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Draw the following example on the board to help illustrate the map key Name Date for a relief map. Make a Relief Map Connect each set of dots that indicate the same . For example, draw a line Harris Campsite to connect all the dots labeled “450 and under.” Once you are done, color the land according to the chart below.

• • • • • • • • 450 and under • • • • • • Rockytop • • • • • • • 451–500 • • • • • • • • • • • • • O • 501–550 •

• • • • • • • • • • • l • d •

• • • • • • • • 551–600 •

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601–650 •

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Bald Hill •

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Jonson's Well •

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Elevation • Land Color = 801– 900 Feet 450 and under green 451–500 brown = 701– 800 Feet 501–550 yellow = 601– 700 Feet 551–600 e Knowledge Foundation 601–650 blue Scale 1 Inch = 1 Mile = 501– 600 Feet Purpose: To interpret directions to create a relief map Copyright ©Cor

Master 14 4: History &

B. and Ranges Use Instructional Master 14. Background A is a series of connected mountains considered as a sin- gle system because of geographical proximity or common geologic origin. Cross-curricular Mountains are considered to have a common geologic origin if they formed at Teaching Idea the same time by the same set of geologic events. You may wish to teach the Science A large mountain system, like the in northeastern section “How Mountains Are and the , may be called by different names in different Formed,” on pp. 497–498, prior to areas. For example, the Appalachians in the are called introducing major mountain ranges. the Blue , Great Smokies, Cumberland , and . America:

The Andes Mountains are over 5,000 miles (8,046 km) in length, the longest Name Date Major Mountains of North and mountain system in the . The mountains begin as four ranges Study the map and use it to answer the questions that follow.

8 0 7 N 0 N in the area on the northeastern of South America. In and 60

N Mt.Mt. MMcKinleycKinley

50N 20,32020,320 fft.t.



Bolivia, the mountains form two parallel ranges that create a wide plateau known C



40N M NORTH O NORTH O U U PACIFIC N NORTH as the . The Andes then form a single range that separates from N OCEAN T T OCEAN A AMERICA A I APPALACHIAN 30N IN N MOUNTAINS SS

Argentina. 20N With an average height of 12,500 feet (3,810 m), the Andes are the second- 10N 0

A N D SOUTH highest mountain range in the . The are the highest. 10S E S AMERICA


0S O 2 O



W E N Mt. T

T 22,834 ft. A

Approximately 50–60% of Peru’s people live in the altiplano. About one-third A I

30S S I N N



0 500 1000 miles 0 500 1000 kilometers of the nation’s population live in the narrow lowlands between the Andes and the 40S 50S 160W 140W 120W 100W 80W 60W 40W 20W . Because the Andes run north to south along the entire length of 60S Chile, most Chileans live in the Central between the Andes and low coastal mountains. e Knowledge Foundation Purpose: To read and interpret a map featuring major mountains of North and South America Copyright ©Cor The Andes Mountains were the home of Inca people, whom students in Core Master 15a Grade 4: History & Geography Knowledge schools studied in Grade 1 and will study again in Grade 5. Use Instructional Masters 15a–15b. : Appalachians and Rockies The Appalachian Mountains are the oldest in North America and stretch from to central . They are about 1,800 miles

History and Geography: World 95 CK_4_TH_HG_P087_242.QXD 10/6/05 9:01 AM Page 96

I. World Geography

(2,897 km) long and range from 120 to 375 miles (193 to 604 km) wide. The Teaching Idea highest peak is in , named for Maria Mitchell, a Create overheads of Instructional 19th-century astronomer. The Appalachians are divided into various ranges, such Masters 15–16, Major Mountains of as the White Mountains in and ; the Alleghenies in North and South America and Major , , and ; the in Maryland, Mountains of , , and , , Virginia, North Carolina, and ; and the Great Smokies in to students to the location of the North Carolina and . Major that flow through the mountains are major mountain ranges and the highest the Hudson, , Susquehanna, Potomac, and Tennessee. The mountains mountains on each . Have are rich in and deposits, but proved a barrier to westward movement in students answer the questions on each the colonial era until built the Wilderness Trail, also known as the Instructional Master after the lesson. Wilderness , through the Cumberland in 1775. The extend for more than 3,000 miles (4,828 km) from to New . The highest point in North America is Mount McKinley in Alaska. The major ranges of the Rocky Mountains are the Southern, Central,

Name Date and Northern Rockies in the , the in Major Mountains of Europe, Asia, and Africa Alaska, and the . The Rocky Mountains were more formidable Study the map. Use it to answer the questions that follow. barriers to travel than the Appalachians because the Rockies are in general twice

as tall as the Appalachians. The major pass through the Rockies for travelers in


60°N L

A the was in . The Trail took this route.


