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At $9.40*a fifth, it ought to be called Sir Jonathan Walker B , then to Joe's place for jazz. John Meyer

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ven it this is all you know about woofers and tweete you can still get a great stereo.



5 ---V-V



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You have almost all the stereo-judging equip- It also has a 23 all-silicon transistor amp

ment you need right on your head. (Your ears.) with a full 66 watts of music power for i Armed with your ears, you'll probably end up channel.

with a good stereo. Unfortunately, it won't be a Unfortunately, you can't read how go

great stereo. Because there are certain things stereo sounds. So bring your head to your r your ears can't tell you. (Like what kind of equip- est Sony dealer. And let your ears do their s ment you'll need, etc.) Of t But now you can get a great stereo, no mat- yea ter how little you know. With the Sony HP-550 ing Compact Stereo System. of r It has a Garrard turntable. A 13-transistor amr FM /AM tuner. Dual airtight speakers with 10" woofers and 4" tweeters. (A woofer transmits bass and a tweeter transmits treble.) Funny Some people still think a Diners Club Card is just for beautiful meals*

You can swing into Puerto Rico on a Diners than any other credit card.

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A Diners Card is all the credit you need. only for dining. Not only in Puerto Rico. Everywhere. You can use a Diners Card to charge more mings at more places in more countries Maybe we should change our name.

JOIN THE DINERS CLUB NOW ! Take a minute now to fill out one of the Official Diners Club Membership Applications facing this advertisement. If applications are gone write Diners Club, 10 Columbus Circle, New York, New York 10019. Vio] Norfolk, Connecticut Sari AVAVOC/y Fridays at 8:30 p.m. Bog A COUNTRY INN July 5-August 23, 1968 Luc YALE CONCERTS Artl Across the road from ._ Mai ^ in NORFOLK Don ^TANGLEWOOD^*************************** Emi A Country Inn resort with charming The Yale Quartet Ban rooms, excellent food and all Broadus Erie Mai resort facilities including pool, Syoko Aki water-skiing, tennis David Schwartz Pris and free golf. •••••••••••••••••••••••••a*** Aldo Parisot You BEFORE THE CONCERT HAVE AN Ward Davenny Mai EXCEPTIONAL AND UNUSUAL MEAL IN THE Gustav Meier Mic FIVE REASONS & ALE HOUSE ***•••*•••*•*•••*••*••*•••••* Paul Ulanowsky Nan Keith Wilson After the concert try our 30 varieties of Clai Yale Summer Mai Imported beers and ales, taste one of our many delicious and different sandwiches, Guests Artists Bria or just enjoy the fine music. Robert Bloom Donald Currier Dor Blake Stern Eva DINING INTHE GAZEBO Have you discovered Norfolk? V. Pau Breakfast, Lunch and Dinner Herbert, Huge Sunday Brunches J. Sibeiius, 5. Rachmaninoff, etc., etc. did! Step and Friday Buffets Nao ^xm¥mmmMs Brochure: Yale Summer School ot Music, Mas Norfolk, Conn. 203: 542 2-5719 Pau STEAK l ALE BOUSE Northwestern Conn, at U.S. 44 & Conn. 272 Vio Hei 637-2000

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Oak St. off Lincoln — Pittsfield, Mass. BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA


CHARLES WILSON Assistant Conductor


















NORMAN S. SHIRK JAMES J. BROSNAHAN HARRY J. KRAUT Assistant Manager Business Administrator Assistant to the Manager

MARVIN SCHOFER ANDREW RAEBURN MARY H. SMITH Press and publicity Program Editor Executive Assistant

JAMES F. KILEY Tanglewood Superintendent

copyright © by Boston Symphony Orchestra Inc.

TANGLEWOOD LENOX MASSACHUSETTS BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA Via ERICH LEINSDORF Music Director Sar CHARLES WILSON Assistant Conductor Bog first Luc Artl Joseph Silverstein Jules Eskin Sherman Walt Mai concertmaster Martin Hoherman Ernst Panenka Don Alfred Krips Mischa Nieland Matthew Ruggiero Emi George Zazofsky Karl Zeise Ban Rolland Tapley Robert Ripley Mai contra Roger Shermont John Sant Ambrogio Pri Richard Plaster You Max Winder Luis Leguia Harry Dickson Stephen Geber Mai horns Mic Gottfried Wilfinger Carol Procter James Stagliano Nan Fredy Ostrovsky Jerome Patterson Charles Yancich Glai Leo Panasevich Ronald Feldman Mar Noah Bielski Harry Shapiro Bris Thomas Newell Dor Herman Silberman basses Stanley Benson Paul Keaney Eva Henry Portnoi Sheldon Rotenberg Ralph Pottle Pan William Rhein Step Alfred Schneider Joseph Hearne Nao Julius Schulman Bela Wurtzler Mas Gerald Gelbloom Armando Ghitalla Pau Leslie Martin Raymond Sird Roger Voisin John Salkowski Vio Andre Come second violins John Barwicki Hei( Buell Neidlinger Gerard Goguen Clarence Knudson Mai Robert Olson Her William Marshall Michel Sasson William Gibson Samuel Diamond Leonard Moss Doriot Anthony Dwyer Josef Orosz William Waterhouse James Pappoutsakis Kauko Kahila Ayrton Pinto Phillip Kaplan Amnon Levy Laszlo Chester Schmitz Nagy piccolo Michael Vitale Lois Schaefer Victor Manusevitch sevi Toshiyuki Kikkawa* Everett Firth anc Max Hobart eigr John Korman Ralph Gomberg percussion abr Christopher Kimber John Holmes Charles Smith Spencer Larrison phi; Hugh Matheny Arthur Press assistant timpanist corr english horn Thomas Gauger falo Burton Fine Lou Laurence Thorstenberg Reuben Green harps Acs Eugen Lehner Bernard Zighera out Jerome Lipson Olivia Luetcke pho Robert Karol Gino Cioffi Akio Akaboshi* Pasquale Cardillo librarians Bernard Kadinoff Peter Hadcock of t Vincent Mauricci Victor Alpert f yea Earl Hedberg b William Shisler ing Joseph Pietropaolo of r Robert Barnes stage manager am Yizhak Schotten Felix Viscuglia Alfred Robison personnel manager William Moyer members of the Japan Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra participating in a one season exchange with Messrs George Humphrey and Ronald Knudsen e

CHESTERWOOD Dining for Those Who Know

Barn Gallery and Studio of DANIEL CUISINE FRANCAISE CHESTER SPECIALTIES FRENCH Sculptor of the Escargots de Bourgogne Lincoln Grenouilles, Provencal Memorial Le Poussin Farci aux Marrons Exhibit of Mignonettes de Bouef Lucullus Sculpture and 9 MILES) Painting. From Tanglewood (ONLY TO ROUTE 41 AND 295 Beautiful Garden Open Dinner and Lovely for Hemlock Forest. Weekly 5:00 to 10:30 p.m. Sunday 2:00 to 10:30 p.m.

Admission $1.00 • Children $.25 Your Hosts Betty and Louis Chevallier Open Daily, 10 - 6 Phone: CANAAN 2-2781 - 2-2441 STOCKBRIDGE, MASS. QUEECHY LAKE • CANAAN, N. Y. (Off Route 183, Glen dale)

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173 Asylum Street, Hartford, Conn. • 140 Chestnut Street, Springfield Other stores in Boston, Natick and Peabody, Mass. ~


Vio . . . and offers its Friends San Bog Luc Artl Chamber music concerts by players of the Mai Boston Symphony Orchestra, Dor Emi Ban Concerts by the talented young musicians of Mai Pris the Berkshire Music Center, You Mai Mic Informal concerts by Berkshire Music Center Nan faculty members and visiting Tanglewood Clai Mai soloists, Brie Dor Eva An opportunity to give vital support to the Pau Berkshire Music Center. Step Nao Mas The Berkshire Music Center has no parallel. Here in the beautiful setting Pau of the Tanglewood grounds, young musicians, selected by audition from Viol all parts of the United States and other countries, meet for eight weeks Hei Mai of intensive study. There is music at Tanglewood seven days a week. Her

The costs are enormous. Each year the Berkshire Music Center operates

with a budgeted deficit. Fortunately the Rockefeller Foundation has recognized the Center's importance: a challenge grant of $125,000 has been awarded, to be matched by the Friends. Each dollar you give as a Friend means two dollars for the Center.

sevi The FRIENDS OF MUSIC AT TANGLEWOOD can be proud that they anc provide tuition funds and an audience for the promising young men and eigr women who represent the future of the musical profession. abr phi; con Contributions in any amount are welcome. A Family Season Member- falo ship at $25 entitles a family to attend all Berkshire Music Center events Lou without further contribution; an Individual Season Membership at $15 AC2 out offers the individual the same privileges. Friends without season mem- pho bership and all others attending these events are asked to contribute one dollar at the gate.

For additional information, you are invited to visit the Friends office near the Main Gate. Or you can write to Friends of Music at Tangle- wood, Lenox, Massachusetts 01240. Checks should be made payable to the Boston Symphony Orchestra Inc. Gifts to the Friends of Music at Tanglewood are tax deductible. n



Route 20 • 5 Miles West of Pittsfield JdU by Unique farm- and- craft pivi settlement dating post time25£ from 1790 10 dwellings and shops 50 Rooms of Shaker furniture


TONIGHT ACTION BINE IN A CASTLE DAILY DOUBLE and 2 PERFECTAS K-Jne of the most gracious ana (5th and LAST RAGES) bountiful restaurants in Enjoy a short Scenic ride to Green tne £,ast.." — S.A. H. Mountain and dine in .J3 air-conditioned elegance at "The Top of the Paddock" J^jl&ntyre restaurant.

