# Measurement and Evaluation of the Gas Density and Viscosity of Pure Gases and Mixtures Using a Micro-Cantilever Beam

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• Glossary Physics (I-Introduction)
1 Glossary Physics (I-introduction) - Efficiency: The percent of the work put into a machine that is converted into useful work output; = work done / energy used [-]. = eta In machines: The work output of any machine cannot exceed the work input (<=100%); in an ideal machine, where no energy is transformed into heat: work(input) = work(output), =100%. Energy: The property of a system that enables it to do work. Conservation o. E.: Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it may be transformed from one form into another, but the total amount of energy never changes. Equilibrium: The state of an object when not acted upon by a net force or net torque; an object in equilibrium may be at rest or moving at uniform velocity - not accelerating. Mechanical E.: The state of an object or system of objects for which any impressed forces cancels to zero and no acceleration occurs. Dynamic E.: Object is moving without experiencing acceleration. Static E.: Object is at rest.F Force: The influence that can cause an object to be accelerated or retarded; is always in the direction of the net force, hence a vector quantity; the four elementary forces are: Electromagnetic F.: Is an attraction or repulsion G, gravit. const.6.672E-11[Nm2/kg2] between electric charges: d, distance [m] 2 2 2 2 F = 1/(40) (q1q2/d ) [(CC/m )(Nm /C )] = [N] m,M, mass [kg] Gravitational F.: Is a mutual attraction between all masses: q, charge [As] [C] 2 2 2 2 F = GmM/d [Nm /kg kg 1/m ] = [N] 0, dielectric constant Strong F.: (nuclear force) Acts within the nuclei of atoms: 8.854E-12 [C2/Nm2] [F/m] 2 2 2 2 2 F = 1/(40) (e /d ) [(CC/m )(Nm /C )] = [N] , 3.14 [-] Weak F.: Manifests itself in special reactions among elementary e, 1.60210 E-19 [As] [C] particles, such as the reaction that occur in radioactive decay.
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• VISCOSITY of a GAS -Dr S P Singh Department of Chemistry, a N College, Patna
Lecture Note on VISCOSITY OF A GAS -Dr S P Singh Department of Chemistry, A N College, Patna A sketchy summary of the main points Viscosity of gases, relation between mean free path and coefficient of viscosity, temperature and pressure dependence of viscosity, calculation of collision diameter from the coefficient of viscosity Viscosity is the property of a fluid which implies resistance to flow. Viscosity arises from jump of molecules from one layer to another in case of a gas. There is a transfer of momentum of molecules from faster layer to slower layer or vice-versa. Let us consider a gas having laminar flow over a horizontal surface OX with a velocity smaller than the thermal velocity of the molecule. The velocity of the gaseous layer in contact with the surface is zero which goes on increasing upon increasing the distance from OX towards OY (the direction perpendicular to OX) at a uniform rate . Suppose a layer ‘B’ of the gas is at a certain distance from the fixed surface OX having velocity ‘v’. Two layers ‘A’ and ‘C’ above and below are taken into consideration at a distance ‘l’ (mean free path of the gaseous molecules) so that the molecules moving vertically up and down can’t collide while moving between the two layers. Thus, the velocity of a gas in the layer ‘A’ ---------- (i) = + Likely, the velocity of the gas in the layer ‘C’ ---------- (ii) The gaseous molecules are moving in all directions due= to −thermal velocity; therefore, it may be supposed that of the gaseous molecules are moving along the three Cartesian coordinates each.