EUROPE U ATLANTIC 15,771 ft. P S OCEAN A L Of major topographical interest is the that runs north and ASIA 40°N

S . M T A S H T L Mt.Mt. EEverestverest south through the mountains. Rivers to the east of this long, high crest flow to I A M 29,03529,035 fft.t. A L A Y A S

20°N the east toward the Arctic or Atlantic , and rivers to the west of the divide


N Mt. Kilimanjaro flow toward the Pacific to the west. Lewis and Clark, whom students should have 19,340 ft. 0° W E

S studied in earlier grades, crossed the Continental Divide in 1805 as part of their 0 500 1000 miles

0 500 1000 kilometers

20°S 0° 20°E 40°E 60°E 80°E 100°E voyage of discovery.

e Knowledge Foundation Asia: Himalayas and Urals

Purpose: To read and interpret a map featuring major mountains of Europe, Asia, and Africa Copyright ©Cor Master 16a Grade 4: History & Geography Running 1,500 miles (2,414 km) in length, the Himalayas extend across south in , , , , and . (Note that there Use Instructional Masters 16a–16b. are two acceptable pronunciations of Himalayas: him-uh-LAY-uhs, which is the more traditional English pronunciation, and him-ALL-ee-yuhs, which reflects the / pronunciation.) The Himalayas are actually parallel ranges—the , the Lesser Himalayas, and the Outer Himalayas, which break Teaching Idea into smaller ranges in , a disputed area in India. The Indus, Brahmaputra, Students may enjoy hearing descrip- and Rivers all rise in the Himalayas. tions of mountain climbing adven- The Himalayas are the highest mountain range in the world. , tures—and misadventures—such as the tallest mountain in the world, is located in the Great Himalayas, and 11 other the story of how Hillary and Norgay peaks in the Great Himalayas rise above 26,000 feet (7,925 m). The Tibetan eventually conquered Mount Everest. Plateau at the northern boundary is sometimes referred to as the “roof of the Such stories have the thrill of a good world.” “action” story but also reinforce impor- For many , no being had climbed to the of Mount tant scientific and geographic informa- Everest, though many had died, or nearly died, trying. However, in 1953, tion about mountains, such as the fact Edmund P. Hillary and finally reached the peak. Since 1953, hun- that the air is very cold and very thin on dreds more climbers have accomplished this most demanding of all mountain top of many mountains. climbing feats, and over 100 have died trying. The Himalayas protect Tibet from the that batter the rest of , but as a result, that area of is dry and -like.

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The Urals are much lower mountains that form part of the between Europe and Asia. The Urals extend for about 1,500 miles (2,414 km) north to Teaching Idea south through from the Kara to Kazakhstan. Mount Narodnaya is the Use the following strategy in connec- highest peak, at 6,212 feet (1,893 m). The mountains are rich in minerals and tion with the overheads of the major forests, and as a result, and lumbering are important industries. mountains: Print the names of the var- ious mountain ranges, highest peaks, Africa: , and bodies of on index cards, one to a card. Then The rise in and extend for 1,500 miles (2,414 place them in a container. Have stu- km) through , , and . There are seven ranges within the dents take turns pulling out a card Atlas Mountains, and they run generally southwest to northeast and along the and reading a name. First, have the Mediterranean coast. The highest peak in the Atlas is Mount in Morocco. student locate the place on a map. It rises to 13,661 feet (4,164 m). Next, fellow students must think of an Europe: interesting statement about that place in relation to another place in the The Alps swing in a 650-mile (1,046 km) arc through , Italy, region. For example, if the card with Switzerland, , and Austria. The mountains are divided into a series of Alps is pulled out of the container, a parallel chains: the Western, Central, and Eastern Alps. Several important response might be “The Alps are European rivers—the Po, Rhone, and —rise in the Alps. The defining char- located in Italy and serve as a natural acteristics of the Alps are their tall, snowy peaks; glacially scoured valleys; beau- border of defense,” or “The Alps go tiful ; and . through France, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, and Austria.” High Mountains To qualify as a mountain, a must be at least 2,000 feet (610 m) high. Anything lower is considered a hill. Mountains also tend to be more jagged and sharply pointed than , which are generally rounded and less steep. The mountains listed here represent the highest on their respective . The Native American name for Mt. McKinley is . While McKinley is the more familiar name, the in which the peak is located is called Denali National Park and Preserve. Cross-curricular Peak Height Range Continent Comment Teaching Idea Have students use the heights of the Everest 29,035 ft. Himalayas Asia height has been measured several mountain peaks listed on the to (8,850 m) times and adjusted upward from create a graph showing elevation. 29,002 ft. (8,840 m) Instead of using bars to graph, stu- to the current listing dents can draw outlines of the moun- Aconcagua 22,834 ft. Andes South America located on the border between tains to show relative heights. (6,960 m) and Chile McKinley 20,320 ft. Alaska North America named after the 25th president of the United (6,194 m) States, William McKinley Kilimanjaro 19,340 ft. Great Africa an extinct with twin peaks, of (5,895 m) Valley which Kibo is the taller Mont Blanc 15,771 ft. Alps Europe 7.5-mile (12 km) (4,807 m) built through the mountain in 1965 to allow cars and trucks to pass through

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