies, in the hearts and minds United States have been at it for 200 years of the young people like many of you here. now, and we’re still working to try to get it You have the most to gain from a Europe right. All of us have to recognize that there that is integrated in terms of security, in will be wrong turns and even reversals, as terms of economics, in terms of democracies. there have been in all of our own countries Ultimately, you will have to decide what throughout our histories. But as long as these sort of Europe you want and how hard you states continue their progress toward democ- are willing to work for it. But I want you racy and respect the rights of their own and to know that the United States stands by you other people, they understand the rights of in that battle, as we have in the other battles their minorities and their neighbors, then we of the 20th century. should support their progress with a steady I believe that our freedom is indivisible. patience. I believe our destinies are joined. I believe In order to support these new democ- that the 21st century can be the most exciting racies, we are supporting grassroots efforts period that Europe and the United States to build the institutions of civil society, from have ever known and that your future can community organizers in the Czech Republic be the richest and brightest of any genera- to election volunteers in Bulgaria. We also tion. But we will have to work to make it will take steps to encourage cooperation so. among the new democracies. As with West- Thank you very much. ern Europe after World War II, we must get regional neighbors working together rather NOTE: The President spoke at 6 p.m. in the Goth- than looking at each other with suspicion. ic Room at the Hotel De Ville. In his remarks, The broader integration in peace we are he referred to Prime Minister Jean-Luc Dehaene building is not only a European concern, I of Belgium and Mayor Jose Desmaret of Brussels. say again, it is distinctly in the interests of the United States. My Nation has thrilled at the progress of freedom on this continent Remarks on Departure From The over the past 5 years. And we understand Hotel De Ville to in Brussels well the toll that European discord ultimately January 9, 1994 takes on our own people. Only a few hours from this place lie the Thank you all for coming out tonight. graves of thousands of Americans who died Thank you for waving the flags. I’m sorry we in Europe’s two great wars. History records didn’t have more room inside, but I’m glad where they fell, at Flanders Field, on the we could show the speech on the screen. shores of Normandy, and in the Battle of the Let me say that I have been in this place Bulge. But let us remember as well why they many times. I’ve been here as a student. I’ve came here, why they left the safety of their been here as the Governor of my State. I homes to fight in a distant land. They came never imagined I would actually be here as because our security depends more on things President and you would be here to say hello. that go far beyond geographical divides. Our You have already heard my speech; I have security depends on more than the ocean really nothing else to say except I’m delighted that divides us. It depends on the existence to be here. We are here to build a new and of a strong and free and democratic Europe. stronger future for Europe and a better part-

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nership between Europe and the United I stopped at a little coffee shop and res- States, and I hope all of you will support that. taurant on the way out here tonight, just Happy New Year, and thank you very talked to some citizens, and I met this incred- much. ible Belgian lady who said, ‘‘You’re right, we’ve got to compete. We can’t run away NOTE: The President spoke at 6:47 p.m. in the from the world.’’ And she said, ‘‘I know how Grand Place. A tape was not available for verifica- hard it is economically, but 2 years ago I tion of the content of these remarks. didn’t have a job, and now I have my own business and I’m doing very well, and I’m excited about the European Union. I’m going Remarks to the American Diplomatic to do business in other countries now.’’ Community in Brussels We’ve got to somehow communicate that January 9, 1994 spirit, that belief that we can bring this econ- omy back, this whole global economy back The President. Thank you very much. to people here so they can believe in them- Thank you for coming. Thank you for play- selves. I can tell you that, back home, that ing. And thank you for waiting a little as I is beginning to happen. We do have more had the chance to stop downtown and talk control over our economic destiny. The defi- to some citizens after I gave my speech. cit is coming down after going up for 12 I want to tell you how very much I appre- years. Jobs are being created, and movement ciate the work that all of you are doing for is there in the economy. And there is a sense your country a long way from home, but at that we’re beginning to confront problems the center of the future we have to make that we have ignored for way, way too long. together. I think in a way you’re all fortunate So I think we’re coming here at a very im- to be serving in Brussels at such a pivotal portant time and an appropriate time. And point in the history of Europe and the history I guess I ought to end by apologizing to those of the world. This is a remarkable city, the of you who have had to do so much extra headquarters of the Commission on Euro- work because of this trip and the headaches pean Unity and Union and NATO. And I I may have caused you. But believe me, it want to thank all of our three Ambassadors is in a worthy cause, and we are going to behind us for the work that they have done. make a new future for the people of Europe The importance of our bilateral relationship and the people of the world so that we don’t with Belgium can hardly be overstated. repeat the mistakes of the 20th century in Alan Blinken, I think, will represent us the 21st and so that we give all these children very well, particularly if all of you at the em- a better future than any generation has ever bassy do what everybody tries to do at the known. White House every day and make sure I’m not my own worst enemy. [Laughter] I want Thank you very much. to thank Bob Hunter for the work he’s doing Mayor of Dinant. In the name of the city at NATO and say that this Partnership For of Dinant, I have the honor to give to the Peace, contrary to what some have sug- President of USA an instrument of sax—the gested, is not a weak limitation on the future saxophone, yes. [Laughter] of European security, it is a strong first step that opens the possibility of the best possible The President. In case you didn’t under- future for Europe in which everyone will stand it, Dinant, Belgium, is the home of have an opportunity to be a democracy and Adolphe Sax, the man who invented the saxo- to be part of our shared security. And I want phone. And this says, ‘‘Adolphe Sax, 1814 to to say a special word of thanks to my longtime 1894. To , President of the friend Stu Eizenstat for coming here to serve. United States.’’ And it says something else, We’ve worked hard to get this GATT agree- but my glasses are not here. [Laughter] ment. The European Union is now a reality. Dinant, Belgium, and—— We have to see it through; there’s still a lot Mayor of Dinant. ‘‘International Year of to do. the Saxophone.’’

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The President. Yes, the international year Memorandum on Assistance to the of Adolphe Sax. And it points out that this States of the Former Soviet Union wonderful horn was made in Paris by Selmer. January 8, 1994 Thank you very much. Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense NOTE: The President spoke at 8:03 p.m. at the Subject: Transfer of Funds for Assistance for Conrad Hotel. In his remarks, he referred to Alan the New Independent States (NIS) of the Blinken, U.S. Ambassador to Belgium; Robert Former Soviet Union Hunter, U.S. Ambassador to NATO; and Stuart Eizenstat, U.S. Ambassador to the European Pursuant to the Supplemental Appropria- Union. A tape was not available for verification tions for the NIS of the Former Soviet Union of the content of these remarks. Act, 1993 (Title VI of Public Law 103–87) (the ‘‘Act’’), I hereby determine that pro- grams described in Section 560 of the For- eign Operations, Export Financing and Re- lated Programs Appropriations Act, 1994 (Ti- tles I–V of Public Law 103–87) and programs described in Section 498 of the Foreign As- Memorandum on Assistance to the sistance Act of 1961, as amended (Public States of the Former Soviet Union Law 87–195), will increase the national secu- January 8, 1994 rity of the United States. The political and economic transformation of the NIS of the former Soviet Union into Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense peaceful market-oriented democracies will Subject: Notification Under 10 U.S.C. 2215 directly reduce the security threat to the for the New Independent States (NIS) of the United States and lead to substantial savings Former Soviet Union in the cost of the defense of the United States. The above-mentioned programs fa- Pursuant to Section 2215, Title 10, United cilitate this transformation, thereby making States Code, as amended by Section 1106 of a critical contribution to increasing the na- the National Defense Authorization Act for tional security of the United States. Fiscal Year 1994, I hereby certify that making Accordingly, unless I instruct otherwise in available the funds appropriated under the the interim, on the thirtieth day following heading ‘‘Operation and Maintenance, De- submission to the appropriate Committees of fense Agencies’’ in the Supplemental Appro- the Congress of the memorandum regarding priations for the NIS of the Former Soviet notification under 10 U.S.C. 2215 for the Union Act, 1993 (Title VI of Public Law 103– NIS of the former Soviet Union, you are au- 87) to the Agency for International Develop- thorized and directed to exercise your au- ment, Assistance for the NIS of the Former thority under the first two provisos under the Soviet Union, is in the national security inter- heading ‘‘Operation and Maintenance, De- est of the United States. fense Agencies’’ in the Act to transfer funds You are authorized and directed to submit in the amounts and to the accounts detailed a copy of this certification to the appropriate in the attachment to this memorandum. Any committees of the Congress and to arrange funds transferred to the Agency for Inter- for its publication in the Federal Register. national Development may thereafter, at the direction of the Secretary of State or the Co- William J. Clinton ordinator designated under Section 102 of the FREEDOM Support Act (Public Law 102–511), be allocated or transferred pursu- NOTE: This memorandum was released by the Of- ant to the authority of Section 632 of the fice of the Press Secretary on January 10. Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended. In the event of such transfer, the implement- ing agency shall be the agency responsible

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and accountable for the management, audit sonnel received high praise from the U.N. and use of such funds. Commander, Danish Brigadier General William J. Clinton Thomsen, for their outstanding professional- ism and capabilities, which enabled them NOTE: This memorandum was released by the Of- quickly to assume an integral role in the fice of the Press Secretary on January 10. force. Upon receiving orientation and train- ing on the mission at UNPROFOR head- Letter to Congressional Leaders quarters in Skopje, the U.S. unit began con- Reporting on Peacekeeping ducting observation and monitoring oper- Operations in the Former Yugoslav ations along the northeastern section of the Macedonian border with . The U.S. Republic of Macedonia contribution has thus enhanced January 8, 1994 UNPROFOR’s coverage and effectiveness in Dear Mr. Speaker: (Dear Mr. President:) preventing a spillover of the conflict, and has Six months ago I provided you with my underscored the U.S. commitment to the initial report on the deployment of a U.S. achievement of important multilateral goals peacekeeping contingent as part of the in the region. Protection Force As always, the safety of U.S. personnel is (UNPROFOR) in the former Yugoslav Re- of paramount concern. U.S. forces assigned public of Macedonia. I am now providing this to UNPROFOR Macedonia have encoun- followup report, consistent with the War tered no hostilities, and there have been no Powers Resolution, to ensure that the Con- U.S. casualties since the deployment began. gress is kept informed about this important The mission has the support of the govern- U.S. contribution in support of multilateral ment and the local population. Our forces efforts in the region. will remain fully prepared not only to fulfill As a significant part of U.N. efforts to pre- their peacekeeping mission but to defend vent the Balkan conflict from spreading and themselves if necessary. to contribute to stability in the region, the On December 14, 1993, elements of the U.N. Security Council adopted Resolution U.S. Army Berlin Brigade’s reinforced com- 795 (1992) authorizing the presence of pany team (RCT) assigned to UNPROFOR UNPROFOR for peacekeeping purposes in Macedonia began redeploying to Germany as Macedonia. In early 1993, a Nordic battalion part of the normal rotation of U.S. forces. was deployed to Macedonia with the mission Lead elements of a similarly equipped and of monitoring and reporting developments sized RCT began arriving in Macedonia on along the northern border that could signify December 27, 1993. The approximately 300- a threat to the territory of Macedonia. Con- person replacement unit—Task Force 1–6, sistent with U.N. Security Council Resolu- from 1st Battalion, 6th Infantry Regiment, tion 842 (1993), the United States aug- 3d Infantry Division (Mechanized), Vilseck, mented the UNPROFOR Macedonia peace- Germany—assumed the mission on January keeping force with a combat-equipped U.S. 6, 1994. Army contingent. The U.N. Security Council The U.S. contribution to the UNPROFOR extended the UNPROFOR mandate in Res- Macedonia peacekeeping mission is but one olution 871 (1993). Our U.S. Armed Forces part of a much larger, continuing commit- personnel have served with distinction in ment towards resolution of the extremely dif- Macedonia continuously since their arrival in ficult situation in the former Yugoslavia. I am early July 1993. not able to indicate at this time how long The peacekeeping operations in Macedo- our deployment to Macedonia will be nec- nia have been conducted safely and effec- essary. I have continued the deployment of tively, and I am certain that you share my U.S. Armed Forces for these purposes in ac- pride in and appreciation for the superb ef- cordance with section 7 of the United Na- forts of the Americans who are contributing tions Participation Act and pursuant to my so much to the UNPROFOR Macedonia constitutional authority as Commander in mission. Unsurprisingly, the U.S. Army per- Chief and Chief Executive.

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I am grateful for the continuing support significant economic frustration, ethnic ten- of the Congress for U.S. efforts, including sions, and intolerant nationalism. the deployment of U.S. Armed Forces to The size of the reactionary vote in Russia’s Macedonia, towards peace and stability in the recent election reminds us again of the former Yugoslavia. I remain committed to strength of democracy’s opponents. The on- consulting closely with the Congress on our going slaughter in Bosnia tallies the price foreign policy, and I look forward to contin- when those opponents prevail. If we don’t ued cooperation as we move forward toward meet our new challenge, then most as- attainment of our goals in the region. suredly, we will once again, someday down Sincerely, the road, face our old challenges again. If democracy in the East fails, then violence William J. Clinton and disruption from the East will once again harm us and other democracies. NOTE: Identical letters were sent to Thomas S. Foley, Speaker of the House of Representatives, I believe our generation’s stewardship of and Robert C. Byrd, President pro tempore of this grand alliance, therefore, will most criti- the Senate. This letter was released by the Office cally be judged by whether we succeed in of the Press Secretary on January 10. integrating the nations to our east within the compass of Western security and Western values. For we’ve been granted an oppor- Remarks to the North Atlantic tunity without precedent: We really have the Council in Brussels chance to recast European security on his- January 10, 1994 toric new principles: the pursuit of economic and political freedom. And I would argue to Thank you very much, Mr. Secretary Gen- you that we must work hard to succeed now, eral, and distinguished leaders. I am deeply for this opportunity may not come to us honored to represent my Nation at the North again. Atlantic Council this morning, as eight pre- In effect, the world wonders now whether vious Presidents have done before me. Each we have the foresight and the courage our of us came here for the same compelling rea- predecessors had to act on our long-term in- son: The security of the North Atlantic region terests. I’m confident that the steel in this is vital to the security of the United States. alliance has not rusted. Our nations have The founders of this alliance created the proved that by joining together in the com- greatest military alliance in history. It was a mon effort in the Gulf war. We proved it bold undertaking. I think all of us know that anew this past year by working together, after we have come together this week because 7 long years of effort, in a spirit of com- history calls upon us to be equally bold once promise and harmony to reach a new GATT again in the aftermath of the cold war. Now agreement. And now we must do it once we no longer fear attack from a common again. enemy. But if our common adversary has To seize the great opportunity before us vanished, we know our common dangers I have proposed that we forge what we have have not. all decided to call the Partnership For Peace, With the cold war over, we must confront opened to all the former Communist states the destabilizing consequences of the of the Warsaw Pact, along with other non- unfreezing of history which the end of the NATO states. The membership of the Part- cold war has wrought. The threat to us now nership will plan and train and exercise to- is not of advancing armies so much as of gether and work together on missions of creeping instability. The best strategy against common concern. They should be invited to this threat is to integrate the former Com- work directly with NATO both here and in munist states into our fabric of liberal democ- the coordination cell in Mons. racy, economic prosperity, and military co- The Partnership will prepare the NATO operation. For our security in this generation alliance to undertake new tasks that the times will be shaped by whether reforms in these impose upon us. The Combined Joint Task nations succeed in the face of their own very Force Headquarters we are creating will let