Route 20 East St., Lenox, Mass. U.S. ROUTE 7 POWNAL, VT.

> Reservations 802-823-7311 NO MINORS ADMITTED you are cordially invited

to dinner, — ana to festivities

after concert or tneatre Between Bennington, Vermont and Williamstown, Massachusetts ii »

Plus qa change, plus cest la meme chose

Viol After 10, Sar Bog NewYork's Luc IF IT'S Artl elegant Mai most Dor Restaurant Emi FUN TO Bar] Mai becomes Pris You NewYork's DO IT'S IN Mai Mic most elegant Nan Clai Discotheque Mai Brie Dor Luncheon, cocktails, dinner Eva and supper in the grand man- Pau ner of Napoleonic France, recreated by world-famed de- Stej Nao signer Michael Greer. Mas Reservations: 758-9570 Pau Via 4)IRECTOIRE, Hel 160 East 48th St., Mai Monday through Saturday Her

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of t yea Recapture Yesteryear's Nostalgia at ing Seth & Jed's Country Store I of Herbs and Spices Smokehouse Earns and Bacon Choice Cheeses Sported Delicacies Gourmet am< Old -Fashioned Foods Jams and Jellies Candy Papeteries Maple Products Apothecary Jars In tie Big Red Barns on Stoekbridge Bead, Route liTe-'sr El2^.g-lstxi.d.'e -A.m.exica.X}.a. 2vfaLileetpla.ee 7 1 Mile North of Great Barrington a-^E^a? B^»RX3sTa-wo:fcT, mass. Telephone: 413-528-1500

Hemrmber, you haven't seen the Berkshire^ ij you haven't seen JENIFER HOUSE! A selection of recordings by the BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA under the direction of ERICH LEINSDORF

FINE Symphony 1962 Toccata Concertante LM/LSC 2829 Serious Song

GINASTERA (Martins) LM/LSC 3029 with Variaciones Concertantes


Symphony no. 1 LM/LSC 2642 Symphony no. 3 (Verrett, New England LM/LSC 7046 Conservatory Chorus, Boston Boychoir) Symphony no. 5 LM/LSC 7031 Symphony no. 6 LM/LSC 7044 MENDELSSOHN A midsummer night's dream (Saunders, LM/LSC 2673 Vanni, Swenson, Metropolitan Chorus) MOZART Symphony no. 41 LM/LSC 2694 with Eine kleine Nachtmusik Requiem Mass (Kennedy Memorial Service) LM/LSC 7030 ^m

PROKOFIEV Symphony no. 5 LM/LSC 2707 Symphony no. 6 LM/LSC 2834 Symphony-Concerto (Mayes) LM/LSC 2703 with Fau re Elegy Music from Romeo and Juliet LM/LSC 2994 Piano 1 and 2 (Browning) LM/LSC 2897 Piano Concertos 3 and 4 (Browning) LM/LSC 3019 no. 5 (Hollander) with LM/LSC 2732 Concerto no. 1 (Friedman) no. 2 (Perlman) LM/LSC 2962 with Sibelius Violin Concerto

The Boston Symphony Orchestra

i records exclusively for DUCBZJD

13 IIC/I BED SEAL V Sa Be Li MAj D, fi6 Eil Staff B< ^^ ^ M Pi Y( M M X; CI M Br D( E\\\ Pa St Nj M Pa

Vi H< M H<

Up, Up and Hooray! Arthur Fiedler and the Boston Pops are theme from the Mozart Piano Concerto flying high with their exciting and No. 21 featuring the delicate sound of an contemporary new recordings of recent authentic harpsichord-like "Mozart" piano. hits and music from current motion pictures. Welcome aboard our Red Seal flight

A standout is the "Elvira Madigan" to new heights of musical pleasure.

Also available on RCA Stereo 8 Cartridge Tape RC/I



Tuesday August 20 at 8 pm



American salute (When Johnny comes GOULD marching home)*

An Outdoor Overture

Piano concerto in F (1925)* GERSHWIN Allegro Adagio-andante con moto Allegro agitato PETER NERO intermission

Fantasy and Improvisations for piano and NERO orchestra PETER NERO piano JOE CUSATIS drums GENE CHERICO bass

Love is blue POPP

Lover's concerto LINZER

A la Glenn Miller Chattanooga Choo Choo WARREN Little brown jug TRADITIONAL In the mood GARLAND St Louis blues march HANDY

Peter Nero plays the Steinway piano


15 The conductor

ARTHUR FIEDLER, Conductor of the Boston v Pops, has been described as 'an institution Sa Be in his hometown'. Born in the Back Bay on Li December 17 1894, he was brought up in Ai Mi an atmosphere of music. His father was a D( violinist in the Boston Symphony Orches- Ei Be tra, his mother was also a musician. When M his family returned to their Viennese home, Pi Vc he went with them, and later entered the M M Royal Academy in Berlin. Returning to X; Boston at the start of the first world war, CI M he joined the Boston Symphony at the age of twenty. Nine years later Br he formed a chamber orchestra, the Boston Sinfonietta, and in 1929 D( free concerts the Charles River Esplanade, re- Ey launched the on which Pa main one of Boston's chief summer attractions. St NiM In 1930 Arthur Fiedler was appointed conductor of the Boston Pops, the interruption Pa position he has held without ever since. His recordings for RCA Victor are famous throughout the world, and even today he is an Yi regularly all five Hi indefatigable traveler, guest conducting on continents. M Arthur Fiedler has left an indelible mark on the musical tastes of mil- H< lions in every corner of the globe.


...... is the name of a program made possible by a grant from the sc Massachusetts Council on Arts and Humanities. Four days each week, bus- ar loads of youngsters from the urban areas of the Commonwealth are brought en ah by bus to Tanglewood for a day's outing. They come from Boston, Roxbury,

Dorchester, and Worcester, from Pittsfield, Gloucester, Fall River, and Fram- i o ingham, from New Bedford, Newburyport, Haverhill, Holyoke, and from many fa! u other communities. Here at Tanglewood they meet members of the Boston A( Symphony Orchestra and students of the Berkshire Music Center, learn some- ou thing about the music and instruments the young BMC musicians are studying, Pi and watch rehearsals. A lunch-and-swimming break at midday is followed by

Of additional time on the Tanglewood grounds and a visit to other attractions in this area. They return home late in the afternoon. For many of these youngsters, in; this is a first exposure to the beauties of the Berkshire country and to Tangle- of wood and the arts.


Friday August 23 at 7 pm






BRAHMS Sonntag op. 47 no. 3 I i, 1833-1897 Feins Liebchen op. 105 no. 3

Spannung op. 84 no. 5

Das Madchen spricht op. 107 no. 3

Wenn du nur zuweilen lachelst op. 57 no. 2

Feldeinsamkeit op. 86 no. 2

j Die Mainacht op. 43 no. 2

WAGNER Funf Gedichte von Mathilde Wesendonk I 1813-1883 Der Engel

Stehe still!

Im Treibhaus Schmerzen Traume

Charles Wilson plays the Baldwin piano



17 BERKSHIRE FESTIVAL 1968 V Sa Be Friday August 23 at 9 pm Lx A] M D BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA Ei B; ERICH LEINSDORF Music Director M Pi Vc M conductor M N; CI CARTER Holiday Overturet M Br First performance by the Boston Symphony Orchestra D< Ev Pa FAURE Suite from the incidental music to St 'Pelleas et Melisande' op. 80 yi M Prelude: quasi adagio Pa 'Fileuse': andantino quasi allegretto Vi Sicilienne: allegretto molto moderato H. M The death of Melisande': molto adagio H4 CHAVEZ India


COPLAND Inscapet First performance by the Boston Symphony Orchestra ar STRAVINSKY Ode (1943)t eij ak Eulogy: lento PJ Eclogue: con moto < o Epitaph: lento fal

\( COPLAND Suite from the ballet ''t pl

of t First performance at the Festival concerts in] The program notes for tonight's concert begin on page 22 of an BALDWIN PIANO RCA VICTOR RECORDS

18 v i: WBaF

; '; Emm


Saturday August 24 H

* --. ..." .. i li

The part of Donner in the performance £&

of the episode from 'Das Rheingold'

will be sung by LESLIE GUINN ' >'•' 1

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fill in



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bULWUiftjUMW '••' "••'iHa; affliSB H £H ;;,> v; -.' Wm&m I • ':— v I BERKSHIRE FESTIVAL 1968

Saturday August 24 at 8 pm





Prelude to 'Tristan und Isolde'*

Das Rheingold — The entry of the gods into Valhalla



Die Walkure — Act one


The program notes for tonight's concert begin on page 26


19 The Boston Symphony Orchestra under Erich Leinsdorf

New Releases on Red Seal


se ar eij al P*

( o fa: u A< pi of



Sunday August 25 at 2.30 pm





Gesang der Parzen for chorus and orchestra op. 89t

First performance by the Boston Symphony Orchestra

Schicksalslied for chorus and orchestra op. 54t

Nanie for chorus and orchestra op. 82t

First performance by the Boston Symphony Orchestra TANGLEWOOD and BERKSHIRE CHORUS CHARLES WILSON director JOHN OLIVER assistant director


