A Survey of Lunar Types and Comparison of the Crusts of and

John A. Wood Center for Astrophysics Harvard College Observatory and Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Cambridge, Massachusetts

The principal known types of lunar rocks are briefly reviewed, and their chemical relation- ships discussed. In the suite of low-KREEP highland rocks, Fe/(Fe + Mg) in the normative mafic minerals increases and the albite content of normative decreases as the total amount of normative plagioclase increases, the opposite of the trend predicted by the Bowen reaction principle. Lunar highland samples analyzed are uniformly distributed in this sequence, in which normative plagioclase contents range from ~ 40 percent to ~ 100 percent. The distri- bution of compositions of rocks from terrestrial layered mafic intrusives is substantially different: here the analyses fall in several discrete clusters (anorthositic rocks, norites, granophyres and ferrogabbros, ultramafics), and the chemical trends noted above are not reproduced. It is suggested that the observed trends in lunar highland rocks could be produced by crystal fractionation in a deep global surface system if (1) plagioclase tended to float, upon crystallization, and (2) the magma was kept agitated and well mixed (probably by thermal convection) until crystallization was far advanced and relatively little residual liquid was left. When such a system was finally immobilized, the Fe-, Na-rich residual liquid would produce Fe-rich mafic minerals in the upper levels of the system, but could not much alter the composition of abundant calcic plagioclase. Conversely, the same liquid would produce sodic plagioclase deep in the sequence, but could not much alter the composition of abundant magnesian mafic minerals. After the crustal system solidified, but before extensive cooling had developed a thick, strong , convection was able to draw portions of the lunar anorthositic crust down into the mantle in a manner analogous to the present-day behavior of the terrestrial mantle and crust. At depth, the crustal material was heated; KREEP-rich norite was extracted by and erupted at the surface as a , analogous to terres- trial andesite eruptions.

Five years have passed since Eagle, the lections returned from two or more sites. The Lunar Module of the Apollo 11 mission, tendency for certain rock types to occur at landed at Tranquillity Base. In the time since, several widely separated points on the Moon samples of lunar material returned by six is sufficiently great to make us confident that Apollo and two Luna missions to the Moon we have obtained a fairly good sampling of have been studied intensively, and thousands the surface layers of the lunar nearside. of pages of descriptive material have been In reading the literature, it is not easy to published. The samples collected at the eight gain an impression of the total range of com- sites are not totally different from one an- positions of lunar materials encountered, or other: in many cases, essentially the same . their frequency of occurrence in the samples rock type has been observed among the col- returned. Papers descriptive of lunar samples

35 36 COSMOCHEMISTRY OF THE MOON AND are typically specialized and detailed, and highlands can one exclude, on petrographic present only the results from a single labora- grounds, the possibility of derivation from tory, employing a single technique of anal- an impact melt, in which the parent material ysis. Sometimes data from the samples of melted was a complex mixture of earlier rock other missions, or data obtained by other types. workers, are shown for comparison, but the There are three major categories of lunar body of data included for comparison tends samples, the analyses of which might be ex- to be small and highly selective. The need pected to inform us of the major lunar rock exists for a broad comparison of the proper- types. The first of these is lunar rocks of hand ties of all lunar materials studied to date. specimen size, which are usually analyzed The chemical composition of its major ele- by traditional wet-chemical or X-ray fluores- ment is the most fundamental property of a cence techniques. The second is smaller lithic lunar rock, and the one most useful for sep- fragments from samples and discrete arating categories of lunar rocks and under- clasts from complex . These can be standing the relationship of the various analyzed by a variety of techniques, including categories to one another. Petrographic tex- neutron activation analysis and electron- tural information is, in my opinion, of sec- microprobe analysis of fused beads; but the ondary importance. In the case of highland great majority of lithic fragment and clast rocks, textures record a history of relatively analyses reported in the literature were ob- superficial processes (brecciation, mixing, tained by using an electron microprobe with thermal recrystallization) that are less im- a broad (defocused) beam to analyze a large portant than the large-scale internal geo- number of spots on a polished section surface. chemical processes that largely determined The third category consists of fragments or the chemical compositions of the lunar rocks. globules of glass from the lunar soil samples, It might be argued that textural information which are analyzed individually by the tra- is essential in order to distinguish between ditional electron-microprobe method. pristine igneous rocks and polymict breccias Each of these three categories of material, in which several rock types with different including its method of analysis, has its own chemical compositions have been mixed; but, strengths and weaknesses, which are sum- unfortunately, major impacts are capable of marized in table 1. Here the comment that remelting complex breccias on the Moon and studies of lithic fragments from (and giving them igneous textures. For few, if clasts) are least accurate alludes to the fact any, crystalline igneous rocks from the lunar that most such analyses reported in the liter-

Table 1.—Sources of Information About Lunar Rock Compositions

No. of Advantages Disadvantages Analyses in SAO Library

Large Rocks Most accurate Small number of samples 156 Representative (?) analyzed Petrography, other properties Integrates polymict breccias known

Lithic Fragments Petrography known Least accurate 530 From Soils Large number analyzed Poorly representative (?)