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• Viscosity of Gases References
VISCOSITY OF GASES Marcia L. Huber and Allan H. Harvey The following table gives the viscosity of some common gases generally less than 2% . Uncertainties for the viscosities of gases in as a function of temperature . Unless otherwise noted, the viscosity this table are generally less than 3%; uncertainty information on values refer to a pressure of 100 kPa (1 bar) . The notation P = 0 specific fluids can be found in the references . Viscosity is given in indicates that the low-pressure limiting value is given . The dif- units of μPa s; note that 1 μPa s = 10–5 poise . Substances are listed ference between the viscosity at 100 kPa and the limiting value is in the modified Hill order (see Introduction) . Viscosity in μPa s 100 K 200 K 300 K 400 K 500 K 600 K Ref. Air 7 .1 13 .3 18 .5 23 .1 27 .1 30 .8 1 Ar Argon (P = 0) 8 .1 15 .9 22 .7 28 .6 33 .9 38 .8 2, 3*, 4* BF3 Boron trifluoride 12 .3 17 .1 21 .7 26 .1 30 .2 5 ClH Hydrogen chloride 14 .6 19 .7 24 .3 5 F6S Sulfur hexafluoride (P = 0) 15 .3 19 .7 23 .8 27 .6 6 H2 Normal hydrogen (P = 0) 4 .1 6 .8 8 .9 10 .9 12 .8 14 .5 3*, 7 D2 Deuterium (P = 0) 5 .9 9 .6 12 .6 15 .4 17 .9 20 .3 8 H2O Water (P = 0) 9 .8 13 .4 17 .3 21 .4 9 D2O Deuterium oxide (P = 0) 10 .2 13 .7 17 .8 22 .0 10 H2S Hydrogen sulfide 12 .5 16 .9 21 .2 25 .4 11 H3N Ammonia 10 .2 14 .0 17 .9 21 .7 12 He Helium (P = 0) 9 .6 15 .1 19 .9 24 .3 28 .3 32 .2 13 Kr Krypton (P = 0) 17 .4 25 .5 32 .9 39 .6 45 .8 14 NO Nitric oxide 13 .8 19 .2 23 .8 28 .0 31 .9 5 N2 Nitrogen 7 .0 12 .9 17 .9 22 .2 26 .1 29 .6 1, 15* N2O Nitrous
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• On Nonlinear Strain Theory for a Viscoelastic Material Model and Its Implications for Calving of Ice Shelves
Journal of Glaciology (2019), 65(250) 212–224 doi: 10.1017/jog.2018.107 © The Author(s) 2019. This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is unaltered and is properly cited. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re- use or in order to create a derivative work. On nonlinear strain theory for a viscoelastic material model and its implications for calving of ice shelves JULIA CHRISTMANN,1,2 RALF MÜLLER,2 ANGELIKA HUMBERT1,3 1Division of Geosciences/Glaciology, Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany 2Institute of Applied Mechanics, University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany 3Division of Geosciences, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany Correspondence: Julia Christmann <[email protected]> ABSTRACT. In the current ice-sheet models calving of ice shelves is based on phenomenological approaches. To obtain physics-based calving criteria, a viscoelastic Maxwell model is required account- ing for short-term elastic and long-term viscous deformation. On timescales of months to years between calving events, as well as on long timescales with several subsequent iceberg break-offs, deformations are no longer small and linearized strain measures cannot be used. We present a finite deformation framework of viscoelasticity and extend this model by a nonlinear Glen-type viscosity. A finite element implementation is used to compute stress and strain states in the vicinity of the ice-shelf calving front.
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• Guide to Rheological Nomenclature: Measurements in Ceramic Particulate Systems
NfST Nisr National institute of Standards and Technology Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce NIST Special Publication 946 Guide to Rheological Nomenclature: Measurements in Ceramic Particulate Systems Vincent A. Hackley and Chiara F. Ferraris rhe National Institute of Standards and Technology was established in 1988 by Congress to "assist industry in the development of technology . needed to improve product quality, to modernize manufacturing processes, to ensure product reliability . and to facilitate rapid commercialization ... of products based on new scientific discoveries." NIST, originally founded as the National Bureau of Standards in 1901, works to strengthen U.S. industry's competitiveness; advance science and engineering; and improve public health, safety, and the environment. One of the agency's basic functions is to develop, maintain, and retain custody of the national standards of measurement, and provide the means and methods for comparing standards used in science, engineering, manufacturing, commerce, industry, and education with the standards adopted or recognized by the Federal Government. As an agency of the U.S. Commerce Department's Technology Administration, NIST conducts basic and applied research in the physical sciences and engineering, and develops measurement techniques, test methods, standards, and related services. The Institute does generic and precompetitive work on new and advanced technologies. NIST's research facilities are located at Gaithersburg, MD 20899, and at Boulder, CO 80303.
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• Specific Latent Heat
SPECIFIC LATENT HEAT The specific latent heat of a substance tells us how much energy is required to change 1 kg from a solid to a liquid (specific latent heat of fusion) or from a liquid to a gas (specific latent heat of vaporisation). �����푦 (��) 퐸 ����������푐 ������� ℎ���� �� ������� �� = (��⁄��) = 푓 � ����� (��) �����푦 = ����������푐 ������� ℎ���� �� 퐸 = ��푓 × � ������� × ����� ����� 퐸 � = �� 푦 푓 ����� = ����������푐 ������� ℎ���� �� ������� WORKED EXAMPLE QUESTION 398 J of energy is needed to turn 500 g of liquid nitrogen into at gas at-196°C. Calculate the specific latent heat of vaporisation of nitrogen. ANSWER Step 1: Write down what you know, and E = 99500 J what you want to know. m = 500 g = 0.5 kg L = ? v Step 2: Use the triangle to decide how to 퐸 ��푣 = find the answer - the specific latent heat � of vaporisation. 99500 퐽 퐿 = 0.5 �� = 199 000 ��⁄�� Step 3: Use the figures given to work out 푣 the answer. The specific latent heat of vaporisation of nitrogen in 199 000 J/kg (199 kJ/kg) Questions 1. Calculate the specific latent heat of fusion if: a. 28 000 J is supplied to turn 2 kg of solid oxygen into a liquid at -219°C 14 000 J/kg or 14 kJ/kg b. 183 600 J is supplied to turn 3.4 kg of solid sulphur into a liquid at 115°C 54 000 J/kg or 54 kJ/kg c. 6600 J is supplied to turn 600g of solid mercury into a liquid at -39°C 11 000 J/kg or 11 kJ/kg d.