Symphony no. 1 in C minor op. 68*

Un poco sostenuto - allegro Andante sostenuto Un poco allegretto e grazioso

Adagio - allegro non troppo, ma con brio

t First performance at the Festival concerts

The program notes and texts for this afternoon's concert begin on page 37


21 Program notes for Friday August 23

ELLIOTT CARTER born 1908 Sa Be Holiday Overture Li A] M , who was born in New York City, received his B.A. from D« Harvard University in 1930, his M.A. in 1932. He then studied music in Eil Paris for three years with Nadia Boulanger. Since then he has taught at B< M Peabody Conservatory, Columbia University, and is now Professor of Pi musical composition at Yale University. He was a guest lecturer in con- V( at the Berkshire Center in 1967. His awards and M temporary music Music M honors have included two Guggenheim fellowships and a Prix de Rome. X; In 1956 he was elected a member of the National Institute of Arts and CI Letters. In 1953 at Liege, Belgium, his First String quartet won first prize M at the International Competition, and in 1960 he received the Pulitzer Br: D( Prize in Music. Et Holiday Overture was written during the summer of 1944, and received Pa St first prize the following year in a competition given by Independent Ns M Music Publishers of New York. The judges were Serge Koussevitzky, Aaron Copland and Nicolai Berezowski. The first performance took Pa place in Frankfurt in 1946. Roman Vlad, the Italian composer, has writ- Vi ten of Holiday Overture: 'We have to do here with a very brilliant Hi M orchestral piece written in an airy and very articulate style, which avails H< itself of diatonic and chromatic means and is gifted with an overwhelm- ing dynamic vitality.'

Elliott Carter writes: The Holiday Overture is in modified sonata form

with the different themes closely interrelated. Its development is fugal and the recapitulation combines the first and second themes contra-

puntally. The coda is a series of contrapuntal stretti. The style is diatonic and rhythmically highly syncopated/

— ar eij GABRIEL FAURE 1845-1924 at Suite from the incidental music to 'Pelleas et Melisande' op. 80 CO fa! Maeterlinck's play 'Pelleas et Melisande' was published in 1892 and \j staged in Paris at the Bouffes Parisiens on May 17 1893. Faure composed A« his incidental music in 1898, four years before Debussy's opera on the on same play, and it was first used in the production given on June 21 of Pi that year in London, with Mrs Patrick Campbell. There was a perform- ance at the Boston Theatre in Boston, also by Mrs Campbell's Company, of on April 12 1902. The Suite was first performed in Paris on February 3 1901.

The first of the four movements is the prelude to the play. Quasi adagio, of an it develops two themes of lyric character, and suggests the forest scene to come with a soft horn call. The second movement, 'Fileuse', is an

22 entr'acte in preparation for the third act where, in a room in the castle, 'Pelleas and Melisande are discovered, Melisande spinning with a distaff at the back of the room/ It is based upon a spinning figure in triplets (andantino quasi allegretto), which is given to the violins and occasion- ally alternated with the violas. The 'Sicilienne' was not originally in- tended for inclusion in the incidental music.

The Adagio is associated with the tragic closing scene where Melisande lies dying in the presence of the aged Arkel, Golaud her husband, the physician, and the servants of the castle. John N. Burk

•"»*«' 1 CARLOS CHAVEZ born 1899 Sinfonia India

Chavez composed Sinfonia India on his visit to the United States in the 1935-36 season. The first performance was a broadcast on January 23; the first concert performance was given by the Boston Symphony Orchestra under the composer's direction on April 10. The composer has written the following note about the music from which he has drawn his materials:

'The indigenous music of Mexico is a reality of contemporary life.

It is not, as might be thought, a relic to satisfy mere curiosity on the part of intellectuals, or to supply more or less important data for eth- nography. The indigenous art of Mexico is, in our day, the only living manifestation of the race which makes up approximately four-fifths of the country's racial stock.

'The essential characteristics of this indigenous music have been able to resist four centuries of contact with European musical expressions.

That is, while it is certain that contact with European art has produced in Mexico a mestizo (mixed) art in constant evolution, this has not meant the disappearance of pure indigenous art. This fact is an index to its strength.

'The force of indigenous art is rooted in a series of essential conditions.

It obeys a natural creative impulse of the individual toward an expres- sion at once legitimate and free of affectation. In musical terms, the great expressive strength of indigenous art is rooted in its intrinsic variety, in the freedom and amplitude of its modes and scales, in the richness of its instrumental and sound elements, and in the simplicity and purity of its melodies.

'There is never, in this music, a morbid or degenerate feeling, never a negative attitude toward other men Or nature as a whole. The music of America's immediate ancestors is the strong music of a man who con- stantly struggles and tries to dominate his surroundings. Imported man- ifestations opposed to the feeling of this music have been unable to destroy it because they have not succeeded in changing the ethical con- ditions of individuals.'

23 AARON COPLAND born 1900

Sa Be Inscape is one of a number of works commissioned by the New York Lx Philharmonic in celebration of its one hundred and twenty-fifth anni- A] M versary year, 1967-68. It was composed over a period of several months D( in 1967 at Peekskill, New York, and completed in July of that year. The Eil first performances were scheduled during the orchestra's tour in the Be M fall of 1967, the world premiere taking place at the University of Michi- Pi gan in Ann Arbor on September 13. Y( Two different series of twelve tones provide the materials from which is Ml M derived a major proportion of the entire composition. One of these N; dodecaphonic tone rows, heard as a 12-tone chord, opens and closes CI M the piece. Another feature of Inscape is its greater leaning toward tonal orientation than is customary in serial composition. Br

D< The title is borrowed from the nineteenth-century English poet-priest E\ Gerard Manley Hopkins. the uninitiated, the Inscape' Pa To word may sug- St gest a kind of shorthand for 'inner landscape'. But Hopkins meant to NiM signify a more universal experience by his privately invented word. H. Gardner, his editor, described the sensation of inscape (or 'instress Pa W. of inscape,' as Hopkins termed it) as a 'quasi-mystical illumination, a Vi sudden perception of that deeper pattern, order and unity, which gives Hi M meaning to external forms'. This description, it seems to me, applies H< more truly to the creation of music than to any of the other arts. Hopkins himself, incidentally, tried his hand more than once at musical composition. Aaron Copland copyright © by Aaron Copland

IGOR FEODOROVITCH STRAVINSKY born 1882 SC" ar Ode (1943) CM ah Natalie Koussevitzky died in 1942, and soon afterwards her husband p* established a Foundation to commission music in her memory — CO appropriately enough, for they had together issued a large catalogue fal of important new music during the previous decades through their \j company L'Edition Russe de Musique. They had published many of \( Stravinsky's compositions, and it was natural that he should have ou received one of the first of the commissions. He wrote a short 'triptych', pi which he called 'Ode', and the first performance, a somewhat haphazard affair apparently, was given by the Boston Symphony Orchestra in of Symphony Hall under Koussevitzky's direction. Of the three movements, Eulogy and Epitaph were new compositions. of Eclogue had already been written, originally intended as incidental an music to a motion picture Jane Eyre. But a commission for the film score was not forthcoming, and this music for a hunting scene became the second movement of Ode.

24 The music of Ode was used, with other of Stravinsky's compositions, for a ballet Feuilleton, which was produced at the Bavarian Opera, Munich, in 1957. The Western Theatre Ballet presented Ode as a com- plete ballet in 1961 in England.

The composer wrote the following note for the first performance: Part One. 'Eulogy', praise, a song in sustained melody with accompaniment, the whole in fugal treatment.

Part Two. 'Eclogue', a piece in lively mood, a kind of concert champetre, suggesting out-of-door music, an idea cherished by Natalie Koussevitzky and brilliantly materialized at Tanglewood by her husband.

Part Three. 'Epitaph', an inscription, serein air, closes this memorial triptych. ££$& Andrew Raeburn

AARON COPLAND Suite from the ballet 'Billy the Kid' B

Lincoln Kirstein commissioned Billy the Kid for his Ballet Caravan in 1938. a&H The music was composed in five weeks during the summer of that year, partly in Paris, in New York City and at the MacDowell Colony in Peter- I boro, New Hampshire. The first presentation of the ballet took place in New York City at the Martin Beck Theatre on May 24 1939. Aaron Copland made the suite, which comprises about two-thirds of the music for the ballet itself, in the following summer.

Aaron Copland describes the ballet as follows:

'The action begins and closes on the open prairie. The central position of the ballet concerns itself with significant moments in the life of Billy the Kid. The first scene is a street in a frontier town. Familiar figures am- ble by. Cowboys saunter into town, some on horseback, others with their lassos. Some Mexican women do a Jarabe which is interrupted by a fight between two drunks. Attracted by the gathering crowd Billy is seen for the first time as a boy of twelve with his mother. The brawl turns ugly, guns are drawn, and in some unaccountable way Billy's mother is killed. Without an instant's hesitation, in cold fury, Billy draws a knife from a cowhand's sheath and stabs his mother's slayers. His short but famous career had begun. In swift succession we see episodes in Billy's later life: at night, under the stars, in a quiet game with his outlaw friends.

'Hunted by a posse led by his former friend, Pat Garrett, Billy is pursued.