Glass Particles Accurate Petrography not known; 2389 From Soils Probably very representative parent may be polymict (well-mixed) Large number analyzed SURVEY OF LUNAR ROCK TYPES 37 ature were made by the defocused-beam tech- DBA technique has an advantage that should nique. The traditional procedure for reducing be weighed against the disadvantage of the and correcting electron-microprobe analyses small volume sampled, i.e., the fact that lithic assumes a homogeneous target volume and fragments can be assessed petrographically, is not strictly applicable when the micro- in thin section, at the time the analysis is probe beam is enlarged to embrace many performed. Thus, materials that are obvi- mineral grains of differing compositions si- ously polymict in character can be avoided, multaneously. For this reason, it is and analyses can be limited to fragments or recognized that defocused-beam analyses clasts of uniform lithology. (DBA) provide no more than an approxima- During the past year, my group has assem- tion of the true composition of the material bled from the literature a library of chemical analyzed, although the approximation can be analyses of lunar materials from all three a very good one, if the data reduction is car- categories. The current number of entries is ried out thoughtfully. shown in table 1. These come from many In table 1, the question of which type of different sources, too many for each to be sample is most representative of its parent referenced explicitly. The library includes rock is not so straightforward as it might all analyses reported in the Proceedings of seem. Clearly, a large rock can be sampled the first through fourth Lunar Science Con- and analyzed in a much more representative ferences, in Lunar Science I through IV, and way than a 1-mm lithic fragment, especially in the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 Preliminary when only a section surface through the Science Reports. The largest contributors to lithic fragment is accessible for DBA sam- the library were the group headed by K. Keil pling. However, this assumes that the large (DBA's of lithic fragments and point micro- rock, or a substantial fraction of it, was ho- probe analyses of glass particles) and the mogenized and properly sampled to obtain Apollo Soil Survey (A. M. Reid and cowork- an aliquot for chemical analysis. In fact, with ers; point analyses of glass particles from a handful of exceptions, this procedure was soil samples). No analyses of bulk soil sam- not carried out for lunar hand specimens be- ples were included in the library. cause of the wish to consume as little of them My objective was to plot large bodies of as possible, retaining the great bulk of each lunar data in a number of types of chemical specimen intact and uncontaminated for and mineralogical variation diagrams, and study by future generations of scientists. to seek broad trends and clusterings of com- Typically, rock in the amount of 0.5 g was positions. A conscious effort was made to allocated to an investigator for major ele- escape the detailed relationships between ment chemical analysis, and this was de- individual analyses that have dominated livered in the form of a single chip, rather lunar science, and to try to see "the forest than as a powder representative of a much instead of the trees." A computer plotting larger mass of material. If the rock was routine was developed that samples the li- coarse grained or otherwise heterogeneous brary and enters the appropriate analyses in on a large scale, the sample analyzed may a three-variable orthogonal reference frame, have been a poor representative of the whole. the axes of which can be made to correspond In the case of lithic fragments, the volume to three chosen variables. An orthographi- sampled is undeniably smaller by a large cally projected view of the reference frame factor; yet for very fine grained rocks, the and up to 500 plotted data points are drawn sample volume may be adequate. Many of by a CalComp plotter. Each data point is the lunar highland rocks are, in fact, fine represented as the head of a pin, the shaft grained; presumably responsible investiga- of which projects down to the plane defined tors would not report or attempt analyses of by the two horizontal axes of the reference lithic fragments in which the grain size is frame. This intersection of the "pin" with too coarse to permit adequate sampling. The the base of the reference frame gives the 38 COSMOCHEMISTRY OF THE MOON AND PLANETS viewer an impression of its depth in the a way as to provide approximately equal num- three-dimensional volume portrayed. The as- bers of data points from the three categories sembly of a single plot takes about 1 minute of analyses discussed above. Included are 152 of central processor time on a CDC 6400 com- whole-rock analyses, 177 analyses of lithic puter, and the plot is drafted in approxi- fragments, and 171 analyses of glass par- mately 1 hour by a CalComp model 564. ticles. The plot distinguishes fairly cleanly It should be stressed that when the content between mare and highland materials. How- or composition of minerals is plotted in these ever, it also illustrates some of the short- diagrams, the reference is to normative min- comings of lithic fragment and glass analyses eralogy, computed from major element chem- alluded to in table 1. The highland data points ical compositions. Actual modal form an extremely compact and well-defined and compositions are not stored in the anal- grouping, except for a number of DBA strag- ysis library. glers, which seem to contain anomalously Use of the data library and plotting routine high levels of A120S and/or K20 + P205 (D, is illustrated in figure 1, a plot of three chem- figure 1). The "stragglers" appear only on ical parameters that might be expected to the high A1203 side of the highland group- discriminate effectively between ing. It is likely that their position is false; and highland samples. The library the DBA technique systematically overre- of analyses was sampled randomly, in such ports Al and P, unless special corrections are

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Figure 1.—Approximately equal numbers of lunar whole-rock, lithic fragment, and glass analyses, in a type of plot that attempts to discriminate clearly between mare and highland samples. A: high-Ti mare basalts from the Apollo 11 and 17 missions. B: Apollo 12 and 15 basalts and green glasses (chiefly from Apollo 15). C: highland materials. D: defocused-beam analyses of highland materials, probably reporting spuriously high levels of AW, and/or KREEP. SURVEY OF LUNAR ROCK TYPES 39 made. Again, there is an almost continuous has led to the appreciation of several im- row of data points representing glass anal- portant lunar rock types (ref. 1), and it is yses extending from A (mare basalts) to C also the case that several important lunar (highland compositions). This does not rep- materials (the green and orange glasses) resent a spectrum of real lunar lithic types; have no known crystalline equivalents. it is undoubtedly a mixing line. These glasses Figure 2 is a replot of figure 1, containing were derived from soil or parent ma- 156 whole-rock analyses and 348 lithic frag- terials that contained a mechanical mixture ment analyses. Here and in most other plots of mare and highland rock types. The crucial of this paper, shapes of pinheads are no distinction between mare and highland rock longer used to identify the categories of lunar types is blurred here, and also in the gap samples plotted, but rather their sources on between cluster B and the main body of high- the Moon. The distinction between mare and rock compositions, by glass analyses. highland rock compositions can be drawn Because of this obscuring effect of the glass somewhat more clearly in this figure than in data, I have omitted glass analyses from figure 1. Two entries that occupy an equivocal most of the other plots in this paper. Possibly position between the mare and highland this is an overreaction to the deficiencies of groupings of analyses are identified in the the glass data; the consideration of plots of caption of figure 2. The "highland/mare" large numbers of glass particle compositions boundary drawn on the floor of the plot illus-