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us act both effectively and with dispatch in democratic ideals. We should not foreclose helping to make and keep the peace and in that possibility. helping to head off some of the terrible prob- The Partnership For Peace, I would argue, lems we are now trying to solve today. We gives us the best of both worlds. It enables must also ready this alliance to meet new us to prepare and to work toward the en- threats, notably from weapons of mass de- largement of NATO when other countries struction and the means of delivering them. are capable of fulfilling their NATO respon- Building on NATO’s creation of the North sibilities. It enables us to do it in a way that Atlantic Cooperation Council 2 years ago, the gives us the time to reach out to Russia and Partnership For Peace sets in motion a proc- to these other nations of the former Soviet ess that leads to the enlargement of NATO. Union, which have been almost ignored We began this alliance with 12 members. through this entire debate by people around Today there are 16, and each one has the world, in a way that leaves open the possi- strengthened the alliance. Indeed, our treaty bility of a future for Europe that totally always looked to the addition of new mem- breaks from the destructive past we have bers who shared the alliance’s purposes and known. who could enlarge its orbit of democratic se- So I say to you, I do not view this as some curity. Thus, in leading us toward the addi- sort of half-hearted compromise. In sub- tion of these Eastern states, the Partnership stance, this is a good idea. It is the right thing For Peace does not change NATO’s original to do at this moment in history. It leaves vision, it realizes that vision. open the best possible future for Europe, and leaves us the means to settle for a future that So let us say here to the people in Europe’s is not the best but is much better than the east, we share with you a common destiny, past. And I would argue that is the course and we are committed to your success. The that we all ought to pursue. democratic community has grown, and now I think we have to be clear, in doing it, it is time to begin welcoming these new- about certain assumptions and con- comers to our neighborhood. sequences. First, if we move forward in this As President Mitterrand said so elo- manner, we must reaffirm the bonds of our quently, some of the newcomers want to be own alliance. America pledges its efforts in members of NATO right away, and some that common purpose. I pledge to maintain have expressed reservations about this con- roughly 100,000 troops in Europe, consistent cept of the Partnership For Peace. Some with the expressed wishes of our allies. The have asked me in my own country, ‘‘Well, people of Europe can count on America to is this just the best you can do? Is this sort maintain this commitment. of splitting the difference between doing Second, we have to recognize that this new nothing and full membership at least for the security challenge requires a range of re- Visegrad states?’’ And to that, let me answer sponses different from the ones of the past. at least for my part an emphatic no, for many That is why our administration has broken of the same reasons President Mitterrand has with previous American administrations in already outlined. going beyond what others have done to sup- Why should we now draw a new line port European efforts to advance their own through Europe just a little further east? security and interests. All of you have re- Why should we now do something which ceived our support in moving in ways beyond could foreclose the best possible future for NATO. We supported the Maastricht Treaty. Europe? The best possible future would be We support the commitment of the Euro- a democratic Russia committed to the secu- pean Union to a common foreign and secu- rity of all of its European neighbors. The best rity policy. We support your efforts to refur- possible future would be a democratic bish the Western European Union so that Ukraine, a democratic government in every it will assume a more vigorous role in keeping one of the newly independent states of the Europe secure. Consistent with that goal, we former Soviet Union, all committed to mar- have proposed making NATO assets available ket cooperation, to common security, and to to WEU operations in which NATO itself is

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not involved. While NATO must remain the stand that we are serious. If we leave the linchpin of our security, all these efforts will sentence in the declaration we have to mean show our people and our legislatures a re- it. newed purpose in European institutions and Those of us gathered here must under- a better balance of responsibilities within the stand that, therefore, if the situation does not transatlantic community. improve, the alliance must be prepared to Finally, in developing the Partnership For act. What is at stake is not just the safety Peace, each of us must willingly assume the of the people in and any possibility burdens to make that succeed. This must not of bringing this terrible conflict to an end be a gesture. It is a forum. It is not just a but the credibility of the alliance itself. And forum. This Partnership For Peace is also a that, make no mistake about it, will have military and security initiative, consistent great ramifications in the future in other con- with what NATO was established to achieve. texts. There must be a somber appreciation that Therefore, in voting for this language, I expanding our membership will mean ex- expect the North Atlantic Council to take ac- tending commitments that must be sup- tion when necessary. And I think if anyone ported by military strategies and postures. here does not agree with that, you shouldn’t Adding new members entails not only hard vote for language. I think it is the appropriate decisions but hard resources. Today those re- language, but we have to be clear when we sources are not great, but nonetheless, as the put something like this in the declaration. Secretary General told me in the meeting Let me say finally that I ran across the this morning, they must be forthcoming in following quotation by a distinguished and order for this to be taken seriously by our now deceased American political writer, Wal- allies and our friends who will immediately ter Lippmann. Three days after the North subscribe to the Partnership. Atlantic Treaty was signed Lippmann wrote Let me also—in response to something this, prophetically, ‘‘The pact will be remem- that President Mitterrand said and that is on bered long after the conditions that have pro- all of our minds, the problem in Bosnia— voked it are no longer the main business of say that when we talk about making hard de- mankind. For the treaty recognizes and pro- cisions, we must be prepared to make them. claims a community of interest which is And tonight I have been asked to talk a little much older than the conflict with the Soviet bit about the work I have been doing with Union and, come what may, will survive it.’’ Russia and what I believe we all should be Well, this meeting will prove him right. doing to support democracy and economic The Soviet Union is gone, but our commu- reform there. But I’d like to make two points nity of interest endures. And now it is up about Bosnia. to us to build a new security for a new future First, I want to reaffirm that the United for the Atlantic people in the 21st century. States remains ready to help NATO imple- Thank you, Mr. Secretary. ment a viable settlement in Bosnia volun- tarily reached by the parties. We would, of NOTE: The President spoke at approximately 10:15 a.m. at NATO Headquarters. A tape was course, have to seek the support of our Con- not available for verification of the content of gress in this, but let me say I think we can these remarks. get it if such an operation would clearly be under NATO command, that the means of carrying out the mission be equivalent to its The President’s News Conference in purposes, and that these purposes be clear Brussels in scope and in time. January 10, 1994 Second, I welcome the reassertion by the alliance in this declaration of our warning Initiatives in Europe against the strangulation of Sarajevo and the The President. Good evening. Ladies and safe areas. But if we are going to reassert gentlemen, I came to Europe to help this warning it cannot be seen as mere rhet- strengthen European integration, to create oric. Those who attack Sarajevo must under- a new security for the United States and its

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Atlantic partners, based on the idea that we welcoming to Washington in February, and had a real chance to integrate rather than Chairman Shushkevich of Belarus, whom I to divide Europe, both East and West, an will meet in Minsk later this week, as well integration based on shared democracies, as to the people and Parliaments of those market economies, and defense cooperation. two countries. Today we have taken two giant steps to- My administration has been working with ward greater security for the United States, the Governments of Ukraine and Russia to for Europe and the world. First, this after- address Ukraine’s security concerns so that noon I joined our NATO allies in signing the it could follow suit. The trilateral accord we documents that create the Partnership For will sign will lead to the complete removal Peace. The United States proposed this Part- of nuclear weapons from Ukraine. nership to lay the foundation for intensive I want to congratulate both President cooperation among the armed forces of our Yeltsin and President Kravchuk of Ukraine NATO members, all former Warsaw Pact for their statesmanship in negotiating this ac- states, and other non-NATO European states cord with us. I want to commend President who wish to join the Partnership. By provid- Kravchuk and to thank him for his leader- ing for the practical integration and coopera- ship. I look forward to consulting with him tion of these diverse military forces, the Part- personally during the brief stop at Borispol nership For Peace will lead to the enlarge- Airport in Kiev on Wednesday evening. ment of NATO membership and will support President Kravchuk will later join President our efforts to integrate Europe. Yeltsin and me in Moscow on Friday to final- I’m also pleased to announce that on Fri- ize the agreement in a trilateral meeting. day the United States will sign with Ukraine and Russia an agreement which commits This agreement opens a new era in our Ukraine to eliminate nuclear weapons from relationship with Ukraine, an important its territory. These include 176 interconti- country at the center of Europe, a country, nental ballistic missiles and some 1,500 war- I might add, which was mentioned frequently heads targeted at the United States. This is during our meetings today. We expect to ex- a hopeful and historic breakthrough that en- pand our cooperation with Ukraine, espe- hances the security of all three parties and cially in the economic area. We look forward every other nation as well. to Ukraine’s playing an important role in ef- When I came into office, I said that one forts to move toward the integration of a of my highest priorities was combating the broader Europe. proliferation of nuclear weapons and other Today I spent the day at NATO Head- weapons of mass destruction. The issue of quarters, one of the pillars of our security nuclear weapons in the former Soviet Union in the post-World War II era. Throughout was the most important nonproliferation that era, our security was defined by the sta- challenge facing the world. With the Soviet bility of Europe’s division. But with the two Union dissolved, four countries were left breakthroughs for peace announced today, with nuclear weapons: Russia, Ukraine, we can begin to imagine as well as to define Kazakhstan, and Belarus. I have sought to a new security for the post-cold-war era ensure that the breakup of the Soviet Union founded not on Europe’s division but instead does not result in the birth of new nuclear on its integration. Throughout the 20th cen- states which could raise the chances for nu- tury, now drawing to a close, Europe has clear accident, nuclear , or nuclear seen far too much bloodshed based on these proliferation. divisions. But with strong democracies, In just one year, after an intensive diplo- strong market economies, strong bonds of matic effort by the United States, both defense cooperation, and this strong step to Kazakhstan and Belarus agreed to accede to combat nuclear weapons proliferation, we the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and to can make the next century far more secure join the ranks of nonnuclear nations. Much for all of our people by building a united credit for these actions goes to President Europe. Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan, whom I will be Andrea [Andrea Mitchell, NBC News]?

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Russia of continuing defense cooperation with Rus- Q. Mr. President, there are some who sia, and they are certainly welcome to be a have suggested that even this Partnership part of this. For Peace is going to be too much of an exac- Go ahead, Rita [Rita Braver, CBS News]? erbation to the nationalist tendencies in Rus- Bosnia sia. And today Mr. Zhirinovsky said that if NATO troops are ever stationed near the Q. On the subject of Bosnia, earlier today borders of Russia, it’s a mistake, it’s finished you said that NATO would be reasserting its for NATO and/or other forces who have sup- warning against the strangulation of Sarajevo. ported this organization, it’s the beginning You said if we’re going to reassert this warn- of a third world war if the NATO or other ing, it cannot be seen as mere rhetoric. Yet, forces are along those borders. How do you NATO has done nothing in Bosnia really. respond to that and to the concerns that What changed today after your meeting? there are people in Russia who will not even The President. Well, let me point out, take this step kindly? NATO has done everything that the United The President. My response to that is that Nations has asked it to do. With our allies, his, thank goodness, is not the governing we have conducted the longest airlift in his- voice in Russia and that we have offered to tory to bring supplies to the people of Bosnia. the Russians, to all the states of the former We have supported working with our allies’ Soviet Union, and to all the Eastern Euro- operations in the Adriatic and other oper- pean countries which were in the Warsaw ations designed to support the embargo. We Pact the opportunity to participate in this have supported the no-fly zone. We have Partnership For Peace. done everything the United Nations has The reason I wanted the Partnership For asked us to do. Peace rather than nothing, which perhaps What we are going to discuss tonight in Mr. Zhirinovsky would have preferred, or im- greater detail—let me say, I don’t want to mediate membership, which others would say any—I’ll be glad to talk about my com- have preferred, is that I thought it gave us ment today, but I do want to tell you we’re the best chance, first, to develop substantive going to have more discussions about this to- military and defense cooperation for these night at dinner. countries; second, to give nations who wish The point I was trying to make today that to be members, full members, of NATO the Secretary General Woerner also wanted to chance to develop the capacity to assume make was that if we were going to restate, their responsibilities; and third, to give us the in effect, the warning we adopted in August chance, most importantly of all, to create a that if Sarajevo were subject to undue and Europe that really is integrated, that is based continued shelling in a way that threatened on unity and not some dividing line that at it significantly—and there was more shelling least is further east than the cold war dividing today—that we would consider having air line was. strikes, that we had to be prepared to do that. So I simply—I disagree with the position And I can tell you that on behalf of the that he’s taken, but that is not the position United States that if the facts warrant that, that governs Russia, thank goodness. we would certainly ask the North Atlantic Q. Do you think, just to follow, that Russia Council to take it up. That is, we would ask would be joining the Partnership For Peace? all of our allies and NATO to consider an The President. They’re certainly welcome appropriate response. Now, there’s still the to do so. We’ve issued—— U.N. to deal with and other things, but we Q. Could that happen in the next few believe we should go forward. days? The question of what we can do to get The President. I think that all the nations a peace in Bosnia, however, I want to caution to whom the welcome mat has been put out you, goes far beyond that. That is, it depends may want to take some—some may want to upon the willingness of all the parties to take more time than others to think about agree to a reasonable settlement, and what it. But we certainly expect to have some sort may be appropriate in dealing with relieving