A running gun battle ensues. Billy is captured. A drunken celebration

takes place. Billy in prison is, of course, followed by one of Billy's legendary escapes. Tired and worn in the desert, Billy rests with his girl. Starting from a deep sleep, he senses movement in the shadows. The

posse has finally caught up with him. It is the end.'

25 J

Program notes for Saturday August 24 v Sa 1813-1883 Be Lx Prelude to Tristan und Isolde' A: M Wagner wrote the poem of Tristan and Isolde in Zurich in the D< summer Eil of 1857; the music he began to compose just before the end of the B; M year; he completed the second act in Venice in March 1859, the third act in Lucerne in August 1859. Pi V( The Prelude, or 'Liebestod', as Wagner originally called it — (the finale, M M today known as the 'Liebestod' (Love death) was named by him N; 'Verklarung' (Transfiguration) ) — is built with great cumulative skill in a CI M long crescendo which has its emotional counterpart in the growing intensity of passion, and the dark sense of tragedy in which it is cast. Br D< The sighing phrase given by the cellos in the opening bars has been E\ called 'Love's Longing' and the ascending chromatic phrase for the Pa oboes which is linked to it, 'Desire'. The fervent second motive for the St Ns cellos is known as 'The Love Glance', in that it is to occupy the center M of attention in the moment of suspense when the pair, having taken the Pa love potion, stand and gaze into each other's eyes. Seven distinct Vi motives may be found in the Prelude, all of them connected with this Hi moment of the first realization of their passion by Tristan and Isolde, M towards the close of the first act. In the Prelude they are not perceived H< separately, but as a continuous part of the voluptuous line of melody, so

subtle and integrated is their unfolding. The apex of tension comes in

the motive of 'Deliverance by Death', its accents thrown into relief by

ascending scales from the strings. And then there is the gradual decre- scendo, the subsidence to the tender motive of longing. 'One thing only remains', to quote Wagner's own explanation — 'longing, insatiable longing, forever springing up anew, pining and thirsting. Death, which means passing away, perishing, never awakening, their only deliverance.'

John N. Burk ar en continued on page 35 ah co fa!

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PIANO WOODWIND and BRASS MUSIC EDITING r Claude Frank Frances Blaisdell, Eric Simon John Goldmark John Wummer, Flute Richard Goode Ronald Roseman, COMPOSITION Paul Jacobs Lois Wann, Oboe Norman Dello Joio tsSte Jacob Lateiner David Glazer, Clarinet Peter Pindar Stearns Edith Oppens Alexander Williams, Clarinet William Sydeman Vera Popova William Polisi, Bassoon Frederick Werle Marie Powers Paul Ingraham, Josef Raieff Rudolph Puletz, French Horn TECHNIQUES OF MUSIC Nadia Reisenberg Simon Karasick, Elizabeth Aaron Olga Stroumillo and Burt Fenner Mildred Waldman William Vacchiano, Trumpet Emilie Harris Ware, David Loeb HARPSICHORD John Trumpet Walter Sear, Tuba Steven Porter Paul Jacobs Marie Powers Sylvia Marlowe TYMPANI and PERCUSSION Eric Richards Blanche Winogron Walter Rosenberger Carl Schachter Eric Simon ORGAN and CHURCH MUSIC Peter Pindar Stearns Edgar Hilliar ORCHESTRA and ORCHESTRAL CONDUCTING William Sydeman STRINGED INSTRUMENTS Carl Bamberger Alida Vazquez Ariana Bronne, Violin Stefan Bauer-Mengelberg Frederick Werle Raphael Bronstein, Violin and Warren Yost Robert Gerle, Violin CHORAL GROUPS and Lilo Kantorowicz-Glick, Violin CHORAL CONDUCTING HISTORY OF MUSIC Vladimir Graffman, Violin Harold Aks Joseph Braunstein William Kroll, Violin and Viola Edward Murray Sydney Beck, Viola PEDAGOGY Paul Doktor, Viola OPERA WORKSHOPS Emilie Harris Barbara Mueser, Viola da gamba Carl Bamberger Simon Karasick Madeline Foley, ' Paul Berl Marie Powers Jean Schneider Goberman, 'Cello Adelaide Bishop Carl Schachter Aldo Parisot, 'Cello OttoGuth Vera G.Wills Lieff Rosanoff, 'Cello James Lucas Robert Brennand, Felix Popper ACADEMIC STUDIES Julius Levine, Double Bass James Bayley ENSEMBLE CLASSES Lotte P. Egers CLASSICAL GUITAR Lotte Bamberger MoinaM. Kallir Leonid Bolotine Paul Berl Matthew Lipman HARP Sydney Beck David Loeb Lucile Lawrence Paul Doktor PasqualinaManca Madeline Foley Steven Porter VOICE John Goldmark Linda Reckler Chades Bressler Paul Jacobs Jerome Rothenberg Sebastian Engelberg Simon Karasick Susan Sherman Hugh Fraser-Noall William Kroll John Thorns Marinka Gurewich Walter Rosenberger Dorothy Uris Antonia Lavanne Alexander Williams Louise Westergaard ,

V Sa Be Li MA] D Ei Be M P Y< M M N; CI M Br D< E\ Pa St xi M Pa in Vi At the end of Act 1, ask a Lark smoker the H lobby why he likes what Lark does. M Hd You may find it as interesting as the show.

If the smoker you pick has a flair for the dramatic, he may cut open a Lark 3-piece filter and pour the contents into your hand. Then he'll explain that they are why he likes what Lark does.

Those tiny chunks of charcoal give Lark its own special taste because they take things out of cigarette smoke conventional filters don't.

He'll explain that this is possible because activated charcoal has countless passages and pores which give one Lark more filtering area than a pack of ordinary filter cigarettes. The granules you are ar holding have 1000 square feet of surface area, for example. ei| at If you find more than one Lark lover in the lobby, don't be surprised! Pi More than a million people co like what Lark fa] does. You ought to L< turn to charcoal. A< You ought to turn to Lark. pi of m\ 8 eS """1 you l0 of M W , »o< W^ an U.S. Patent No. 3,251,365 Das Rheingold — The entry of the gods into Valhalla Die Walkiire — Act one

The first Festival at Bayreuth opened with a performance of Das Rhein- gold on August 13 1876. Die Walkure followed the next evening, Sieg- fried on the 16th, and Gotterdammerung on the 17th. Wagner had started rehearsals more than twelve months earlier, had been planning the staging for several years. Almost three decades had passed since he had begun work on his dramatic poem 's death, which was to become the basis of the libretto of Gotterdammerung and from which his vision of the Ring cycle stemmed.

One might perhaps describe Wagner as the first composer who believed in opera as a 'mixed media' show. Spectacle of course there had always been on the operatic stage. But what he conceived, and accomplished, in the Ring cycle, in Tristan and in was a total union of music, literature and the visual arts, an idea startlingly new to audiences nour- ished on Bellini, Rossini, Meyerbeer and Weber. Today we take such a union much more for granted; we live in an age which is itself searching for an even closer fusion of the arts; we have mechanical and electronic devices which give us possibilities of which Wagner himself could never have dreamed.

Wagner's was a true operatic revolution. His theatre at Bayreuth, with the orchestra tiered and out of sight of the audience, the stage equipped with the most elaborate machinery of the 1870s, was designed to force audience and performers alike to surrender to the imagination of the composer and his music-drama. However repellent one may find Wag- ner's egotism, one has to admit that his dream was magnificently fulfilled.

For many years there have been performances of excerpts from Wagner's in the concert hall, either of entr'actes for orchestra, or, as this evening, of whole scenes and acts. Critics have argued that the practice is antithetic to the composer's own conception of his work, and have therefore pronounced it better avoided. Yet performances in the opera house of the great dramas, the Ring especially, are few and far between, and although one can listen to the music on recordings, there can be nothing to take the place of a live performance. More important, there is a wealth of musical detail in Wagner's scores which one can all too easily miss in the opera house. To be able to concentrate solely on the music can be as extraordinary an experience as seeing a production in the theatre.

The story of the Ring of the Nibelungs is long and involved. The golden ring has two qualities: it will confer on its owner power over the world; at the same time it carries a curse which brings ruin to its possessor. Throughout the tetralogy Wotan, whose love for power Ernest Newman describes as the central theme of the drama, tries to ensure that it will not fall into the hands of someone who will use it for the destruction of the gods. Finally he fails; as Gotterdammerung ends, Valhalla and the gods are consumed by fire.

For today's performance Erich Leinsdorf has chosen the final scene from Das Rheingold and the first act of Die Walkure, the end of the first opera in the cycle and the beginning of the second.