RP. 11. 12 LUNfl 16

flPQLLO 15. 17

HP. 14, 16 LUNR 20



Figure 2.—Plot similar to figure 1, except that glass analyses have been eliminated; pinhead shapes now de- note sources of samples on the Moon. "Highland/Mare" boundary drawn on floor illustrates chemical cri- teria used to separate these two classes of lunar rocks in succeeding plots. The separation is generally clean; A and B occupy equivocal positions. A is a DBA of an "igneous" lithic fragment from soil 1W57 (Bunch et al., ref 2) ; B is soil breccia 15558, which contains both mare and highland components. 40 COSMOCHEMISTRY OF THE MOON AND PLANETS trates the chemical criteria used elsewhere one minor—by plotting Ti02 against K20 in this paper to arbitrarily separate mare (fig. 3). The plot also displays the proportion from highland samples. The rule adopted was of among normative mafic minerals, a that if measure of the degree of undersaturation of the rock. Categories C, D, E, and F of figure A1203 > 11% and (0.3 X A1203 - 1.1) > 3 have been further subdivided petrographi- Ti0 , 2 cally, as follows. a sample was considered to be a highland Group C consists of Apollo 12 and 15 ba- rock type. salts. James and Wright (ref. 3) subdivide The two discrete categories of lunar rocks the Apollo 12 basalts into three categories: —mare basalts and highland rocks of various olivine-pigeonite basalts and gabbros, ilmen- types—will be discussed separately below. ite-bearing basalts and gabbros, and feld- spathic basalts. Brown et al. (ref. 4) Mare Basalts subdivide the Apollo 15 mare basalts into three additional groups: -rich tri- Crystalline mare materials can be sepa- dymite gabbros, porphyritic vitrophyres, and rated into four categories—three major and olivine basalts.

PLOT 0009




Figure 3.—Plot of parameters that tend to separate the recognized categories of lunar mare basalts. The cri- teria of figure 2 were used to reject highland materials from the plot, but the separation is not perfect; points at A (Apollo 14 and 15 glasses) are unlikely to be pure rock types. The array of low-TiO, entries at B is composed of green glasses, mostly from Apollo 15. C is a column of Apollo 21 and 15 mare basalts; both missions are represented along the entire sequence of olivine contents. D represents Apollo 11 and 17 low-K basalts; E, Apollo 11 high-K basalts. At F, several of the entries are Luna 16 basalts, which tend to span the gap between E and C. SURVEY OF LUNAR ROCK TYPES 41

Group D comprises the Apollo 11 ophitic different processes, a conclusion that has ilmenite basalts (low-K basalts) recognized gained wide currency in the lunar science by James' and Wright (ref. 3) and others, community for other reasons; but it is impor- and all the Apollo 17 mare basalts. Brown tant to recognize that the exceptional density et al. (ref. 5) subdivide the latter into three of data points in the A1203 range from 21 categories: olivine basalts, ferrobasalts, and to 32 percent in figure 2 is largely due to the basalts transitional between these two. heroic project of defocused-beam analysis Group E consists of the Apollo 11 inter- of lithic fragments from the Luna 20 sample sertal ilmenite basalts (high-K basalts) rec- carried out by Conrad et al. (ref. 15). Thus, ognized by James and Wright (ref. 3) and the apparent discontinuity between abun- other authors. dances of noritic and anorthositic gabbro The ophitic pigeonite fragments compositions may occur only in the vicinity from the Luna 16 soil sample appear in group of Mare Crisium, and may not be a property C. In terms of the parameters plotted, the of the lunar highlands as a whole. Luna 16 basalt is intermediate in character Entries appear to be unevenly distributed between groups C and E; however, in other along the vertical extent of the norite column. respects, including its content of trace ele- When the entries in this column are plotted ments (e.g., ref. 6), the Luna 16 basalt in a simple histogram, three peaks appear: cannot be regarded as a simple mixture of a low-KREEP peak centered about 0.3 per- the two end members indicated. cent K20 + P205; a high-KREEP peak cen- Chemical compositions of representatives tered on 1 percent K20 + P2O5; and a smaller of most of the mare basalt subcategories dis- extra-high-KREEP peak at 1.6 percent cussed are presented in table 2. K20 + P205. The extra-high-KREEP clus- ter consists entirely of DBA's of lithic frag- ments from Apollo 12 and 14 soil samples; Highland Rocks several were reported by my own group. It now appears that these analyses systemati- The frequency of occurrence of different cally overreported P20S, so it is likely that types of highland rock is highly variable in the extra-high-KREEP group is spurious. figure 2. In this figure, a dense mass of entries Unfortunately, the total number of high- and occurs in the interval of A1203 content be- low-KREEP points plotted is not large tween 21 and 32 percent. These are the anor- enough to resolve with confidence the impor- thositic rocks of the lunar highlands; they tant question of whether the distribution of are anorthositic gabbros and gabbroic an- KREEP contents is continuous or bimodal. orthosites according to traditional terrestrial Table 3 presents analyses of lunar highland nomenclature. The KREEP content of this rocks representative of the major classes dis- group of rocks is probably extremely sharply cussed above. One other minor but potentially bounded; as previously noted, the half-dozen important rock class, the spinel troctolites, entries that rise to KREEP contents sub- is also represented. Spinel troctolite entries stantially higher than those of the great mass in figure 2 would be hidden behind the mare of lunar anorthositic rocks are probably the basalt cluster beneath B. They are excluded result of inaccurate defocused-beam analyses. from plots containing highland samples only, The density of entries seems to fall off very by the chemical criteria that separate out sharply above 32 percent A1203. mare basalt analyses. The central column of "pins" in figure 2 In figure 4, 156 whole-rock analyses and represents the lunar norites. This cluster of 530 lithic fragment analyses of highland ma- entries appears discontinuous with the low- terials are plotted against three indices of plagioclase end of the anorthositic distribu- igneous fractionation. The assemblage of tion. This may signify that the two families "pins" falls into two distinct groups. At the of highland rocks formed by fundamentally left of the plot (A-B), a group of entries 42 COSMOCHEMISTRY OF THE MOON AND PLANETS