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the of Sarajevo may or may not actually point—you all know how the Nunn-Lugar hasten an end to the war. So we’ll be discuss- funds work. The only cost to the United ing that in greater detail. States taxpayers in this agreement will be the Helen [Helen Thomas, United Press continuation of the Nunn-Lugar program, International]? that is, the funds that we provide to help Q. You’re not ready for the air strikes yet, people dismantle their nuclear weapons. sir? What does Ukraine get out of this? They get The President. Well, let me say, what I security assurances that go with this sort of want to do at this meeting—this meeting is agreement. That is, once you become a non- not about air strikes. This meeting is about nuclear state, the states that have nuclear whether we’re going to reaffirm our position. weapons promise not to use them against you I can just tell you that the United States ever, under any circumstances. They get var- would be prepared to ask the North Atlantic ious kinds of technical assistance to carry out Council to consider that if the siege of Sara- this. And they get paid for their highly en- jevo continues and the facts warrant it. riched uranium. They are compensated. That Partnership For Peace is a commercial transaction involving no cost Q. You made one of the toughest state- to the American taxpayer. So there is no cost. ments you ever have made for an inter- In terms of the assurances, let me say that national group. What was the response of the President Kravchuk has continued to work allies? I mean, how did they take it? Did they on—progress on previous agreements he has say they would go along? made. He has shown, I think, great courage The President. Well, we’re going to talk in the last few months in working through about it tonight. Some did; some have not this very difficult and complex set of negotia- commented yet. But let me say today the tions with us that has involved me, the Vice most important thing and the thing we talked President, the State Department, and every- about today was our agreement on the strat- body else that’s appropriate on our side. And egy for reaching out to the East. Over the we have no reason to doubt the ability of long run, that will have a greater significance, the President to keep the commitment that in my judgment, for the future of Europe he is prepared to make. than whatever is or is not done with the trag- edy in Bosnia at this late date. So we spent Middle East Peace Process most of our time today fleshing out, dealing with, working through this whole concept of Q. Mr. President, now that you have a deal the Partnership For Peace. And I was, frank- with Ukraine, what can we anticipate Sunday ly, very gratified that so many of the leaders when you meet with Syrian President Assad? of the other countries believe that it is the Will there be some sort of dramatic an- right way to go and understand it’s not just nouncement there, as well? a compromise but it’s a vibrant concept that The President. I’ve already got—you gives us a chance to build the best possible know, we’ve already bunched too many sto- future for Europe. That to me was the best ries in one day, haven’t we? [Laughter] I real- thing we were doing. ly can’t—I can’t say any more at this point Terry [Terence Hunt, Associated Press]? than you already know about that. We’re going to try to keep the Middle East peace Ukraine process going. Q. Mr. President, what assurances do you Thank you very much. have from President Kravchuk that he can sell this arms deal to his Parliament this time? There have been difficulties in the NOTE: The President’s 39th news conference past. And what are the costs, sir? began at 6:42 p.m. at the Conrad Hotel. In his remarks, he referred to Vladimir Zhirinovsky, The President. Well, let me say, first of leader of the Liberal Democratic Party in Russia. all, that—let me deal with the cost first. As you all know—and then I’ll get to the other

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Letter Accepting Morton H. the Atlantic alliance did. I came here to Eu- Halperin’s Withdrawal as a Nominee rope hoping that together we might begin To Be an Assistant Secretary of to realize the full promise of the end of the Defense cold war, recognizing clearly that this is a dif- ficult economic time in Europe, there are January 10, 1994 still profound difficulties in the United Dear Mort: States, and that is having an impact on the I have received your letter asking that I politics of Europe and of the United States not resubmit your nomination to be Assistant and of what we might do. Secretary of Defense for Democracy and Nonetheless, it seemed to me that the time Peacekeeping. With deep appreciation for had come to try to define, here on the verge your willingness to serve our country and of the 21st century, what the elements of a with real regret, I accept your request. new security in Europe and in the United Yours is a superb record of service and ac- States should be in the aftermath of the cold complishment dating back over 30 years. war, one premised not on the division of Eu- Your qualifications speak for themselves, and rope but on the possibility of its integration, I am pleased to hear that your willingness its political integration around democracies, to serve my Administration continues its economic integration around market eco- unabated. nomics, and its defense integration around At the same time, I appreciate your under- mutual defense cooperation. standing of the circumstances involved in a Yesterday when the NATO alliance adopt- new Secretary of Defense coming on board ed the concept of the Partnership For Peace, and the tradition of Cabinet officers having we did what I believe history will record as the freedom to select subordinates. a very important thing. We opened up the I am confident that this Administration possibility of expanded NATO membership will continue to benefit from your talent and to nations to our East, not only all the former counsel and hope that you will be available Warsaw Pact countries but also other non- for other suitable assignments. NATO members in Europe, all who wish to Sincerely, begin to work on joint planning and oper- Bill Clinton ations with us and to work toward being able to assume the full responsibilities of mem- NOTE: The Office of the Press Secretary also bership. But we did it in a way by opening made available Mr. Halperin’s letter requesting up the possibility to everyone and making no that his nomination to be Assistant Secretary of decisions now. We did it in a way that did Defense for Democracy and Peacekeeping be not have the United States and NATO pre- withdrawn. maturely drawing another line in Europe to divide it in a different way but instead gave Remarks to the American Business us a chance to work for the best possible fu- Community in Brussels ture for Europe one that includes not only January 11, 1994 the countries of Eastern Europe but also countries that were part of the former Soviet Thank you very much. Thank you, Jim, and Union and, indeed, Russia itself. So we have good morning ladies and gentlemen. I got made, I think, a very good beginning in the here in time to hear the last several moments right way. of the Secretary of State’s remarks and all We also are going to have today the first that stuff where he was bragging on me, and summit with the European Union after the it reminded me of Clinton’s fourth law of ratification of the Maastricht Treaty to begin politics, which is whenever possible, be pre- to talk about what we can do together to re- ceded on the platform by someone you’ve build the rate of economic growth and oppor- appointed to an important position. [Laugh- tunity here and throughout the world. ter] Our firms, our American firms, are deeply Nonetheless, we did have a good day yes- woven into the fabric of Europe’s economies. terday—the United States did—and I think Over 60 percent of all the overseas profits

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of American companies come from Europe. beginning to believe that we have some dis- We have 225 billion American dollars in- cipline, some control of our own destiny. vested here, employing nearly 3 million We also had to make a tough decision in Western Europeans alone. And back home, America last year as a people, and that is trade with Europe generated $120 billion whether we could grow internally or whether worth of exports and about 21⁄2 million jobs we could continue to grow by reaching out in 1993. We all know—you know better than to compete and win in a global economy and I—that this continent favors—excuse me— helping our friends and neighbors to grow. faces high unemployment and very sluggish That debate was, I suppose, captured more growth rates. We also see that in Japan. And clearly for the people of our Nation and the even though in our country the unemploy- people of the world in the congressional de- ment rate is coming down, we see in every bate over NAFTA than in any other thing. advanced economy great difficulty today in But the issue was bigger and, in some creating jobs and generating higher incomes ways, simpler than that. It seems to me clear- even when people are working harder and ly that there is no way in a global economy working smarter. for a wealthy country to grow wealthier, to The renewal of the Atlantic economies is generate more jobs, and to raise incomes un- critical to the future of America and, I would less there are more customers for its goods argue, critical to the future of our alliance. and services and customers beyond its own For in a democracy, as we have seen time national borders, and that the United States and time again in votes at home, in votes can ill afford to be in the vanguard of those in Europe, and in votes in Russia, when peo- running away from that idea and, instead, ple feel that they are anchored and stable should be in the vanguard of those promoting it. That’s really what the NAFTA vote was and secure, when they believe they will be all about. rewarded for their work, when they believe To be sure, those who voted against that the future will be better than the past, NAFTA were responding to very legitimate they vote in a certain way. When they are pressures and very real fears. While workers in economic and emotional free fall, when all over the world believe now that they are they feel disoriented, when they don’t know too fungible, relatively unimportant to people whether the future will be better than the who control their jobs and their lives, and past, they often vote in another way and in that in the flash of an eye, their jobs and ways that, indeed, make their futures more their livelihoods could be taken away by difficult and life for all peoples more difficult. someone who could move money, informa- When I became President, it seemed to tion across the globe in a millisecond and, me that my first order of business ought to indeed, who could move management and be to put our own economic house in order. technology across the globe in a short And so we worked hard to reverse the ex- amount of time. ploding deficits of the last 12 years, to begin And so it is going to be a continuing chal- to invest in our own people, to try to do it lenge for us to keep Americans outward look- in a way that would keep interest rates low ing, committed to open trade and more open and inflation low and turn the tide of private markets and still, at the same time, to make investment in the United States. We have our working people more secure in the sense begun to do that. Last year more new jobs not that they will be able to hold the job came into our economy than in the previous they have, because they won’t—the average 4 years. Millions of Americans refinanced American will now change jobs seven or eight their homes and businesses. Consumer con- times in a lifetime—but they must know that fidence at the end of the year rose to its high- they are employable, that they will have their est level in many years, and people began basic health care needs and the needs of their to believe that they could pay their debts and families taken care of, and that they will have control their lives. In November, delin- a chance to make the changes that will domi- quencies on home mortgage payments in nate at least the foreseeable decades of the America reached a 19-year low. So we are 21st century, changes that are friendly, not

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hostile, to them. And that is our challenge or just on the basis of affinity for democ- as we begin the next session of Congress in racies, unless we are also committed to the 1994. economic integration of all of Europe and But because of the NAFTA agreement and to reaching out to our east. because of the meeting that we had in Wash- I will be urging the leaders of the Euro- ington State with the leaders of the Asian- pean Union today to work with the United Pacific region, there was a new energy given States to further reduce trade barriers and to the prospect of successfully concluding the increase trade and investment to our east. GATT round. And after 7 years of frustration Today I say to all of you, I hope that you and progress, we were able to do that. I was are representing companies that as a result not fully satisfied with the round. It was obvi- of the activities taking place in these few days ously not perfect from any nation’s point of will take another and harder look about your view, and there are clearly many things that prospects in central and Eastern Europe and still have to be done. But there is no doubt beyond, because without private investment, in my mind that it was in the interest of the we cannot hope to have private economic de- United States to conclude the GATT round velopment. successfully, that it will lead to the creation Oh, I know we have a lot to do in Russia. of hundreds of thousands of jobs in our Na- I know we have a lot to do in the other states tion alone and millions worldwide by the end of the former Soviet Union and still some of the decade. [Applause] work to do in Eastern Europe. And we are One person believed that. [Laughter] doing that. I am going on to Russia after I And I think now we have to ask ourselves leave Prague. But in the end, private invest- where we go beyond GATT. There are sev- ment and the development of successful pri- eral issues, of course, that we need to take vate sectors will determine the future of Eu- up with our European friends and with oth- ropean integration economically. And with- ers around the globe. And we will take them out it, I don’t believe we can hope to sustain up. the military and political ties that we are We also have to deal with the structural building up. challenges facing our economies, the econo- So I ask you to do that. The United States mies of the advanced nations. In March we’re Government has worked hard to eliminate going to have a jobs conference in the United outdated export controls and to support States. We have a lot to learn from some Eu- American companies in Europe. We hope ropean countries about training and retrain- that in turn you will feel emboldened to make ing of the work force. They have something more investments further east and to do what to learn, perhaps, from us in flexibility of the you can to improve our prospects to generate work force and mobility of the work force higher levels of trade and investment across and the creation of an entrepreneurial envi- national borders in ways that benefit people ronment that will enable unemployment to everywhere. For in the end, governments do be driven down to lower levels. But it is clear not create wealth, people like you do. that together, along with our friends in Japan, Soon, your efforts will be sending goods we all have to learn something about how back and forth through the channel. Your to make technological and other changes that capital already is building bonds of com- are going on, lead not only to higher produc- merce and culture across the Atlantic. You tivity but the ability of working people to be are in many ways the pioneers of the new rewarded for that productivity and the ability Europe we are trying to ensure. Just by in- of nations to create more employment within stinct, you will want the kind of integration their national borders. that we have to work for around the political Beyond that, let me emphasize that when conference tables. Your determination to I leave here today after the European Union enter new markets is a hallmark of the Amer- summit, I am going on to Prague to meet ican spirit and can help make the 21st cen- with the leaders of the Visegrad countries. tury an American century as well. And it seems to me that it is folly to believe I hope you will do that. I assure you that that we can integrate Europe through NATO we will work hard to do our part.

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Thank you very much. The agreement that the United States will sign with Ukraine and Russia this Friday will NOTE: The President spoke at 8:06 a.m. at the also make a major contribution to reducing Conrad Hotel. In his remarks, he referred to Jim that threat. With the end of the cold war we Prouty, president of the American Chamber of no longer face the threat of confrontation be- Commerce. A tape was not available for verifica- tion of the content of these remarks. tween nuclear powers, but we do face con- tinuing conflicts, including the reality of the murderous conflict in Bosnia. At this meeting we discussed candidly and at some length The President’s News Conference in NATO’s policy towards Bosnia. We re- Brussels affirmed our commitment to respond to the January 11, 1994 strangulation of Sarajevo and to help to im- plement an enforceable peace agreement if The President. Good morning. As all of one is reached by all the parties. you know, this historic summit meeting of I want to discuss this with some precision, the North Atlantic Council was my first if I might. The United States last evening NATO meeting. I’m glad we were able to in our discussions took a very strong position accomplish as much as we did here. I’m con- that we ought to reaffirm our air warning, vinced that history will record this meeting that is, the possibility of the use of air power, as a major step in building a new security to relieve the strangulation or in retaliation for the transatlantic community. for the strangulation of Sarajevo, but that the I’m very pleased that our NATO allies ap- language ought to be left in our policy if, proved our proposal for the Partnership For and only if, we were prepared to follow Peace. I believe it will help our alliance to through. And I made it clear that for our meet Europe’s new challenges, and I’m part, we were prepared to follow through, pleased by the response the Partnership has and therefore, we supported leaving the lan- already generated from nations who have guage in. But along with the Secretary Gen- contacted us and said they are interested in eral, I urged our allies not to leave it in unless being a part of it. we were prepared to follow through, on the Ultimately, the Partnership will lead to the theory that we should not say things that we enlargement of NATO and help us to build do not intend to do. a security based not on Europe’s divisions In addition to that, I supported the United but on the potential of its integration. I look Kingdom and France and their call for plans forward to working with NATO leaders in to ensure that we can complete the bloc rota- the coming months to prepare for exercises tion of troops to Srebrenica, so that that can with the states that join the Partnership and take place, the exchange of the Canadians to work on the next steps towards NATO’s for the Dutch forces, and to explore how enlargement. Tuzla airstrip might be opened. Now, either Today NATO also took dramatic steps to of these activities could require the use of prepare for its new post-cold-war missions NATO, including United States air power. by calling for the creation of combined joint We also had a continuing commitment to and task forces. These task forces will make the opportunity to use air power to protect NATO’s military structures more flexible and the United Nations troops there if that is will prepare the alliance for nontraditional needed for close air support. missions. They will also help us to put the Now, these are the actions which have Partnership For Peace into action by serving been taken. In other words, we have re- as the vehicle for Eastern militaries to oper- affirmed our position of last August, which ate with NATO forces, something that Gen- is an important thing to have done in light eral Joulwan will begin to prepare for imme- of the recent shelling of Sarajevo. We have diately. instructed our military command to come up I’m pleased that during this summit NATO with plans to see what can be done to ensure began to address the threat posed by the pro- the rotation of the troops in Srebrenica and liferation of weapons of mass destruction. the opening of the Tuzla airstrip. And those