35 Alberich, an ugly dwarf from the underworld, has stolen the magic gold

from the Rhinemaidens, but has lost it to Wotan. Wotan in turn is forced V to give it to the giants Fafner and Fasolt as payment for building the Sa gods' new home, Valhalla. Alberich has put a curse on the ring, and its Be Lx evil begins to work as Fafner kills Fasolt. A] M As this evening's episode begins, Donner, the thunder god, and his D< brother Froh are seen. A rainbow bridge stretches toward the gods' new Eil home, which glows blindingly in the evening sun. The gods stare in B£ M amazement and Wotan names the castle Valhalla. They begin to cross bridge, Loge, hesitating, remains behind. 'They are Pi the rainbow but *] hastening towards their end,' he sings. Hidden in the valley, the Rhine- M maidens lament the loss of their gold. Loge mocks them, but they are M not to be stilled. As the curtain falls, the gods cross the bridge into X; CI Valhalla. M Between the end of Das Rheingold and the beginning of Die Walkure, Br D( Wotan had begotten nine daughters by Erde, goddess of the earth. They E\ are the Valkyries. Wotan has also had children — the Walsungs — by a Pa mortal woman. He hopes that one of these, Siegmund, will be able to St rescue the gods by regaining the golden ring from Fafner, who has now Ns M transformed himself into a dragon to guard his treasure. Pa As Die Walkure opens, Siegmund, fleeing his enemies, arrives exhausted

Vi at a hut in the forest. It is the home of Hunding and his wife Sieglinde. Hi Siegmund and Sieglinde are brother and sister, but neither will recognise

M the other. There is nobody there as Siegmund drops to the ground. Sieglinde comes curiously in; Siegmund asks for water, revives and asks

where he is. 'This house and this woman belong to Hunding,' she re-

plies. Siegmund tells how ill luck pursues him wherever he goes. Sieg- linde urges him to stay.

Hunding arrives armed. Suspiciously he asks who the stranger is, notices how much he looks like his wife. He questions Siegmund, who recounts his misfortunes. Hunding realises that Siegmund is the man whom he has himself been pursuing, and demands that in the morning he and his guest shall fight to the death. He orders Sieglinde away, then himself ar goes to the inner room. cij Siegmund is alone and unarmed. He remembers that his father once told ah him that he would find a sword when he was in desperate need. A flame from the fire in the hearth lights up the hilt of a sword buried in the treetrunk. Siegmund ponders the beauty of Sieglinde. As the fire dies fa: away, she returns. Telling him that she has given Hunding a sleeping L< draught, she urges Siegmund to flee. She recounts the story of the \< sword buried in the tree: at her wedding an old man, a stranger in grey garb (whom the audience should know to be Wotan), thrust the sword

P* into the tree. 'It should fittingly go to the man who should draw it out/

The wedding guests tried; all failed. Perhaps it will fall to the stranger? of Siegmund embraces Sieglinde. The door flies open and the spring moon- light floods the room. They sing together of spring and of love, then in; Siegmund springs towards the tree, seizes the hilt of the sword and with of a mighty effort pulls it from the tree. It is Siegmund's gift to the bride an with whom he will flee Hunding's house. As the curtain falls, they cling to one another in ecstasy. Andrew Raeburn

36 Program notes for Sunday August 25

JOHANNES BRAHMS 1833-1897 op. 54

Nanie op. 82 op. 89

The industrial and political revolutions of the eighteenth century destroyed the old order, and began a transformation of society which continues to our own day. People deserted the country to find work in the cities springing up all over Europe and the United States. The new situation demanded new customs, new institutions, even a new vocabulary: the word 'slum', for instance, is first recorded, according to the Oxford Dictionary, in 1812. Most of the people who lived in towns in the first half of the nineteenth century existed in ugly and Hi ill equipped houses, in filthy, bleak communities. Life was drab and miserable.

Unhappy groups of people tend to band together to find in each other's company and in organised activity some sort of consolation for the

' ugliness of their day-to-day existence. As one would therefore expect, H new religious sects, temperance societies and the like proliferated. _« Another kind of society — in terms of world history unimportant, but in the development of music vital — began to multiply: large choral societies were founded in city after city. The Handel and Haydn Society of Boston was established in 1815, the Philharmonic Society of London in 1812, The Huddersfield Choral Society in 1836, to name three which

still flourish today.

Hand in hand with this interest in singing went a basic music edu- cation, while improvements in printing and the manufacture of cheap

paper made vocal scores available at prices which most people could - afford. Alfred Novello, eldest son of the founder of the publishing house, did a great service by producing scores at paperback prices: in 1859, the Handel centenary year, a pocket score of Messiah cost one shilling and fourpence (perhaps about 60 cents in terms of 1968), and was later even cheaper at one shilling. Novello's house too was responsible for the publication of hundreds of oratorios composed to supply the new demand. One has only to look at the lists printed on the covers of Novello's scores to see the names of Handel, Bach, Mozart and Mendelssohn alongside those of the now forgotten Franz Abt, Niels Gade, Sir Frederick Ouseley and C. Swinnerton Heap,too choose a few at random.

By the time Brahms wrote the German Requiem, the most popular oratorios seem to have been Handel's Messiah, Haydn's The Creation and Mendelssohn's Elijah. The Requiem, first of the eight works for

chorus and orchestra, was the longest and most elaborate. Its imme- diate success encouraged Brahms to continue writing for similar forces. He began work on the setting of Friedrich Holderlin's poem 'Hyperion's

37 song of destiny' — the Schicksalslied — in the summer of 1868 at

Bonn, and completed it three years later. Hermann Levi, the conductor of the Karlsruhe Opera and one of Brahms' ardent champions, directed Ss the first performance at a concert of the Karlsruhe Philharmonic Society Be Li on October 18 1871. A: M The setting of Schiller's Nanie followed ten years later. Brahms dedi- D cated it to the memory of his friend, the neo-classical painter Anselm Ei Feuerbach, who had recently died. The composer played the piece to B; his friends Heinrich and Elisabet von Herzogenberg in Vienna, and -\U Pi Elisabet wrote in a letter (October 28-29 1881): 'To us this piece is V< the dearest and most splendid of our possessions.' The first perform- M M ance was given in Zurich the following December 6. X Brahms' last work for chorus and orchestra was Gesang der Parzen Ci M (Song of the fates). The text is Goethe's. The first performance was Br given in Basle almost exactly a year after that of Nanie. There was a D< performance in Leipzig a few months later of which Elisabet von E\ Herzogenberg wrote to Brahms on May 5 1883: 'Nikisch took a lot Pc St of trouble, and did all that anyone can do at Leipzig, where the ladies X; of the chorus are not much concerned as to whether they sing flat M or sharp, although they can look languishing, and sing from memory Pa with their arms folded. Certain passages always sound out of tune, Vi and just that heavenly passage "And wait in vain" did certainly wait Hi M in vain for purity of intonation.' Hi Andrew Raeburn

Gesang der Parzen (Song of the fates) by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Es furchte die Gotter Be fearful of the gods, O man. They Das Menschengeschlecht! hold the mastery in immortal hands

ar Sie halten die Herrschaft and can use it as they will.

eij In ewigen Handen al Und konnen sie brauchen,

Pi Wie's ihnen gefallt. CO fa Der furchte sie doppelt, Let him, whom they have exalted, be \j Den je sie erheben! doubly fearful. On mountain crags and

' A. Auf Klippen und Wolken on clouds the seats stand ready round Sind Stuhle bereitet tables of gold. y pi Um goldene Tische.

of Erhebet ein Zwist sich, When quarrels arise, the guests are So stiirzen die Gaste, hurled down, shamed and dishonored, Geschmaht und geschandet, to the depths of night, and abandoned In nachtliche Tiefen they await, fast bound in the darkness, of Und harren vergebens, the judgment of justice. Im Finstern gebunden, Gerechten Gerichtes.

38 Sie aber, sie bleiben But as for the gods, they remain in In ewigen Festen everlasting holiday round tables of gold. An goldenen Tischen. They stride from mountain to moun- Sie schreiten vom Berge tain. From deep abysses steams the Zu Bergen hiniiber: breath of the choking Titans, like light Aus Schliinden der Tiefe clouds of sacrificial smoke. Dampft ihnen der Atem Erstickter Titanen, Gleich Opfergeruchen, Ein leichtes Gewolke.

Es wenden die Herrscher The immortals avert their glances of Ihr segnendes Auge blessing from the race of men, and Von ganzen Geschlechtern shun, in the grandsons, to trace the Und meiden, im Enkel ancestors' eloquent features which once Die ehmals geliebten, they loved. Still redenden Ziige Des Ahnherrn zu sehn.

So sangen die Parzen. So sang the Fates. And the old man, Es horcht der Verbannte the banished one, lying in the tombs In nachtlichen Hohlen, of night, thinks on his sons, thinks on Der Alte, die Lieder, his grandsons, and shakes his head. Denkt Kinder und Enkel Und schuttelt das Haupt.

Schicksalslied (Song of destiny) by Friedrich Holderlin

Ihr wandelt droben im Licht, Ye wander above in light, Auf weichem Bogen, selige Genien! On tender soil, blessed immortals! Glanzende Gotterliifte Glistening divine breezes Ruhren euch leicht, Touch you gently, Wie die Finger der Kiinstlerin As the fingers of the artist Heilige Saiten. Sacred strings.

Schicksallos, wie der schlafende Calm as the sleeping child Saugling, atmen die Himmlischen; Breathe the celestials; Keusch bewahrt Chastely guarded In bescheidener Knospe, In modest bud, Bluhet ewig Their spirits bloom eternally, Ihnen der Geist, And their blissful eyes Und die seligen Augen Gaze in quiet, eternal stillness. Blicken in stiller, Ewiger Klarheit.

Doch uns ist gegeben, But to us it is given Auf keiner Statte zu ruhen; On no spot to rest; Es schwinden, es fallen Suffering men Die leidenden Menschen Vanish, blindly fall Blindlings von einer From hour to hour, Stunde zur andern, As water thrown Wie Wasser von Klippe From rock to rock, Zu Klippe geworfen, Year-long down into uncertainty. Jahrlang ins Ungewisse hinab.