A C£



"§ "3 OJ C^ oc!coi>crioooooci 0 >=r esn O CO TH TH TH O (Q^i ow t- 5- O •<^i TH C5 TH O S 4J VI _O S'S"e3 O OCOOOt-03t-tOt-lOl>eO 1 (N OOOCMC-OCMOJCOOOCO rC3 01 w O THOJOt-OlOTHOOOO H-, "o O P. 1-1 •*f TH TH TH O O §1" TH %-, O ^ <» a>*> 9 .573 to ocnt-ioiocnocMintooo •-1i TH CO03CMtOC5CMCMCOOOTj< o f> M SO •- § O •fl O ^. "o a P< A 5 "^ ^<<^ S ."So CO THt-t-THt-COCMOOCOOOCM ft; IO COCOt-OCnCMCOCMOOrJi 1-sC P%_rPQ 0 CO °'C'W 7rt C-COTHC5OOOOOOCO -w Itj W zS W LO •^ TH TH C5 TH "e PH EH CO ^ £° e CQ _o s> r^ £;£ co THOOt-O^TjI'^l^lt-Ooi S « CO - rt O Pi OT t- CM . «! t^ =S rH' «> '='-!'> o •^THCOeOiHOiHOOOOS IM a> 1 Iffl TH •s- fe(jj 2 CM 1 . o TH fi TH O^tOCO^UStOC-C-COio _O fig's CM HO •3.5 cS CM CMOTH-^-^OllOTj< "o ssrt 0 COCSlOOTHOCftOOOOS CM ^ TH «H ^ ^3 i.-^-U ^g^-3 O5 COC5OWCOCOlMCOtDI>CO ca o^ |ij -3 O OlOOJlOOlMrliCMOOTH o l|s d *O") ^^• "*, T~3i '?•> 3 gj.5 CM IOOOCMTHTHOO3OOOO5 CS -^ c! 0^« TH •* TH IM O>. C a) 5 ^CD o filg g)i5^lo 6 wow IN' u _aj a A w -3 a. .. o *3

Table 3.—Compositions of Highland Rocks Representative of Major Chemical Classes

Anorthositic Gabbroic Low-KREEP High-KREEP Spinel Gabbro Anorthosite (cataclastic) Norite Norite Troctolite

Example 60335° 68415° 60015" 76055c 14303d 62295° SiO= 46.33 45.30 43.97 45.7 47.90 45.16 A1S03 25.01 28.70 35.83 15.84 15.6 20.05 Ti02 0.57 0.29 0.02 1.38 1.80 0.70 MgO 7.70 4.35 0.25 17.89 10.93 14.85 FeO 4.60 4.12 0.36 9.27 10.74 6.40 MnO 0.08 0.05 0.00 0.12 0.15 0.09 CaO 14.23 16.24 18.95 9.13 9.90 11.85 Na2O 0.62 0.50 0.34 0.55 0.78 0.48 K20 0.27 0.09 0.01 0.22 0.52 0.11 P2O= 0.21 0.06 — 0.22 0.60 0.15 SUM 99.62 99.70 99.73 100.32 98.92 99.84

NOTES: " Rose et al. (ref. 16). " Juan et al. (ref. 17). c Nava (ref. 18). d Wiik et al. (ref. 19). • Rose et al. (ref. 20).