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plans, as has been said by the Secretary Gen- appropriateness of it under the cir- eral, can include the use of air power. cumstances that we now know about or could Let me just mention one or two other imagine. But I think the accurate thing is things. While the WEU and other European there was unanimous support for the policy, international bodies would play an important which means everybody who voted for it rec- role in meeting the security challenges in Eu- ognized that air power might well be used. rope in the coming years, I still believe that What happens now depends upon the behav- NATO remains the linchpin of our mutual ior of the combatants, principally the Bosnian security. And so, as we finish this summit, , and what the military commanders I want to say a special word of thanks to Sec- come back and recommend. retary General Woerner for his remarkable leadership. I have had the opportunity now The Visegrad States to meet and work with many leaders around Q. When you get to Prague, in light of the world. He is a genuine statesman. He this meeting and in light of your own feelings, understands what is at stake here. He has will you be in a position to tell at least some a vision of the future, and he leads this alli- of the Visegrad leaders that they are in fact ance with great vision and discipline. And I on a fast track toward membership in thank him for that. NATO? I also want to thank the other NATO lead- The President. I think I’ll be in a position ers for their hospitality, and especially the to tell them, number one, the purpose of the Prime Minister of Belgium and the people Partnership For Peace is to open the possibil- of Belgium and Brussels for their hospitality ity of NATO’s enlargement as well as to give to us. I believe this was a very successful all the former Warsaw Pact countries and meeting. They had accomplished everything other non-NATO nations in Europe the that I hoped, and I think as the years go by chance to cooperate with us militarily, that we will be glad that it occurred. NATO is an alliance with mutual responsibil- ities as well as the security guarantee. And Bosnia we are clearly serious about pursuing this, Q. Could you please tell us whether or including ultimate membership, as evi- not there was unanimous belief by the NATO denced by the fact that the Secretary General allies that these air strikes could go forward, said in his closing remarks—I don’t know or is there something that still needs to be what he said here in the press conference done before you can actually commit to because I didn’t hear it—he said in his clos- movement? ing remarks that General Joulwan would im- The President. There was unanimous— mediately contact the military leaders of and I want to be very clear on this—there these countries, including the Visegrad coun- was unanimous support for the policy as it tries, to talk about how we could begin plan- is written. Everybody voted for it. In order ning for mutual operations in training and to trigger the air strikes, what must happen? exercise. I want to emphasize two things. One is, So I think that they will clearly understand whether they occur or not depends upon the that this is a very serious proposal that opens behavior of the Bosnian Serbs from this mo- the possibility of membership, not one that ment forward. Secondly, based on that be- limits it. havior, our military personnel will take this issue back to the NAC in our absence, and Bosnia we will deal with it. And of course, we will Q. Mr. President, the Secretary General consult with the U.N. if it is something that said in his remarks that the instrument is involves the use of air power other than to there regarding Bosnia and other threats, but give support to the U.N. forces as already he’s not sure that the will is there. Now, you approved. just mentioned unanimity. It was a unani- So that is what I think—at that point, we’ll mous vote, as we understand it, last August deal with the facts. Some of us, I think it’s for the same policy, yet many attacks have clear, were stronger than others about the taken place in Sarajevo and have been unan-

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swered by NATO. So first, do you think that put this language back in unless we mean there is a greater will now; do you sense a it. Let us clearly understand that we must greater determination despite the misgivings mean it if we put it in this time.’’ And they of those peacekeepers on the ground? And voted unanimously to put it in. And afterward secondly, is there a lower threshold, do you several of them came to me privately and think, given this language that the British and said, ‘‘Of course, we have reservations about the French, we understand, proposed on what happens to our troops, but we have res- Tuzla and Srebrenica? Is there a lower ervations about what happens to our troops threshold to use air power in those instances under the status quo, and we are prepared than for the wider air attacks regarding Sara- to go forward with this.’’ jevo? Q. Concerning Bosnia, can we say today The President. I would make two points that you and President Mitterrand are on the in response to your question. One is, I don’t same wavelength; do you agree, no more know that the threshold is lower, but there bones of contention? are more instances in which air power can The President. Yes. I’ve been a little sur- be used now under the NATO policy. That prised by the press reports that indicate to is, clearly, the policy asks our military com- the contrary. I strongly supported President mand to explain how we can guarantee the Mitterrand and Prime Minister Major’s troop rotation in Srebrenica and how we can amendment adding Tuzla and Srebrenica to open the airstrip at Tuzla, including the use the resolution. I did not support substituting of air power. So there are clearly more op- Tuzla and Srebrenica for the general com- portunities for it. mitment to use air power to relieve the siege Secondly, is there still a difference of opin- of Sarajevo, for a very important reason. I ion about whether and how quickly we think that it will be very hard for the U.N. should use air power especially to relieve a mission to succeed. That is, keep in mind shelling of Sarajevo? I think on today’s facts what the U.N. mission is doing, by the way, there are clearly some differences among the folks. We have the longest airlift in history allies. And let me just mention one consider- there. We are trying to enforce the embargo. ation. Those countries that have troops there We are trying to enforce the no-fly zone. In are understandably concerned about the dan- other words, we are trying to contain the ger to their troops. If we use air power, are combat and the loss and trying to keep open they more likely to be retaliated against? On humanitarian aid, hoping that we can all do the other hand, I think they’re closer to being something to convince all three sides that willing to use it than they were in August they have a real interest in stopping killing because a lot of them are very sensitive to each other and taking whatever agreement the fact that their troops seem to be in more they can get now. danger now than they were in August and Now, I believe if Sarajevo is destroyed and that their casualties are increasing. cannot function as a center for all kinds of So do I think we are closer to real unanim- activities, it will be very difficult for the U.N. ity than we were in August? I do. Would they mission to succeed. The French and the Brit- all vote the same in a given-fact situation? ish have troops on the ground there. They I don’t know. That’s why I think it depends naturally have more reservation about the largely on what the Bosnian Serbs do. use of air power in response to the shelling Q. Given the fact that there is still some of Sarajevo than nations that may not have difference of opinion, doesn’t this come close troops on the ground there. I understand to failing your own test from your interven- that. They agreed with my position, and I tion, that why threaten if you’re not going strongly agreed with theirs. I do not believe to have the will to—— there is a difference of opinion between us The President. But I believe, based on on this policy now. what several of them said to me privately, they are more prepared to deal with this than Ukraine they were in August. That is, Secretary Gen- Q. The Ukrainian opposition is now saying eral Woerner and I both said, ‘‘Let us not that President Kravchuk does not have the

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authority to go ahead and sign an agreement, the United Nations mission could proceed and there’s also some sign from some Ukrain- and could function if Sarajevo were com- ian officials who are saying that the terms pletely destroyed. No one believed that. So of a final agreement are yet to be deter- I don’t believe that anything that happened mined. How sure are you at this point that today, once fully understood—I’m sure we’ll this deal will not fall apart? have the chance to talk about it in some de- The President. Well, I believe President tail—I don’t believe that anything that hap- Kravchuk will honor the deal. They’ve al- pened today will undermine the understand- ready started to dismantle the missiles. And ings that we have with the Russians. I think that the other thing that’s very impor- Thank you very much. tant to emphasize here is that this agreement guarantees compensation for Ukraine for Ukraine their highly enriched uranium, something Q. [Inaudible] they have wanted and demanded. And so I The President. I don’t want to say that. think, as the details of it become known in What I’m trying to tell you is, that that’s why the Rada, there will be more support for it. I said it was not an exact analogy. What I’m Let me just try to give you an American saying is that any time an executive makes analogy here, if I might. It’s not an exact anal- a deal in any country in the world with a ogy, but when President Bush signed the legislative branch, there are going to be peo- original NAFTA treaty—or when we ap- ple in the legislative branch who don’t agree proved the side agreements with NAFTA, we with it or who just don’t know if they can didn’t know at the time whether everybody agree with it until they know what the facts in Congress would think it was a wonderful of it are. That’s the only point I’m trying to idea or ratify it or try to derail it. But we make. I am not making any judgment about went through with it and, eventually, the how the Ukrainian Government works but United States stood firm behind it. Execu- simply that this always happens. This tives often have to sell to their legislative shouldn’t surprise anybody. This always hap- branches what they know is in the national pens. Every decision every executive makes interest of their country. is going to be second-guessed by people of This agreement, reached by President the legislature. It’s almost the way the sys- Kravchuk, I think, was reached with the full tem’s set up. understanding in his mind that he would have to sell it, but that it contained advan- NOTE: The President’s 40th news conference tages for Ukraine far more than had pre- began at 10:50 a.m. in the Joseph Luns Theatre at NATO Headquarters. In his remarks, he re- viously been recognized. And I think as they ferred to Gen. George A. Joulwan, Supreme Al- know more about the details and the facts, lied Commander, Europe. A tape was not avail- that he will prevail there. And I expect the able for verification of the content of this news agreement to stand up, because it’s clearly conference. in the interest of the country. They get far more than they give up on this. The President’s News Conference Russia With European Union Leaders in Q. Have you spoken with President Yeltsin Brussels about Bosnia and does he agree with what January 11, 1994 you describe as a new resolve to deal with it? President Clinton. Thank you very much. The President. No, we have not had this We have just had a very productive meeting, discussion. But last August when all this President Delors and Prime Minister came up, the Russians knew that what we Papandreou and I. As I have said many times were doing was taking a position with regard in the last few days, I came to Brussels in to the use of air power that was clearly tied the hope of working with the leaders of Eu- to behavior by the Bosnian Serbs. And at the rope to build a broader and more integrated time, and I think still, no one considered that Europe. At the heart of this new concept of

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security is the economic vitality of the rela- needed to meet the ambitious goals on which tionship between the United States and the we agreed. The U.S. and the EU cannot European Union. The EU remains America’s alone create the open markets the world most valued partner in trade and investment. needs. We think it is clearly time for the A strong relationship between us is good for other great economic power, Japan, to join America. It can help to generate more jobs, us in this effort to open markets. more growth, more opportunities for workers Second, we agreed on the importance of and businesses at home as well as for those putting jobs at the center of our trade and here in Europe. economic agenda. Today, the nations of the That is one of the reasons that our admin- European Union are facing high and persist- istration strongly supported the Maastricht ent rates of unemployment and sluggish Treaty. We believe a strong and more unified growth. In the United States, we have begun Europe makes for a more effective economic to generate more jobs, but our Nation still and political partner. I think we proved that has a long way to go before our unemploy- through our combined efforts to lead the ment is at an acceptable level and before our world to a new GATT agreement in Decem- workers begin to generate more income ber. when they work harder. The renewal of each One key to achieving that accord came last of our economies will benefit all of them. spring when President Delors agreed to join We discussed some of the innovative ideas me in focusing on market access at last year’s contained in the Delors white paper. Presi- G–7 summit. I’m committed to deepening dent Delors and Prime Minister Papandreou our relationship with the EU through regular both make very thoughtful comments about meetings at all levels to continue to address the kinds of things we could do to generate other concerns as we address the market ac- more job growth both in Europe and the cess concern and as we work together to get United States. And we look forward to pursu- a new GATT agreement. ing those ideas at the jobs conference in I have argued in my own country that to Washington this spring, and again at the advance the global economy and to advance G–7 summit this July. the interests of American workers as well, Third, we agreed to explore the next gen- we must compete, not retreat. All advanced eration of trade issues. I suggested that the economies can only generate more jobs and successor agenda to the Uruguay round higher incomes when they have more people should include issues such as the impact of beyond their borders to buy their goods and environmental policies on trade, antitrust and services. Therefore, we must continue our ef- other competition policies, and labor stand- forts to expand global growth and world mar- ards, something that I think we must, frankly, kets. The GATT agreement will help in that address. While we continue to tear down regard. I am convinced it will create millions anticompetitive practices and other barriers of jobs in the global economy between now to trade, we simply have to assure that our and the end of the decade. But we also have economic policies also protect the environ- responsibilities, the United States, the EU, ment and the well-being of workers. And as and others, to continue our own efforts to- we bring others into the orbit of global trade, ward open trade and more global growth. people who can benefit from the investment In today’s meeting, we discussed four ways and trading opportunities we offer, we must in which we can build on the momentum ensure that their policies benefit the interest generated by the GATT agreement. First, we of their workers and our common interest stressed the need to finalize and ratify the in enhancing environmental protection agreement. The agreement itself was an im- throughout the globe. That is exactly what pressive breakthrough, but there are several we tried to do with the North American Free areas in which we did not reach full agree- Trade Agreement. And in the coming months ment. I emphasized today our strong desire I look forward to continuing discussions on to resolve our outstanding differences. We these issues with our EU partners. also agreed that further market access offers Finally, we discussed the imperative of from Japan and from other countries are also helping to integrate the new market democ-

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racies of Europe’s eastern half into the trans- a Partnership For Peace. We have to work atlantic community. Yesterday, NATO took together for peace. This is a great concept. an historic step in this direction with the We should consider ways of working together Partnership For Peace. We must match that in the area of defense in connection with effort by helping to ensure that our markets problems arising due to crises, due to nation- are open to the products of Eastern Europe. alist fanaticism, due to conflicts in Europe Ultimately, the further integration of Europe or at the periphery. Crisis management is a can be a future source of jobs and prosperity very important objective. Military coopera- for both the United States and Western Eu- tion without Eastern European countries rope as these nations become increasingly being members of NATO but cooperation productive and, therefore, increasingly able between them and NATO is not a threat for to serve as consumers in the global economy. Russia but rather an invitation to Russia to We have already begun to open our mar- contribute constructively. kets to these new democracies. And I have I will not embark on the problem of the urged that both the United States and the European economy. Mr. Delors will speak EU explore additional ways in which we can about this problem. But the truth is that further open our markets to the nations to there are three regions in which we have our east. Our trade is a source of strength, both unemployment and recession: Europe, the source of jobs, a source of prosperity. Japan, and the United States. Now, the I look forward to continuing these discus- United States has started an upswing. sions in the future. We had a lot of very good We are faced with a very serious problem specific discussions this morning on the jobs in connection with employment, and we will issue in particular. And we intend to continue have to live with this problem for many years to work together and to make progress to- unless we manage to find a radical solution. gether. It is not the right time to go into the details Thank you very much. of these solutions. Now, this is what I wanted President Papandreou. President Clin- to say at the present juncture. ton, in this very brief presentation, has cov- So, President Delors. ered the issues that we discussed today. He President Delors. Questions imme- has done so in a very complete way, so I diately, because this is more interesting than will make two or three comments and not what I could add to what Prime Minister more. To begin with, we have the revitaliza- Papandreou has spoken on behalf of the tion of transatlantic relations, relations be- community. tween Europe, the European Union, and the United States of America. It is very important for President Clinton Bosnia that European integration, the great objec- Q. Back to NATO, Mr. President. What tive of a united Europe, is very important. makes you think that the Serbs will take the Now, the other important issue is an opening threat seriously now since NATO has been towards Eastern Europe. The wall separating the boy crying wolf in the past? And what the East from the West has been dismantled. really has stiffened everybody’s spine now We do not want any further divisions in Eu- after 2 years of shelling, bombing, slaughter? rope. But we should not ignore the dangers President Clinton. Well, keep in mind that may confront us on this road. now the resolution was directed toward a Russia is involved in a very difficult eco- specific set of circumstances. NATO re- nomic, political, and social reform. And we affirmed the August position that if Sarajevo would like to contribute in any way we can was subject to strangulation, defined as large- so that this road will lead to a modern econ- scale shelling, that air power from NATO omy, to a peace policy, and to a just society. could be used as a response to that. And then We hope that that will be the final outcome today, there were added two conditions that of this process. we asked our military leadership to come up Now, the third point which is directly with, plans to ensure that the troop replace- linked to what we have mentioned so far is ment in Srebrenica could pro-