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40 Nanie (Goddess of funerals) by Friedrich von Schiller

Auch das Schone muss sterben, das Menschen und Gotter bezwinget! Nicht die eherne Brust ruhrt es des stygischen Zeus. Einmal nur erweichte die Liebe den Schattenbeherrscher, Und an der Schwelle noch, streng, rief er zuruck sein Geschenk. Nicht stillt Aphrodite dem schonen Knaben die Wunde, Die in den zierlichen Leib grausam der Eber geritzt. Nicht errettet den gottlichen Held die unsterbliche Mutter, Wenn er, am skaischen Tor fallend, sein Schicksal erfiillt. Aber sie steigt aus dem Meer mit alien Tochtern des Nereus, Und die Klage hebt an um den verherrlichten Sohn. Siehe, da weinen die Gotter, es weinen die Gottinnen alle, Dass das Schone vergeht, dass das Vollkommene stirbt. Auch ein Klaglied zu sein im Mund der Geliebten ist herrlich, Denn das Gemeine geht klanglos zum Orkus hinab.

Even the beautiful must die! Men and gods are brought low; the steely heart of the king of the underworld stays unmoved. Once only did love stir in the heart of the lord of the shades; even then, on the threshold, sternly he summoned back his gift [Euridice]. Aphrodite could not heal the wounds of the handsome boy [Adonis], whose skin the boar ripped so horribly. Nor could his immortal mother [Thetis] save her godlike hero son [Achilles], when he fell, fulfilling his destiny, at the west gate of Troy. But she arose from the ocean, with all the daughters of Nereus, and with shrieks grieved for her exalted son. See, there mourn the gods, there mourn the goddesses; for the beautiful passes away, for the perfect must die. And so, to be a song of woe in the mouth of a loved one is glorious, for it is the vulgar that descends without sound to the underworld.

Symphony no. 1 in C minor op. 68

It is not without significance that Brahms required twenty years to com- plete his First Symphony and that only in his forty-second year was he ready to present it for performance and public inspection. An obvious reason, but only a contributing reason, was the composer's awareness of a skeptical and in many cases a hostile attitude on the part of his critics. Robert Schumann had proclaimed him a destined symphonist, thereby putting him into an awkward position, for that was in 1854 when the reticent composer was young, unknown, and inexperienced. When two years later he made his first sketch for a symphony he well knew that to come forth with one would mean to be closely judged as a 'Symphoniker', accused of presuming to take up the torch of Beethoven, whose Ninth Symphony had in the course of years had nothing approaching a successor. Brahms was shaken by this thought. The most pronounced skeptics were the Wagnerians who considered the symphonic form obsolescent. A symphony by Brahms would be a challenge to this point of view. Brahms, hesitant to place a new score beside the immortal nine, was nevertheless ambitious. His symphonic thoughts inevitably took broader lines, sturdier sonorities, and more dramatic proportions than Schubert's, Schumann's or Mendelssohn's.

He approached the form cautiously and by steps, not primarily because he feared critical attack, but because, being a thorough self-questioner,

41 he well knew in 1856 that he was by no means ready. As it turned out, twenty years was the least he would require for growth in character, artistic vision, craft. These twenty years give us plentiful evidence of V such growth. From the point of view of orchestral handling, the stages Si of growth are very clear indeed. His first orchestral scores, the two B( (1857-1859), were light-textured, of chamber proportions as Li Ai if growing from the eighteenth century. The D minor Piano Concerto, M completed after a long gestation in 1858, had grandeur of design, was Di at first intended as a symphony, and became in effect a symphonic con- Ei certo, a score in which the composer could not yet divorce himself B: M from the instrument of his long training to immerse himself entirely in Pi the orchestral medium. The Haydn Variations of 1873 show that he had V< M by this time become a complete master of orchestral writing but indicate M that he was not yet ready to probe beneath the surface of agreeable X and objective lyricism. CI M Nevertheless the earlier Brahms of 1856, the Brahms of twenty-three, Bi was already the broad schemer whose tonal images were often dark, D« often wildly impetuous. He was then in his 'storm and stress' period, Ey when he was deeply disturbed by the misery of the Schumann couple loved, anxious for the master in the last stages of his St whom he insanity, Ns concerned for the distraught 'Frau Clara'. This was the openly romantic M Brahms who had not yet acquired a sobering reserve in his music, who Pa was at the moment looked upon hopefully by Liszt as a possible acquisi- Vi tion for his neo-German stronghold at Weimar. Hi M This violent mood found expression in the D minor Piano Concerto, first conceived as a symphony in 1854. Two years later, similarly inclined, he sketched what was to be the opening movement of the C minor Symphony. The Concerto required four years to find its final shape. The Symphony took much longer because the composer had far to go before he could satisfy his own inner requirements. Another composer would have turned out a succession of symphonies reflecting the stages of his

approach to full mastery. Brahms would not commit himself. It was not

until 1872 that he took up his early sketch to re-cast it. He composed the remaining three movements by 1876. se The Symphony thus became a sort of summation of twenty years of ar growth. Some of the early stormy mood was retained in the first move- ei] ment. The slow movement and scherzo with their more transparent at coloring were a matured reflection of the lyric Brahms of the orchestral variations. The finale revealed the Brahms who could take fire from Beethoven's sweep and grandeur and make the result his own. fa \j John N. Burk A. pl of

ML Pours More Pleasure rare scotch C J> at every opening V* V^SMf PENNIES MORE IN COST • WORLDS APART IN QUALITY 86 Proof Blended Scotch Whisky • The Paddington Corp.. N.Y. 20 42 The guest conductor

AARON COPLAND, composer, teacher, author, pianist and conductor, was born in Brooklyn on November 14 1900. After musi- cal education as a boy, he went in the sum- mer of 1921 to enroll in the newly founded Fontainebleau School of Music in France, and subsequently studied with Nadia Bou- langer in Paris. He returned to the United States in 1924, and the following year was the first composer to be awarded a Gug- genheim Fellowship.

His compositions have been performed throughout the world. He has received commissions from many distinguished organisations, the Colum- bia Broadcasting Company, the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo, the Kous- sevitzky Foundation and the Boston Symphony Orchestra among them. He has appeared as soloist in his Piano concerto with in North and South America, including the Boston Symphony, which also gave the premiere of his Third Symphony. Other commissions have in- cluded ballet scores, music for motion pictures and his opera ''.

As a teacher Aaron Copland was for twenty-five years Chairman of the Faculty and Head of the composition department of the Berkshire Music Center here at Tanglewood. He has lectured extensively and has received awards and degrees from many musical organisations and universities in this country and abroad. In 1964 he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

Aaron Copland has written four books on music which are widely read. During recent years he has been increasingly active as a conductor, and has directed more than fifty major orchestras in every part of the world.

He was guest conductor with the Boston Symphony Orchestra on its tour to the Far East in 1960, and has appeared with the Orchestra on many other occasions in Boston, New York and at Tanglewood. This weekend he also conducts the Berkshire Music Center Orchestra.



43 The soloists v HANNE-LORE KUHSE has been the lead- Ss ing dramatic soprano at the Berlin State B( Opera since 1963. Born in Schwaan, Li Mecklenburg, she first majored in piano A] M at nearby Rostock Music School. Even D though it was her piano teacher who dis- Ei covered her vocal talent she was very B: M upset when her gifted pupil decided to Pi dedicate her life to singing. V< M Graduating from Berlin's Stern'che Kon- M servatorium, Hanne-Lore Kuhse made her X; operatic debut in 1951 at the Gera Opera House as Leonore in Beetho- Ci M ven's 'Fidelio', followed by Puccini's ' only two months Br later. From 1952 to 1959 she was a member of the Schwerin Opera. D< There and at the Leipzig Opera (1959-1963) she acquired a large reper- E^ Pc toire and a reputation as an outstanding singer in opera, oratorio and St lieder. She has also been a permanent guest at Walter Felsenstein's Nj M Komische Oper since 1958 and at the State Opera of Berlin since 1959, Pa before permanently joining the company. She has also appeared in opera in Paris, Nice, Moscow, Budapest, Sofia, Prague, Bucharest, Ham- Vi burg, Cologne and Dresden, and in concert as far east as Tashkent, Hi M Alma Ata and Novosibirsk. H( Hanne-Lore Kuhse made her American debut in January 1967, and her next appearance in the United States was at the Berkshire Festival, when she sang the title role in the American premiere of Beethoven's original version of 'Fidelio'. After her appearances at Tanglewood this summer she will go to California for her debut at the Hollywood Bowl, where she will sing Wagner arias and the final scene of 'Siegfried' with jess Thomas. During her first trip to America Hanne-Lore Kuhse recorded a lieder album for RCA Victor.

se ar


Norfolk, Connecticut— Fridays at 8:30 p.m., July 5 - August 23, 1968 fa The Yale Quartet L< YALE SUMMER ORCHESTRA Broadus Erie Ward Davenny A, Syoko Aki Gustav Meier Guest Artists David Schwartz Paul Ulanowsky Robert Bloom Donald Currier Blake Stern pl Aldo Parisot Keith Wilson

Have you discovered Norfolk? V. Herbert, J. Sibelius, S. Rachmaninoff, etc. etc. did!

of Brochure: Yale Summer School of Music, Norfolk, Conn. 203: 542-5719

Northwestern Conn, at U.S. 44 & Conn. 272 - 35 miles South of Lenox of an

44 The soloists

JESS THOMAS, who made his debut last season with the Boston Symphony Orches- tra in Symphony Hall, appears at the Berk- shire Festival for the first time this week- end. After Tanglewood he will sing at the Hollywood Bowl, then join the San Fran- cisco Opera for the fall season.