HP. 11. 16 LUNfl 20

flPOLLO 15. 17


Figure 4.—Lunar highland samples only (whole-rock and lithic fragments analyses), plotted against three indicators of the degree of differentiation. Group between A and B: noritic materials; B through C: se- quence ranging from anorthositic gabbro to anorthosite. 44 COSMOCHEMISTRY OF THE MOON AND PLANETS has an approximately constant (40- to 50- percent) content of normative plagioclase, MOON but the plagioclase has variable albite con- tent; these are the lunar norites. It is not possible in this figure to discriminate between high- and low-KREEP norites. The other group of "pins" (B-C) is the anorthositic sequence, ranging from anorthositic gabbro near B to proper at C. Here, the albite content of the plagioclase varies very little, while the content of normative plagio- clase ranges from 50 percent to almost 100 percent. This plot provides an opportunity to test the observation of Steele and Smith (ref. 21), that the relationship between the faya- lite content of olivine and the albite content Figure 5.—Differences in thickness of of the Earth and Moon; to scale. Because Earth's of coexisting plagioclase in highland rocks is lithosphere is less than 100 km thick beneath ocean the inverse of that predicted by the Bowen basins, it is not strong enough to resist being reaction principle; i.e., as the plagioclase con- moved and subducted by mantle convection. The tent of highland materials increases, the al- Moon's lithosphere is MOO km thick and highly bite content of plagioclase decreases, but stable. A weaker zone (attenuating seismic S- waves), which may or may not be in convective Fe/ (Fe + Mg) in olivine (and presumably motion, exists beneath 1000 km. also in pyroxene) increases. Figure 4 con- firms this relationship, although the varia- tion of the albite content of plagioclase is in the form of volcanic rocks. These low- extremely small compared with the general temperature, low-density constituents have, scatter of albite content plotted for anortho- in this way, become concentrated near the sitic samples. (The small range of Ab content surface of the Earth over the course of geo- compared with that of Fo in coexisting oliv- logic time and have come to dominate the ines was also noted by Steele and Smith composition of Earth's crust. The Moon has (ref. 21).) a very much thicker lithosphere than does the Earth, for two reasons. First, the tem- perature increase with depth is smaller in Comparison of the Crusts of the Moon than in the Earth, because of the Earth and Moon Moon's greater surface-to-volume ratio, which compromises its ability to conserve in- It would appear interesting to draw a di- ternal heat; and, second, the water content rect comparison between the crustal materi- of the Moon is effectively zero, and the plas- als of the Earth and Moon. However, we are ticity of mantle rocks at a given temperature conscious by now that the crusts of the two is greatly enhanced by the presence of water. bodies are the products of very different pro- Because of the thickness and rigidity of the cesses. Because of the thinness of the Earth's Moon's lithosphere, internal mantle convec- lithosphere and the thermal and convective tion (if it occurs at all) does not act to draw activity of its interior, the crust of the Earth lunar crustal material down into the depths is continually being drawn down into its of the Moon and selectively recycle its easily mantle (fig. 5). In the process, certain easily meltable constituents. The pre-mare crust of meltable and low-density constituents are the Moon is generally felt to be the product selectively removed from the descending of a great cycle of geochemical differentia- crustal material and sent back to the surface tion that affected the outermost hundreds of SURVEY OF LUNAR ROCK TYPES 45

kilometers of the Moon immediately after its formation (fig. 6). Floating Because of these fundamental differences, plagtoclose cumulate there is little point in making a straightfor- ward chemical comparison between the lithic constituents of the crusts of Earth and Moon. It is more profitable to draw a comparison between lunar rocks and selected terrestrial rock systems in which the processes of geo- chemical f ractionation that have operated are similar to those believed to have affected the lunar crust. The Earth's crust contains a number of layered mafic intrusives, in which gravity crystal fractionation has produced a Figure 6.—Model for early large-scale differentiation range of different rock types from a (pre- of the Moon's outer layers (schematic; radial scale sumably) homogeneous parent magma. This exaggerated). Accretional heating melted the pri- is the process that, on a much larger scale, mordial lunar material to a depth suggested by is believed to have differentiated the pre- the dashed line. During subsequent cooling and mare crust of the Moon. It is interesting to crystallization, dense mafic minerals sank and plagioclase floated to form an anorthositic crust. compare the array of rock types found in terrestrial mafic layered intrusives with those from the lunar crustal system. To com-

PLOT 0026

RP. 11. 16 LUMP 20

flPOLLO 15. n

RPOLLO 12. 14

Figure 7.—Data of figure 4, plotted on an expanded scale. Entries with highest Fe/(Fe+Mg) and low pla- gioclase (A, B, C) are not actually highland materials, reflecting the limitations of the arbitrary criteria for discrimination shown in figure 2. 46 COSMOCHEMISTRY OF THE MOON AND PLANETS pare the data of figure 4 with terrestrial sys- rocks from three widely separated and petro- tems, the scale of the axes must be expanded logically unrelated intrusives on the Earth to- accommodate the greater range of rock in this fashion, and to lose sight of the compositions found in terrestrial systems. known spatial relationships between the This is done in figure 7, where the data of rocks analyzed, might be deplored; however, figure 4 are replotted. Emphasis in this figure precisely such a situation exists for the col- is upon the tendency of the total array of lection of lunar highland samples we have data to reach minimum Fe/(Fe + Mg) access to, so a similarly indiscriminate mix- values for mafic minerals at intermediate ture of terrestrial analyses (of rocks from contents of plagioclase, and to rise to higher appropriate geologic structures) provides the values of mafic Fe/(Fe + Mg) at the low- most valid basis for a comparison between plagioclase and high-plagioclase ends of the the Earth and the Moon available to us. array. (The entries displaying the highest Figures 7 and 8 appear totally dissimilar. values of Fe/ (Fe + Mg) at the low-plagio- To make a fair comparison, however, allow- clase end of the array are probably not high- ance must be made for several things. First, land rocks; but the general tendency of the it is well known by now that the Moon is array to rise to higher values of Fe/ (Fe + depleted in Na, along with all the other vol- Mg) below the letter C in the diagram is atile elements, relative to Earth. For this definitely attributable to non-mare samples.) reason, the plagioclase in terrestrial rocks of Analyses of 317 rock samples from nine all types should contain a greater albite com- terrestrial mafic layered intrusives are ponent than do their lunar equivalents. plotted in figure 8. To jumble analyses of Consequently, the "pins" of figure 8 stand