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ceed and to see whether the airstrip at Tuzla icy and if you finance it in the right way, could be opened. you will create jobs, not cost jobs. Much of I can only tell you what happened in the the environmental cleanup that is sensible re- meetings. The Secretary General of NATO quires the development of technologies and and I both said that these steps should not the generation of high-wage jobs which will be called for unless everyone voting in the be virtually exclusively the province of the affirmative was prepared to see them same countries that are having trouble creat- through. And there was an explicit discussion ing jobs. of that. So I think that the continued deterio- With regard to workers’ rights, I would re- ration of conditions, the frustration of all of spond in two ways. First of all, if in order us that no peace agreement has been made, to create jobs we have to give up all the sup- and that explicit debate should give this vote ports that we have worked hard for over dec- the credibility that I believe it deserves. ades for working families, then we may wind up paying the same political price and social The Global Economy price. That is, we do not want to see the Q. Listening to what you said about collapse of the middle class in Europe or in growth and jobs and also defense of the envi- the United States. What we want to do is ronment and social rights, I’m very struck by to rebuild and strengthen the middle class. how similar your language is to the proposals If you look at the vote in Russia, if you which President Delors recently put to the look at the recent vote in Poland, you see European heads of government. Would you what happens in democracies when middle acknowledge that your thinking on these class people feel that the future will be worse issues is very largely convergent? And what than the present. So if you’re going to ask would you say to some people who re- for changes in the system of support, those sponded in this Union by saying now is no changes have to be done in a way that in- time to be unduly concerned about workers’ crease the sense of security of middle class, rights or the environment, that this can be working class families in all these countries. no priority when we are tackling mass unem- Secondly, the issue of worker rights and ployment? It’s a debate we’ve had here in the issue of the environment should be seen the Union. I wonder how you would advise from our prospective as a global one. That people in that respect here. is, if you look at what Ambassador Kantor President Clinton. First of all, I think it negotiated with Mexico in the NAFTA treaty, is fair to say that President Delors and I share the first trade agreement ever to explicitly a lot of common ideas. Prime Minister deal with environmental and labor issues, we Papandreou and I have shared some ideas. did it because we said, okay, if we’re going I’ve read some of his thoughts and inter- to open our borders and trade more and in- views. I think any person who seriously stud- vest more with developing nations, we want ies this issue, who studies income trends in to know that their working people will re- the United States, who studies job trends in ceive some of the benefits and a fair share Europe, who studies now what is happening of the benefits of this trade and investment. in Japan, will reach the conclusion that every Otherwise, they won’t have increasing in- wealthy country in the world is having great comes, and they won’t be able to buy our difficulty creating jobs and raising incomes, products and services. and that there are some common elements So I see this whole worker rights issue as to this malady which have to be addressed. more a function of the global economy and Now, let me say in response to the two one that will help us to build up ordinary issues you’ve raised, first of all, with regard citizens everywhere, which I think should be to the environment, I believe that dealing our ultimate objective. with the environment creates jobs, doesn’t cost jobs if you do it in the right way. And Bosnia I think we now have about 20 years of evi- Q. Mr. President, back on Bosnia, you dence that supports that—that if you have mentioned that this threat of military action the right sort of sensible environmental pol- is not a new threat. How long can NATO

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keep on making these threats without carry- posed, and then I’ll also respond. And per- ing them out, without delivering? At what haps Prime Minister Papandreou will re- point does it become, as you warned about spond. yesterday, an empty threat? President Delors. Back in 1989, already President Clinton. Well, first of all, we with the event that took place then, the Sum- have two different issues here. The French mit of Industrialized Nations dealt at length and the British proposed the motion to ask with this question: How, after the fall of the our military planners to come up with a strat- Berlin Wall and the collapse of communism, egy to ensure the rotation of troops in could we make it possible for the countries Srebrenica and to see whether with the use in question to get back onto the track of plu- of air power or some other device we might ralist democracy and open economy? And secure the opening of the airstrip at Tuzla then, it seemed to us that immediate entry to continue the U.N. mission, the humani- by the countries in question into the Euro- tarian mission. So we’ll await the plan and pean Union would be more damaging for see what happens. them than would be a period of preparation On the question of the use of air strikes and adaptation. in retaliation for the strangulation of Sara- We were afraid then that there would be jevo, that is largely going to be a function a clash between the strong and the weak, of the behavior of the people who have been however much aid we could give them. So shelling Sarajevo, the Bosnian Serbs. When a period of transition was necessary. It was you say how long, it depends on what is their in the context of the mission that was en- behavior. Is the shelling going to abate now, trusted to the European Community and to as it did after August when we adopted the the Commission that we endeavored to help resolution? And then it basically escalated them in order to make it possible for them dramatically only relatively recently. Or will to progress in parallel along the two tracks they continue to do it? And then we’ll see that I have indicated today. After 4 years of if our resolve is there. My resolve is there. experience and speaking in my personal That’s all I can tell you. And I believe the name, I am ready to take stock of this aid people in that room knew what they were to which the Community has contributed a doing when they voted for this resolution. lot. When you say how long, it depends in part May I recall that in 1989, the European on what will be the conduct from this day Union only represented 25 percent of the ex- forward of those who have been responsible ternal trade of the countries of Eastern Eu- for shelling Sarajevo. rope. Now we represent 60 percent. And so we have replaced COMICON, and that was Integration of East and West absolutely necessary. We have doubled our Q. I had a question on Partnership For imports over 3 years from these countries. Peace. And I’d be grateful if, Mr. President, We represent 60 percent of total aid, includ- you could answer, and perhaps President ing the aid from the international financial Delors, too. With hindsight, I wonder wheth- organizations. er you don’t think you missed a trick by mak- But we cannot replace them. These coun- ing entry into NATO for the former Com- tries are responsible countries. They have to munist countries of Central and Eastern Eu- learn the workings of an open economy and rope work on the same track as entry into democracy. Of course, there are claims in our the European Union. Would this not have countries. There are also people that are rec- been a more credible approach for Partner- ommending other solutions, but I still think ship For Peace? that immediate entry to the European Union President Clinton. I’ll be glad to answer would have been very damaging to them, ir- that question, but I think perhaps I should respective of what our leaders would have defer to President Delors since he has a had to explain to our citizens who are tax- much better sense of how the membership payers. track for the European Union works and let For today, we have to take stock of what’s him answer the question that you specifically happened, but not do this having in mind

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the idea that we could substitute for them. President Clinton. I’d like to go back to They are responsible for the fates. Some of your original question. What you asked, I them have chosen the ‘‘big bang’’ approach think, was since there will be—since there in order to reform their economies. I deplore is sort of a phased-in possibility for additional this, and I feel that this was one of the rea- membership to the European Union and a sons for the return of the former Com- phased-in possibility for membership in munists and others. Others have taken a NATO, should the criteria and timetables more gradualist approach. But each country have been reconciled. I think that’s the ques- was different. Czechoslovakia was tradition- tion you’re asking. ally an industrial country. Hungary, even out I can’t give you a yes or no, except to say of communism, had begun experiments in that I think it would have been difficult to decentralization way back in 1970. So we do that for a couple of reasons. First of all, cannot act in their stead. Today, they have NATO and the European Union are fun- to face a growing problem of security. The damentally different organizations. Member- Partnership For Peace is there to deal with ship in NATO means that each member has this, but there is also a need for economic a solemn obligation to defend the security security. of each other—any other member from at- But I’m a pragmatist. I’m open to any solu- tack. And membership in NATO includes a tion. But when I hear some leaders within guarantee, therefore, coming from the Europe saying that we should have acted oth- United States and from Canada, something erwise, I remain convinced that we did opt that is not the same with the European for the right solution. Now, have we always Union. supplied it with the desirable efficacy? That’s On the other hand, membership in the Eu- ropean Union now involves a commitment another question. It remains open. But again, to a level of economic and political integra- with the commissioners responsible, we shall tion that some who may want to be a part take stock of all of this. of NATO may or may not want to commit But we have to be careful. All of the mir- to. So I think as a practical matter, it would acle solutions that have been proposed would have been very difficult to reconcile these not have resolved the problems, and anyway, two timetables since the organizations are we can see this with German unification. It different. Some may be more interested in is not this that in any way has diminished being in the European Union. I can conceive the frustration of the populations concerned, of some countries who want to be in the or filled the psychological gap, or even made Union who may not want to be in NATO. it possible to get onto the ideal road towards Some may wish to be in NATO before modernization. There are all sorts of prob- they’re able to meet the responsibilities of lems. Besides, I’m very respectful of what the European Union. is happening in Germany. But it is an experi- President Delors. I would just like to add ence contrary to the other one. You can see one sentence. In my humble opinion, the what problems remain to be resolved. generation that I belong to and which holds President Papandreou. Just a few words, responsibility at present has two obligations, because I think President Delors has stated and to reconcile these is not easy. On the very clearly our stand. There is a very delicate one hand, we want to create a political union relationship between deepening of the Euro- with the European countries that desire this, pean Union and enlargement of the Union. because we think that none of our countries They must go together in a careful relation- is capable of coping with these problems and ship. Otherwise, the Union itself may not be with world responsibilities. And secondly, able to achieve its fundamental goals. So given the events that have occurred in the some delays are necessary, both from the East, we have another obligation which is point of view of the countries petitioning the equally important; that is to extend our values entry and also from the Union itself. But I of peace, cooperation, and mutual under- think I’ve said enough, in view of what Presi- standing to the wider Europe. Believe me, dent Delors has already said in such detail. to combine the two is no easy task.

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And again, I criticize those who put forth NOTE: The President’s 41st news conference simplistic solutions in this area. Life is dif- began at 12:49 p.m. in the News Conference The- ficult. No one can prevent such events being atre at the headquarters of the Commission of the conflictual. A little modesty on the part of European Union, where he met with Greek Prime those proposing miracle solutions will be Minister Andreas Papandreou in his capacity as President, European Council, and Jacques Delors, necessary. President, European Commission. A tape was not available for verification of the content of this news conference. Q. Mr. President, Germany recently re- quested that the famous Article 5 of the NATO Pact should apply for the security for Remarks and an Exchange With the Czech Republic, not a NATO member, Reporters Following Discussions in order to face a threat not been defined With President Va´clav Havel of the yet. Since Greece is a NATO member, ac- cording to the report many of them are facing Czech Republic in Prague a real threat in her northern border from an January 11, 1994 expected movement of Albanian refugees President Clinton. from via Skopje. If the same article Thank you very much. could apply on that case, keep also into ac- First, I want to express my thanks to Presi- count that European Union and Western Eu- dent Havel for his warm welcome. I’m com- ropean Union are not guaranteeing the ing back to Prague only for the second time Greek borders. And I’m taking this oppor- in my life. I was here 24 years ago in this tunity, Mr. President, to ask directly if Amer- same week, in a very different role in life. ica will be in the position to guarantee the I have been deeply impressed by the security of Greece from such a threat on a progress made by the Czech Republic, and bilateral basis? was deeply impressed by the meeting I had President Clinton. Frankly, that’s a con- today with the President and the Prime Min- versation I think I ought to have with Prime ister and with other leaders of the govern- Minister Papandreou before I have it in pub- ment. I reaffirmed the fact that the security lic in some ways. But let me respond in two of this Republic, and of the nations of Central ways. First of all, the United States has taken and Eastern Europe are important to the se- two strong steps to try to make sure that the curity of the United States and to Europe dire situation you described does not occur. and to the Atlantic alliance, that the Partner- We have sent 300 troops to be located in ship For Peace is the beginning of a genuine Macedonia, or Skopje as the Prime Minister security relationship which can lead to full describes it, as a part of a NATO effort or membership in NATO, and that we must also a U.N. effort to contain the conflict in Bos- be mindful of the economic dimension of se- nia. curity. For it is difficult for nations to pursue In addition to that, shortly before I became good policies and to reflect democratic values President but after I was elected President, unless they can also offer the hope of success the previous administration with my strong to the people within their borders who work support sent a very strong and firm warning hard, obey the law, and try to contribute to about involving Kosovo in the conflagration the welfare of society. in Bosnia. And we made it very clear that So we talked about these things, and I look we would have very strong views about that forward to talking tomorrow with all the lead- and a strong reaction to it. ers, who will be here together, in perhaps So I think the real issue is, are we trying somewhat more specific terms about what we to protect the interests of Greece and other can do to further both these objectives. But nations from being embroiled in the conflict I am very encouraged by this meeting to- now in the Balkans. And the answer is yes, night, and I thank President Havel for his and I think we’ve taken two strong steps to support for the Partnership For Peace. do that. I believe we will be successful in [At this point, a question was asked in Czech, doing that. and no translation was provided.]