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• Application Note to the Field Pumping Non-Newtonian Fluids with Liquiflo Gear Pumps
Pumping Non-Newtonian Fluids Application Note to the Field with Liquiflo Gear Pumps Application Note Number: 0104-2 Date: April 10, 2001; Revised Jan. 2016 Newtonian vs. non-Newtonian Fluids: Fluids fall into one of two categories: Newtonian or non-Newtonian. A Newtonian fluid has a constant viscosity at a particular temperature and pressure and is independent of shear rate. A non-Newtonian fluid has viscosity that varies with shear rate. The apparent viscosity is a measure of the resistance to flow of a non-Newtonian fluid at a given temperature, pressure and shear rate. Newton’s Law states that shear stress () is equal the dynamic viscosity () multiplied by the shear rate (): = . A fluid which obeys this relationship, where is constant, is called a Newtonian fluid. Therefore, for a Newtonian fluid, shear stress is directly proportional to shear rate. If however, varies as a function of shear rate, the fluid is non-Newtonian. In the SI system, the unit of shear stress is pascals (Pa = N/m2), the unit of shear rate is hertz or reciprocal seconds (Hz = 1/s), and the unit of dynamic viscosity is pascal-seconds (Pa-s). In the cgs system, the unit of shear stress is dynes per square centimeter (dyn/cm2), the unit of shear rate is again hertz or reciprocal seconds, and the unit of dynamic viscosity is poises (P = dyn-s-cm-2). To convert the viscosity units from one system to another, the following relationship is used: 1 cP = 1 mPa-s. Pump shaft speed is normally measured in RPM (rev/min).
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• Chapter 3 3.4-2 the Compressibility Factor Equation of State
Chapter 3 3.4-2 The Compressibility Factor Equation of State The dimensionless compressibility factor, Z, for a gaseous species is defined as the ratio pv Z = (3.4-1) RT If the gas behaves ideally Z = 1. The extent to which Z differs from 1 is a measure of the extent to which the gas is behaving nonideally. The compressibility can be determined from experimental data where Z is plotted versus a dimensionless reduced pressure pR and reduced temperature TR, defined as pR = p/pc and TR = T/Tc In these expressions, pc and Tc denote the critical pressure and temperature, respectively. A generalized compressibility chart of the form Z = f(pR, TR) is shown in Figure 3.4-1 for 10 different gases. The solid lines represent the best curves fitted to the data. Figure 3.4-1 Generalized compressibility chart for various gases10. It can be seen from Figure 3.4-1 that the value of Z tends to unity for all temperatures as pressure approach zero and Z also approaches unity for all pressure at very high temperature. If the p, v, and T data are available in table format or computer software then you should not use the generalized compressibility chart to evaluate p, v, and T since using Z is just another approximation to the real data. 10 Moran, M. J. and Shapiro H. N., Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, Wiley, 2008, pg. 112 3-19 Example 3.4-2 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- A closed, rigid tank filled with water vapor, initially at 20 MPa, 520oC, is cooled until its temperature reaches 400oC.
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• Investigations of Liquid Steel Viscosity and Its Impact As the Initial Parameter on Modeling of the Steel Flow Through the Tundish
materials Article Investigations of Liquid Steel Viscosity and Its Impact as the Initial Parameter on Modeling of the Steel Flow through the Tundish Marta Sl˛ezak´ 1,* and Marek Warzecha 2 1 Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland 2 Department of Metallurgy and Metal Technology, Faculty of Production Engineering and Materials Technology, Cz˛estochowaUniversity of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 19, 42-201 Cz˛estochowa,Poland; [email protected] * Correspondence: [email protected] Received: 14 September 2020; Accepted: 5 November 2020; Published: 7 November 2020 Abstract: The paper presents research carried out to experimentally determine the dynamic viscosity of selected iron solutions. A high temperature rheometer with an air bearing was used for the tests, and ANSYS Fluent commercial software was used for numerical simulations. The experimental results obtained are, on average, lower by half than the values of the dynamic viscosity coeﬃcient of liquid steel adopted during ﬂuid ﬂow modeling. Numerical simulations were carried out, taking into account the viscosity standard adopted for most numerical calculations and the average value of the obtained experimental dynamic viscosity of the analyzed iron solutions. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis showed diﬀerences in the ﬂow structure of liquid steel in the tundish, in particular in the predicted values and the velocity proﬁle distribution. However, these diﬀerences are not signiﬁcant. In addition, the work analyzed two diﬀerent rheological models—including one of our own—to describe the dynamic viscosity of liquid steel, so that in the future, the experimental stage could be replaced by calculating the value of the dynamic viscosity coeﬃcient of liquid steel using one equation.