PLOT 0039





Figure 8.—Rock analyses from nine terrestrial differentiated mafic igneous bodies, plotted on the same base as figure 7. Group between A and B: chiefly ferrogabbros and granophyres. Between B and C: norites and gabbroic rocks. C and D: anorthositic sequence. Analyses of samples from the Stillwater, Rhum, Guadalupe, Duluth, Bay of Islands, Usushwana, and Fethiye complexes are lumped under "other bodies." SURVEY OF LUNAR ROCK TYPES 47 farther forward in the plot than do those of that the suite of lunar feldspathic rocks was figure 7. Second, a number of the entries in formed by processes analogous to those that figure 8 are ultramafic cumulates. (Most of operate in terrestrial mafic intrusives, in- these occur near the origin of the plot, largely cluding the tendency of plagioclase to sink hidden behind the major cluster of "pins" rather than float. However, further investi- between A and B.) Ultramafic rocks are rare gation of the compositional trends among among the lunar samples (but not absent), lunar rocks has diminished the apparent presumably because we have access only to similarity of the two rock types. the uppermost layers of the great differen- In particular, it is widely believed for both tiated sequence that composes the crust of petrologic and geochemical reasons (refs. 24 the Moon, and ultramafic cumulates would be and 25) that KREEP-rich lunar norites do expected to occur near its base. Such ultra- not sample the liquid residuum after separa- mafic rocks as do occur in our library of tion of anorthositic rocks, nor do they rep- analyses were excluded from figure 7 by the resent differentiates complementary to the chemical criteria that were used to separate anorthosites; instead, they appear to be prod- highland from mare rocks. Third, figure 8 ucts of a different magma system that was contains a massive cluster of entries dis- produced by remelting of some suitable par- playing very high values of Fe/(Fe + Mg), ent rock, which may have been the anortho- between A and B, which has no equivalent in sitic sequence itself. In the terrestrial figure 7. These represent the ferrogabbros systems plotted, on the other hand, it is clear and granophyres that are abundant in from field relationships that the noritic rocks terrestrial mafic layered intrusives and that are part of the same differentiation sequence appear to comprise the late-stage residua that contains the anorthositic members, and after extensive crystal fractionation has have not been introduced to the sequence by removed other components from the melt. some late act of magma generation. Thus, Rocks of this type are also rare on the Moon the KREEP-rich norites would need to be but not nonexistent, although our analysis excluded from figure 7 in order to reveal library has not incorporated any. Frag- trends attributable solely to those lunar dif- ments of granophyric material in which ferentiation processes thought to be analo- Fe/(Fe + Mg) for the mafics present is gous to processes operating in terrestrial very high have been found in soils and brec- layered mafic intrusives. When this is done cias by a number of authors (e.g., refs. 22 (by excluding all analyses for which and 23). If plotted in figure 7, they would K20 + P205 > 0.5 percent), the high-Fe/ occupy a position analogous to the A-B (Fe + Mg) peak at the left end of the se- grouping in figure 8, although the density quence in figures 4 and 7 disappears (ref. of the cluster in figure 8 could not be matched. 26). Low-KREEP norites are still present in After allowance is made for these discrep- the sequence, but Fe/(Fe + Mg) in their ancies, the entries corresponding to noritic mafic minerals is small, <-> 0.25. The overall and anorthositic rock types (B-C-D) form trend among low-KREEP lunar crustal rocks an array somewhat similar to that of figure is for Fe/(Fe + Mg) to increase monotoni- 7, in that the Fe/(Fe + Mg) content of cally, and for the albite content of plagioclase mafic minerals reaches a minimum value of to decrease monotonically, with increasing approximately 0.3 in the intermediate or an- content of plagioclase. This is still consistent orthositic gabbro range of plagioclase con- with the trend noted by Steele and Smith tents while higher values (approximately (ref. 21), but it bears very little resemblance 0.5) obtain for rock types that contain to trends in terrestrial mafic intrusives. greater and lesser amounts of plagioclase. For crystal fractionation to produce a In an earlier version of the present article suite of rocks that appear to violate the that was distributed as a preprint, I attached Bowen reaction principle, it is necessary for importance to this similarity and suggested the two principal mineral groups to move in 48 COSMOCHEMISTRY OF THE MOON AND PLANETS