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President Clinton. That issue has not Nominations for the United States been resolved, so since it was not discussed Advisory Commission on Public one way or the other, I suppose it is theoreti- Diplomacy cally possible. NATO is a security alliance January 11, 1994 in which all the members undertake to as- sume certain responsibilities for the welfare The President today announced his inten- of the entire group. One of the things I want tion to nominate Lewis Manilow, Charles H. to emphasize about the Partnership For Dolan, Jr., and Harold C. Pachios as mem- Peace is a security relationship that will per- bers of the U.S. Advisory Commission on mit immediately the military commanders of Public Diplomacy. Upon Mr. Manilow’s con- NATO to begin to work with the military firmation by the Senate, the President in- leaders of each country involved in the Part- tends to designate him Commission Chair. nership, to look at joint training, to look at ‘‘The Advisory Commission on Public Di- joint exercises, to deal with the whole range plomacy plays an important role in directing of issues which will help to move toward the USIA as it works to promote democracy membership. abroad,’’ the President said. ‘‘I am pleased Q. President Havel, sir, can you tell us how to announce the addition of these three ac- concerned are you about the rise of complished professionals to our team.’’ ultranationalists and Communists in the par- liamentary elections in Russia? Does that cast NOTE: Biographies of the nominees were made a cloud over this region? available by the Office of the Press Secretary. [President Havel answered the question in Czech, and no translation was provided.] Nominations for the International Joint Commission, United States and Canada NOTE: The President spoke at 6:50 p.m. in the First Courtyard at Prague Castle. A tape was not January 11, 1994 available for verification of the content of these remarks. The President today announced his inten- tion to nominate Thomas L. Baldini and Susan B. Bayh as members of the Inter- national Joint Commission, United States Appointment of Director of and Canada. Upon Mr. Baldini’s confirma- Presidential Personnel tion by the Senate, the President intends to January 11, 1994 designate him Chair. ‘‘I am pleased today to name these two The President today announced the ap- hard-working individuals to the International pointment of J. Veronica Biggins to be Direc- Joint Commission,’’ the President said. tor of Presidential Personnel. NOTE: Biographies of the nominees were made ‘‘I am very pleased that Veronica Biggins, available by the Office of the Press Secretary. a highly regarded executive and recognized leader of both her corporation and her com- munity, will be joining our team,’’ the Presi- Exchange With Reporters Prior To dent said. Discussions With President Michal ‘‘Her experience in human resources man- Kovac of the Slovak Republic in agement, community relations, and business, Prague as well as her commitment to improving the January 12, 1994 lives of all Americans, will enable her to make a significant contribution to this administra- Partnership For Peace tion.’’ Q. President Clinton, what’s been the re- ception so far to what you have brought to NOTE: A biography of the appointee was made these nations? available by the Office of the Press Secretary. The President. So far, so good.

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Q. No objections, sir? two of my senior national security advisers The President. We’ve had three different were born in this region: the Chairman of conversations, of course, and this will be the our Joint Chiefs of General fourth. And each of them, although leaders Shalikashvili, who spent most of his early can characterize them for themselves, but I years in Poland, was born there; and my U.N. have been very pleased so far. Ambassador Madeleine Albright who was Q. Have they raised security issues with born here in Prague. I told President Havel you, that they are worried that if there should yesterday that the Czech Republic is the only be some kind of resurgence in Russia that nation in the world that has two ambassadors they feel protected, or are they still worried in the United Nations. about this? I have come to Europe to help build a The President. No one has said that they new security for the transatlantic community expect something like that in the near future. for the 21st century. During the cold war What no one knows is whether the future the security of the Western alliance was de- of Europe will be like its past or if it will fined by the division of Europe. Our new be different. security must be defined by Europe’s inte- Q. Are you saying that all have accepted gration, the integration of a broader Europe the Partnership so far? based on military cooperation, robust democ- The President. You’ll have to ask them racies, and market economies. That was my when we do the press conference. message in Brussels, where I met with our NATO and European Community allies. And NOTE: The exchange began at 11:06 a.m. in the it will be my message as I travel to Moscow. library at the U.S. Ambassador’s Residence. A I am mindful of an old Polish saying, which tape was not available for verification of the con- tent of this exchange. I have, I hope, learned to pronounce prop- erly: Nits o nas bez nas; Nothing about us without us. And so I have come to this region The President’s News Conference to share my thoughts directly with your lead- With Visegrad Leaders in Prague ers and your people. I believe the United January 12, 1994 States must make clear to all of you first that we are committed to helping you continue President Clinton. Good afternoon, la- your work of reform and renewal in peace. dies and gentlemen. Welcome to the very That commitment derives from more than beautiful American Embassy. our shared values and our admiration for I have just finished a very productive and your efforts. It also derives from our own se- enjoyable working lunch with the leaders of curity concerns. Let me be absolutely clear: the Visegrad states: President Va´clav Havel The security of your state is important to the and Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus of the security of the United States. Czech Republic; President Arpad Goencz At today’s lunch I discussed three ways in and Prime Minister Peter Boross of Hungary; which my nation is prepared to advance Eu- President Lech Walesa and Prime Minister rope’s democratic integration by supporting Waldemar Pawlak of Poland; and President your region’s continued renewal and security. Michal Kovac and Prime Minister Vladimir First, we discussed the Partnership For Meciar of Slovakia. Peace, the American proposal NATO has just I want to, at the outset, stress my apprecia- adopted. The Partnership invites all former tion to President Havel, Premier Klaus and Warsaw Pact and former Soviet states, plus the Czech people for their hospitality and other non-NATO members in Europe, to contributions to our meeting, and I thank join in military cooperation with NATO in again all the Visegrad leaders for joining here training exercise and operations jointly. today. While the Partnership is not NATO mem- This region, where the great democratic bership, neither is it a permanent holding rebirth of Europe began 5 years ago, holds room. It changes the entire NATO dialog so a special place in my own affections. I first that now the question is no longer whether came to this city 24 years ago this week, and NATO will take on new members but when

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and how. It leaves the door open to the best Thank you very much, and I’d like now possible outcome for our region, democracy, to turn the microphone over to President markets, and security all across a broader Eu- Havel. rope, while providing time and preparation President Havel. Distinguished Presi- to deal with a lesser outcome. dent, ladies and gentlemen, we are living in Second, we discussed ways in which the a time of a dramatic searching for a new United States can help to solidify your demo- order, an order in which no one would be cratic and market reforms. I stressed that I subjugated or endangered and which would have ordered our programs to give greater make it possible for all European people and emphasis to helping this region tend to re- states to live in an atmosphere of peaceful form’s impacts on your workers and your cooperation. communities. I talked about the ways we are Our today’s meeting in Prague bears wit- working to expand trade and investment be- ness to the great importance which the tween your region, the rest of Europe, and United States and the North Atlantic alliance the United States. I also discussed the steps attach to stability, security, and peace in Cen- we are taking to help the Visegrad region and tral Europe, in relation to peace in all of Eu- other parts of Central and Eastern Europe rope as well as to the security of the United bolster their new democracies. States. We’re supporting the development of a We welcome the Partnership For Peace thriving civil society. And in our meeting I project as a good point of departure in NATO’s quest for a new identity of the alli- announced the creation of the democracy ance as a true stabilizing core of European network, an initiative to bring new resources security. We appreciate that it allows individ- to grassroots and independent groups ual approaches from the various countries. throughout the region. I stressed our interest At the same time, however, it depends on in fostering regional cooperation among your how energetically and how quickly the dif- countries, practical things that can advance ferent countries will move to instill in Part- your integration into a broader Europe. nership For Peace contents meeting their in- Finally, I salute all those leaders here in terests and their possibilities. For our part, Prague today who have worked to build prac- we want to do everything in our power in tical regional cooperation and consensus in order that our partnership results in our full Central Europe at this pivotal moment in his- membership in the alliance. We do not re- tory. I congratulate them on having this re- gard Partnership For Peace as a substitute gional meeting. And I suggested several ways for that but rather as a first step toward we can help to support regional integration, NATO. including support for regional infrastructure The reason why we want to join the alli- projects like highways and communications ance is that we share the values of civilization networks and air traffic systems. which it protects, and that we want to take I have greatly enjoyed my discussions part in protecting them. We realize that it today here. I assure you I will follow up on is neither possible nor desirable to isolate them. The United States will have a special Russia. However, we are independent states, conference this year on trade and investment and we decide ourselves about our affiliations in the countries represented here on what and our policies. we can do to increase American investment Ladies and gentlemen, as we agreed in our and to increase the purchase of the products conversations with the representatives of the made by the people who are working hard Central European nations that are rep- in all of these thriving democracies. resented at this meeting in Prague, our coun- I come away convinced that, together, we tries have very similar views on this subject. can place Central and Eastern Europe at the This is certainly a gratifying circumstance, heart of a new Europe, an integrated Eu- and it is to the benefit of us all. rope, democratic, prosperous, secure, and Let me, therefore, conclude by expressing free. That is my commitment; I believe it my firm conviction that this meeting has be- is our joint commitment. come an important landmark on the road to-

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ward a new democratic and truly peaceful Security of Visegrad States Europe, sharing firm and natural ties with Helen [Helen Thomas, United Press the North American continent. At one time, International]? the city of Yalta went down in history as a Q. Mr. President, it’s obvious that the symbol of the division of Europe. I would leaders have accepted something short of be happy if today the city of Prague emerged what they really wanted. And in a way they’re as a symbol of Europe’s standing in alliance. being treated as second cousins. They really Thank you. wanted security guarantees, and you and all the NATO allies have told them that that’s Russia not in the package. In view of—— President Clinton. Let me just—I dis- Q. Mr. President, there are nationalists in agree that they’re being treated as second Russia who look at these four countries and cousins. This is something NATO has never other nations that were under the grip of done before. We will have people out in the Moscow, and they dream of rebuilding the next few days talking about how we’re going Soviet empire. What will you tell Russian to begin all kinds of joint security operations. President Boris Yeltsin about the security To say that 16 nations of NATO made a mis- needs of these countries, and how far it take not to immediately issue security guar- should go in guaranteeing their territorial in- antees to some nations of Europe and not tegrity and their borders? others, without knowing in any way, shape, President Clinton. First of all, I would or form whether the reciprocal obligations say that based on their past statements, he’s of NATO could be met by new members, right, and they’re wrong. That is, I think that I think is an unfair characterization of the the Russian position, the position of the NATO alliance. present administration there that they will re- Q. My question is, in view of the lessons spect the territorial boundaries of their of World War II, is it conceivable if any of neighbors is the proper position. these nations were invaded or aggressed You know, each nation at critical periods against that NATO would not come to their has to imagine again what its future is going aid? President Clinton. to be, and it has to define itself—how it will I think it is doubtful; that’s right. I think our reading of history is define itself as a nation and how it will define right. But frankly, I think none of us believe a standard of greatness. The United States, that—I can’t speak for the other Presidents in very different ways, is going through such except based on our conversations—that that a period today. And Russia must do that. is imminent. I think—what I was impressed In the 21st century can anyone seriously by from these leaders is that they very much believe that we will define greatness by want to be a part of Europe, of the Western whether one country can physically occupy alliance, in an economic and social and politi- another, since we all know that wealth and cal, as well as a military way, and that the opportunity will be determined by things broad definition of security is in that. other than physical possession of land mass? Of course, there are always concerns that I don’t think so. in the future, the darker past might be recre- And my urgent task will be to try to con- ated, that there could be an expansionism tinue to press the path of democracy and re- again. But what we need to do is—again, form and America’s support for it in Russia. what I’m trying to do is to reach out and They are a great people with a great history enhance the security of these nations in ways and a great future. But the future must be that also permit other nations to enhance different from the past, and the way great- their security and partnership with us, and ness is defined must be different. And that, that does not now draw a new line of division I think, is a struggle plainly going on there across Europe. Maybe there will be a new now that will play itself out over the next line drawn some day, and if so, we want to few years. And I’m hoping and will be work- do what we can to support the security of ing for the best possible impact. these nations. But we hope that we are giving

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Europe the possibility for the best possible Bosnia future. Q. What is the next American step in the Mr. Blitzer [Wolf Blitzer, Cable News Bosnia war? Network] I think had a question for Presi- President Clinton. Well, the next thing dent Walesa, and then I’d like a question that we are doing now is what we are doing from the foreign press next. But, Wolf, go with NATO. NATO adopted a new resolu- ahead. tion and our military commanders in Europe now are looking into the instruction they got Poland from the NATO commanders, which is to ex- amine what plans can be developed to ensure Q. President Walesa, I’m sorry I can’t ask the rotation of the troops at Srebrenica and you this question in Polish. But Poland seems to ensure that the airstrip at Tuzla is open. to be the least enthusiastic among the Now, in addition to that, I have been ac- Visegrad countries for the Partnership For tively consulting with all the people with Peace proposals. Is that accurate? And can whom I have met. I have asked all the leaders you describe exactly how you feel about this here what further steps that they thought proposal and whether Poland will seek mem- ought to be taken. Everyone recognizes that bership in the Partnership For Peace pro- the peace prospects have been diminished posal. now because, for the first time in a good President Walesa. I can answer in two while, all three parties seem to believe they words: Sometimes small is beautiful. And we have something to gain by fighting. And as do believe that this is a step in the right direc- long as that circumstance continues, it’s tion. It’s been decided by the powers of the going to be difficult for us to convince them world, and we shall try to make good use through a political process to stop. But there of this. are some ideas floating around, and I’m going to solicit some more. Prague Visit Yes, sir, go ahead. Well, I’ll take two more. Q. What about your next part of your unof- Go ahead—three more. ficial program in Prague with President Ukraine Havel? Did public radio give you a tape of Q. Mr. President, already there are voices your saxophone concert? [Laughter] in Ukraine’s Parliament suggesting that President Clinton. I think the best part President Kravchuk went beyond his author- of my unofficial time in Prague was becom- ity in negotiating the agreement to eliminate ing reacquainted with the city, walking across nuclear weapons. And even a Foreign Min- the bridge again after 24 years and seeing istry spokesman there today said there may the family I stayed with 24 years ago and not be an agreement ready for you and Presi- just meeting the people. I was very pleased dent Yeltsin and President Kravchuk to sign by the large number of people who came out in Moscow on Friday. Is that your under- yesterday to see me and say hello. And seeing standing, and is this causing concern about the changes here, it was very rewarding, and this agreement that you reached this week? it stiffened my determination to continue to President Clinton. Well, let’s see what support these kinds of changes. happens in Kiev. I think, you know, we have Now, I had a lot of fun playing the saxo- to let President Kravchuk make his own judg- phone, and the President gave me a saxo- ments about what he can and cannot do with phone, you know, with his name inscribed his government. I expect that we will have on it, so it’s a gift I will always treasure. The an agreement, and I expect that it will be nice thing about the little music we played honored. And I think, frankly, the more the last night was that the Czech musicians with people in the Ukrainian Parliament know whom I played were so good that they cov- about it, the better they will feel about it. ered up all my shortcomings. I think as the details get out, they’ll feel bet- Is there another question from the foreign ter about it. press? Yes, I’ll take you too. Go ahead.