Born in Hot Springs, South Dakota, he graduated from the University of Nebraska and then worked for four years as a high school counselor. In 1953, he enrolled at in California to prepare for his doctor's degree. The school's vocal instructor, Otto Schulmann, recognized his potential, and persuaded him to study voice. Eventually he abandoned psychology for music, and his singing career began at the . From there he move to Karlsruhe in Germany, and in 1960 made his debut at the Munich Festival. The next year he appeared at Bayreuth as Parsifal, in Berlin as Radames and in Munich as Don Carlo. In 1962 he sang for the first time at the Metropolitan Opera in New York as Walther von Stolzing.

From that time Jess Thomas has been in demand in many of the world's finest opera houses, and at many music festivals. At the celebrations commemorating Wagner's 150th birthday, Bayreuth honored him with a gold medal. Not only an opera singer, he sings many recitals, with repertoire ranging from Purcell to Barber.

DAVID WARD, who makes his first appear- ance with the Boston Symphony Orchestra this weekend, was born in Scotland. After finishing his studies he became a teacher, then served in the second world war in the British Navy. He continued teaching after demobilization until 1950, when he went to the Royal Academy of Music in London. Two years later he joined the Sadler's Wells Opera Company, and was soon sing- ing leading roles. Engagements at Glynde- bourne, Bayreuth and Edinburgh followed. In 1960 he joined the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, and has been one of the company's leading artists ever since. He has also been heard at most of the major European opera houses.

David Ward made his debut at the Metropolitan Opera in 1964, and last fall appeared at the San Francisco Opera for the first time. He has recently appeared as Wotan in Buenos Aires and as the Flying Dutchman in New Orleans and Vancouver. His repertoire ranges from the baroque — Handel's Messiah and Christus in Bach's St John Passion — to Mozart, Verdi, Mussorgsky, Wagner and Stravinsky.

45 The soloists

EMILY DERR, a Fellow of the Berkshire Music Center this summer, was born in S< Cadillac, Michigan. She played violin, piano Be Li and clarinet at high school, but it was not A] until she went to Michigan State University M that she began singing seriously. She took Di Ei her Master's degree in applied voice, then B; moved to New York City, where she now Nil lives. She has appeared as soloist in music Pi V< by Poulenc and Ravel with Robert Shaw's M Chorale, and last summer was Mr Shaw's M soprano soloist in the St John Passion of Bach at Meadowbrook. Her X; given CI interest in twentieth century music has her the opportunity of M singing works by Stefan Wolpe and Webern at . Br Emily Derr has also appeared in recent productions of La Boheme, La D< E> Traviata and . P< St X; M Pa FRANCES PAVLIDES, who is also a Fellow Vi of the Berkshire Music Center, was born in Hi New York. She became interested in sing- M ing at high school, and began serious study at the Mannes College. Since graduation she has sung in many choruses in the New York area, has toured with the Canadian Ballet of Montreal in Orff's Carmina Burana, has sung in the chorus, and with many orchestras, including the New York Philharmonic. Frances Pav- lides has been director of a Greek Orthodox church choir, and in her se solo recitals specialises in the performance of classical Greek songs. ar eii at

PHYLLIS ELHADY, who is also a Fellow of co the Berkshire Music Center this year, comes fa from Manchester, New Hampshire. She L< studied musical subjects at Boston Univer- A. sity, and after graduation began a career as pl a teacher and choral conductor. Meanwhile she took lessons in voice, and now divides her time between singing and teaching. of She has appeared as soloist in many ora- torios and in music by Ravel, de Falla and in: with the Portland in of Brahms Symphony and universities throughout New England. Last summer she sang the alto solo part in the St John Passion of Bach under Robert Shaw's direction.

46 The choruses and their director

CHARLES WILSON, Assistant Conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, appears in two different roles this weekend: as ac- companist to Hanne-Lore Kuhse, and as Di- rector of the Tanglewood Choir and Berk- shire Chorus. He came to Boston from New York City, where for six years he was a con- ductor and on the musical staff of the New York City Opera Company, performing fourteen different operas and operettas, including Don Giovanni, Boris Godunov, The Merry Widow and Street Scene. In the fall of 1966 he conducted of Menotti's The the New York City Opera Company's production conducted four Consul both at Lincoln Center and in the Midwest. He performances of Mozart's last season. in 1960 Charles Wilson received a Bachelor of Science degree in Music organ with Dr from the Mannes College of Music where he studied his only conducting teacher. Hugh Giles, and with Carl Bamberger, faculty as Director of For two years Mr Wilson served on the Mannes 1961-1963 seasons was chorus the Mannes Chorus, and during the master for the Philadelphia Lyric Opera Company. the Boston Symphony This summer Charles Wilson has conducted prepared the Orchestra and the Berkshire Music Center Orchestra, has Mass and the German choruses for performances of Haydn's Nelson harpsichord at the Requiem of Brahms, and has played organ and activities at the Berk- Festival concerts. He is also Head of vocal music shire Music Center.

mainly of vocal fellowship The TANGLEWOOD CHOIR is composed at Tanglewood. Selected by students in the Berkshire Music Center here the members met for their audition from all parts of the United States, their director, Charles Wilson. first rehearsal at the end of June under Haydn's Nelson During the season they have sung in performances of music to A Mass, the German Requiem of Brahms and the incidental Symphony midsummer night's dream by Mendelssohn with the Boston Orchestra conducted by Erich Leinsdorf.

of the The BERKSHIRE CHORUS, which makes its third appearance is group of season with the Boston Symphony Orchestra this weekend, a Springfield, Albany people who live in this area, some from as far away as and and Schenectady, but mainly from Berkshire County. Charles Wilson and have re- John Oliver chose the members by audition last winter, hearsed with them during the spring and summer months.

47 A selection of recordings by the BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA V under the direction of Sc Be ERICH LEINSDORF Li Ai M BARTOK D Concerto for Orchestra LM/LSC 2643 Ei B: Violin Concerto (Silverstein) LM/LSC 2852 M with Stravinsky Violin Concerto Pi V< M BEETHOVEN M X; Symphony no. 3 (Eroica) LM/LSC 2644 CI M Symphony no. 4 LM/LSC 3006 Br with Leonore Overture no. 2 Di En Symphony no. 7 LM/LSC 2969 Pc with Coriolan Overture St Ni Piano Concerto no. 1 (Rubinstein) LM/LSC 3013 M Piano Concerto no. 3 (Rubinstein) LM/LSC 2947 Pa Piano Concerto no. 4 (Rubinstein) LM/LSC 2848 Vi no. 5 (Rubinstein) 2733 Hi Piano Concerto LM/LSC M H« BRAHMS

Symphony no. 1 LM/LSC 2711 Symphony no. 2 LM/LSC 2809 Symphony no. 3 LM/LSC 2936 Symphony no. 4 LM/LSC 3010

Piano Concerto no. 1 (Rubinstein) LM/LSC 2917

Piano Concerto no. 1 (Cliburn) LM/LSC 2724 se ar CARTER al Piano Concerto (Lateiner) with LM/LSC 3001 pi COLGRASS fa As quiet as

V< DVORAK pl Symphony no. 6 LM/LSC 3017 with Two Slavonic Dances of The Boston Symphony Orchestra in of records exclusively for an mm/ju

48 See Famous Mt. Lebanon BERKSHIRE MUSEUM SHAKER VILLAGE PITTSFIELD, MASSACHUSETTS Art * Science * Hi story Free Guided Tours of ur,que teenage open FREE historic restoration. Re-creates early Tue. - Sat. 10-5, Sun. 2.-5 American Shaker industries, work- Special Exhibitions shops, handcrafts. Ancient Shaker July - MAXFIELD PARISH looms and equipment used for broom- August - Paintings by AFRO making, weaving, crafts, arts. Orig- inal Mt. Lebanon Shaker dwellings * AIR CONDITIONED * and workshops designated by U. S. Government as national landmark for LITTLE preservation. Shaker items available Is to public. CINEMA Free Guided Tours by teenagers, Monday thru Wednesday 8:15; Thurs- day thru Sunday continuous from 9:30-11:30; 2:00-5:30 (closed Mondays) 7 p.m. Matinees Wednesday 2 p.m.

At top of Mt. Lebanon on Route 20 Finest first run movies, Wednesdays at N.Y.-Mass. border. thru Sundays; revivals of great Tel.: Lebanon Springs (N.Y.) 7-2302. British films, Mondays and Tuesdays No Admission Charge Children's Movies Shaker Village Work Group Fridays 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. in July and August only. Pittsfield, Mass.

Manhattan School of Music


In the Musical Center of Our Country. Offering Artist Training by an Internationally Renowned Faculty. Courses Lead to the Bachelor and Master of Music Degrees.

For information concerning admission and scholarships write to: ADMISSIONS OFFICER MANHATTAN SCHOOL OF MUSIC 238 EAST 105TH STREET, NEW YORK, N. Y. 10029 FESTIVAL INFORMATION

Latecomers will not be seated until the first convenient pause in the program. Members of the audience who wish to leave before the concert's end are earnestly asked to do so between numbers, not during the performance.

