Discussion Points for Urban Heat Island Effect

Thomas P. O’Connor, P.E., BCEE Environmental Engineer Water Resources Recovery Branch Water Systems Division

Columbia University, 12/6/2018

Photo image area measures 2” H x 6.93” W and can be masked by a collage strip of one, two or three images. The photo image area is located 3.19” from left and 3.81” from top of page. Each image used in collage should be reduced or cropped to a maximum of 2” high, stroked with a 1.5 pt white frame and positioned edge-to-edge with accompanying images.

Office of Research and Development National Risk Management Research Laboratory 2 From “Reducing Urban Heat Islands” (EPA) 3 From “Reducing Urban Heat Islands” (EPA) EPA Region 8 Green Roof • “Evaluation of Green Roof Plants and Materials for Semi-Arid Climates” Report No. EPA/600/R-12/592, October, 2012. (http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=P100F S5E.txt)

4 Region 8 Head Quarters (HQ) Green Roof, Denver, CO Area of green roof: 20,000 ft2

5 Experimental Block Layout

6 “a street grid that is oriented 45° to the cardinal compass points” HPB (2011)

7 Image from Google Earth. 8 Mean Volumetric Moisture Content of Green Roof and Block Location

9 Close-up of Control Roof Weather Station across Street from Region 8 HQ

10 Comparison of Green Roof to Control Roof for 2009 & 2010

Averages of maximum monthly Minimum daily temperatures calculated temperatures for 2009 and 2010 as a 50 day rolling average GR - green roof 11 CR – control roof Amb - ambient Comparison of Green Roof to Control Roof for 2009 & 2010

Average daily temperatures of roof surfaces as a 50-day rolling average GR - green roof 12 CR – control roof Amb - ambient Evidence of Damage to Plants below Windows

13 Emissivity of Building and Natural Materials

Material Emissivity Aluminum foil 0.03 Aluminum, anodized 0.9[11] Asphalt 0.88 Brick 0.90 Concrete, rough 0.91 Copper, oxidized 0.87 Copper, polished 0.04 Glass, smooth (uncoated) 0.95 Ice 0.97 Limestone 0.92 Marble (polished) 0.89 to 0.92 Paint (including white) 0.9 Paper, roofing or white 0.88 to 0.86 Plaster, rough 0.89 Silver, oxidized 0.04 Silver, polished 0.02 Snow 0.8 to 0.9 Water, pure 0.96

14 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emissivity Transmittance for Glazings with Low-emittance Coatings

15 (Source: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). https://www.efficientwindows.org/lowe.php Thermal Process of Windows in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Climate

• ScienceDirect, 9th International Symposium on Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (ISHVAC) and the 3rd International Conference on Building Energy and Environment (COBEE), S. Lua, Z. Lia, and Q. Zhaob, Procedia Engineering 121 ( 2015 ) 1788 – 1794, doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2015.09.158

16 Solar (left) and Direct Radiation (right) Heat Gain for Windows

17 Lua et al. Conclusions

• Majority of heat gain is through windows from solar radiation • After noon solar heat gain for western facing windows is much higher than southern exposure • Shading is most effective method to save building energy

18 Traditional and Current Desert Architecture • Green Architecture as a Concept of Historic Cairo, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2017.03.064 • Concepts: narrow streets, limiting sun exposure, thermal mass

19 Masdar City Outskirts of Abu Dhabi, about 75 miles South of Dubai

20 PHOTOGRAPH BY LUCA LOCATELLI, INSTITUTE FOR NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC City Sky Scraper Zoning • The 1916 Zoning Resolution leads to "setback ” (e.g.. Art Deco Chrysler Building) • 1961 NYC changed zoning ordinance to Floor Area Ratio (FAR) regulation instead of setback rules • This and other factors lead to “simple glass box design”


21 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1916_Zoning_Resolution Recent Literature Review • “Sustainability and the 21st Century Vertical City: A Review of Design Approaches of Tall Buildings” K. Al-Kodmany (2018), Buildings, 8(8) • https://www.mdpi.com/2075-5309/8/8/102

22 Menara Mesiniaga

• 63m (207ft) 15 story office building built in 1992 Subang Jaya, Malaysia. Climate: tropical rainforest. • Vertical plantings, along the façade and “skycourts” spiral to the roofline of the building. • “External aluminum fins and louvers are placed on the east and west facades to provide sun shading.” • Covered rooftop terrace, sunroof of trussed steel and aluminum, shades and filters light onto swimming pool and gymnasium.

23 Center

• 257m (844ft) 50 story office building built in 2012 City. Climate: humid, subtropical • “Curtain wall consists of a continuous high performance clear glass with a Low-Emissivity coating that maximizes daylight and reduces heat gain.” • Does not incorporate green features like a green roof

24 Further Reference Information • Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of Strategies Green Roofs http://www.epa.gov/hiri/resources/pdf/GreenRoofsCompendium.pdf • The World's Most Improbable Green City” (2017) R. Kunzig, Photographs By L. Locatelli, National Geographic https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/urban- expeditions/green-buildings/dubai-ecological-footprint-sustainable- urban-city/ • “Case Study: EPA Region 8 Head Quarters” High Performing Buildings (HPB), Winter 2011 http://www.hpbmagazine.org/attachments/article/12019/11W-EPA- Region-8-Headquarters-Denver-CO.pdf

25 Questions?

This material has been reviewed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, and approved for presentation. The views expressed in this presentation are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.