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Q. There appears to be some difference The President’s News Conference of opinion even within your own staff about With President Leonid Kravchuk of President Kravchuk’s ability to order these Ukraine in Kiev changes, whether he can do it by executive January 12, 1994 order, whether the Rada or Parliament has to vote on it. What is your understanding of President Kravchuk. Ladies and gentle- that, sir? men, let me open this news conference and President Clinton. We’ll talk about it in give the word to the President of the United Kiev and beyond. Let’s watch it unfold and States, Mr. Clinton. see. President Clinton. Thank you very much. We’ve got to go. I have just completed my first meeting with Q. Mr. President, I had planned to ask President Kravchuk, and I am delighted that the question that Mark [Mark Knoller, CBS we have met under such promising and his- toric circumstances. I was also delighted to Radio] asked. But let me ask you, the reform- be able to wish the President a happy 60th ers in Russia seem to have had trouble build- birthday on this auspicious occasion. ing coalitions to offset the rise of the nation- President Kravchuk, President Yeltsin, and alist forces. What kind of advice will you be I are ready to sign on Friday an agreement giving Mr. Yeltsin and other reform leaders committing Ukraine to eliminate 176 inter- about how to go about offsetting the threat continental ballistic missiles and some 1,500 of Mr. Zhirinovsky? nuclear warheads targeted at the United President Clinton. Well, I think first of States. This breakthrough will enhance the all, perhaps in the last election they learned security of Ukraine, the United States, Rus- a good lesson, which is that the forces of re- sia, and the entire world. form need to find ways to work together and Ukraine is a nation with a rich heritage, to speak if not with one voice, at least with enormous economic potential, and a very im- a common message. portant position in European security. The I expect there to be some rough spots ties between our two nations have deep roots. along the way. I mean, after all, this is a rath- From America’s birth to the present day, er new experience for them, and they’ll have Ukrainian immigrants have helped to shape to figure out exactly how the forces are going my nation’s history. to be organized within the new Parliament, Our meeting this evening begins a new era and then they’ll have to work out their rela- in our relations. The agreement President tionship with the President. But even those Kravchuk and I will sign with President Yeltsin opens the door to new forms of eco- of us that have been at it for 200 years still nomic, political, and security cooperation. have difficulties from time to time. But I’m Our meeting tonight centered on three im- looking forward to meeting with a number portant issues. of those leaders in the reform effort and get- First, we discussed the strategic impor- ting to know them and getting some feel for tance, for this region and the world, of the where they are and where they’re going. But nuclear agreement. I commend President I’m still basically quite hopeful. Kravchuk for his courage and his vision in Thank you very much. negotiating this agreement. Second, I was able to issue a personal invi- NOTE: The President’s 42d news conference tation to Ukraine to participate fully in the began at 1:55 p.m. at the U.S. Ambassador’s resi- Partnership For Peace launched at this dence. The Visegrad leaders spoke in their native week’s NATO summit. By providing for spe- languages, and their remarks were translated by cific and practical cooperation between an interpreter. NATO and Ukrainian states and their forces,

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this Partnership can foster an integration of pled its wonderful food, and I’m now ready a broader Europe and increase the security for the sights. of all nations. I’m very pleased by the expres- Thank you very much. sion of interest in participating that came President Kravchuk. Ladies and gentle- from President Kravchuk and his Govern- men, I am happy to greet the President of ment today. the United States, Mr. Clinton, and his ac- Third, President Kravchuk and I agreed companying persons in Ukraine. I’m sorry today to expand and enhance the economic that this visit is quite short, but I hope and ties between our nations. This is a difficult I’m confident that Mr. President will be able time of transition for Ukraine, but Ukraine to visit Ukraine once again, so to say, in a is blessed with abundant natural resources full-scale and will be able to show him the and human talent. Because so many of its Ukraine as it is. And I invite you, Mr. Presi- neighbors are moving toward market econo- dent, to visit Ukraine whenever it is conven- mies and democracy as well, I believe ient for you. Ukraine’s most promising future lies with re- This is a short visit, a few hours only, but form and with integration with those bur- to my mind it is worth several days of nego- geoning economies. tiations if it’s taken into consideration the To assist in the reform effort, I am today wide range of issues which have been dis- announcing the establishment of an enter- cussed. And we would be glad to inform the prise fund for Ukraine, as well as Belarus world that those problems were worth its at- tention. and Moldova, a fund which will help to cap- I think the most urgent problem and the italize new small businesses and provide as- most important problem for the whole world sistance to existing firms that seek to pri- now is the problem of nuclear weapons. And vatize. we have approached its solution. And I’m Over the last year, the United States has sure that this day and the forthcoming days also provided $155 million in assistance to open the way for the world for disarmament Ukraine. We are prepared to increase our and for the elimination of nuclear weapons. support substantially as Ukraine moves to- And Ukraine will be committed to its obliga- ward economic reform. Under such cir- tions, and Ukraine will be the state which cumstances, I also believe the international will not stand in the way to disarmament. community would be able to provide signifi- A lot of time was devoted to discussing cant support and investment to Ukraine, and the bilateral relations between the Ukraine I am prepared to work hard to see that that and the United States. And I’m glad that the support and investment comes to pass. President of the United States and the To begin this work, we will be pleased to United States support our country in this welcome to Washington later this month a time of our hardships. And I’m sure that this senior Ukrainian economic delegation. I be- sort of cooperation and support is real sup- lieve that Ukraine can play a major role in port of all independent states which have the future of Europe, a Europe whose secu- emerged on the basis of the former Soviet rity is not based on divisions but on the possi- Union. bility of integration based on democracy, I’m sure that the charter for cooperation market economics, and mutual respect for and friendship between our states, which is the existing borders of nations. now being finished up by our experts, will I’m looking forward to seeing President be a new stage in the development of our Kravchuk in Moscow on Friday and to wel- relations. For us, it is very important that coming him to Washington for an official visit there is an understanding from the part of in March. I want to thank the people of the President of the United States of urgency Ukraine for having me here and treating me of the support to Ukraine in carrying out its so warmly, if only briefly. And I would like economic reform and support its reforming to close by asking the President permission processes. I am happy that the President of to come back and actually see the beautiful the United States will support our country city of Kiev at some other time. I have sam- in such international financial structures as

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the International Monetary Fund, the World According to mass media, you told that there Bank, European Bank for the Reconstruction will be a financial technological assistance. and Development. But your words were that you will render We understand that we have to be decisive technical assistance. Is that true? in carrying out reforms, and we are ready President Clinton. Well, I will attempt for that. And we are happy with the develop- to answer the question as I understand it. ment of our trade relations and that new First of all, Ukraine is already due some com- prospects are opening up. pensation for the tactical nuclear weapons it We support the initiative of the United has already dismantled. And I have discussed States, its program which is called the Part- with the President the quickest way of reach- nership For Peace, which we consider to be ing an agreement on how much is due and the universal formula which enables the par- how it can be delivered. ticipation of all countries. We understand Secondly, under the so-called Nunn-Lugar that this program does not solve all the prob- bill, Ukraine is entitled to a substantial lems of security, but anyhow, it gives the pos- amount of money to help to dismantle the sibility of all states to participate. offensive strategic nuclear weapons, which I’d like to greet once again Mr. President can be used for not only dismantling the here in the Ukraine, and I would like to point weapons but for some of the defense conver- out that in all issues we have discussed we sion needs of Ukraine as well. have found joint, common viewpoints. This But over and above that, the United States meeting was short, but it was very important is committed to rendering economic assist- and fruitful, and it opened a new stage in ance to Ukraine to help start new enterprises, the development of Ukrainian-American re- to help fund privatization, and to help make lations, which I am confident will be long- this painful transition to a new economy. And term and reliable. we are further committed to helping con- Thank you for your attention. vince other nations and the international fi- If you don’t mind, Mr. President, I’ll have nancial institutions to help as well. the office now of the Press Secretary. Finally, as part of our agreement, of [Laughter] I give the possibility to ask ques- course, Ukraine will be compensated for the tions of our guests, American journalists. highly enriched uranium that is a part of nu- clear weapons. And that is a strictly commer- Ratification by Ukrainian Parliament cial arrangement because that uranium can Q. What exactly must your Parliament now be turned into fuel rods for commercial pur- do to ratify this agreement? And exactly how poses and electric power plants. long will it take for Ukraine to become a non- nuclear nation? Whitewater Development Corp. President Kravchuk. You know, the phi- Q. Thank you, and happy birthday, Presi- losophers say that everything changes in the dent Kravchuk. President Clinton, as Presi- world, even you cannot step in the same river dent of the United States you do not have twice. So I hope that our Parliament be- the luxury at home to ignore events overseas, comes cleverer in the course of its life and and perhaps the reverse is true. Former it sees the reality of the present days, and President Carter was one today who came it will understand the essence of these rela- out and suggested the time had come for an tions and the wish of the three states. And independent counsel to take a look at the when they will understand it, they will sup- Morgan Guaranty savings and loan situation. port the implementation of these agree- He and many other Democrats are looking ments. to you for an indication of whether that’s ap- propriate. Is it? Economic Assistance to Ukraine President Clinton. I have nothing to say Q. Ukraine sympathizes with you and your about that on this trip except that most of wife, Hillary, but anyhow, there’s a question them have been denied the facts that are al- here. There is a decision of the Parliament, ready in the public record before they made the Ukrainian Parliament, on disarmament. their comment, largely as a result of the way

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this thing has been discussed. But I have cluded. You know, he has expressed an inter- nothing else to say about that. est in being a member himself. President Kravchuk. Thank you for your The leaders of NATO concluded that they greetings, and I’d like to note that there is should not offer membership at this time to a gentleman sitting over here who mentioned any country because they weren’t sure any the wife of Mr. President, Hillary. So, once country was ready to assume the responsibil- again, I would like to give a word to a woman. ities of membership and because they didn’t And I hope I’ll receive another portion of want to exclude anyone else. greetings. The Partnership For Peace offers a genu- Implementation of Agreement ine concrete military security cooperation, Q. Sometimes financial programs, but they joint planning, joint training, joint operations elect implementors. Where’s the guarantee to all the states of the former Soviet Union that these programs will be implemented? and to all of the members of what was the President Kravchuk. If this is a question Warsaw Pact. And we are genuinely inter- to me, I would answer that the guarantees ested in reaching out to all these nations. are inside the Ukraine. The way we work, I can assure you that no one has a veto the way they will have the attitude to us. So over NATO membership. It is anticipated these are the guarantees. that the Partnership For Peace will lead to President Clinton. If I might add just one NATO membership for many of those who point. Sometimes in discussions with nations, participate in the Partnership who want to financial guarantees do not materialize be- go through and assume the responsibilities cause they are dependent on decisions made of membership, ultimately. by other parties, usually the World Bank or That’s how I see it. President Yeltsin only the International Monetary Fund. In this said that he didn’t, at this time, want another case, every part of our agreement depends line drawn across Europe. He wanted to have only upon the three Presidents and their a chance to be part of an integrated Euro- Governments to keep their word. The first pean security network in which every nation thing I said to President Kravchuk tonight would have to respect the territorial bound- is that I would do everything I could to make aries of every other state. sure that all three of us did exactly what was President Kravchuk. Mr. President Clin- in the agreement. And I am confident that ton, and I’ll give one more question to the we will. Ukrainian side. President Kravchuk. I’m sorry, as a press Security for Ukraine secretary I would ask for some more ques- Q. The question to President Clinton: tions, but here is a protocol, so the last ques- What assurances of security will the United tion, please. States give and Russia give to Ukraine after Future NATO Memberships it will have the non-nuclear status? Q. Mr. President, Mr. President Clinton, President Clinton. Well, first of all, what you mentioned the PFP, the Partnership For goes with the Non-Proliferation Treaty ad- Peace. And there are some people who say herence is the absolute security that no one that Russia has been using a type of passive who has nuclear weapons will ever use them imperialism in order to keep countries of against any nation that is part of the NPT. Eastern Europe and Central Europe out of That is the first security. NATO for the time being. Do you—by But let me make two other points, which threatening destabilization. Do you agree I think are more important, at least as a prac- with that? And I would be very interested tical matter, to Ukraine’s security. Number in what President Kravchuk has to say. one, the Partnership For Peace gives Ukraine President Clinton. No, I don’t. The short the opportunity to work with the military answer to the question is, I do not agree with forces of the United States and all of NATO that, although President Yeltsin himself has in planning and working together and in es- expressed reservations about NATO mem- tablishing patterns of conduct which clearly bership for other countries if Russia is ex- will increase the security of this nation.

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Second, and perhaps even more impor- I very well remember the first meeting tant, Ukraine’s decision to become a non-nu- that we had in Vancouver where we laid the clear state opens the possibility of receiving foundations for U.S.-Russia partnership and significant economic assistance, not just from also for our personal rapport and friendship. the United States but from the International And I believe that we have every reason to Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the Euro- think that the coming discussions will be pean Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- even more profound, more practical, and ment, the G–7 nations, and other nations more sweeping in nature. who understand the greatness of this nation, I also believe that you will take back from its strategic importance, and its economic po- your visit to Russia a very good memory. And tential. And I believe that in the 21st century, I’m sure that as you meet people here, they it will be difficult for any nation to be secure will also remember you very well and your unless it is economically strong. So perhaps that is the most important stay here. So, Mr. President, welcome to thing of all, the whole range of possibilities Russia. Welcome to Moscow. that are now open to Ukraine because of this President Clinton. Thank you. Well, Mr. courageous decision by the President. President, I am delighted to see you again President Kravchuk. Ladies and gentle- and deeply honored to be in this magnificent men, we would compensate what we haven’t hall which is a great testimony to the rich time to do, when we’ll be implementing our history, the leadership, and the greatness of program. And you will be compensated with your nation, the greatness that has been dem- an objective description of the role and the onstrated again by the remarkable changes processes in Ukraine. And now the best thing over which you have presided in the last 2 for us to do is to wish Mr. President Clinton years. bon voyage. I have just come from a set of historic President Clinton. Let me say this in meetings that we’ll have a chance to talk closing: If he did not have such a very impor- about, meetings which make it clear that tant job, I would invite President Kravchuk Russia and the United States must work to- to the United States to run my press con- gether to build a new future for Europe on ferences. [Laughter] which a new future for our entire world de- NOTE: The President’s 43d news conference pends. began at 9:50 p.m. at Kiev Airport. President I believe that together we can work to lead Kravchuk spoke in Ukrainian, and his remarks a new security for Europe based on demo- were translated by an interpreter. A tape was not cratic values, free economies, the respect for available for verification of the content of this news conference. nations for one another. We will be discuss- ing the specific things we can do to keep the economic reform going in Russia and to help the Russian people to realize the benefits of Remarks at a Welcoming Ceremony the courageous changes that have been going in Moscow, Russia on; to use the Partnership For Peace to de- January 13, 1994 velop mutual security all across Europe and President Yeltsin. Mr. President of the for the first time in all of history to have a United States of America, it gives me great Europe that is not divided by an artificial line pleasure to welcome you as a most honored between peoples; and to work toward the his- guest of the Russian Federation. You begin toric agreement that you and I will sign with this day’s official business in the famous and President Kravchuk on Friday to make the legendary Georgian Room of the Grand world a safer place with fewer nuclear weap- Kremlin Palace, which has names of some ons. of Russia’s best sons inscribed on its walls. These are the ways in which, under your And I believe that this is a good omen for leadership, your nation is defining its great- the coming discussions that we’re going to ness. And I am very pleased to be here to have. work on these things with you.