opposite directions (i.e., if mafic minerals tionation, while a very large percentage of sink, must float). In a magma where the original magma would have to be re- plagioclase floats, early-formed calcic plagio- moved as crystals to effect the observed clase will accumulate at the top of the system enrichment of LIL elements.) in company with relatively unfractionated The seriousness of the difficulty just noted intercumulus liquid, which will crystallize depends upon the mechanics of crystal frac- mafic minerals of intermediate Fe/(Fe tionation. The problem is at its worst if the + Mg). Early-formed magnesian mafic min- lunar surface magma system was quiescent erals will accumulate on the floor of the and cooled slowly. Under these circum- system in company with relatively unfrac- stances, thick units of anorthositic and ul- tionated intercumulus liquid, which will tramafic cumulate rocks could be expected crystallize plagioclase of intermediate com- to form, and the crystals added last to these position. Thus, at the top and bottom of the units should be -richer in Fe and Na than system, compositions are qualitatively simi- the first-formed crystals. On the other hand, lar to those found at the right and left ends the problem diminishes if we contemplate a of the trend shown in figure 4. dynamically active system in which magma The difficulty lies in what occurs between motions kept crystals well stirred until crys- the end members. Straightforward applica- tallization was far advanced. As magma tion of principles of phase equilibrium indi- motions slowed and the solidifying system cates that both Fe/(Fe + Mg) in mafic approached stability, some degree of gravi- minerals and albite in plagioclase should tational separation of the crystals would oc- increase downward in the floating anortho- cur, but clean separation of plagioclase from sitic layer, and upward in the sunken mafic mafic minerals would be impossible (except layer. These trends are not reflected by fig- at the extremities of the system) because of ure 4. Further, it is unlikely that bulk pla- the crowding of crystals in the magma. The gioclase content would decrease smoothly rocks of the sequence would be left with a with depth in the anorthositic and mafic continuous spectrum of plagioclase contents. layers, as is suggested by the even distribu- The suspended minerals would be relatively tion of entries in the sequence of figure 4. uniform in composition at the time when Terrestrial experience suggests that units of the system immobilized, because of stirring mafic-poor anorthosite and plagioclase-poor during the previous period when they crys- ultramafic rock would be produced, probably tallized. Subsequent crystallization of the separated by a residual magma rich in Fe Fe-, Na-rich intercumulus liquid in the up- and Na. (Note the clusters of "pins" cor- per, plagioclase-rich levels of the system responding to these three compositions in would increase the mean value of Fe/(Fe figure 8). These discontinuities of composi- + Mg) in the mafic minerals substantially, tion are not apparent among the lunar rocks, since few early-crystallized Mg-rich crystals and there are no samples corresponding to would be present to lower Fe/(Fe + Mg) ; an Fe-, Na-rich residual liquid. (It might on the other hand, the amount of early- appear that the KREEP-rich norites fill this formed calcic plagioclase present would be role; but, as already noted, there are com- so great that the contribution of Na from pelling reasons for believing that this class the intercumulus liquid could do little to en- of rocks was formed by partial melting, not hance the mean value of albite content of as a residuum after crystal fractionation. the plagioclase. In the simplest terms, degrees of enhance- Conversely, crystallization of the same ment of Fe/(Fe + Mg) and enrichment of Fe-, Na-rich intercumulus liquid in a mafic- large-ion-lithophile (LIL) elements are in- rich cumulate deep in the system would congruous if the rock type was formed by effect a great increase in the mean albite con- crystal fractionation. The ratio Fe/(Fe tent of the small amount of plagioclase pres- + Mg) reflects only a modest degree of frac- ent, but could not importantly increase Fe/ SURVEY OF LUNAR ROCK TYPES 49

(Fe + Mg) in the abundant mafic minerals. nar magma even by sluggish convec- The process should operate to intermediate tive motions, since the specific gravity degrees at intermediate positions in the dif- contrast between calcic plagioclase and ferentiated sequence, and continuous compo- a residual magma of reasonable com- sitional trends similar to those of figure 4 position is extremely small. Plagioclase would be produced. crystallization would act principally to Is it reasonable to suppose that the lunar increase the effective viscosity of the surface magma system was more dynami- cooling system, until the latter stabi- cally active than terrestrial mafic intrusives lized. during the first phase of its cooling history? There are several reasons for thinking so. The question of the origin of high-KREEP norite has tormented lunar petrologists 1. The outer surface of the lunar magma since this lithology was recognized. Its con- system was exposed to space; hence, tent of large-ion-lithophile elements and heat losses at this surface were vastly its position in the quartz-olivine-anorthite greater than at the walls of a terres- pseudo-ternary phase diagram seem to re- trial plutonic intrusive. The steep ther- quire that it was generated by partial melt- mal gradient established in the lunar ing of a parent similar to lunar anorthositic case would be more likely to promote rocks. An objection I have raised to this in- convective motion, which would act to terpretation (ref. 27) is that once the sur- stir the magma. Surface heat losses face layers of the Moon had solidified and would be cut when the system began their content of heat-generating radio- to crust over, as in the case of a lava nuclides had been immobilized, this part of flow, but it is likely that the intensity the system would have cooled monotonically. of the early meteoroid bombardment Temperatures in a subcrustal layer or zone of the Moon thwarted formation of a should not rise again (as is required in order crust for some time. to remelt the material) unless some new ex- 2. Because of the Moon's small mass, the ternal source of energy were involved. The pressure gradient in the Moon is only question of a source of heat to effect remelt- one-sixth as steep as the terrestrial ing of KREEP norite has been a serious one. pressure gradient. As a consequence, One possible resolution of this problem the vertical thermal gradient in a has been overlooked, however. Earlier in this magma system needed to produce con- paper it was remarked that the Moon's thick vective motion would only need to be lithosphere prevents interior convection one-sixth as steep on the Moon as on from subducting crustal material into its Earth. mantle. But this was not necessarily always the case. If the initially hot outer layers of 3. Because of the small value of lunar the Moon cooled from the surface inward, gravity, crystals are less rapidly sepa- there must have been a time, after the rated from a lunar magma by specific crustal magma system had completely solid- gravity differences, and hence would ified, when the lunar lithosphere was still be more readily held suspended by a thin and weak. If mantle convective motion convecting magma, than would be the occurred during this early and transient case on Earth. (The small value of lu- phase of lunar history, it is possible that the nar gravity also works against this primordial anorthositic crustal material was model, however, by providing less en- dragged down into the lunar mantle. There, ergy for a convecting system to use to higher temperatures would have occasioned overcome viscous drag.) partial melting of the crustal material, pro- 4. Plagioclase crystals, in particular, ducing a melt having many of the properties could be kept well mixed with the lu- of KREEP-rich norite, which would have 50 COSMOCHEMISTRY OF THE MOON AND PLANETS

ftOT 0027

flP. 11. 16. LUNfl 20

RPOLLO 15. 17

RPOLLO 12. 14

Figure 9.—Lunar highland samples only (whole-rock and lithic fragment analyses), plotted against KREEP content (KtO +PjOs} and degree of silica saturation (expressed as normative olivine/(ol + px)).