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• Thermal Properties of Petroleum Products
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE BUREAU OF STANDARDS THERMAL PROPERTIES OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATION OF THE BUREAU OF STANDARDS, No. 97 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE R. P. LAMONT, Secretary BUREAU OF STANDARDS GEORGE K. BURGESS, Director MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATION No. 97 THERMAL PROPERTIES OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS NOVEMBER 9, 1929 UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON : 1929 F<ir isale by tfttf^uperintendent of Dotmrtients, Washington, D. C. - - - Price IS cants THERMAL PROPERTIES OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS By C. S. Cragoe ABSTRACT Various thermal properties of petroleum products are given in numerous tables which embody the results of a critical study of the data in the literature, together with unpublished data obtained at the Bureau of Standards. The tables contain what appear to be the most reliable values at present available. The experimental basis for each table, and the agreement of the tabulated values with experimental results, are given. Accompanying each table is a statement regarding the esti- mated accuracy of the data and a practical example of the use of the data. The tables have been prepared in forms convenient for use in engineering. CONTENTS Page I. Introduction 1 II. Fundamental units and constants 2 III. Thermal expansion t 4 1. Thermal expansion of petroleum asphalts and fluxes 6 2. Thermal expansion of volatile petroleum liquids 8 3. Thermal expansion of gasoline-benzol mixtures 10 IV. Heats of combustion : 14 1. Heats of combustion of crude oils, fuel oils, and kerosenes 16 2. Heats of combustion of volatile petroleum products 18 3. Heats of combustion of gasoline-benzol mixtures 20 V.
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• Equation of Motion for Viscous Fluids
1 2.25 Equation of Motion for Viscous Fluids Ain A. Sonin Department of Mechanical Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 2001 (8th edition) Contents 1. Surface Stress …………………………………………………………. 2 2. The Stress Tensor ……………………………………………………… 3 3. Symmetry of the Stress Tensor …………………………………………8 4. Equation of Motion in terms of the Stress Tensor ………………………11 5. Stress Tensor for Newtonian Fluids …………………………………… 13 The shear stresses and ordinary viscosity …………………………. 14 The normal stresses ……………………………………………….. 15 General form of the stress tensor; the second viscosity …………… 20 6. The Navier-Stokes Equation …………………………………………… 25 7. Boundary Conditions ………………………………………………….. 26 Appendix A: Viscous Flow Equations in Cylindrical Coordinates ………… 28 ã Ain A. Sonin 2001 2 1 Surface Stress So far we have been dealing with quantities like density and velocity, which at a given instant have specific values at every point in the fluid or other continuously distributed material. The density (rv ,t) is a scalar field in the sense that it has a scalar value at every point, while the velocity v (rv ,t) is a vector field, since it has a direction as well as a magnitude at every point. Fig. 1: A surface element at a point in a continuum. The surface stress is a more complicated type of quantity. The reason for this is that one cannot talk of the stress at a point without first defining the particular surface through v that point on which the stress acts. A small fluid surface element centered at the point r is defined by its area A (the prefix indicates an infinitesimal quantity) and by its outward v v unit normal vector n .
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• Changes in State and Latent Heat
Physical State/Latent Heat Changes in State and Latent Heat Physical States of Water Latent Heat Physical States of Water The three physical states of matter that we normally encounter are solid, liquid, and gas. Water can exist in all three physical states at ordinary temperatures on the Earth's surface. When water is in the vapor state, as a gas, the water molecules are not bonded to each other. They float around as single molecules. When water is in the liquid state, some of the molecules bond to each other with hydrogen bonds. The bonds break and re-form continually. When water is in the solid state, as ice, the molecules are bonded to each other in a solid crystalline structure. This structure is six- sided, with each molecule of water connected to four others with hydrogen bonds. Because of the way the crystal is arranged, there is actually more empty space between the molecules than there is in liquid water, so ice is less dense. That is why ice floats. Latent Heat Each time water changes physical state, energy is involved. In the vapor state, the water molecules are very energetic. The molecules are not bonded with each other, but move around as single molecules. Water vapor is invisible to us, but we can feel its effect to some extent, and water vapor in the atmosphere is a very important http://daphne.palomar.edu/jthorngren/latent.htm (1 of 4) [4/9/04 5:30:18 PM] Physical State/Latent Heat factor in weather and climate. In the liquid state, the individual molecules have less energy, and some bonds form, break, then re-form.
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