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NOTE: The President spoke at 9:16 a.m. in St. Stephanie J. Jones, Regional Representative, Re- George’s Hall in the Kremlin. A tape was not gion V; and Sandra V. Walker, Regional Rep- available for verification of the content of these resentative, Region VIII. remarks. Nomination for an Assistant Nomination for Director of the Secretary of Commerce Office of Federal Contract January 13, 1994 Compliance Programs at the Department of Labor The President today announced his inten- tion to nominate William W. Ginsberg as As- January 13, 1994 sistant Secretary for Economic Development The President today announced his inten- at the Department of Commerce. tion to nominate Shirley J. Wilcher as Direc- ‘‘William Ginsberg’s experience and com- tor of the Labor Department’s Office of Fed- mitment to economic development will serve eral Contract Compliance Programs him well in this new post. I am pleased to (OFCCP). name him to our team,’’ the President said. ‘‘Throughout her career, Shirley Wilcher NOTE: A biography of the nominee was made has dedicated her efforts to preventing dis- available by the Office of the Press Secretary. crimination in America’s workplace and edu- cational institutions,’’ the President said. ‘‘I am pleased she has agreed to accept this im- Proclamation 6645—Martin Luther portant position.’’ King, Jr., Federal Holiday, 1994 January 14, 1994 NOTE: A biography of the nominee was made available by the Office of the Press Secretary. By the President of the United States of America Nomination for Regional Posts in the A Proclamation Department of Education On January 15, 1929, Martin Luther King, January 13, 1994 Jr., was born, destined to make our world a greater and more noble one. Growing up The President today announced the ap- in a landscape disfigured with ‘‘Colored pointment of Loni Hancock, Janet L. Pas- Only’’ and ‘‘White Only’’ signs and a society chal, Stan Williams, Judy W. Harwood, and rife with other demeaning racial barriers and Stephanie J. Jones to serve as Regional and distinctions, Martin Luther King, Jr., sadly Deputy Regional Representatives for the learned that the Constitution’s guarantee of U.S. Department of Education in San Fran- equality was denied to most black Americans. cisco, Boston, Atlanta, Chicago, and Kansas He dedicated his life to ending the injustice City. of racism, gracing the world with his vision ‘‘I am pleased to name these hardworking of a land guided by love instead of hatred individuals to serve as Regional and Deputy and by acceptance instead of intolerance. Regional Representatives for the Depart- Three decades ago, Dr. King described his ment of Education,’’ said the President. goals most eloquently in his famous ‘‘I Have ‘‘Each has demonstrated their commitment a Dream’’ speech at the historic Civil Rights to improving education and will serve our March on Washington. The impassioned plea country’s schools and students well.’’ that rose from the steps of the Lincoln Me- morial that summer day stirred the entire NOTE: Biographies of the following nominees Nation, awakening people everywhere to were made available by the Office of the Press Secretary: Loni Hancock, Regional Representa- turn from the scourge of racism to embrace tive, Region IX; Janet L. Paschal, Deputy Regional the promise of opportunity and democracy Representative, Region I; Stan Williams, Regional for all. He prophetically described a future Representative, Region IV; Judy W. Harwood, in which our children are judged ‘‘not by the Deputy Regional Representative, Region IV; color of their skin, but by the content of their

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character.’’ His unparalleled commitment to United States of America the two hundred justice and nonviolence challenged us to look and eighteenth. deeply within ourselves to find the roots of William J. Clinton racism. Throughout his all too brief life, Martin [Filed with the Office of the Federal Register, Luther King, Jr., often confronted powerful 11:26 a.m., January 14, 1994] and even violent opposition, sacrificing his liberty, his personal safety, and, ultimately, NOTE: This proclamation will be published in the his life for the cause of freedom. Though an Federal Register on January 18. assassin’s bullet silenced him forever at the young age of 39, Dr. King’s words and deeds continue to live on within each of us. We, Proclamation 6646—Religious the inheritors of the fundamental rights he Freedom Day, 1994 helped to secure, are forever grateful for his January 14, 1994 legacy. Today, we live in a nation that is stronger By the President of the United States because of Dr. King’s work. Unfortunately, of America there is still much division in this great land. Even though the signs that once segregated A Proclamation our communities have been removed, we are This past year, the Religious Freedom still far from achieving the world for which Restoration Act of 1993 was enacted, re- Dr. King struggled, toiled, and bled. He did affirming our solemn commitment to protect not live and die to create a world in which the first guarantee of our Bill of Rights. In people kill each other with reckless abandon. the great tradition of our Nation’s founders, He did not live and die to see families de- this legislation embraces the abiding prin- stroyed, to see communities abandoned, and ciple that our laws and institutions must nei- to see hope disappear. If we are to be faithful ther impede nor hinder, but rather preserve to Dr. King’s vision, we must each seize re- and promote, religious liberty. As it is in- sponsibility for realizing the goals he worked scribed on the Liberty Bell in Philadelphia, so tirelessly to fulfill. Dr. King’s valiant strug- the words of Leviticus ring out, ‘‘Proclaim gle for true equality will be won, not by the liberty throughout the land unto all the in- fleeting passion of eloquent words, but by habitants thereof.’’ Our government did not the quiet persistence of individual acts of de- create this liberty, but it cannot be too vigi- cency, justice, and human kindness. We must lant in securing its blessings. carry the power of his wisdom with us, not It is no accident of authorship that the only by celebrating his birthday, but also by right to free exercise of religion is the first inscribing its meaning upon our hearts, freedom granted by our Bill of Rights. The teaching our children the value and signifi- framers of the Constitution well recognized cance of every human being. the awesome power of religious liberty, not Now, Therefore, I, William J. Clinton, only to unite the citizenry in common cause, President of the United States of America, but also to empower us to question age-old by virtue of the authority vested in me by beliefs and lift this Nation toward enlighten- the Constitution and laws of the United ment. Today, as we face a crisis of conscience States, do hereby proclaim Monday, January in our families and communities, as children 17, 1994, as the Martin Luther King, Jr., murder children in our schools, as neighbor Federal Holiday. I call upon the people of turns away from neighbor on frightening city the United States to observe the occasion streets—today, more than ever, we see the with appropriate programs, ceremonies, and fundamental wisdom of our country’s fore- activities. fathers. For at the heart of this most precious In Witness Whereof, I have hereunto set right is a challenge to use the spiritual free- my hand this fourteenth day of January, in dom we have been afforded to examine the the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and values, the soul, and the true essence of ninety-four, and of the Independence of the human nature.

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Religious freedom helps to give America’s Proclamation 6647—National Good people a character independent of their gov- Teen Day, 1994 ernment, fostering the formation of individ- January 14, 1994 ual codes of ethics, without which a democ- racy cannot survive. For more than two cen- By the President of the United States turies, this freedom has enabled us to live of America together in a peace unprecedented in the his- tory of nations. To be both the world’s A Proclamation strongest democracy and its most truly multi- There are now more than 24 million young ethnic society is a victory of human spirit we people between the ages of 13 and 19 in the must not take for granted. For as many issues United States, each of them unique, each as there are that divide us in this society, with promise, each struggling with the com- there remain values that all of us share. We plicated transition to adulthood. These young believe in respecting the bond between par- people hold the keys to a promising future, ents and children. We believe in honoring and we must help them use every available the worth of honest labor. We believe in resource to meet the challenges that lie treating each other generously and with kind- ahead. Few generations have been con- ness. We are striving to accept our dif- fronted with so much responsibility, yet per- ferences and to find strength in the dreams haps none has been presented with such ex- we all hold dear. citing opportunities. On this day, let us hear the sound of the In spite of barriers and stumbling blocks, Liberty Bell as a clarion call to action. Let most teens play by the rules as they begin us face with renewed determination the the work of building meaningful lives for problems that beset our communities. Let us themselves and finding their places in the replace the instability and intolerance with community. Most embrace and promote fair- security and justice. Regardless of our faith, ness and compassion, often championing let us be each other’s guides along the open such precepts when others forsake them as path toward peace. unattainable ideals. They work together to The Congress, by Senate Joint Resolution diminish prejudice and violence; they find joy 154, has designated January 16, 1994, as ‘‘Re- in family and friends and satisfaction in tri- ligious Freedom Day’’ and has requested the umph and accomplishment. President to issue a proclamation in observ- Many teens are heroes who refuse to give ance of this day. up in adversity, to yield to temptation, or to Now, Therefore, I, William J. Clinton, give in to the negative influences around President of the United States of America, them. They serve as positive role models to do hereby proclaim the day of January 16, younger children, as leaders to their peers, 1994, as Religious Freedom Day. I call upon and as inspiration to older generations. They the people of the United States to observe are our future, our hope, and a very real joy this day with appropriate ceremonies and ac- to those of us who know them well. tivities, and I urge them to reaffirm their de- We are justifiably proud of American votion to the principles of religious freedom. teens. They deserve our recognition and ap- In Witness Whereof, I have hereunto set preciation, and it is fitting that we honor my hand this fourteenth day of January, in them. Our country depends on their energy the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and and dedication. Their knowledge, creativity, ninety-four, and of the Independence of the and dreams can change America for the bet- United States of America and the two hun- ter. dred and eighteenth. The Congress, by House Joint Resolution William J. Clinton 75, has designated January 16, 1994, as ‘‘Na- tional Good Teen Day’’ and has authorized [Filed with the Office of the Federal Register, and requested the President to issue a procla- 1:58 p.m., January 18, 1994] mation in observance of this day. NOTE: This proclamation will be published in the Now, Therefore, I, William J. Clinton, Federal Register on January 20. President of the United States of America,

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do hereby proclaim January 16, 1994, as Na- manders. Following the briefing, the Presi- tional Good Teen Day. I invite the States, dent attended the opening session of the communities, and people of the United NATO summit. States to observe this day with appropriate In the afternoon, the President went to ceremonies and programs in appreciation of Laeken Palace where he attended a luncheon our Nation’s teenagers. hosted by King Albert II of Belgium for In Witness Whereof, I have hereunto set NATO leaders and ministers of foreign af- my hand this fourteenth day of January, in fairs. Following the luncheon, the President the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and returned to NATO Headquarters where he ninety-four, and of the Independence of the attended afternoon sessions of the NATO United States of America the two hundred summit. and eighteenth. In the evening, the President attended a William J. Clinton summit working dinner at the Chateau Val Du Chesse. Following a late evening walk [Filed with the Office of the Federal Register, and visit to a toy and novelty shop, he re- 1:59 p.m., January 18, 1994] turned to the Conrad Hotel. NOTE: This proclamation will be published in the Federal Register on January 20. January 11 In the morning, the President attended the final session of the NATO summit at NATO Digest of Other Headquarters. He then attended meetings White House Announcements and a working lunch with European Union officials at European Union Headquarters. In the afternoon, the President traveled to The following list includes the President’s public Prague, Czech Republic. Following his arriv- schedule and other items of general interest an- al, he attended official welcoming cere- nounced by the Office of the Press Secretary and monies in the First Courtyard of Prague Cas- not included elsewhere in this issue. tle. In the evening, after a walk across the January 8 Charles Bridge, the President and President In the morning, the President and Hillary Va´clav Havel of the Czech Republic had din- and attended the memorial ner at the Golden Tiger Pub. Later in the service for his mother, Virginia Clinton evening, he went to the Reduta Jazz Club. Kelley, at the Hot Springs Convention Cen- ter in Hot Springs, AR. They then traveled January 12 to Hope, AR, where they attended the burial In the morning, the President was given service at Rose Hill Cemetery and a recep- a tour of the Holocaust memorial at the tion following the service. In the late after- Pinkas Synagogue and the Old Jewish Ceme- tery. Following the tour, he went to the U.S. noon, they returned to Washington, DC. Ambassador’s residence where he hosted a In the late evening, the President traveled working lunch for Visegrad leaders. to Brussels, Belgium. In the afternoon, the President discussed January 9 the expansion of trade in Eastern Europe After arriving in Brussels in the afternoon, with members of the business community in the President met with King Albert II of Bel- a K-Mart store. He then went to the Prague gium at Laeken Palace. Airport where he attended a U.S. Embassy In the evening, the President toured the reception before traveling to Kiev, Ukraine. Grand Place. Following a visit to a local cafe, In the late evening, the President traveled the President returned to the Conrad Hotel, to Moscow, Russia, where he remained over- his residence during his stay in Brussels. night. January 10 The White House announced that the In the morning, the President went to President has directed Bernard Nussbaum to NATO Headquarters where he met with request the Attorney General to appoint a NATO Secretary General Manfred Woerner special counsel to conduct, as expeditiously and attended a briefing by U.S. military com- as possible, an appropriate, independent in-

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vestigation of the Whitewater matter and re- Released January 8 port to the American people. Text of remarks by Vice President Albert Gore, Jr., in a radio address January 13 In the morning, the President met with Released January 10 President Boris Yeltsin of Russia, who then Transcript of a press briefing by Secretary gave him a tour of the Kremlin. of State Warren Christopher on the Presi- In the afternoon, the President again met dent’s initiatives in Europe with President Yeltsin. The President then visited the Patriarch of Moscow and All Rus- Answers to questions taken in the press brief- sia, Alexy II, at Central Clinical Hospital. ing by Secretary of State Warren Christopher In the evening, the President attended a Released January 12 reception at the Spaso House, the residence of the U.S. Ambassador. He then attended Transcript of a press briefing by Senior Ad- a private dinner with President Boris Yeltsin viser for Policy and Strategy George at his country home. Stephanopoulos on the President’s request for the appointment of a special counsel for January 14 an independent investigation of the White- In the morning, the President placed a water Development Corp. wreath at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. Statement by Senior Adviser for Policy and He then went to the Kremlin where he met Strategy George Stephanopoulos and at- with President Yeltsin. Following their dis- tached letter from Counsel to the President cussions, the two Presidents held a news con- Bernard Nussbaum to the Attorney General ference. on the President’s request for the appoint- In the afternoon, the President went to ment of a special counsel for an independent Ostankino Television Station where he par- investigation of the Whitewater Develop- ticipated in a question-and-answer session ment Corp. with Russian citizens. In the evening, the President and Hillary Released January 13 Clinton attended a state dinner hosted by Transcript of a press briefing by Secretary President Boris Yeltsin in the Hall of Facets of State Warren Christopher and Secretary at the Kremlin. of the Treasury Lloyd Bentsen on the Presi- The President named Michael Blumenthal dent’s visit to Russia as Chairman of the Fund for Large Enter- prises in Russia. Released January 14 Announcement by OPIC on President Clin- ton’s visit Nominations Submitted to the Senate Fact sheet on highly-enriched uranium (HEU) Fact sheet on detargeting NOTE: No nominations were submitted to the Senate during the period covered by this issue. Announcement of nomination of Chairman of the Fund for Large Enterprises in Russia

Checklist of White House Press Releases Acts Approved by the President The following list contains releases of the Office of the Press Secretary that are neither printed as items nor covered by entries in the Digest of NOTE: No acts approved by the President were Other White House Announcements. received by the Office of the Federal Register during the period covered by this issue.

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