Open rehearsals. The open rehearsals by the Boston Symphony Orchestra held each Saturday morning at 10.30 are open to the public. The charge for admis- sion is $2. The open rehearsals benefit the Orchestra's Pension Fund.

Ticket information for all Berkshire Festival events may be obtained from the Festival Ticket Office at Tanglewood (telephone 413-637-1600). The Office is open from 9 am to 6 pm daily, and until intermission on concert days.

The taking of photographs and the use of recording equipment during musical performances is not allowed.

Articles lost and found. It will be much appreciated if visitors who find stray property will hand it in to any Tanglewood official. Any visitor who wishes to recover a lost article should call at the Lost and Found office located in the house of the Superintendent near the Main Gate.

The cafeteria provides box lunches and other light refreshment on concert days. Visitors are invited to picnic on the grounds before concerts.

The Tanglewood Music Store is located near the main gate. Miniature scores, phonograph records, books, postcards, films, etc., are obtainable. The store remains open for half an hour after the end of each concert in the Shed.

A map of Tanglewood, which shows the location of concert halls, parking areas, offices, rest rooms and telephones is printed elsewhere in the program. It also includes directions for reaching the Massachusetts Turnpike, the New York Thruway and other main roads.

The Boston Symphony Orchestra records exclusively for RCA VICTOR.

BALDWIN is the official piano of the Boston Symphony Orchestra and the Berkshire Music Center.

WHITESTONE PHOTO is the official photographer to the Berkshire Festival and the Berkshire Music Center.

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cci 0_ > i .-_-• 0 F- 0 ro ,-,-- ,::: ›•-• .c c w c c tO V a) m .,7, ca V c •-• ... _c• ,a,/ cej 4-' 'cr)? 7 °_c) ,-- .., -, E •,7 E. S. 2 ,,; .,.., .,..:-N a) 0 >, 0 = bo > 0 c 1— ,A c cu cE6- . 0 .;:z '43 17," co E •- C t-, V Uc CUC -I .-,v. C ...Y■-• ,•-•0 •--- — CU 4z1 a) 4a-,, 0 cv .0 , ,z•,. — ;, .-.i: 0 na a) _ c L) -- .1.,0 — ••••• tn 0. 0. ••.••• 0-• > BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA ERICH LEINSDORF Music Director

CHARLES WILSON Assistant Conductor


September 27 1968 to April 19 1969

BOSTON 24 Friday afternoons SYMPHONY HALL 24 Saturday evenings

10 Tuesday evenings (A series)

6 Tuesday evenings (B series)

6 Tuesday evenings (C series)

6 Thursday evenings (A series)

3 Thursday evenings (B series)

7 Thursday open rehearsals

NEW YORK 5 Wednesday evenings PHILHARMONIC HALL 5 Friday evenings

BROOKLYN 3 Thursday evenings

PROVIDENCE 5 Thursday evenings

The Orchestra will also give five concerts in Carnegie Hall, New York, as well as concerts in Northampton, Springfield, New Haven, New Brunswick, Hartford, Philadelphia, Raleigh, Atlanta, St Petersburg, Fort Lauderdale, Miami Beach and Washington. SUMMER CONCERTS BOSTON SYMPHONY HALL CHARLES RIVER ESPLANADE BOSTON POPS FREE OPEN AIR CONCERTS April 28 to June 28 1969 Two weeks in July



For further information about the Orchestra's eighty-eighth season, please write to:

BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA SYMPHONY HALL BOSTON MASSACHUSETTS 02115 CRANE MUSEUM Exhibits showing steps in making all-rag papers and the progress of paper-making from Revolu- You Can Join Them! tionary times to the present. SR& Serving

Open 2 to 5 p.m. Monday through TANGLEWOOD Friday, from June through Sept- ember. Five miles east of Pitts- field on Route No. 9. ADVERTISE DALTON, MASSACHUSETTS IN THIS PROGRAM Call Albany 434-2818


WILLIAMSTOWN, MASS. TELEPHONE 458-8146 1968 SEASON July 5-13 IPHIGENEIA AT AULIS by Euripides July 16-20 slocum BLACK COMEDY by Shaffer July 23-27 CAMINO REAL by Tennessee Williams July 30—August 3 house To Be Announced August 6-10 41 State Street GALILEO by Bertolt Brecht Albany, New York August 13-17 THE SEAGULL by Anton Chekov 12207 August 20-24 To Be Announced 39 West 55th Street August 27-31 A MUSICAL New York, New York Tickets For All Performances At ENGLAND BROTHERS, PITTSFIELD (212) 265-5784 Dumpy Antiques

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Little Antiques T.EstaarctuTh Tams. BIG ANTIQUES Zining UnAsual Anti(' es nab dux 99c Antiques e rti (Pcs c31. $10,000 Antiques 30 Talinules taTELL-u3klusaccC out 23

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413WRIEE ZNI The Tanglewood program magazine is published by SHOWBILL*, a division of Slocum House, Inc., 41 State Street, Albany, New York, 12207 and 39 West 55th Street, New York, New York, 10019. SHOWBILL* publishes program maga- zines for other leading performing arts facilities and entertainment centers in the Western Hemisphere. * Trademark slocum house 41 State Street, Albany, N. Y. 12207 music mountain

"a small but superior concert series" — TIME Magazine THE BERKSHIRE STRING QUARTET and a distinguished array of guest artists present the thirty-ninth season of CHAMBER MUSIC CONCERTS each Saturday afternoon at 3 during the months of July and August at MUSIC MOUNTAIN.

Falls Village, Conn. (203) 824-7126 Junction Routes 63 and 126 33 miles South of Tanglewood

THE BERKSHIRE THEATRE FESTIVAL Artistic Director: Arthur Penn Executive Producers: Lyn Austin • Oliver Smith • Philip Mathias PRESENTS FOUR NEW PLAYS July 3-20 July 24—August 3 August 7-17 August 21—Sept. 1st Elaine May's. William Gibson's Renee Taylor & Joseph Bologna's Jack Gelber's A MATTER OF POSITION A CRY OF PLAYERS LOVERS AND OTHER STRANGERS THE CUBAN THING Starring Elaine May Starring Anne Bancroft Presented by arrangement with Presented by arrangement with Directed by Arthur Penn and Frank Langella Stephanie Sills Ivor David Balding Directed by Gene Frankel Directed by Charles Grodin Directed by Mr. Gelber • Performances nightly at 8:30 p.m. Tuesday through Friday. Saturday performances at 5:00 and 9:00 p.m. Sunday performances 7 p.m. with matinees Sundays and Thurs- days in alternate weeks. For complete ticket information, please call (413) 298-5536 or write Berkshire Playhouse, Stockbridge, Massachusetts 01262.

Extends An Invitation To All To Come To Our GREAT Et Pottery And See The AR ROM TO Japanese Wood-Burning Kiln 14 POT TERt' ■ Route Housatonic, Mass. BOSTON UNIVERSITY School of Fine and Applied Arts 855 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts

A professional School of Music, Art, and Theatre in the heart of Boston with a distinguished faculty of artist-teachers in the environment of a metropolitan university. Summer pro- grams in music, art, theatre and dance in conjunction with the Boston Symphony Orchestra at Tanglewood. Dine at

cUpgZicXeLo *Ks 'most 1)tisAiftalleiclini and) clonE4 Apa

Featuring internationally famous Jamaican and American cuisine. Open hearth charcoal broiling.

and For the hurried theater-goer SPECIAL SUMMER BUFFET served 5:00-9:00 PM

Entertainment Nitely into the late hours.


Route 7 (Troy-Schenectady Rd.) 3 miles west of Northway Latham, New York only 25 minutes from Saratoga

1"1"4011%.■•••■• -4.'". FROM SPAIN WITH LOVE To those people whose first sip of imported brandy wasn't quite the romantic interlude they expected.

Remember how it was the first °time you raised a brandy glass to your ever-waiting and over-eager lips? Remember how you sniffed at it, your nose twitching with excitement? And then finally you tasted it. ,,?,, BRAND Unfortunately, like so many other people in life, you were unprepared for your first experi- ence. You thought that a bottle of imported brandy-with 5 stars and a large V.S.O.P. on the label just had to have the exotic flavor you were expecting. ED FT^ What you didn't know was that EPTEDTTE TLED many of these imported..brandies ,4"" NEEP

if t of ado.) But for a- otch and water p ell it turned out to be an IT SOU never forgot. IN 101 US however, a lot of ,'like S out self. base eaiitcluded that all impot tett hitttdics must taste the same. Aod sadly for us, they's e neNer d a chance at the sweet, gentle ante of Funtlatlot : the In ands limn Spain. The In a ndv made the sifler.i ay—which is the way 4/11 Spani sh ht ITV IS made. f hence the mild, del icate flavot e the SITIOOlh, vil>rant amnia. }fenc e the lull earn.urre of vtfur firq sip of tmpoi ted })randy is less than sou e' pee wil- 1 it get you down. Just look the bottle that beat s the Spanish d let lout set and sip make

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who chars the new white-oak barrels we age George Dickel Tennessee Sour Mash Whisky in for extra flavor. He also strums for weddings, the Fourth of July and other occasions. That's why we think George Dickel ought to be the music-lover's whisky. Try it and you'll find better reasons.

787 George Dickel OSO R 04N Tennessee Sour Mash Whisky Bickel TENNESSEE The slow whisky. Sour77Zash WHISKY

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