PLOT 0029




Figure 10.—Rock analyses from three classic terrestrial differentiated mafic igneous bodies, plotted on the same base as figure 9. A: peridotites, dunites; B: pyroxenites. Olivine-free rocks range from ferrogabbros at C through norites and gabbros near T). to anortlwsites at E. SURVEY OF LUNAR ROCK TYPES 51 erupted to the surface as a lava. In this case, the Earth. If the Earth began its existence the KREEP-rich norites could be regarded with a plagioclase-rich crust analogous to the as the lunar equivalents of terrestrial andes- Moon's, formed by crystal flotation in an ex- ites. tensive early global magma system, this In figures 9 and 10, a comparison is drawn crust would not have been thicker than the between the lunar highland rocks and sam- Moon's in proportion to the greater size of ples from the three classic terrestrial basic the Earth. Paradoxically, it may have been differentiated bodies, for several other pa- thinner. Since the acceleration due to grav- rameters of petrologic interest. Entries rep- ity is six times greater on the Earth than resenting granophyric rocks are largely on the Moon, the pressure gradient inside missing from figure 10, because their con- the Earth is six times steeper (fig. 11). Pla- tent of K20 is too great to be accommodated gioclase is unstable in mafic rock systems at by the axes defined. Of greatest interest is pressures in excess of approximately 12 kb. the difference in olivine content of the rocks In the Moon, plagioclase could have crystal- of the two series. Lunar highland rocks, es- lized stably from a cooling mafic magma pecially those of the anorthositic series, are system to depths in excess of 200 km. For often troctolitic in character. The terrestrial of reasonable composition, this vol- differentiates are much less likely to contain ume of magma could have crystallized enough olivine. plagioclase to form a crustal cumulate up to The difference may be due to the funda- 100 km thick. In the case of the Earth, mentally dissimilar modes of origin of the plagioclase instability begins at less than a parent magmas of the two systems. The ter- 50-km depth. A layer thicker than this could restrial gabbroic magmas were presumably not have formed. generated by a small degree of melting in the mantle of the Earth and escaped from their source before the temperature of the system had risen high enough to melt sub- at solidus temperature stantial amounts of any olivine present in the source region. If the lunar surface magma system was melted by accretional energy during the assembly of the Moon, on the other hand, this control on melt composi- clinopyroxene tion would not have existed. The injection of + plagioclase large amounts of energy during accretional + ilmenite impact would have tended to melt the pri- mordial material of the Moon completely. 10 Presumably this primordial material in- cluded a substantial component of chondrite- like material (refs. 28 and 29) ; chondritic clinopyroxene meteorites are substantially undersaturated + garnet and contain a large proportion of normative + rutile olivine, all of which would have been in- cluded in magmas formed by the total melt- 20 ing of primordial lunar material. 200 400 In conclusion, while no valid comparison Depth, km can be drawn between the properties of the lunar crust and the present terrestrial crust, Figure 11.—Relationship between depth and pressure in Earth and Moon. At greater than ~- 12 kb of it is possible that the Moon preserves an ac- pressure, plagioclase in crystallizing mafic rocks curate and informative record of the prop- is unstable relative to denser garnet-bearing as- erties of the crust that initially formed on semblages (Ringwood and Essene, reference 30). 52 COSMOCHEMISTRY OF THE MOON AND PLANETS

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Petrology of Some Apollo 16 Rocks and Fines: cal Composition of Lunar Anorthosites and General Petrologic Model of Moon. Proc. Their Parent Liquids. Earth Planet. Sci. Let- Fourth Lunar Science Conference, Geochimica ters, Vol. 13, 1971, pp. 71-75. et Cosmochimica Acta, Supplement 4, Vol. 1, 26. WOOD, J. A., The Lunar Rocks: A Chemical 1973, pp. 519-536. Classification. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., in 22. WOOD, J. A., U. B. MARVIN, J. B. REID, JR., G. J. press, 1975. TAYLOR., J. P. BOWER, B. N. POWELL, AND J. S. 27. LSAPT (Lunar Sample Analyses Planning DICKEY, JR., Mineralogy and Petrology of the Team.) Fourth Lunar Science Conference. Apollo 12 Lunar Sample. Smithsonian Astro- Science, Vol. 181, 1973, pp. 615-622. physical Observatory, Spec. Report No. 333, 28. GANAPATHY, R., AND E. ANDERS, Bulk Compo- 1971. sitions of the Moon and Earth, Estimated 23. STOESER, D. B., R. W. WOLFE, J. A. WOOD, AND from Meteorites. Lunar Science, Vol. V, Lunar J. F. BOWER, Petrology. Consortium Indomi- Science Institute, Houston, 1974, pp. 254-256. tabile, Interdisciplinary Studies of Samples 29. WANKE, H., H. PALME, H. BADDENHAUSEN, G. from Boulder 1, Station 2, Apollo 17, Vol. 1, DREIBUS, E. JAGOUTZ, H. DRUSE, B. SPETTEL, 1974, pp. 35-109. AND F. TESCHKE, Composition of the Moon 24. WALKER, D., J. LONGHI, AND J. F. HAYES, Ex- and Major Lunar Differentiation Processes. perimental Petrology and Origin of Fra Mauro Lunar Science, Vol. V, Lunar Science Insti- Rocks and Soil. Proc. Third Lunar Science tute, Houston, 1974, pp. 820-822. Conference, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 30. RINGWOOD, A. E., AND E. ESSENE, Petrogenesis Supplement 3, Vol. 1, 1972, pp. 797-817. of Apollo 11 Basalts, Internal Constitution and 25. HUBBARD, N. J., P. W. GAST, C. MEYER, L. E. Origin of the Moon. Proc. Apollo 11 Lunar Sci- NYQUIST, C. SHIH, AND H. WEISMANN, Chemi- ence Conference, Vol. 1, 1970, pp. 769-799.